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Final Exam Review Worksheet

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					                                    Final Exam Review Worksheet
                                     Second Semester 2010-2011

1. List the structural levels of organization within organisms from least to most complex. Use the
   following terms: tissues, organ systems, cells, organs

     ____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _________________

2.   Label the neuron. Use these terms: myelin sheath, nodes, nucleus, dendrites, cell body,
     presynaptic terminal.

                               2.

                                                                      6.
              1.
                                         3.
                                                              5.
                                                   4.



                                        7.




3. What direction do impulses run? ____________________________________________
4. Describe a reflex arc. Does it require a brain?
   ______________________________________________________________________________
   ______________________________________________________________________________
   ______________________________________________________________________________
5. You burn your hand on a hot stove. You quickly pull it away. You say “ouch” and feel the
   burning sensation.
      a. Which action(s) involve a reflex arc? ______________________________________
      b. Which action(s) require a working brain? ___________________________________
6. The place where a neuron transfers an impulse to another cell is the __________________.
7. Label the following diagram. Use these terms: Synaptic space, neurotransmitter receptor site,
   neurotransmitter




                                              1.

                                                        2.

                                              3.
   8.  What is the function of the neurotransmitter?
       ________________________________________________________________________
   9. What part of the brain controls voluntary or conscious activities of the body ?
          a. Medulla oblongata
          b. Cerebrum
          c. Cerebellum
          d. Hypothalamus
   10. What part of the brain controls involuntary actions such as breathing and heart rate?
          a. Medulla oblongata
          b. Cerebrum
          c. Cerebellum
          d. Hypothalamus
   11. Label the three types of muscles below.




                    1.
                   i.                         2.                   3.

               a. Which type(s) of muscle are voluntary? __________________________________
               b. Which type(s) of muscle are involuntary? __________________________________
               c. Which are striated? __________________________________________________
   12. The following diagram shows how actin and myosin filaments work to contract muscles.
       Describe this process below the diagram. Be sure to discuss the role of actin, myosin, calcium,
       and ATP.




_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. The circulatory system is composed of what three things?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
14. Label the diagram of the heart.




15. Which chambers of the heart contain oxygenated blood? Deoxygenated?
    Oxygenated: ______________________________________________________________
    Deoxygenated: ____________________________________________________________
16. Which chamber of the heart pumps blood to the lungs? ___________________________
17. Which chamber receives blood from the lungs? __________________________________
18. Label the three types of blood vessels below.


                                                               1.




                                                              2.



                                                           3.
19. Compare and contrast arteries and veins. Be sure to discuss thickness, size of opening,
    elasticity and valves.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
20. Why are artery walls thicker than vein walls?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
21. List the function of each blood component.
         a. Plasma _____________________________________________________
         b. Platelets ____________________________________________________
         c. White blood cells ______________________________________________
         d. Red blood cells ________________________________________________
22. Identify the blood components below.

                                                       1.




                  4.

                   3.
                                                 2.


23. What is the process of gas exchange between cells and the blood and from the blood to the air
    in the lungs called? __________________________________________ Where does it take
    place in the lungs? _____________________________________________________.
24. After the gas exchange has occurred in the lungs and the blood is returning to the heart, which
    gas concentration is higher, oxygen or carbon dioxide? _________________________________
25. Just before you breath out, which gas concentration is higher in the lungs, carbon dioxide or
    oxygen?
26. What is the large flat muscle that moves up and down to alter the volume of the chest cavity
    called? _______________________________________
27. Describe the motion of the diaphragm during breathing. Be sure to discuss how the volume of
    the air cavity changes with that motion.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
28. Label the diagram of the digestive system.




                             F.

                             G.



                                                 H.


29. Give the function of each structure in question #28.
        a.                                  e.
        b.                                  f.
        c.                                  g.
        d.                                  h.
30. Where does carbohydrate (starch) digestion begin? _____________________________ Where
    does it end? Which enzyme digests carbohydrates (starches)? ___________________________
31. Where does fat digestion begin? ______________________________ Where does it end?
    _______________________ Which enzyme digests fats? _______________________________
32. Where does protein digestion begin? ______________________________ Where does it end?
    _________________________ Which enzyme digests proteins? _______________________
33. Is pH high or low in the:
        a. Mouth __________
        b. Stomach ____________
        c. Small Intestine ____________
34. Distinguish between chemical digestion and mechanical digestion.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
35. Where does chemical digestion begin? _____________________________________________
36. What is peristalsis? ______________________________________________________________
37. What are villi, where are they found, and what purpose do they serve?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
38. Label the diagram of a nephron below.




                                               c.

                a.                   d.

                                          e.



                                     f.



               b.
39. List the function for each structure labeled above.
        a.                                   d.
        b.                                   e.
        c.                                   f.
40. What is the function of the excretory system?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
41. What hormone regulates how much water is reabsorbed by the nephron? ________________
42. Describe how this hormone works.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
43. What is urine? _________________________________________________________________
44. Where is urine collected in the nephron? ___________________________ Where does it go
    after it leaves the kidney?______________________________________________________
45. Label the following diagram with the correct gland.

                                  a.

                                                          b.




                      j.
                                                               c.




                      i.
                                                                    d.




                 h.
                                                                          e.




                                                                         f.

                           g.




46. What is the function of each gland labeled above?
       a.                                          f.
       b.                                          g.
       c.                                          h.
       d.                                          i.
       e.                                          j.
47. Describe the feedback loops that allow insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar in the
    body.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________
48. Describe the feedback loops that allow the testes to produce testosterone and sperm.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________
49. List the structures that sperm pass through from where they are produced until they exit the
    body.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________
50. Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction. When is sexual reproduction an
    advantage?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________
51. Label the diagram of the male reproductive system below.

a.                                                  e.


     b.

      c.

                                                    f.

                                               g.
      d.
                                              h.

                                               i.



52. What is the function of each structure labeled above?
       a.                                           f.
       b.                                           g.
       c.                                           h.
       d.                                           i.
       e.
53. Label the diagram of the female reproductive system below.
           a.
                b.

                                                                 g.
                          c.

                     d.                                      f.


                                                     e.
   54. What is the function of each of the structures labeled above?
           a.                                            e.
           b.                                            f.
           c.                                            g.
           d.
   55. Describe what happens to the zygote from fertilization to implantation. Be sure to use the
       terms     mitosis,    morula,      blastula,     inner    cell mass,     and  gastrulation.
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ________________________________________________________________________
   56. What are the three primary germ layers and what does each layer develop into?
           a.
           b.
           c.
   57. Look at Figure 39-16 on page 1014 of your text.
           a. During what days does ovulation occur? _______________________
           b. What is the corpus luteum? _______________________________
           c. What does progesterone regulate? ________________________________
           d. What happens when progesterone level drop? _______________________
   58. What is the function of the placenta? _____________________________________________
   59. What are Koch’s postulates?
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ________________________________________________________________________

   60. List the body’s nonspecific defenses against an invading pathogen.
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ________________________________________________________________________
   61. Describe humoral immunity.
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ________________________________________________________________________
   62. Describe cell-mediated immunity.
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ______________________________________________________________________________
       ________________________________________________________________________

You should review the diagram on the front of you immune system packet.
63. Label the diagram of the bacteria below.
                                 a.
                            b.

                     c.

                    d.

                                                     f.

                                      e.
64. What role do bacteria play in the environment? (There are several)
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________________________________
65. What is HIV?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________

66. What is the basic structure of a virus? Be sure to include structures and functions.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________
67. List the events of the lytic cycle. (You can find a diagram in your bacteria/virus packet)
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________



68. How is the lysogenic cycle different from the lytic cycle?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________________________________
69. Are viruses living? Why or why not?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ___________________________________________________________________________
70. How do vaccines work?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________
71. Describe the life cycle of a fern. Be sure to include the terms sporophyte, gametophyte, spores,
    gametes, haploid, diploid and meiosis.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________
72. Label the flower diagram below.

                      a.




                                                              b.
              e.
                                                       c.
             f.
                           g.                            d.




73. List the function of each structure above.
        a.                                          e.
        b.                                          f.
        c.                                          g.
        d.
74. Look at Figure 23-18 on page 596. List the function for each structure in the picture.
        a. Cuticle _____________________________________________________
        b. Epidermis ___________________________________________________
        c. Palisade meosphyll _______________________________________________
        d. Vascular bundle (vein) ________________________________________________
        e. Stoma _____________________________________________________________
        f. Guard cells _______________________________________________________
        g. Spongy mesophyll ____________________________________________________
75. What are the three tropic responses of plants?
        a.
        b.
        c.
76. How do the stomata regulate water loss?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    _________________________________________________________________________
77. What is transpiration?
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________________________________

				
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