Endocrine+Presentation2

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					The Endocrine System

     Presentation by:
   Nathon Ellis Grigsby
Introduction


                 Warm Up
         Submitted by: Janet Weaver, Rosary
          School Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
                     Roles and Functions
     • Regulation of growth, metabolism, sexual
       development
     • Responses to stress and injury
     • Internal balance of body systems (homeostasis)
                                hormone 1
                 gland                       lowers
                                             body condition
      high
                   specific body condition
                                                      low
raises                                        gland
body condition
                                                Powerpoint 2007?
     System Devised of Glands

• Exocrine Glands – secrete outside the body
  through ducts and tubes (sweat, mucus,
  digestive enzymes)
• Endocrine Glands – (ductless) secrete their
  chemical messengers, or hormones,
  directly into blood or lymph (adrenaline)
                Major Glands
•   Hypothalamus
•   Pituitary
•   Thyroid
•   Parathyroid
•   Adrenals
•   Pancreas
•   Pineal Body
•   Reproductive organs
    (ovaries and testes)
                           Powerpoint 2007?
Glands work by Secreting
       Hormones
chemical messengers that act on
         TARGET CELLS
           Hormone Composition

Non-steroid hormones –amino acid-based
  molecules – Bind to receptor protein on the cell
  membrane.
Functions
•   growth
•   circadian rhythms
•   metabolic rate
•   lactation
•   blood calcium level
•   blood sugar level
                            www.rcsb.org/.../pdb52_1.html
         Hormone Composition
Steroids –nonlocal active lipids – Bind to receptor
  protein in the cytoplasm.
   – Act on organs on a large scale, via blood
   – Synthesized from cholesterol
Functions
• Sexual Drive
• Fight of Flight Response




                                  www.elmhurst.edu/.../vchembook/556steroids.html
          Hormone Composition
Prostaglandins –local active lipids – Bind to receptor
  protein in the cytoplasm.
    – Act on organ produced in, via intracellular matrix
Functions
•   Inflammation
•   Fever
•   Intense Pain
•   Smooth Muscle Constriction in Lungs
•   Birthing Contractions

                                                  http://www.medicalcomputing.net/i
                                                  mages/prostaglandins_f2beta.png
 Control of Hormonal Secretions
Back to Operons and Feedback
• Negative Feedback—change in direction to
  maintain a narrow window of accepted
  range (like the rooms temperature gauge)
• Positive Feedback—increase in the same
  direction (birthing contractions)
 Control of Hormonal Secretions
Understanding Neural and Endocrine Systems

• Sensory Neuron (Impulse)
  • Hypothalamus (Releasing H)
     • Pituitary (Stimulating/Secrete H)
        • Target Gland (Secretes H)
            • Target Cell (Receives H)
            Endocrine vs. Nervous
                                            endocrine gland
                    neurotransmitter



     axon

                                                                   Steriod
                                                                   (blood)

                                       target cell




receptor proteins                                               receptor proteins

                                       Non-Steroid
                                       (Intracellular Matrix)
 Powerpoint 2007?
     WorK sHeET

Hormonal Regulatory Systems
          pg 251
               Hypothalamus

Receives Neural Impulses
     Initiates Endocrine Signals

*Discussed further in brain presentation
            Pituitary Gland
Location: Base of the brain on the pituitary
  stalk that connects to Hypothalamus
Anatomy: Anterior Pituitary and Posterior
  Pituitary
Task: Receives the chemical/neural signals
  from hypothalamus and begins secretion of
  stimulation hormones
*Referred to as the ―Master Gland‖
                          Pituitary




http://www.biologie.uni-freiburg.de/data/bio1/varga/images/pituitary.jpg
   Anterior Pituitary Hormones
• GH (Growth H)
  – Childhood: stimulates growth and maintains
    healthy body comp
  – Adulthood: maintains muscle and bone mass
• ACTH (Adrenocorticotropin H)
  – Stimulates cortisol production in adrenal cortex
• TSH (Thyroid-Stimulation H)
  – Stimulates thyroxin production in thyroid
          www.faqs.org




                                                              www.metro.co.uk
http://img.metro.co.uk/i/pix/2007/10/hornfaceWN_450x350.jpg
Anterior Pituitary Hormones Cont.
• LH (Luteinzing H)
   – Regulates testosterone and estrogen levels
• FSH (Follicle-Stimulating H)
   – Stimulates sperm production and ovulation
*LH and FSH work together to allow for normal
  function of the ovaries or testes
• PRL (Prolactin)
   – Stimulates mammary glands to produce mild,
     further controls sex hormone levels
  Posterior Pituitary Hormones
• ADH (Antidiuretic H)
  – Regulates water balance and retention
• Oxytocin
  – Stimulates milk letdown in nursing and
    increases contraction intervals and intensities
    during birthing
Thyroid gland                            hypothalamus

                                                  antidiuretic              Kidney
                                      posterior   hormone                   Tubules
                                      pituitary   (ADH)
                               anterior
                               pituitary
Adrenal
cortex

                           follicle-
                           stimulating                                 Uterine Muscle
                           hormone (FSH)
                           & luteinizing
                           hormone (LH)

                                                                      Melanocyte



    Bone And Muscle
                                         Ovary                   Mammary Glands
                      Testis
                                                        Powerpoint 2007?
The Pituitary and Target Cells
           Animation
                   Negative Feedback
                            Osmolarity
                     Blood ADH
          osmoreceptors in
          hypothalamus
                                       increased         increase
                                       water             thirst
                 pituitary             reabsorption

                   high                                  nephron
                             blood osmolarity
                                                              JuxtaGlomerular
                             blood pressure                   Apparatus
     nephron                                     low
              increased
adrenal                                          nephron
              water & salt
gland         reabsorption                       (JGA)
                                              renin
               aldosterone
                                                      angiotensinogen
                                angiotensin
Positive Feedback and Oxytocin




      http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/herbrandsonc/bio201_McKinley/f20-2b_positive_feedbac_c.jpg
               Thyroid Gland
Location: The thyroid is a small gland ventral side
  of the neck, in front of trachea.
Anatomy: Consists of two lateral lobes connected
  by a medial tissue mass called the isthmus
  (largest pure endocrine gland).
Task: Regulates growth, development, nervous
  system activity, and metabolism, (storage and
  release of broken down food)
               Thyroid Gland




http://www.pyroenergen.com/articles08/images/thyroid-gland.jpg
          Thyroid Hormones
• T4/T3 (Thyroxin/Tri-iodothyronine)
  – Increase the rate that energy is released from
    carbohydrates
• Calcitonin
  – Lowers blood calcium level




                                        http://sinoemedicalassociation.org/pa
                                        thologylectures/1goiter3.jpg
         Parathyroid Gland
Location: Behind/Embedded in thyroid
Anatomy: Four tiny glands
Task: Maintain calcium and phosphorous
  levels and aid thyroid in control of
  metabolic process rates
         Parathyroid Gland




http://services.epnet.com/GetImage.aspx/getImage.aspx?ImageIID=7709
          Parathyroid Gland
• PTH (Parathyroid Hormone)
  – PTH raises blood calcium level.
WoRK shEEt

 E-Bio Worksheet
The Thyroid Gland
Endocrine System Control                                        Feedback
         Regulation of Blood Calcium
                                   calcitonin
                                                 kidney
         thyroid
                                                reabsorption    Ca++ deposited
                                                of Ca++         in bones



                   high
                          blood calcium level
                          (10 mg/100mL)
      Ca++ uptake
     in intestines                                  low
  activated Vitamin D
                  kidney                         parathyroid
 bones           reabsorption
 release Ca++    of Ca++


                                   parathyroid hormone (PTH)         Powerpoint 2007?
            Adrenal Glands
Location: On the crown of each kidney.
Anatomy: Outer portion is the adrenal cortex
  while the inner is called the adrenal medulla
*hormones of the cortex are essential for life
  while types secreted by the medulla are not
Task: Immediate bodily responses to
  positive/negative stress (fight or flight)
Adrenal Glands




  http://www.thyroidinstitute.or
  g/imagesdrenal_gland.jpg
   Adrenal Medulla Hormones
• Epinephrine/Norepinephrin
  – Fight or flight responses such as increased heart
    rate, breathing rate, elevated blood pressure
             Adrenal Cortex
• Mineralcorticoid (aldosterone)
  – Helps kidneys conserve sodium and excrete
    potassium (maintains blood pressure)
• Glucocortoid (cortisol)
  – Helps maintain blood pressure and blood
    glucose level
• Adrenal Sex Hormones
  – Androgens (male) and estrogens (female)
  – Identical to hormones produced in testes and
    overies.
Adrenaline Movie
                 Pancreas
Location: The pancreas is a large gland
  behind your stomach.
Anatomy: 98% exocrine tissue, 2% endocrine
  tissue. Consists of cluster of endocrine cells
  known as Islets of Langerhans.
Task: Helps to maintain healthy glucose
  levels
               Pancreas




http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/present
ations/100129_1.htm
        Pancreatic Hormones
• Glucagon
  – Stimulates liver to break down glycogen
  – Raises blood sugar concentration
• Insulin
  – Increases uptake of glucose by cells
  – Lowers blood sugar concentration
   wOrK SHeEt

Control of Blood Glucose
         Pg 255
Endocrine System Control                                             Feedback
                                Sugar
      Regulation of Blood Langerhans
                      islets of
                                insulin        beta islet cells

                                          body            liver stores    reduces
                                          cells take      glycogen        appetite
      pancreas                            up sugar
                                          from blood
                                                                  liver
                 high
                         blood sugar level
                         (90mg/100ml)
                                                   low

                   liver
      triggers     releases
      hunger       glucose                             pancreas

                                               islets of Langerhans
                 liver          glucagon       alpha islet cells
         Pancreatic Deficiencies
Diabetes Mellitus—results from insulin deficiency
  where blood sugar becomes elevated
  (hypoglycemia) and excess is excreted in urine.
• Type 1—juvenile onset (insulin dependent) is often caused
  by inherited immune disorder that causes the immune
  system to attack the clusters of endocrine cells
   – Treatment: daily injections
• Type 2—mature onset is often caused by overweight
  individuals
   – Treatment: diet and exercise
      Other Endocrine Glands

Pineal Gland

Thymus Gland

Reproductive Glands
             Pineal Gland
Location: between the cerebral hemispheres

Hormones:
• Melatonin—maintains Circadian rhythms
  (24hr light and dark activity)



                               http://www.faqs.org/health/images/uchr
                               _01_img0052.jpg
             Thymus Gland
Location: deep in the thorax (large in young
 and gradually shrinks with age)

Hormone:
• Thymosin—important to immune fuction
         Reproductive Glands
Hormones:
• Androgen—Promotes sperm production and
  development/maintenance of secondary
  characteristics
• Estrogen—Stimulates uterine lining growth and
  development/maintenance of secondary
  characteristics
• Progesterone—Promotes uterine lining growth
*Hormones are identacle to those produced in the
  adrenal cortex
         CoLoRiNG!

 Do Ch9-10 The Endocrine System
coloring activity—note the overview
has good info for studying purposes

				
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posted:9/17/2011
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