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Persuasive Messages Persuasive Messages Appeal to reader’s interests through: Credibility/Expertise (Ethos) Logic/Facts (Logos) Emotion (Pathos) Motivation (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) Survival Needs (Physiological Needs) Food Applies to: Water Unemployed Air Homeless Reproduction Environmentalists Security and Safety Safe shelter or Applies to: neighborhoods Parents Personal safety Women Routines and habits Children from Job security dysfunctional homes Love and Affiliation Relationships Applies to: Organizations and Teens and clubs adolescents Friendships People with high social needs Esteem Respect and Applies to: admiration Those who have Academic success satisfied lower level Career success needs People with low self- esteem Self-Actualization Accomplishment Applies to: Fulfillment Financially “Be all you can be!” successful Empty-nesters People with high self-esteem Gardner’s Seven Factors of Mental Change Reason (Logic, Analogy, Classification) Research (Statistics, Experiment Data) Resonance (Feels right, Fits situation, Convincing) Redescription (Described in different forms: linguistic, spatial, numeric) Rewards (Resources, Reinforcement) Real world events (Natural, Political, Economic) Resistance (Opposition, Inertia) Arguments (Ethos) CREDIBILITY - Proof of superiority or benefit Statistics Features Expert opinions Testimonials Arguments (Logos) What are reader’s objections? Answer/refute these objections Data/Statistics (overlap) Argument (Pathos) When facts or logic don’t apply or are not effective… Happy Families Sex Appeal Humor Science and Statistics Exotic Places Health/Nature Something for Nothing Patriotism Bandwagon Fears and Insecurities Plain Folks Positive Effects Celebrity Endorsement Happy Families Plays on needs for affiliation and affection. Humor Associate product with positive feelings May be subtle or slapstick Exotic Places Make us want to be there We would be beautiful, glamorous, and sexy if we were there Something for Nothing Coupons, giveaways, premiums. Bandwagon “Everybody’s doing it” We’d all like to be as attractive and popular as these people. Plain Folks Trust and credibility Celebrity Endorsements “Be Like Mike” Use sports and entertainment figures Sex Appeal You’ll be attractive if you do/have this Science and Statistics Science supports this Health and Nature This is good for your health or the environment Patriotism National allegiance “Proud to be an American” Fears and Insecurities Personal characteristics Future Positive Effects Tobacco & Oil advertising – but we do good things! NFL participation in the United Way Additional Appeals Humanitarian Your action will help others Individual responsibility It’s your “job” to do this Personal experience You are unique OR you may have had a similar experience Indirect Persuasion (AIDA) Attention Interest Desire Action AIDA Attention Desire Show benefit to audience Supply proof of audience benefits Show need or problem Answer potential questions Interest Downplay any negative points or obstacles Expand on benefit Show relevance to audience Action Appeal to logic or Motivate audience to emotions immediate action Make action easy Critical Points Benefits must appeal to audience Connection between benefits and request must be clear Action should be easy and immediate Attention Devices What kinds of persuasive messages get your attention? Medium Mail Telephone TV/Radio Interest vs. Annoyance Establishing Credibility (Ethos) Use simple language (KISS) Evidence Research, facts, testimonials Credible Sources Verifiable Qualified Knowledge Background Research Credibility (overlap?) Common Ground Shared experience, similar beliefs Enthusiasm & Sincerity Care about the subject & audience Objectivity Fair and balanced Trustworthy Honest and factual Knowledge Needed (TAP) Know your Topic Features, competitors, market Know your Audience Who they are (age, characteristics, etc.) What they want or need What will interest them? Turn them off? What do they know? What do I want them to know? Know your Purpose Goals Define your purpose Get audience to read/listen to/watch entire message Get audience to react positively Central Point What piece of information is most likely to motivate the audience to buy in? Your Ads (Analysis) In groups, try to identify: Product/Topic Target audience Persuasion strategies being used BE SPECIFIC!
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