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Postwar America

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 108

									38. The Eisenhower Era

  1952 - 1960
Election of 1952
   Truman did not run for
    re-election in 1952
    – Dem. – Adlai Stevenson
   Dwight D. Eisenhower
    – republican, WWII
    general
    – Slogan: ―It’s time for a
      change!‖
    – Promised to end Korean
      War
Richard Nixon
   Eisenhower chose Californian, Nixon,
    as his running mate
    – Strong against communism
 Embezzling scandal
 Checkers speech
Election of 1952
   Eisenhower & running mate, Richard
    Nixon won in a landslide
Korean War Ends
   By 1951, UN forces pushed the Chinese
    back across the 38th parallel
    – Korean War ends in 1953
       • Eisenhower threatens bomb
    – More than 33,600 U.S. soldiers had died
   After the war:
    – America began a military build up
    – Made military agreements in Asia
Hollywood
on Trial
Humphrey Bogart was Cool!
Sen. Joseph McCarthy
              Joseph McCarthy was
               a republican Senator
               from Wisconsin who
               became famous for
               accusing people of
               being Communists
               – Interrogated government
                 officials (Sec. of State,
                 Dean Acheson) and
                 even the U.S. Army
McCarthyism
   McCarthyism – Sen.
    McCarthy’s witch hunt
    tactics—search for
    disloyalty based on
    flimsy evidence and
    irrational fears
    – Badgered witnesses
    – Refused to accept their
      answers
    – People feared
      challenging him
Desegregating the South
   Jim Crow Laws
    – 20% voting
   Criticized by An American Dilemma
    – Gunner Myrdal, 1944
 Jackie Robinson – 1947, Dodgers
 Sweatt v. Painter – separate
  professional schools for black weren’t
  equal
Dallas Bus Station
Jim Crow Laws
Texas sign
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws
African Americans in the Military
NAACP fought in the
courts
 Thurgood   Marshall was
  hired by the NAACP to argue
  in the Supreme Court against
  school segregation. He won.
 He was later the 1 st Black

  Supreme Court Justice.
Thurgood Marshall
Warren Court Reforms
   Chief Justice, Earl
    Warren, and the
    Supreme Court took on
    many social issues,
    including: civil rights,
    freedom of the press,
    separation of church and
    state, due process &
    reapportionment
Brown vs. Board of
Education 1954
States ignored the ’54 Brown
decision, so Feds were sent in.

Montgomery Bus Boycott,
1955
   Rosa Parks was arrested for violating
    the segregation laws of Montgomery,
    Alabama
In Response. . .
              For over a year,
               Blacks
               boycotted the
               buses.
              They carpooled
               and walked
               through all
               weather
               conditions
Many were arrested for an “illegal
boycott” including their leader. . .
Martin Luther King Jr.
          http://www.africanaonline.com/Graphic/rosa_parks_bus.gif


 Whilethe NAACP fought in the
 courts, MLK’s organization led
 the boycott.
King’s sacrifice
         King was arrested
          thirty times in
          his 38 year life.
         His house was
          bombed or nearly
          bombed several
          times
         Death threats
          constantly
Success!
Gandhi
inspired
King to
be direct
and
nonviole
nt
towards
Whites.
   Violence never solves problems. It
    only creates new and more
    complicated ones. If we succumb to
    the temptation of using violence in our
    struggle for justice, unborn
    generations will be the recipients of a
    long and desolate night of bitterness,
    and our chief legacy to the future will
    be an endless reign of meaningless
    chaos.

--Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., "Facing the
  Challenge of a New Age"
Sit ins




This was in Greensboro, North Carolina
They were led not by MLK but by
college students! (SNCC)
      Sit-in Tactics
 Dress in you Sunday best.
 Be respectful to employees
  and police.
 Do not resist arrest!
 Do not fight back!
 Remember, journalists are
  everywhere!
Students were ready to take your
place if you had a class to attend.
Not only were there sit-
ins. .
Swim   ins (beaches, pools)
Kneel ins (churches)
Drive ins (at motels)
Study-ins (universities)
Voter Registration

          CORE
           volunteers
           came to
           Mississippi to
           register Blacks
           to vote.
These volunteers risked arrest, violence
and death every day.
            The Fight
 This  man
  spent 5 days
  in jail for
  ―carrying a
  placard.‖
 Sign says
  ―Voter
  registration
  worker‖
Voter Registration
          IfBlacks
           registered to
           vote, the local
           banks could
           call the loan
           on their farm.
Little Rock, Arkansas
1957
States were not following
federal law. Feds were sent
in.
Dynamic Conservatism
 Eisenhower’s political beliefs were
  ―middle of the road‖
 “Dynamic Conservatism” – balancing
  economic conservatism (reduce
  spending) with some activism (helping
  the people)
Eisenhower’s Conservative
Measures
 Reduced Military budget
 Vetoed a school construction bill
 Cut aid to public housing
 Ended the Reconstruction Finance
  Corporation (RFC)
 Reduced aid to the TVA
 Operation Wetback
 Termination Policy
Eisenhower the Activist
 Federal Highway Act - $25
  billion for a 10 year project to
  construct 40,000 miles of
  interstate highways
 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
  Seaway
 Expanded Social Security
 Increased minimum wage to
  $1
Foreign Policy
 Eisenhower promoted the economy and
  cut the military
 Favored massive retaliation – the use
  of the bomb
    – John Foster Dulles (S. of State) – Strategic
      Air Command (SAC)
    – 18,000 bombs by 1961
    – ―More Bang for the Buck‖
Brinkmanship
   Some criticized
    Eisenhower’s nuclear
    policy
    – Brinkmanship – the
      willingness to go to the
      brink of war to force the
      other side to back down
Continuing Tensions
   Stalin died in 1953, yet
    tensions continued with
    new Soviet president
    Nikita Khrushchev
    – Demanded the allies
      leave West Berlin
       • Allies refused
    – Geneva Summit 1955
    – U-2 spy plane shot down
       • Francis Gary Powers
Fighting Communism Covertly
   To prevent communist uprisings
    Eisenhower used covert, or hidden
    operations conducted by the CIA
Vietnam
History of Vietnam
 Indochina was controlled by the French
  since the mid 19th century
 Sought independence during the early
  1900s
    – Political parties formed
Ho Chi Minh

 Ho Chi Minh led the
  nationalist movement in
  Vietnam
 Formed the Indochinese
  Communist Party in
  1930
    – Tried to overthrow the
      French
    – Was exiled to the Soviet
      Union & China
Vietnam During WWII
 The Japanese controlled Vietnam when
  Ho Chi Minh returned in 1941
 He organized the Vietminh, to try to
  force the Japanese out
Vietnamese Independence
Declared
 After WWII, Ho Chi
  Minh declared
  independence
 But France tried to
  regain control
    – Asked for U.S. help
      • U.S. agreed because it
        did not want another
        communist nation
Domino Theory
 Truman & Eisenhower supported the French
  military in Vietnam
 Eisenhower spoke of the domino theory –if
  Vietnam fell to communism, other nations in
  Southeast Asia would do the same
Guerrilla Warfare
 The French struggled
  against the Vietminh
 They used guerrilla
  tactics – use of irregular
  troops who blend into
  the civilian population
    – Difficult to find/fight
    – Use hit-and-run &
      ambush tactics
French Driven Out
 1954 – The French
  become surrounded
  at the mountain town
  of Dien Bien Phu
 Geneva Accords –
  ended the conflict
    – Temporarily divided
      Vietnam along the
      17th parallel
    – Recognized
      Cambodia’s
      independence
Vietnam Divided
 North Vietnam –
  controlled by Ho Chi Minh
  (communist)
 South Vietnam – pro-
  Western (democratic)
1956 Elections
 Elections held to form a
  single government
 The leader of the South,
  Ngo Dinh Diem, did not
  want the elections
    – Diem was a pro-
      Westerner and anti-
      Communist
   The U.S. stepped in to
    protect the South
Hungary’s Cry for Help
The Middle East
 1953 – CIA installed Mohammed Reza
  Pahlevi as dictator of Iran
 Suez Crisis
    – President Nasser (Egypt)
 1957 – Eisenhower Doctrine
 1960 – Organization of Petroleum
  Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Election of 1956
   Eisenhower easily won in 1956
Sputnik Crisis
   In 1957, the Soviets
    launched Sputnik –
    the first satellite to
    orbit the earth
    – Americans were
      alarmed. Led to:
       • N.A.S.A.
       • A new focus on
         education
The Election of 1960
 Richard M. Nixon –
  Republican,
  Californian, former
  Vice President,
  Quaker
 John F. Kennedy –
  Democrat, from
  wealthy
  Massachusetts family,
  Catholic!
The Main Issues
   The economy
   Growth of Communism
   Kennedy was concerned
    about a “missile gap” – said
    the U.S. was behind the
    Soviets in weaponry
    – ―It is time to get this country
      moving again.‖
   Nixon wanted to stay the
    course
    – ―I’m tired of hearing our
      opponents downgrade the
      United States.‖
Television Plays a Part
 Televised debates had a strong influence
  on the outcome
 Both candidates spent millions in ads
Kennedy Wins A Close One
“Cool Daddy-O”

1950’s Popular Culture
Technological Breakthroughs
 Army scientists
  developed the earliest
  computers
 Sputnik launched by
  the Soviets in 1957
    – Americans followed in
      ’58
   Commercial planes
    became smoother &
    faster
Medical Breakthroughs
 Development of antibiotics
 New Drugs for arthritis, diabetes,
  cancer, and heart disease
 Advances in surgical techniques
Polio Vaccine
   Jonas Salk developed
    an injectable vaccine
    that prevented polio
    – Eisenhower stopped
      free distribution
Television
 8,000 TVs in 1946
 By 1959, 80% of
  homes had a TV
    – 40 million TVs in
      1957
   Television changed
    life forever
Television
 Used for news, sports & advertising
 Popular shows included:
    – Comedy (Bob Hope and Jack Benny)
    – Westerns (The Lone Ranger)
    – Variety Shows (Ed Sullivan, Steve Allen)
    – Quiz Shows (Twenty-one, $64,000
      Question)
Ed Sullivan’s – Toast of the Town
 Was a mix of:
  Comedy
  Opera
  Popular songs
  Dance
  Acrobatics
  Juggling
Scandal on Twenty-one
   Charles van Doren
   Professor from
    Columbia University
   From a prominent
    family
   Won over $130,000
   All of America
    watched
   Was fed the answers!!
Popular Family Television
Effects of Television

   Depicted a
    narrow view of
    American life
    – Suburban, white,
      middle-class
      families
    – Minorities played
      stereotypical
      roles & were not
      allowed to star     “Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet”
Effects of Television - continued
   Less people went to the movies
    – Theaters had to adapt
       • Door Prizes, 3-D movies, movies for TV,
         Cinemascope – Films shown on large
         panoramic screens.
 TV ended most radio programs
 Conformist views depicted on TV led to
  a backlash by the teenage youth
Rise of Rock n’ Roll
   Rock n’ Roll - the music of the new
    generation & strongly influenced all
    future music
    – Roots were in rhythm and blues
    – White artists were copying Black artists
   Alan Freed – Cleveland disc jockey
    who coined the term ―rock n’ roll‖
Rise of Rock n’ Roll
 Themes of Cars, Romance, Dancing
  appealed to teens
 Rock n’ Roll pioneers included:
    – Chuck Berry
    – Little Richard
    – Fats Domino
    – Ray Charles
    – Bill Haley and the Comets
    – Buddy Holly
    – Elvis Presley
Pioneers of Rock n’ Roll




    Chuck Berry      Little Richard
Elvis Presley

 ―There have been
  contenders, but there is
  only one King.‖ – Bruce
  Springsteen
 Elvis was a gifted
  performer and
  synthesizer of styles
 Did not write most of his
  music
 First to bring Rock n’
  Roll to a wide audience
Rock n’ Roll – Parents React!
   Adults found Rock n’
    Roll to be dangerous to
    society
    – Too loud
    – Disruptive
    – Mindless
   Added to the
    generation gap –
    cultural divide between
    children & their parents
The Beatniks
   Beatniks – started a literary and
    social movement centered in San
    Francisco
    – Rejected conservative values of middle
      class America
    – “Beat” – to be robbed or cheated, ―beat
      down,‖ a rhythm or different beat
    – Inspired the ―hippie‖ movement of the 60s
      & artists such as Bob Dylan
The Beatniks – Core Members
   Met in NYC in the
    1940s
    – Allen Ginsberg
       • ―Howl‖
    – Jack Kerouac
       • On The Road
    – William
      Burroughs
    – Neal Cassady
    – Herbert Huncke
Stereotypes of Beatniks
  – Hate to work
  – Dirty
  – Goatee
  – Black beret
  – Black jeans (men), black tights (women)
  – Bongo drums
  – Coffee houses
  – Drink Chianti
  – Smoke pot
  – Slang: ―dig‖, ―cool‖, ―crazy‖
The American Dream & the CAR
   Eisenhower’s Federal Highway Act of
    1956 created an interstate highway
    system
    – Led to suburban communities
    – Urban centers lost their importance
   Created an an ―Automobile Society‖
    – Fast food chains
    – Motels
The Symbol of 1950s America:
The Automobile
 50s cars were big gas guzzlers
 Became symbols of escapism and
  freedom
    – Family trips
    – Disneyland opens in 1955
   By 1956, Americans owned ¾ of all the
    cars in the world
Characteristics of 1950s Cars
 Extravagance
 Built to look like
  rocket ships
 Made out of
  chrome and steel
 Large engines
 Large tail fins
                       1957 Chevrolet
 Very colorful
1950’s Men’s Fashion
   Dark suits
   All men wore hats
   Cardigan sweaters
   Pink shirts became
    popular
   Western shirts
   Coonskin Caps were
    popular with boys
   Jeans and leather
    jackets
1950’s Women’s Fashion
   Poodle craze!
    – Hair, Skirts, etc.
   Jumpers
   Party dresses
   Pencil skirts
   Swing dresses
   Gloves
   Scarves
   Women did not often
    dress in pants or
    shorts
                        1950’s Slang
   Go APE                       Go for pinks
   Baby                         Greaser
   Bash                         Grody
   Bent eight                   Hang out
   Boss                         Haul ass
   Bread                        Hep, Hip, Hipster
   Burn Rubber                  Jellyroll
   Cat                          Jets
   Classy chassis               Knuckle Sandwich
   Cruisin’ for a bruisin’      Later, Later Gator
   Cool                         Make out
   Don’t have a cow             Most
   Drag                         Odd Ball
   Fast                         Paper shaker
   Flick                        Shot down
   Get with it!                 Preppie
“The Day the Music Died”
 February 3, 1959
 Plane that took off
  from Clear Lake,
  Iowa, bound for
  Fargo, North
  Dakota, crashed
  and killed Rock n’
  Rollers:
    – Buddy Holly
    – J.P. Richardson
      ―The Big Bopper‖
    – Ritchie Valens
Poverty During the 50s
 1 in 5 Americans lived below the poverty line
 Michael Harrington wrote about them in The
  Other America
    –   Single Mothers
    –   Elderly
    –   Minority Immigrants
    –   Rural Americans
    –   Appalachians
    –   Native Americans
   African Americans made 51% of what whites
    earned
Decline of the Inner City
 Urban areas became home to poorer,
  less educated minorities
 Urban Renewal Programs designed to
  improve conditions by tearing down
  slums & building high-rise projects
Juvenile Delinquency
   Rise in reporting
    of juvenile
    delinquency –
    antisocial or
    criminal behavior
    in youths

								
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