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                      Volume 2 July 2007                                                 EDP CENTRE, NORTHERN RAILWAY
                                                         (For internal circulation only)
                                    Available on http://www.nr.railnetl.gov.in/dept/accounts/new_page_1.htm


FROM Sr.EDPM’s DESK:
It's not computer literacy that we should be working on, but sort of human-literacy. Computers have to become human-literate.
                                                                                                            ~Nicholas P. Negroponte
With the power of super computers coming into the hands of ordinary people, the super computers have also to evolve so as to still
remain something to dream for the future. So, IBM has come up with a Supercomputer which can do calculations at speeds beyond
the human imagination which we cover on page2.
In the news section we cover the official release of Apple iPhone, along with some security alert. In the last page we cover the
“parental control software” which is basically a continuation to the article brought out last month regarding the dangers of the
internet.
Please send in your suggestions/articles and also suggest topics that you would like us too be cover at sredpmnr@indiatimes.com
                                                                                                                                    Manisha Sharma-IRAS

                                                    NEWS NUGGETS FROM IT WORLD
                                                                  COMPACT DISK TURNS 25
                                          It's time to wish the ubiquitous compact disc happy birthday as CD turns 25 on June the 19th 2007! It all began with
                                          Abba's The Visitors, which was released in CD format in 19th June 1982. That marked the beginning of the end of era and
                                          transformed the landscape of musical formats. "At that time, even experienced engineers told us 'this will never work'.
                                          And we learned, one should never say never. “We knew that we were working on a completely new, exciting technology.
                                          However, we did not know at that time that the CD would grow to that magnitude," says Hartmut Loewer of Bayer AG.
                                          CDs are still manufactured using the same high-tech plastic as before but production times are considerably shorter. In
                                          1982 it took 27 seconds to produce a CD, now it's only 3. Offering unprecedented sound quality and optimum data
                                          capacity, CD has not only changed forever the way people listen to music but also marked the beginning of the digital
  age. For the first time, music was in the palm of our hand. By 1994, re-writable CDs had brought the instantaneous transfer and duplication of files to living room
  computers worldwide. Every year, the world produces roughly 90,000 originals on CD, billions of copies of which are sold globally. And today CDs have carved
  a very important space for themselves in our lives. And despite the advent of internet downloads, the CD will definitely reign supreme for many more years.
                                                                          SECURITY
    WOMEN TAKING TO CYBER CRIME IN LARGE                  committed by a woman who was working under the          wild," the message reads. "The vulnerability affects
                       NUMBERS                            complainant for a year. She posed as a male and         machines running MICROSOFT OUTLOOK and
  Believe it or not, women appear to be taking more       had sent the emails to take revenge for alleged ill-    allows an attacker to take full control of the
  naturally to cyber crime these days, especially,        treatment doled out to her. Mumbai Police’s cyber       vulnerable computer if the exploitation process is
  women disgruntled with their jobs and in the mood       crime cell officer Mukund Pawar said an                 succesfull [sic]." It goes on to boast that 100,000
  to take personal revenge. That’s what some crack        investigation has revealed that most cases lodged       PCs have been hijacked so far by unnamed
  shot cyber-sleuths have to say. Latest statistics       against women are mainly related to malicious           malware exploiting the bug. However, the link
  suggest that almost 20% of such cyber crimes in         emails. “Otherwise, the tendency to commit other        takes users to one of several different attack sites
  India are committed by women, and the trend is on       cyber crimes is much less.” The police have even        that download a Trojan horse to the machine.
  the rise. Experts confirm that cyber crime tops the     registered few cases in Bangalore where IT firms        "Security bulletins from Microsoft describing
  list of white-collar crimes committed by Indian         threaten their women employees with charges of          vulnerabilities in their software are a common
  women. “The internet somewhat gives a sense of          cyber crime if they quit their job. Karnataka’s         occurrence," noted Graham Cluely, a Sophos PLC
  anonymity to the person. Hence, the tendency is         director general of police Ajai Kumar Singh told ET:    analyst, in a statement today. "[But] by using
  more among women to commit cyber crime. The             “While there have been some instances where             people's real names, the Microsoft logo and
  number is nearly 30% in Kolkata,” says deputy           women employees are charged with copyright              legitimate-sounding wording, the hackers are
  commissioner (detective department) of Kolkata          violation, but some IT companies have even              attempting to fool more people into stepping blindly
  Police Gyanwant Singh. The non-violent nature of        resorted to such tactics to retain employee.”           into their bear trap." The SANS Institute's Internet
  such crimes tends to trigger the ‘criminal’ instinct.   However, the women cyber criminals are yet to           Storm Center and Symantec's DeepSight threat
  “Women feel it is much more sanitized to commit         become a reality in the semi-urban region.              network have also issued alerts on the fraudulent
  such offences. Competition in workplace, desire to      “Women cyber criminals are yet to become a rage         messages. Playing the legitimacy card is an
  earn fast money and lack of proper parental             in the towns. It is equally alarming that women are     important "scam-spammer" technique, James
  guidance at an early age are also reasons,” says        the biggest victim of such attack accounting for        Blascovich, a professor of psychology at the
  Jairanjan Ram, consultant psychiatrist at Apollo        nearly 40% of cases registered,” says deputy            University of California, Santa Barbara, said
  Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata. The crimes,               superintendent of police (cyber crime) of Tamil         yesterday in a just-released paper on the mind
  typically, committed by women in the Indian             Nadu, S Balu. Times news Network                        games attackers play to persuade people that it's
  cyberdom include copyright and logo theft,                                                                      safe to open suspicious e-mail. The fake security
  phishing, malicious emails, malicious use of social     WINDOWS 'PATCH' INSTALLS TROJAN HORSE                   alert, for example, refers to "Genuine Microsoft
  networking sites and ecommerce. Most accused            Messages insisting that users install a just-           Software," a phrase the company itself heavily
  women are found to be highly educated, financially      released Microsoft security update are bogus and        promotes; uses the recipient's first name in the
  independent and in their early 20’s and 30’s. It has    actually lead to a site that plants malicious code on   body of the message; and includes a purported
  also been estimated that 80% of cyber crimes are        PCs, several security companies warned. The             product registration key. Alert users, however, will
  committed by ‘insiders’ and the balance 20% by          spam, which touts "Microsoft Security Bulletin          be immediately suspicious of the message -- and
  hackers. For instance, the Mumbai Police recently       MS07-0065 -- Critical Update" as its subject and        not just because of the typical-for-spam
  unearthed a case where an ex-employee was               appears to come from "update@microsoft.com,"            misspellings -- but because it labeled the update
  sending obscene and threatening email to a              claims users should download a June 18 security         "MS07-0065." So far this year, Microsoft has only
  superior colleague for nearly three months. On          patch and provides a link to a URL that looks legit.    reached MS07-035 in its numbering system.
  interrogation, it was revealed that the crime was       "A new 0-day vulnerability has appeared in the          (www.pcworld.in)
                                                         THE PETAFLOP ERA HAS BEGUN
       NEW IBM SUPERCOMPUTER ACHIEVES PETAFLOP                                      position atop the Top 500 Supercomputer list, which comes out this week at the
In computing, FLOPS (or flops) is an acronym meaning Floating Point                 International Supercomputing Conference in Dresden, Germany. IBM had 93
Operations Per Second. The FLOPS is a measure of a computer's                       computers on the list when the rankings last came out in November; four were in
performance, especially in fields of scientific calculations that make heavy        the top 10. The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory will
use of floating point calculations. The standard prefixes which can be used         deploy the first Blue Gene/P in the U.S. later this year. Meanwhile, in Germany,
for this purpose, result in units such as:                                          the Max Planck Society and the Forschungszentrum Julich research center will
             megaFLOPS = 1,000,000 FLOPS)                                           start to install a Blue Gene/P in late 2007. Others will be installed at Stony Brook
                                                                                    University and Brookhaven National Labs (New York facilities that have
             gigaFLOPS = 1,000 MegaFLOPS)
                                                                                    collaborated with IBM on other projects)
             teraFLOPS = 1,000 GigaFLOPS)                                           and the Science and Technology Facilities
             petaFLOPS = 1,000 TeraFLOPS)                                           Council in Cheshire, England. Like the vast
             exaFLOPS = 1,000 PetaFLOPS) and                                        majority of other modern supercomputers,
                                                                                    Blue Gene/P is composed of several racks
             zettaFLOPS= 1,000 ExaFLOPS).
                                                                                    of servers lashed together in clusters for
In December 1999, IBM announced $100 Million research initiative for a
                                                                                    large computing tasks, such as running
five-year effort to build a massively parallel computer, to be applied to the
                                                                                    programs that can graphically simulate
study of bio-molecular phenomena such as protein folding. The project
                                                                                    worldwide weather patterns. Technologies
                                    has two main goals: to advance our
                                                                                    designed for these computers trickle down
                                    understanding of the mechanisms behind
                                                                                    into the mainstream while conventional
                                    protein folding via large-scale simulation,
                                                                                    technologies and components are used to cut the costs of building these systems.
                                    and to explore novel ideas in massively
                                                                                    The chip inside Blue Gene/P consists of four PowerPC 450 cores running at
                                    parallel machine architecture and
                                                                                    850MHz each. A 2x2 foot circuit board containing 32 of the Blue Gene/P chips can
                                    software. This project should enable bio-
                                                                                    churn out 435 billion operations a second. Thirty two of these boards can be
                                    molecular simulations that are orders of
                                                                                    stuffed into a 6-foot-high rack. The chip inside the Blue Gene/L contains two
                                    magnitude larger than current technology
                                                                                    PowerPC cores running at 700MHz. The 1-petaflop Blue Gene/P comes with
                                    permits. Major areas of investigation
                                                                                    294,912 processors and takes up 72 racks in all. Hitting 3 petaflops requires a
                                    include: how to use this novel platform to
                                                                                    884,736-processor, 216-rack cluster, according to IBM. The chips and other
effectively meet its scientific goals, how to make such massively parallel
                                                                                    components are linked together in a high-speed optical network.
machines more usable, and how to achieve performance targets at a
                                                                                    (cnet.news.com)
reasonable cost, through novel machine architectures. Blue Gene is a
computer architecture project designed to produce several next-
generation supercomputers, designed to reach operating speeds in the
petaflops range, which is currently reaching sustained speeds over 360
teraflops. It is a cooperative project among IBM (particularly the Thomas J.
Watson Research Center), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,
the United States Department of Energy (which is partially funding the
project), and academia. There are four Blue Gene projects in
development: BlueGene/L, BlueGene/C, BlueGene/P, and BlueGene/Q.
On June 26, 2007, IBM unveiled Blue Gene/P, the second generation of
the Blue Gene supercomputers. IBM has devised a new Blue Gene
supercomputer--the Blue Gene/P--that will be capable of processing 3
petaflops. Blue Gene/P is designed to continuously operate at more than 1
petaflop in real-world situations. It marks a significant milestone in
computing. Last November, the Blue Gene/L was ranked as the most
powerful computer on the planet: it topped out at 280 teraflops, during
continuous operation. Put in another way, a Blue Gene/P operating at a
petaflop is performing more operations than a 1.5-mile-high stack of
laptops. The development of Blue Gene/P seems certain to extend IBM's

                                                  EMERGING TRENDS TO LOOK OUT FOR
  MICROSOFT TO MODIFY WINDOWS VISTA?                         yesterday, Microsoft will modify Windows Vista by         MICROSOFT ROLLS OUT WEB STORAGE,
In response to an earlier complaint that Windows             building into it an option that allows users choose                     PHOTO GALLERY
                                                   Vista's   a default desktop search program. With the new         Microsoft Corp. introduced two new online
                                               computer      feature dubbed 'Instant Search', users will be able    services to its Windows Live line-up on Tuesday
                                                  search     to enter search queries, and get result lists from     and said it plans to release more Web offerings
                                                 function    their hard drives. A source within Microsoft even      this year to beef up its Internet strategy. Microsoft
                                                     puts    said that the company will place links inside of       plans to take on Web competitors Google Inc. and
                                                  Google     Internet Explorer and the 'start' navigation menu      Yahoo Inc. with its "software plus services"
                                            and other        to make it easier for users to access the default      strategy, which aims to leverage its dominant
                                                potential    desktop search service. And, these changes to          market position for software running on the
rivals at a disadvantage, Microsoft have finally             the design and function of Windows Vista will be       computer to a new suite of services delivered over
agreed to modify its Gen-Next operating system.              folded into a beta version of a service pack by end    the Internet. Microsoft said it will introduce test
This was reportedly announced by Microsoft and               this year, the source said. Commenting on the          versions of two new free services: Windows Live
the US Justice Department yesterday. A few                   development, chief legal officer of Google, David      Folders and Windows Live Photo Gallery. Chris
months back, Google had filed a complaint with               Drummond, said the remedies are a step in the          Jones, Microsoft's corporate vice president, said
the Justice Department alleging that Windows                 right direction but that they should be improved       the company will unveil the next wave of services
Vista's desktop search feature does not leave                upon further to offer consumers’ greater access to     later this year, but its goal will be to stitch together
sufficient room for rival search programs,                   alternate desktop search providers. Meanwhile,         the disparate Windows Live services and offer a
including those of its own. That as such, users are          Microsoft's making changes to Vista is being           more unified experience. "Soon we'll begin to offer
finding it difficult to turn-off the Microsoft program.      lauded as a step towards enforcing the consent         a single installer which will give customers the
As per Microsoft's latest agreement with the US              decree that requires the company to help rivals        option of an all-in-one download for the full
Justice Department, 17 state attorneys general,              build programs that run smoothly on Windows.           Windows Live suite of services instead of the
and the District of Columbia, made public late               (www.techtree.com)                                     separate installation experience you see today,"
said Jones in a posting on Microsoft's Web site.      AT&T's servers. An AT&T spokesperson said they        choice when it comes to cellular service: AT&T,
Windows Live Photo Gallery is a new version of        are working on these issues on an individual basis    with which Apple has struck what is reportedly an
the photo application found on Microsoft's two        -- with customers who've been impacted.               exclusive multiyear deal. The only problem with
most recent operating systems, Windows XP and         Meanwhile, Apple's iPhone has arrived to great        that is AT&T’s network uses the EDGE standard,
Windows Vista. It simplifies how people can share     expectations... More so because of the company's      which is substantially slower than the 3G
photos on their Windows Live Spaces site,             earlier innovation -- the iPod – that steadily rose   standards used by other carriers. Another
Microsoft's social networking platform. The           to iconic stature. However observers feel that        example: One of the appealing things about a
sharing feature of Microsoft's new Photo Gallery is   while the iPod landed in a market full of not-so-     phone that works on the GSM or EDGE standard
similar to how users can publish pictures from        great MP3 players, it's a completely different ball   like AT&T’s (or the Rogers Fido network in
Apple Inc.'s iPhoto application to the company's      game for the iPhone, which awakens to a pretty-       Canada) is that they contain a small SIM chip that
.Mac online service. Microsoft said it is open to     much mature market. When Apple Chief, Steve           can be swapped into another phone, transferring
eventually letting users post to other photo          Jobs, unveiled the device in January this year, he    a user’s settings and phone numbers to the new
sharing sites such as Yahoo's Flickr, if it can       expressed confidence that they would capture at       device. Not the iPhone, apparently. According to
establish common protocols and standards with         least 1 percent of the market – which is the          several reports, the device will not only be
those Web sites. Windows Live Folders will            equivalent of 10 million phones -- by end 2008.       "locked" to the AT&T network (a common practice
provide up to 500 megabytes of online storage in      The kind of excitement that met its launching in      carriers use to dissuade people from switching),
the United States in a limited test release.          the west was aptly captured by the Globe and          but many of its features will only work with the
Microsoft said it will gauge usage during the test    Media: Even if you're not a big technology buff,      SIM card that comes installed in the iPhone when
release and possibly add more capacity if needed.     you probably know that the world is in the grips of   it is purchased. Some reports say the iPhone’s
Microsoft sees Windows Live Folders as a way          frenzy unlike virtually anything in recent memory,    SIM card may not even be removable. The battery
people can share documents, but not necessarily       all North American papers report. The almost          in the iPhone will also be non-removable, in the
a place where users can back up all the files on a    religious fervor revolves around the most eagerly     same way that the battery in an iPod can’t be
computer hard drive. Google has been widely           awaited product since the first iPod, namely, the     removed and replaced by anyone other than an
rumored to be working on an online storage            iPhone, a "smart" phone Apple hopes will              Apple technician (at least not without voiding the
service, but the company has remained mum on          revolutionize the mobile industry in the same way     warranty). A small thing, perhaps, but yet another
the issue. However, Google offers a variety of        the iPod changed the face of digital                  feature that restricts what a user can do with the
services that include large amounts of free data      entertainment. The iPhone, which has received         device. The iPhone also doesn’t have several of
storage, including Gmail and Docs &                   largely favourable reviews from The Wall Street       the major features that other competing "smart"
Spreadsheets. (http://www.tech2.com)                  Journal, The New York Times and others, has           phones have. For example, it has a digital still
                                                      many of the design elements that Apple fans have      camera but does not take video; it has no memory
  APPLE'S iPHONE LAUNCHED: BUT, LIMITED               grown used to from the iPod and other iconic          card; it doesn’t support GPS; it doesn’t have
                   COVERAGE                           Apple devices. In other words, the iPhone is sleek    instant messaging; and it doesn’t allow photos to
Apple iPhone Arrives in the US!.. It's official...    and shiny, with a large screen and a well-            be sent through text message (using MMS). The
Apple Computer's iPhone has made it to stores...      designed user interface that makes virtually every    lack of some of those features is surprising
finally... And if reports are to be believed, the     other mainstream cellphone look like an ugly, fat     considering the iPhone costs at least $500 (U.S.)
                                  iconic phone-       brick. And it incorporates several leading-edge       for the device itself, plus a minimum of $60 a
                                    cum-iPod-cum      features, including the ability to use two fingers to month for a two-year contract with AT&T - or
                                  mobile Internet     resize photos and other documents. But the kind       almost $2,000 over the lifetime of the contract.
                                  device is not       of excitement that has met its launching was aptly
                                  faring       too    captured by a report by the
                                  badly...            Global and Mail. One of the                             THINK ABOUT IT
                                  Despite all the     interesting things about the        "Smith & Wesson — the original point
                                       speculation    iPhone, however, is the             and click interface."
                                  and          the    number of things it doesn’t
                                       'expensive'    have, and the things it             "Foolproof systems don't take into
                                  tags, Apple has     doesn’t let you do. For             account the ingenuity of fools." -
sold around 525,000 iPhones beginning Friday          such      a     revolutionary       Gene Brown.
6.00pm through close of business Sunday. No           device, much of what Apple
doubt, many users have been complaining of            has done is actually
activation problems. But then the scramble of         surprisingly     reactionary.       Information technology and business
people wanting to activate their iPhones through      For example, buyers of the          are becoming inextricably interwoven.
iTunes possibly succeeded in overwhelming             iPhone have only one                I     don't       think          anybody           can        talk
                                                                                       meaningfully about one                          without the
                                                                                       talking about the other.                        ~Bill Gates

                                                                                       There are 10 types of people in this
                                                                                       world:    those who understand binary
                                                                                       and those who don't. ~ Unknown

                                                                                       Treat   your   password   like  your
                                                                                       toothbrush.  Don't let anybody else
                                                                                       use it, and get a new one every six
                                                                                       months.         ~Clifford Stoll

                                                                                       The problem with troubleshooting                                   is
                                                                                       that trouble shoots back. ~ Unknown

                                                                                       "Adapting old programs to fit new
                                                                                       machines usually means adapting new
                                                                                       machines to behave like old ones."—
                                                                                       Alan J. Perlis.
                                                     PARENTAL CONTROL SOFTWARE
Continuing from the last issue in which we had             General categories for blocking websites often            are interested in
reproduced an article “Towards an Safer Internet           include text and/or photos of an adult sexual             parental control
for Children” by Katherine Bostwik, Head of                nature, drugs and drug culture, violence and hate,        software and the
Internet Safety Enforcement (asia) Microsoft               racism and intolerance, gambling, tobacco,                issues
Corporation, we take a look at Parental Control            alcohol, and cruelty to animals. Adult users can          surrounding it,
software so as to manage and control what the              select some or all of the categories to activate          visit the following
children view and do over Internet. The Internet is        blocking of sites on those topics. Most parental          sites or enter the
a huge and largely unregulated place. This can             control software programs include other types of          terms "filtering
make it scary for parents and challenging for              options allowing users to customize Internet              software"          or
corporations. In a perfect world, parents would            access to fit family needs and circumstances. For         "parental control software" into your favorite search
guide their children through the vast resources of         example, the software may allow parents to set the        engine:
the Internet, and they'd follow parents guidance.          time of day or number of hours per week the                  WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN INTERNET FILTER
They'd use the computer only when permitted,               Internet will be available to children. Adults can                               SOFTWARE
eschew violent games, and avoid inappropriate              also expand or subtract the list of blocked sites.        Even though the perfect Internet Filter does not
sites. But this isn't a perfect world. Parents may not     Some programs allow parents to create different           exist in today's marketplace, there are a number of
be able to supervise the kids all the time: Maybe          levels of Internet access based on the varying            great solutions depending on your family's needs.
they get home before parents do, maybe they have           ages of children in the family. Some programs             Below are the criteria Top ten reviews used to
computers in their rooms—and maybe they don't              report the addresses of websites children have            evaluate Internet filter software:
do what they're told. Parental-control software can        visited and restrict the sending of personal                     Ease of Use – The most important attribute
help parents to an extent to take control and              information such as name, address, and telephone                 an Internet filter program can offer is an
manage how their children access internet.                 number, known as "outgoing filtering." With yet                  easy-to-use design, making it possible for
FIRST OF ALL, WHAT IS PARENTAL CONTROL                     other programs, local applications, such as games,               people with all levels of computer experience
                      SOFTWARE?                            can also be restricted. Settings are password                    to easily install and use the filter to its fullest
Parental Control Software is user friendly Internet        protected. There are various ways in which                       capacity.
filtering software that protects your family from          software can be purchased, and it is important to
                                                                                                                            Effective at filtering – Top Internet filter
objectionable Internet material. Fully customizable,       remember that new sites with the potential for
                                                                                                                            software offers a good balance between
parents can block sites, monitor activity, and             inappropriate material are being added to the
                                                                                                                            filtering objectionable material and not
                                     assign        user    Internet each day. Some parental control programs
                                                                                                                            filtering too much content. Another important
                                     accounts for each     can be obtained with a single purchase ranging
                                                                                                                            aspect is the ability to customize the filter's
                                     family member.        from forty to fifty dollars and updating of blocked
                                                                                                                            sensitivity for each family member.
                                     Parental Control      sites is included in the initial fee. Others are
                                     Software gives        purchased with an annual subscription of around                  Filtering algorithm – The best filter programs
                                     the ability to        fifty dollars for the first year and approximately               use a combination of filtering techniques,
                                     control       what    thirty dollars for the renewal. Parental control                 including URL filtering, keyword filtering and
                                     content      those    software purchased on a subscription basis                       dynamic filtering.
                                     using computer        includes updating of blocked sites with a frequency              Activity reporting – The most useful Internet
can view. Some of these log activity on the                ranging from daily to monthly. Trial versions of                 filter software offer reports on what each
computer, while others prevent sites that meet             parental control software can be downloaded                      family member has been doing on the
specific criteria from being accessed. This may be         (brought through the telephone line to your                      computer, which includes websites visited,
useful for those who cannot watch over their               computer's hard drive) from the companies' web                   chat room activities and so on.
computer all the time.                                     sites on the Internet and used for a short period of             Client-Server based – Good filtering
HOW DOES PARENTAL CONTROL SOFTWARE                         time to allow families to review features and see                programs offer a flexible platform which
                         WORK?                             which will fit their needs. Installing parental control          allows users to decide whether their optimal
Sites are blocked using a variety of parental              software is a personal, family decision, and there               filtering solution is client (home computer)
control software. Internet Explorer has a built-in         are several important points to understand. It is                based, server (Proxy or ISP) based or a
safety guide that can be turned on to control the          critical to recognize that filtering software cannot             combination of both.
access of children using the browser. There are            guarantee that children or other family members                  Foreign language filtering – Effective Internet
also software packages such as Net Nanny that              will never see inappropriate material on the                     filter programs offer the capacity to filter
block access to all types of inappropriate Internet        Internet. While blocking pornography and explicit                keywords in multiple languages. One of the
content. Finally, corporations might use software at       adult sexual material, the software may also block               tricks that many teenagers have discovered
the server level to block inappropriate content on         access to useful information related to personal                 to bypass Internet filters is to type in the
the office networks.                                       health issues and other topics. NO program is one                foreign language equivalent of certain
    TO FILTER OR NOT: THE PROS AND CONS                    hundred percent effective, and new sites are                     keywords.
Besides setting guidelines for use of the Internet,        added to the Internet daily. Most of all, it is
there is one more action for families to consider in       essential to realize that parental control software is           Port filtering and blocking – Filtering
their quest for child safety on the Internet- installing   not a substitute for active parent interaction with              programs should block or filter all major
parental control or filtering software to limit            your children and supervision of their Internet use.             Internet protocols, including web access, chat
exposure to adult materials which may be                   There is intense debate across the country relating              rooms, email, peer-to-peer networks, bulletin
considered pornographic or harmful to children.            to the use of filtering software programs in libraries           boards and popup windows
The software can be installed on a personal home           and schools. One side feels children should not be        With Internet filter software and proper supervision,
computer, or some Internet service providers offer         exposed to pornography and other adult material           parents can keep their families safe and sound
filtering as an option. Parental control software,         found on the Internet and support filtering. For          from the ever-present problem of online
such as CyberPatrol, Net Nanny, and GuardiaNet,            example,        the    website,      Filtering   Facts    pornography.
is designed to restrict Internet access in several         (http://www.filteringfacts.org) promotes use of            WHAT TYPE(S) OR NAME OF THIS SOFTWARE
ways. First, the software will block access to web         filtering software in libraries. Those on the other                           SHOULD I USE?
sites with content deemed inappropriate for                side of the debate, including the American Library        There are many different brand names of Parental
children by the software company. Most software            Association and its Office of Intellectual Freedom,       Control Software available on the Internet.
will also filter and restrict access to web pages          want to protect the First Amendment rights of             Depending on how much money is being spent, or
based on key words such as "sex." Each                     children on the Internet. Legislation has been            the different things that the software is required to
company's software works from a unique and                 introduced at the national level and in many state        do, can determine which type of Parental Control
highly guarded database of blocked sites and key           legislatures to require the use of filtering software     Software is best for the given case.
words which are based selected on company                  to block access to information or sites on the            http://www.indianchild.com/internet_safety_fun
criteria of what constitutes inappropriate materials.      Internet deemed inappropriate for minors. If you          %20to%20learn.htm

				
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