Multilingualism_ Regional _ Minority Languages Paradigms for

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					          Multilingualism, Regional & Minority Languages:
           Paradigms for ‘Languages of the Wider World’
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 16–17 April 2009



        Once isolated; now multilingual?
            Language practices & attitudes
           in Volendam and Inner Mongolia


         Lisa Lim, Anna Karregat & Wu Yuncang
                        University of Amsterdam
                              Once isolated…

Volendam                                 Inner Mongolia

•   C.1462: poor fishing village, part   •   C.12thC: Mongol tribes, 13th C: Great
    of Edam, in North Holland, on            Mongol Empire
    Zuiderzee, with poor connections     •   After 14th C Ming Dynasty: expelled to
    to Edam and rest of NL                   N or S of Great Desert: the latter -->
•   Individual cultural identity:            Inner Mongolia
    traditional costume, special         •   ‘horse-back tribe’, with nomadic
    customs, catholic religion,              pastoral life, hunting & herding, diet
    Volendam dialect                         distinct from agricultural people,
                                             traditional dress, own ethnic history,
                                             music, poetry, Mongol language
•   1927-33: Zuiderzee dammed to
    become IJsselmeer
•   Post WW2: connections outside        •   1947: autonomous region of PR China



           Modern day assimilation into larger nation state --> ?
                         Institutional support


Media:
• Std Dutch, Putonghua dominant
   – Volendams: 1 (/25) radio channel, 3 (/31) TV channels which use Dutch
   – Mongol: 1 radio & 1 TV channel (provincial level)

Education:
• Std Dutch, Putonghua dominant
    – Volendams prohibited
    – before Cultural Revolution 1965, own Mongol education system; present
       support for minority languages but encouragement of Putonghua;
       Putonghua (and English) compulsory from primary sschool, necessary for
       college entrance exam; decrease in Mongol MOI schools
                               Demography

Volendam                                 Inner Mongolia

•   High group concentration in          •   Substantial Han Chinese immigration
    Volendam (74% within Edam-               (industry, settlement in developing
    Volendam; but 0.13% in NL);              area); Mongols --> farming
    pop. c. 21,000                       •   ~15% Mongol; pop. c. 4.2 mill
•   Little immigration/emigration;       •   Public domains: 95% Han Chinese
    Volendammers want to live in V       •   Migration of Mongols to urban regions
    their entire life, including young       (occupational, economic opportunities
    people                                   in industrialising China)
•   Typical dense and multiplex social   •   Substantial mixed marriage (38% of
    network                                  minority group mixed marriage with
                                             Han Chinese)
                   Another LWW: Enter English


Volendam                                 Inner Mongolia

•   English dominant on radio (popular   •   1949: one of compulsory courses from
    music), frequent on TV                   primary school to college
                                         •   College entrance exam
                                         •   Jobs require English (not Mongol)
                0. 5
                              1. 5
                              2. 5




                   0
                                 1
                                 2
                                                                      3
      Grand
     parents

     Parents

 Friend from
  hometown

  Brothers &
   sisters
                                                                          Inner Mongolia



   Friend on
    campus

Nephew&niece


        Shops


    Hospital

 Educational
    office
    Telphone
      house
                                                                          Language use (domains, interlocutors):




        Banks


  Tax office
                                           M
                                                             Mongol




                  Engl i sh
                              Put onghua
                                                   Put
                                            ongol & onghua
              10
              20
              30
              40
              50
              60
              70
              80
              90
             100




               0
Gr and paren ts




     Parents




                   English
                                                                                  Volendam

Br other /Sister                                              Volendam dialec t



Closest fr iend



    Vo lendam
    co lleagu e


    Do ctor in
   Vo lendam


  Str ang er on
  the str eet in
   Vo lendam


 Bu s driver in
                                                                                  Language use (domains, interlocutors):




  Vo lendam


    Pr iest in
                                                              Standard Dutch




   Vo lendam


          No n-
    Vo lendam
    co lleagu e


      Histor y
      teacher
                   Volendam dialec t and S ta nda rd Dutc h
                  0
               0. 5
                  1
               1. 5
                                            2
                                         2. 5
                                            3
 Listening
 records &
cassettes &
     CDs

Watching TV
 & videos


  Reading
newspapers
& Magazines

   Reading
 articles &
    books

   Writing
letters and
   emails


   Writing
  articles


     Having
     courses
                                                   Language use (daily activities): Inner Mongolia




     Using
   Internet
                                          Mongol




                Engl i sh
                            Put onghua
Language use (daily activities): Volendam

          Volendam dialec t                  Standard Dutch              English               Other




   Watch in g television




  Listen in g to the r ad io




       Su rfin g in tern et




 Ch atting o n MSN/Hyves



                      0%       10 %   20 %   30 %   40 %   50 %   60 %   70 %   80 %   90 %   10 0%
                             0.5
                             1.5
                             2.5
                             3.5
                             4.5




                               0
                               1
                               2
                               3
                               4
                               5
                     Jo
                       b


                  St
                    ud
                      y
          In
            fo
              rm
                ati
                   on
     Ge
       tti
          ng
             r   es
                   pe
                     ct
    M
       ak
           in
             gf
                 rie
                     nd
                         s
    So
                                                               Attitudes: Inner Mongolia




      cia
            la
               cti
                   vit
                       ies
    Do
        ing
              bu
                  sin
                      es
                         s
   Sc
     ho
         ol
             ac
                tiv
Co                  iti
                       es
  mm
      un
          ity
              bo
                   nd
                      in
                         g
                                          Englis h
                                                     M ongol


                             P utonghua
               0
             0.5
               1
             1.5
               2
             2.5
               3
             3.5
               4
      Iden tity




 Feeling like a
Vo lendammer




        Making
                                        Attitudes: Volendam




frien ds/bo nding
  with oth er s in
    co mmun ity
                     Volendam dialect




Getting resp ect




 So phisticated
                     Standard Dutch




    lang uag e
                     English




 Jo b/busin ess




    Ed ucation
     Attitudes towards transmission: Inner Mongolia



             4

             3                                                                                            Mo n g o l


             2                                                                                            En g l i s h

             1
                                                                                                          Put onghua
             0
                 Le a r n i n g f r o m   Te a c h e r ' s s p e a k i n g   Pa r e nt s ' s pe a ki ng
                    chi l dhood                   at s chool                         a t h o me
Mo n g o l               3. 8                          2. 9                            3. 8
En g l i s h             2. 2                          2. 4                            2. 2
Put onghua               2. 3                          2. 5                            2. 4
             0
           0.5
             1
           1.5
             2
           2.5
             3
           3.5
             4
Lear ning fro m
   ch ildh ood
(mother tong ue
  of a child in
  Vo lendam)




     Parents
  sp eaking at
       ho me




    Teacher s
  sp eaking at
      scho ol
                                                 Attitudes towards transmission: Volendam




                        Du tch
                                     dialect




             En glish
                        Stan dar d
                                     Vo lendam
                         … Now multilingual?

Volendam                                  Inner Mongolia

Increase in Dutch, via                    Increase in Putonghua, via
• Parents with children in home           • Parents in home domain (1/4 cf. 1/10 in
    domain                                    parents’ generation)
                                          • Media (3/4 cf. 1/4)

Increase in English, via                  Increase in English, via
• Internet (40-50% cf. 20% in             • School (100% cf. 0 in parents’
    parents’ generation), and chatrooms       generation)
    etc (5% cf. 0)                        • Media (1/4 cf. 0)

‘Leakiness’ between Volendams and         Bilingual CS (Mongolian-Putonghua) as
   Dutch with youngest generation             increasingly frequent code amongst
   (mid teens)                                younger generation
    – ‘leaky diglossia’; glocalisation         – CS as unmarked; monolectal CS
                             References

Karregat, Anna. 2008. Language maintenance or shift in Volendam. MA
   dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
Wu Yuncang. 2008. Language Maintenance or Shift: The Mongols in Inner
   Mongolia of China. MA dissertation, University of Amsterdam.

				
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