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Bangus Processing

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					Processing of Soft-Boned Bangus (Milkfish)




Ingredients and Materials Needed:

      Bangus (whole)
      800 Salometer brine (composed of 267.03 grams of salt per liter of water)
      Pressure cooker
      Smokehouse
      Aluminum Foil

Steps in processing soft-boned bangus

   1. Prepare small bangus for processing.
   2. Clean fish, remove grills, viscera and false kidney. Wash thoroughly.
   3. Soak in saturated brine solution for 60 to 120 minutes depending on the size
      of the fish.
   4. Drain and wrap with aluminum foil.
   5. Arrange bangus in pressure cooker. Pressure cook at 10 lbs. pressure for 90,
      120 and 150 minutes for small, medium and large milkfish respectively.
   6. Remove aluminum foil and arrange in smoking trays. Smoke for 30 minutes
      until golden brown.
   7. Allow to cool. Then pack in boxes.
   8. Refrigerate if longer storage is needed.
Smoked Bangus

Materials Needed:

      Bangus (whole)
      Brine solution (composed of 267.03 grams of salt per liter of water)
      Smoking trays
      Smokehouse

Procedure

   1. Wash milkfish, remove gills and viscera. Wash well then drain.
   2. Debone the milkfish.
   3. Soak in saturated brine solution for 60 to 120 minutes depending on the size
      of the fish.
   4. Precook in boiling 10 percent brine solution for 15 to 20 minutes.
   5. Dry surface until pellicle is formed
   6. Arrange in smoking trays and expose tc smoke for 30 minutes to one hour.
   7. Smoke until golden brown
   8. Cool then pack in containers




Fish Ham Bangus


What will I be doing?

Making homemade milkfish ham, and selling it to cafeterias and eateries.

What will I need to start?

Start with two pieces of bangus, brown sugar, MSG, salt, black pepper, Prague
powder, gin, ham spice, beer, laurel, sugar and pineapple juice. You’ll also need
polyethylene plastic bags for packaging, LPG or wood for fuel, and an assistant. Your
total initial investment should come to around P407.
Who will my customers be?

Initially, housewives and office workers looking for an alternative to pork-based ham
sold in supermarkets. Later, you can supply grocery stores, cafeterias and eateries
with your product.

How much should I charge?

P70 to P75 per six pieces of bangus, which will cost you P67 to produce.

How much will I make?

P12 to P42 per six pieces.

FISH HAM BANGUS

Ingredients

      1 kg bangus
      2 tbsp brown sugar
      1 tsp monosodium glutamate (MSG)
      1 tbsp salt
      ½ tsp black pepper
      ¼ tsp prague powder
      1 – 1½ tsp gin
      1 tsp ham spice

Utensils

      weighing scale
      measuring cups
      measuring spoons
      knife
      chopping board

Procedure:

   1. Clean bangus, remove scales, internal organs, tails and fins.
   2. Split at the back from head to tail.
   3. Mix ingredients to the bangus and store in closed container in the refrigerator
      for 3 days.
   4. Prepare mixture of the following:
          o ¾ cup beer
          o 1 pc laurel
          o 1 cup sugar
          o 1 cup pineapple juice
          o ½ cup water
   5. Boil the mixture and cool.
   6. Soak cured bangus for 2 hours.
   7. Drain and pack.

Deboning Bangus


Equipments/Utensils:

      Chopping board
      Mosquito forceps
      Sharp knife
      Trays
      Kitchen sears
Steps in Deboning Bangus

   1. Split down the dorsal side of the fish. Turn knife flat and cut from the tail to
      the head by running the edge of the knife along the backbone.
   2. Lay fish open like a butterfly fillet. Then, remove gills and viscera.
   3. Remove the backbone by holding the knife horizontally and cutting with the
      tip of
      the blade along the backbone from head to tail.
   4. Remove the cut backbone. Wash fish in running water
   5. With the aid of a forcep, pull out the rib bones which have not been cut away.
      Make a
      superficial slit along the dent of the dorsal muscles and pull out the
      intermuscular spines embedded between the muscles from the head to the
      tail.
   6. Remove spines in the ventral side in the same manner. Remove filamentous
      Y-shaped spines along the lateral lines, i.e., the junction of the dorsal and
      ventral muscles.
   7. Wash deboned bangus in clean water. Drain.
   8. Pack in plastic bags for storage in a freezer.




Burong Bangus


Ingredients:

       1 kg Bangus
       75.2 g Salt
       17 g Angkak
       5 cup Rice

Procedure

   1.   Remove the scales of the fish. Debone.
   2.   Cut fish into butterfly fillets. Cut into serving pieces.
   3.   Add salt and allow to saturate for 1 hour.
   4.   Cook five cups of rice by boiling in water. Cool
   5.   Add angkak to cooked rice.
6. Mix 400 grams salted fish and 850 grams cooked rice.
7. Pack rice and fish alternately in sterilized glass jar.
8. Place the remaining rice on the upper layer of fish.
9. Cover with plastic film.
10. Ferment for 7 days at room temperature.
11. Saute in cooking oil, garlic and onions before serving.
Bottled Bangus in Corn Oil




Materials:

       Juvenile bangus
       Corn oil
       Carrots
       Pickles
       Salt
       MSG
       Bottle caps
       PVC seals and labels

Equipment:

       Pressure cooker
       Stove
       Frying pan
       Balance (1 kg capacity)
       Knives
       Chopping board
       Strainer
       Stockpot

Procedure

   1.  Cut the fish transversely to fit the size of bottle.
   2.  Remove the internal organs
   3.  Wash fish thoroughly to remove all traces of blood
   4.  Dry under the sun for around 2 hours or until firm.
   5.  Deep fry in oil for 2 minutes.
   6.  Fill fish into bottles at 145+10 gm. per bottle. Arrange around the bottles the
       following: 2 slices carrot, a slice of pickle, 2 sili labuyo, 4 black peppers and
       an olive. Add a pinch of salt and MSG. Fill the corn oil up to 1/4 into
       headspace from the top of the bottle.
   7. Cap the bottles tightly. Arrange in pressure cooker.
   8. Process for 100 minutes psi. Cool.
   9. Wash the bottles. Dry.
   10. Place seal then label.
   11. Store in a cool dry place for 1 month or more to attain desired flavor.

Product Costing

1. Direct Materials:

       Bangus (P50.00/kg @3.2 bottles per kg) – 15.63
       Corn oil (P 76.00 at 70gm/bottle) 5.32
       Ingredients (average/bottle) – 2.00
       Bottle – 2.00
       Cap – 2.80
       Seal – 0.13
       Label – 1.00
Sub-Total: P 28.99

2. Direct Labor – 2 persons x P150.00 at 2 days, 150 bottles – 4.00
3. Overhead cost , LPG – 2 hours at P12.50/hr, 150 bottles – 0.17

Total production cost – P 33.04
Semi-Intensive Culture of Milkfish


Over the years, there has been a big steady demand for milkfish or bangus in the
country. It has also been doing well in the international market with Philippine export
of frozen or chilled bangus reaching over 526 metric tons or some P8.5 million
annually.

The following gives a good overview of how to manage your own fishponds using a
site already developed.

Site selection

Select existing brackishwater fish farms that are fully developed and operational.
Former prawn farms can be used for milkfish farming. The site should have:

      high tidal range and can hold water at least one meter deep;
      good water quality and more or less have constant salinity and temperature
       throughout the year;
      longer dry season, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam; and
      access to roads and power supply.

Pond layout and design

   1. Improve or modify existing structures to suit the management requirements
      of the proposed production scheme.
   2. Concentrate on the repair and strengthening of dikes, cut-and-fill levelling of
      pond bottom, and construction of diagonal canal, drain canal and drain culvert
      gate to improve pond structures.
   3. Modify pond structures to improve water management and stock manipulation
      systems as well as to meet desired management schedules and production
      targets. The pond can be of any size (the bigger, the better) for optimum
      production using the modular method.
   4. Divide pond into four compartments: nursery pond (NP); transition pond
      (TP); formation pond (FP); and rearing pond (RP).
   5. Provide a separate culvert-type drain gate and canal system opposite the inlet
      gate and canal system for rearing ponds to effect efficient water exchange
      and circulation.
   6. Construct an inside-pond diagonal canal to facilitate draining and harvesting
      of stock.

Figure 1. Layout for a semi-intensive farm system




Pond preparation and food requirements

   1. Carry out thorough pond preparation such as crack drying, liming and tilling
      once a year.
   2. Prepare the ponds grown with lab-lab before fish stocking.
   3. Apply organic and inorganic fertilizer to stimulate growth of natural food
      organisms.
   4. Extend pond preparation and food growing in grow-out ponds to 45 days to
      allow more time for the abundant growth of lab-lab

Figure 2. Schedule of pond preparation and food growing

Cumulative days for completion of activities / Activities:

      1 Pond draining, soil sealing, leveling and repair
      2-7 Pond drying
      2 Gate screening
      2 Pest predator control
      2 Liming (optional for low pH)
      7 Washing
      8 Organic fertilization (2 tons/ha)
      8 First water intake, 5 cm
      8-17 Evaporation
      11 Inorganic fertilization 3 sacks/ha 21-0-0
      18 Second water intake, 10 cm
      18 Fertilizer dressing, 25 kg/ha 16-20-0 13.
      25 Third water intake, 15 cm
      25 Fertilizer dressing, 25 kg/ha 46-0-0
      32 Fourth water intake, 20 cm.
      36 Fertilizer dressing, 25 kg/ha 16-20-0
      39 Sixth water intake, 25 cm 18.
      39 Fertilizer dressing, 25 kg/ha 16-20-0
      45 Sixth water intake, 30 cm
      46 Fish stock

Production strategy

   1. Purchase the required fry once every year of operation, especially during the
      peak season in May.
   2. Start production in the nursery pond, then the transition pond, formation
      pond, and finally the rearing pond.
   3. Divide the grow-out process into two phases: formation and rearing phases.
   4. Allow the fingerlings to from a 20 g fingerling size to a 50 g post-fingerling
      size in the formation pond using natural food organisms as primary food for
      the stock.
   5. Transfer the post-fingerlings to the rearing pond. Milkfish will grow to the
      marketable size of 250 g in three months at an average growth rate of 2.2
      g/day. Expect the milkfish to grow bigger during the dry season at an average
      growth rate of 3 g/day.
   6. Provide supplementary feeds to sustain fish growth particularly during the wet
      season when lab-lab and other natural foods in the pond are depleted. A
      weekly feed conditioning is necessary to determine the attractability of the
      feed.
   7. Efficient feeds should be used. Unattractive feeds result in poor health of the
      milkfish.
   8. Eradicate snail pests called suso and bangungon. These pests destroy lab-lab
      mat and compete with bangus for lab-lab. Use alternative molluscicide, like
      tobacco dust, applied at 300-400 kg/ha or collect the snails by sweeping or
      handpicking and burn them with rice straw.

Pond water management

   1. Increase water depth from 0.6 m to 1 m particularly during the last two
      months of culture operation. Note: An abrupt increase in water depth will
      cause lab-lab to detach and float. Install fine-meshed screens (bastidor or
      lumpot) at the gates to prevent the re-entry of wild species or the possible
      escape of stock.
      2. Monitor water quality parameters (turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen,
         temperature regularly to check for any sign of risk. Maintain the optimum
         water condition to support maximum growth of milkfish.
      3. Change water at least every two weeks or as frequent as possible.
      4. Install a stand-by water pump to maintain desired water depth when water
         management through tidal fluctuation is not possible.

Figure 3. Stocking Density


Pond                                Stock
NP                                  40 fry/sq m
TP                                  5 fingerlings/sq m
FP                                  2 juveniles/sq m
RP                                  1 grown fish/sq m

Figure 4. Milkfish Production Schemes

             Growing    Culture     Growth                 Harvest
Pond         stage      period      rate       Food type size
             (wt-g)     (days)      (g/day)                (pc/kg)
NP           0.02-.05   30          0.016      Lab-lab     2000
                                               Lab-lab
TP           0.5-10     30          0.32       Bread       100
                                               crumbs
                                               Lab-lab
FP           10-40      30          1.00       Bread       20
                                               crumbs
                                               Lab-
RP           50-215     75          2.2                    4.6
                                               lab/Pellets
                                               Lab-
Dry          50-275     75          3.0/higher             3.6
                                               lab/Pellets

Figure 5. Feeding Requirement Scheme

                                             % Feed
                Growing                                      Feeding
Pond                           Feed type     rate
                size (g)                                     frequency
                                             (Biomass)
                            Lab-lab
NP              0.02-.05                     8-10            5x/day
                            Starter mash
                            Lab-lab
                            Bread
TP              0.5-10                       5-8             4x/day
                            crumbs/rice
                            bran
                            Lab-lab
FP              12-50       Bread            4-5             3x/day
                            crumbs
                            Lab-
                50-100 100- lab/algae
RP                                           3               3-4x/day
                250         Finisher
                            Pellets

Figure 6. Nutrient Requirements of Milkfish Feed

Nutrient                   Suggested level         Typical source
                                                   Fish meal, soybean,
Crude protein              25-40%                  corn, glutenmeal, ipil-
                                                   ipil
                                                   Vegetable and fish
Crude fat                  7-10%
                                                   meal
Nitrogen Free-extract 25%                          Yellow corn, cassava
(Digestible                                   meal, rice and wheat
carbohydrates)                                bran, flour
Crude fiber           <8%
Vitamin, minerals mix 3-6%
Metabolized energy    >3,200 kcal/kg

Figure 7. Water Quality Parameter

Parameter                 Optimum level
                          3-5 ppm
concentration
                e         22-35 degree C
                          6.8-8.7
                          18-32 ppt
                          0.5 m

Do’s and Dont’s in setting up and managing a fish pond.

      Avoid areas with problems of domestic, industrial, or agricultural pollution.
      Ensure sufficient supply of clean water.
      Put up independent water supply.
      Apply complete drying, and if indicated, liming of sediments.
      Always stock good quality fingerlings.
      Practice right stocking density according to management capability and
       environmental conditions.
      Maintain high quality water supply.
      Always ensure sufficient water exchange.
      Avoid adding large volumes of new water that may contain pollutants (setting
       of water in reservoir before use can improve its quality).
      Set regular water quality monitoring (e.g., turbidity, water color, dissolved
       oxygen, pH and temperature) activities.
      Anticipate adverse weather conditions. Sudden rain or thumderstorms during
       hot day may present dangers as well as sudden changes in water
       temperature which may also result in some fish kills.
      Observe extra precaution to minimize the possibility of dike wash-out flooding
       and the like.
      Apply controlled feeding and feed fish only with high quality food.
      Monitor survival rate, biomass, growth and health.
      Quarantine new stock.

Harvesting

Harvesting milkfish that have attained the marketable size can be done either
through the current method locally called as pasubang or the total draining method.
Total draining is the common method for harvesting milkfish. However, this lowers
the quality of the fish because mud sticks to the fish.

To maintain fish quality, the pasubang method can be used. This takes advantage of
the tendency of the fish to swim against the current. The method is carried out by
draining water in the pond particularly during low tide to induce fish to swim through
the gate.

Close the gate when all the fish have been impounded. Total harvest is done
manually by collecting or picking the remaining fish from the pond bottom.

Packing for transport

Part of the business is transporting the goods to the market. To ensure that fish will
remain fresh until they reach their destination, they must be packed with sufficient
quantity of ice and loaded with care.

Methods of packing fresh fish for transport
   1. Wash the fish with pond water prior to icing and sort according to size.
   2. Pre-chill or immerse the fish in a chilling tank, box or banyera with ice water
      immediately after harvest.
   3. Dip the fish in ice water before packing to keep them from losing scales due
      to subsequent handling.
   4. Spread a layer of crushed ice 15 cm thick at the bottom of the transport box.
      Make sure the ice is compact to minimize thawing and to cushion the fish.
   5. Lay about 100 kg of the fish on top of the crushed ice. Arrange the fish heads
      pointing to the one direction only.
   6. Spread another layer of crushed ice 5 cm thick on top of the fish.
   7. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until the last layer of fish is 15 cm below the top of the
      box.
   8. Place the last layer of crushed ice 15 cm thick on top of the last layer of fish.
      The bottom and the top layers of ice should always be 15 cm thick.

Note: If the fish will be transported by land, a 1:2 ratio of ice to fish (weight basis) is
needed for 1 1/2 hours of travel, and a 1:1 ratio for 3 hours of travel. However, if
transporting by boat or ship, do not remove fish from the styrofoam boxes. The fish
can stay fresh in a styrofoam box for 12 hours.

Advantages of pre-chilling

Pre-chilling the fish will prevent excessive damage and will keep the fish looking
fresh. It also removes blood, slime, dirt and bacteria from the skin of the fish, and
slows down enzymatic activities, thus minimizing further deterioration.

Ecological considerations

If not properly planned or managed, fishponds may adversely affect the
environment, e.g. by causing water pollution. To mitigate such problems, adopt
appropriate safeguards to protect the environment. Likewise, avoid pond
development in environmentally critical areas such as mangrove areas, marine
parks, and reserves, and sanctuaries. If possible, use tea-seed cake/powder instead
of strong chemicals in controlling pests and predators in fishponds. If chemical
pesticide is used, count five to seven days before flushing pond water into the river
to avoid polluting the river and poisoning other aquatic organisms. Furthermore,
avoid overfeeding the fish with commercial feeds. Decaying uneaten feeds can
pollute water and pond environment.

Plant mangroves or other trees on the dikes to strengthen them and to avoid
erosion. Dikes can also be planted to cash crops, e.g. string beans, kamote, okra,
and peppers.

Support services

Technical assistance can be requested from the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic
Resources (BFAR-DA) and the Coastal Environment Program of the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (CEP-DENR).

Perspective of A Semi-Intensive Pond For Milkfish
Bangus Hamonada

Ingredients:

      Bangus (259 grams in size or more)

Marinating solution:

      80° Salometer brine (composed of 267.03 grams of salt per liter of water)
      250 g Brown sugar
      6 pcs Bay leaves
      Nutmeg
      Black pepper
      Prague powder
      Paprika


Procedure

   1. Wash milkfish then split. Remove all internal organs and false kidney.
      Debone.
   2. Simmer the marinating solution for one hour then cool. Bring the volume to
      one liter.
   3. Soak the fish in the cool marinating solution for 30 minutes to one hour
      depending on size.
   4. Store in a chill room overnight for slow curing or at room temperature until
      flesh is translucent.
   5. Remove from the solution and wash surface to remove excess salt. Do not
      soak.
   6. Spread on trays and surfs. In the meantime, kindle smoke house.
   7. Smoke until golden brown.
   8. Cool before packing in boxes.
   9. Keep refrigerated if packed in plastic bags.
Tinapang Bangus


Materials:

      Fresh bangus
      Salt
      Sawdust (kusot na pino)
      Firewood

Equipment:

      Drum
      Tray
      Basin
      Knives
      Plastic sealer
      Stove
      Steamer
      Measuring cup
      Chopping board
      Forceps

Procedure

   1. In a basin with water, dissolve salt. Nine part water, 1 part salt. Salt solution
       should be enough to cover all the fish. Set aside.
   2. Clean the fish thoroughly.
   3. Split fish on the dorsal side starting from the tail to the head by running the
       edge of the knife along the backbone.
   4. Lay fish open like butterfly fillet. Remove gills and internal organs. Wash fish
       to remove blood and dirt.
   5. Remove all bones and spines.
   6. Marinade the fish in the salt solution for 2 minutes.
   7. Arrange on tray. Sun dry for 30 minutes or until the skin is already dry.
   8. Make a fire inside the drum. Put sawdust to make a thick smoke. Put the try
       on drum and start smoking until the fish color turned golden brown. If the
       smoke is too much, 15 minutes is enough.
   9. Remove the tray from drum. Let it dry. Put in plastic bags and seal using the
       plastic sealer.
   10. Store in freezer.

				
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