Run I Crosses Finish Line

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					Volume 19                         FRIDAY, MARCH 8, 1996                                   Number 5

Run I Crosses Finish Line
A    t 0800 on Tuesday, February 20,
     Fermilab’s Collider Run I at the
Tevatron entered the history books.
Run I set luminosity records, flushed
the top quark from its hiding place at
the high end of the mass scale, and
took us all into unexplored territory
where no high-energy physicists had
gone before. In one way or another,
everyone at Fermilab had a hand in
Run I, and, when it was over, the
spokesmen of the two collider
detectors wrote to
Fermilab Director
John Peoples to
express their
thanks to the
entire Laboratory.
   For more
of the high-
and the
of Run I,
turn to                                                          Inside f
the story
on                                                        Budget Legislation Explained . .2
page 6.                                                   University Close-Ups:
                                                          Colorado and Duke . . . . . .4 & 8
                                                          Run I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
                                                          Longest-Running Classified . .10
Using the Basic Research sub-
committee in the House of
Representatives as an example,
a Congressional aide decodes
Washington’s budgetary process
by Donald Sena, Office of Public Affairs

A     t Fermi National Accelerator
      Laboratory, when people refer to
“the process,” they could be speaking
of the complicated and orchestrated
task of accelerating particles to high
energies, forcing them into collisions
and detecting the results for later
analyses. However, there is another
equally arcane sequence of events that
affects the Laboratory almost as much:
the legislative and budgetary process in
Washington, D.C.
    Each year the nation’s lawmakers
and their staffs perform their own         APPROPRIATION VS.                         is just a rule that is not adhered to,”
orchestrated task of deciding which        AUTHORIZATION                             Dietz said. For example, “the
government programs will be funded            It is important to note at the out-    Department of Energy has not been
and how much money each will               set that there are two types of com-      authorized in years.”
receive. Like high-energy physics, the     mittees and subcommittees in
legislative process has its own termi-     Congress that deal with budgets:          THE THICKET
nology and esoteric concepts, such as      authorization and appropriation.              The budget process begins with the
authorization vs. appropriation, bud-      Authorization bills sanction agencies     executive branch and the president,
getary vs. oversight hearings and leg-     and specific programs and set maxi-       who submits a budget to Congress in
islation “mark-up.”                        mum funding levels for each year. An      February. Each subcommittee then
    It helps to have a guide for getting   appropriations committee assigns          addresses the parts of the budget that
through Washington’s budget thick-         actual spending levels with greater       it has authority over. For example, the
et; Kristine Dietz, a veteran of the       detail. Appropriations cannot exceed      Basic Research subcommittee staff
legislative process, is a staff member     the level set by the authorization, but   begins to research programs and
of the Basic Research subcommittee.        they can appropriate less. These two      sometimes drafts legislation.
She was assigned to that position by       entities often work together in the           Dietz said it is a well-known fact
its chairman, Rep. Steven Schif f          spirit of partisan solidarity. However,   that staffers research and write much
(R–NM). Using her subcommittee as          Dietz said, the appropriations process    of the legislation on the Hill.
an example, Dietz provided a general       has evolved over the years as the         However, she said, the representa-
overview of the major steps of mov-        more powerful of the two. Moreover,       tives are involved with every step of
ing legislation through the House of       appropriations are sometimes provid-      the process, meeting on a daily basis
Representatives in a typical year. [She    ed to programs that don’t have            with their staff and providing direc-
cautioned, however, that the present       authorization.                            tion. Science Committee aides only
budget season is aberrant due to the          “Technically, under the rules of       write legislation for the chairman,
protracted battles between the             the House and Senate, you cannot          while the individual members and
Administration and the Republican-         spend money for a program that has        their staffs are responsible for draft-
controlled Congress.]                      not been authorized. That obviously       ing their own bills. Staffers send the
draft bills to the appropriate adminis-    legislation is the input from those            The subcommittee may hold more
tration agency and to various “users”      outside the political system, such as      hearings on the actual legislation. In
of government programs, and ask for        university professors and students         certain circumstances, the full commit-
comments. Experts often write depo-        who engage in high-energy physics          tee can hold hearings, which usually
sitions on broad topics, such as high-     research at Fermilab. These people         happens when the committee chairman
energy physics, or comment on spe-         are the users of the programs—the          has a special interest in the legislation.
cific legislation, detailing how it        persons who actually benefit from              The subcommittee mark-up fol-
would affect their institutions. A         government funding—and their               lows soon after. This is the first
good time in the budget process to         expertise is essential and welcome.        chance for members to add amend-
address concerns and suggest               She said that the science community        ments to the legislation. Mark-up on
changes in a bill is when it is in draft   needs to be more proactive with the        a specific bill can last a few hours to
form, according to Dietz.                  subcommittee staffs to keep them           weeks, depending on how many
    “I don’t want to be to the point       informed.                                  amendments are introduced, how
where my boss introduces a bill that                                                  many times committee members are
is out there for public consumption                An important part                  interr upted by business on the
and public knowledge, and I found                                                     House floor and how long the
out that the main organization that is          of building legislation               debate lasts for each amendment.
affected by this legislation doesn’t                                                  Eventually, the subcommittee votes
support it for one particular reason            is budgetary hearings.                on each amendment and then on the
or another,” said Dietz.                                                              final version of the bill; if it passes, it
                                           Committee staff invite people,             heads to the full committee, where it
HEARINGS                                                                              enters a similar mark-up process. If it
    An important part of building leg-     including program directors,               is reported out of the full committee,
islation is budgetar y hearings.                                                      it is put on the calendar, which is
Committee staf f invite people,             university professors, users in           controlled by the Speaker of the
including program directors, univer-                                                  House and the majority leader. If the
sity professors, users in the private        the private sector and other             Speaker chooses not to put it on the
sector and other “exper ts,” to                                                       calendar, then the legislation will not
Washington to illuminate the impor-          “experts,” to Washington to              likely make it to the House floor for
tance of various programs. Witnesses                                                  a final vote. If the majority leadership
elaborate on how funding levels will         illuminate the importance                schedules a vote, the bill goes to the
affect an institution, how the institu-                                               Rules Committee. The political sensi-
tion will use the money and how                  of various programs.                 tivity of the legislation determines
users could improve a program.                                                        what kind of rule it gets introduced
Dietz stresses that all testimony is          “As a staff member, you are more        under: an “open” rule allows an
vital to producing the best possible       than appreciative to have input. I         unlimited amount of debate and
legislation and ensuring the pro-          don’t know of any other staffer who        number of amendments, while a
grams properly spend the govern-           would want to turn something like          “closed” rule limits both.
ment’s money. She said she thinks          that away. If they did then they are           If the legislation makes it past all
many witnesses feel that their testi-      doing their committee and their            the hurdles, it gets voted on by the
mony is not vital to the end product.      chairman a disservice,” said Dietz.        full House membership. If it passes,
    “That is absolutely not the case,                                                 it may move on to a conference com-
especially when it comes to writing        MORE LEVELS OF                             mittee to work out the differences
legislation,” said Dietz. “Because if I    SCRUTINY                                   between the House legislation and
am writing a bill, I am going back to         Staffers then write the final version   the Senate’s version of the same bill.
those hearings and I am looking at         of the bill, incorporating comments        It then heads to the president’s desk,
testimony and the questions and            collected from hearings, written           where he will either sign it or veto it.
answers.”                                  depositions and their own research.            Dietz summed up her explanation
    Subcommittees can also convene         The legislative counsel then translates    of the process with an ominous note:
budgetary hearings before draft legis-     the document into legal language.          “I just gave you a theoretical overview
lation is penned or after legislation is   The author of the bill and any             of the process. It never works that
formally introduced. The subcom-           cosponsors sign it and take it to the      way,” she said with a laugh. “There
mittee also holds oversight hearings       House floor, where it’s formally           are so many other variables involved
throughout the year, which members         introduced. The bill receives an           and so many other forces at
use to address nonbudgetary topics.        “H.R.” number and becomes public           work...You could get a master’s
    Dietz emphasized that one of the       information, which opens up another        degree in the legislative process.” t
most important parts of developing         layer of scrutiny.
                 UNIVERSITY CLOSE-UP

               From the Land of
               the Silver and Gold
                                                                                                the URA meeting, the location of the new lab
               by Leila Belkora, Office of Public Affairs                                       that URA would operate was an open ques-
                                                                                                tion, and former Atomic Energy Commission
Researchers    “I    ’m looking at the minutes of the first
                     annual meeting of the Council of
               Presidents of the Universities Research
                                                                                                chairman Glenn T. Seaborg says in his account
                                                                                                of the history of Fermilab that “the Denver,
                                                                                                Colorado site was a strong contender.”
 from the      Association—in November 1965—and                                                    The lab didn’t come to the mountains, so
               Colorado is listed, so they had to be here                                       physicists from the mountains have been com-
               when we first formed. Colorado was repre-                                        ing to the lab. One of CU’s recent contribu-
 University    sented by Joseph R. Smiley.” So says URA sec-                                    tions, according to faculty member Tony
               retary Rhonda Gudger, confirming that the                                        Barker, is a set of four lead-scintillator particle
of Colorado,   University of Colorado participated in plan-                                     detectors for the KTeV experiment. The
               ning for the National Accelerator Laboratory,                                    square detectors, which weigh 10 tons each,
               now Fermilab, in Illinois. Joseph Smiley was                                     are about 16 feet on a side and “just barely fit
  Boulder,     CU’s ninth president. Indeed, at the time of                                     in a truck if you put them in diagonally,” says
                                                                                                Barker. A half-dozen undergraduates and as
mine veins                                                                                      many graduate students and faculty built the
                                                                                                equipment, which arrived at Fermilab last fall
                                                                                                and has just been installed in the KTeV experi-
 of particle                                                                                    mental hall.

 physics at                                                                                     A COSMIC ASYMMETRY
                                                                                                   Currently, physicists from the high-energy
                                                                                                research group at CU participate in two
 Fermilab                                                                                       Fermilab projects. Collaborators in the KTeV
                                                                                                program, which itself is a pair of experiments,
                                                                                                will focus on the particle interactions that lead
                                                                                                to the observed predominance of matter over
                                                                                                antimatter in the universe.
                                                                                                   The asymmetry between matter and anti-
                                                                                                matter—the fact that our world seems to be
                                                                                                made mostly of matter, despite the fact that
                                                                                                antimatter particles pop up routinely in labora-
                                                                                                tory experiments—may hinge on a phenome-
                                                                                                non called CP violation. A process that vio-
                                                                                                lates the rule of CP conservation is one of sev-
                                                                                                eral conditions that make it possible for parti-
                                                                                                cles to outnumber antiparticles in the universe.
                                                                                                Barker, his colleague Uriel Nauenberg, and
                                                                                                their team of postdocs and students at KTeV
                                                                                                are pursuing the origins of CP violation in the
                                                                                                decay of kaon particles.
                                                                       Photo by LEILA BELKORA

                                                                                                   “The big challenge of the experiment,” says
                                                                                                Barker, “is that it has to be so precise. We’re
                                                                                                trying to measure a number [that represents
                                                                                                the magnitude of the CP violation] to one-
                                                                                                part-in-a-thousand precision.” The 10-ton
               Eric Vaandering, left, graduate student at CU-
                                                                                                detectors he and his coworkers built in
               Boulder, and his advisor, CU Professor John
                                                                                                Colorado help achieve this precision by mak-
               Cumalat. CU physicists built the lead-glass calorime-
               ter behind them, which Vaandering painted with the                               ing sure that no particles produced in a decay
               CU football team logo.                                                           go unrecorded. Experimenters refer to these
detectors generally as anti-counters, because                                   The calorimeter consists of an array of lead-
they identify events that could be misinterpret-                             glass elements, encased in two large steel pan-
ed, and are eliminated from the data set.                                    els. Graduate student Eric Vaandering saw in
   Colorado physicists also built part of the                                those steel panels a blank canvas, and painted
trigger system for the experiment. The trigger                               them with a favorite motif: a charging buffalo,
system rapidly evaluates signals or combina-                                 symbol of the CU football team.
tions of signals from the detectors, and based
on this, tags each particle interaction event as                             A TRAIL OF STUDENTS

                                                                                                                                     Photo by ERIC VAANDERING
worthy or not worthy of further study. The                                       Richard Harpel, Assistant Vice President for
evaluation of signals at the level supervised by                             Academic Affairs and Federal Relations at the
the Colorado-built trigger is a specialized task:                            University of Colorado, says he’s aware of
“We can’t do it with a computer,” says Barker.                               CU’s long-standing involvement at Fermilab,
“The decision is made too fast. The Level 2                                  and credits Colorado’s congressional delega-
trigger [built in par t at CU] is custom-                                    tion with much of the support necessary to                                         Elements of a lead-glass
designed electronics.”                                                       keep the high-energy physics program going.                                        calorimeter arrayed on
                                                                             “Our champion on our delegation is David                                           the roof of the physics
                                                                                                                                                                building in Boulder.
CHARM PARTICLES                                                              Skaggs,” he says, of the representative from
                                                                                                                                                                Glass that has suffered
   John Cumalat, who has participated in                                     Colorado’s Second Congressional District.                                          radiation damage (as
experiments at Fermilab for over 20 years,                                   Skaggs “took a very personal interest in the                                       part of a detector element
leads the department’s efforts to study the                                  general area of the sciences [when Skaggs was                                      in a previous experiment)
charm quark using photons as probes. When                                    on the House Science Committee]...and he’s                                         can be cured by exposure
the charm quark was discovered in 1974, at                                   still very, very supportive.” Skaggs is now on                                     to ultraviolet light,
Brookhaven National Laboratory and simulta-                                  the Appropriations Committee.                                                      including sunlight.
neously at the Stanford Linear Accelerator,                                      On the academic side, Cumalat, Barker and
physicists were surprised to learn that the                                  Nauenberg point to a trail of former students
charm quark is heavier than a proton; the pro-                               from Colorado as a happy sign of CU’s long-
ton itself consists of up and down quarks.                                   standing involvement in research at Fermilab.
Today, Cumalat and his colleagues are adding                                 Nauenberg interrupted his wiring task at
to the list of known parameters of the charm                                 KTeV the other day to wave to Rick Tesarek, a
quark and its interactions.                                                  research associate at Rutgers University who
   The goal of the charm experiments, accord-                                was an undergraduate at CU. “I taught him in
ing to Cumalat, is to reconstruct the quark from                             one of my classes,” says Nauenberg. “It’s good
the cascade of secondary particles it transforms                             to see him now in high-energy physics.” t
to. “For example, the charm quark can turn
into a strange quark plus a virtual W particle,”
he says. “Then the virtual W can decay in either
a ‘favored’ or ‘suppressed’ way–a probable or
improbable way.” One of the measurements the
experimenters want to make is the relative rate
of those alternative decays.
   Because the study of the charm particles is
indirect, and some of the modes of decay so
improbable, the physicists need lots of events.
Cumalat, who is also spokesperson for the exper-
iment, expects it to yield “ten times more charm
than anyone has seen before.” He says this will
be possible thanks to the source of charm parti-
cles, “the world’s highest-energy photon beam”
in Fermilab’s Wide-Band Photon Hall.
                                                     Photo by FRED ULLRICH

   Colorado’s contribution to the experiment is
the construction of a silicon microstrip detector
and its mechanical support, and an electromag-
netic calorimeter. The calorimeter identifies some
of the highest-energy electrons, photons, and
                                                                             Uriel Nauenberg (foreground), CU physics professor, and Anatoly Ronzhin, guest
neutral pions that are produced along with the                               scientist at Fermilab. They are checking the wiring of photomultiplier tubes at the
charm particles from the high-energy photon                                  base of a lead-scintillator calorimeter. CU students and faculty built the calorimeter
beam.                                                                        in Boulder.
     We called it a run, but it was more like a marathon—

     Fermilab’s Collider Run I
By Judy Jackson, Office of Public Affairs,                        of physicists at the Fermi National        falling [in the form of the
and John Crawford, Accelerator Division                           Accelerator Laboratory, where the          Superconducting Super Collider].
                                                                  work was done. Fermilab has the            People came and went, but John and

I  t began on a hot day in August
   1991, and by the time it ended on
a cold morning in February 1996,
                                                                  world’s most power ful par ticle
                                                                                                             [Deputy Director] Ken Stanfield kept
                                                                                                             a constant direction, and that made
                                                                                                             all the difference.”
Collider Run I at Fermilab had                                    “YOU HELPED MAKE IT                            Besides discovering the top quark,
changed our understanding of the                                  POSSIBLE.”                                 experimenters measured its mass and
natural universe. It had delivered the                                A few days later, the 475 members      studied the way it decays, as they
astonishing number of 179.67                                      of the division that operates that         opened a new era of top quark
inverse picobarns of luminosity, or                               accelerator received a letter from         physics in Run I. They also made the
12,572,000,000,000 high-energy                                    Division Head Dave Finley. “We             most accurate measurements to date
proton-antiproton collisions, to each                             make them,” he wrote. “They find           of the mass and width of the force-
of Fermilab’s two collider detectors,                             them. And together we have discov-         carrying particle called the W boson.
CDF and DZero. “It was like win-                                  ered the top quark. And that’s a scien-    Combining the precisely measured
ning the data lotter y,” said CDF                                 tific fact...What you have heard over      characteristics of the W with precise
Department Head John Cooper.                                      the last few years, from ‘prediction,’     top quark data will provide insight
   Those Run I data held the evi-                                 to ‘evidence,’ to the ‘discovery,’ was     into the nature of the Higgs boson
dence for new physics. “Physicists                                science history in the making. And         and the mystery of mass.
Track Down an Elusive Atomic                                      you helped make it possible.”
Particle,” said the front-page story in                               The Computing Division helped          MAGNETS, NITROGEN,
the New York Times on March 3,                                    as well. For the first time in Fermilab    AND CHERRY TREES
1995. “Culminating nearly a decade                                history, the most intensive processing         Run I was exhilarating, but it was
of intense effort, two rival groups of                            of the data, which must be done            no romp through the roses. Most
physicists announced today that they                              before the analysis leading to the         vexing of Run I’s headaches was the
had found the elusive top quark—an                                physics results, was complete within       failure of the Tevatron’s luminosity
ephemeral building block of matter                                days of the data’s creation. An array      to rise after a 1993 shutdown for the
that probably holds clues to some of                              of computers provided the comput-          installation and commissioning of a
the ultimate riddles of existence.                                ing power to extract the essential         new 400 MeV linear accelerator. The
   “The announcement brought sus-                                 physics results, check and recheck         new Linac was expected to double
tained applause and a barrage of                                  them, and eventually declare the dis-      the luminosity from pre-shutdown
questions from an overflow audience                               covery of the top quark.                   levels, but when operations resumed
                                                                      Finley credits Laboratory Director     luminosity obstinately refused to rise,
                                                                  John Peoples for much of the success       barely attaining the previous levels.
                              DZero joins collider physics
                                                                  of Run I. “The constant through            For months, Laborator y staf f
                                                                  Run I was John, who kept the direc-        searched in vain for the bottleneck.
                                                                  tion steady. He kept the detectors         At last, in the final week of July
                                                                  and the accelerator going in the
                                                                  same direction when the sky was
                                                                                                                                        First evidence for top quark
                                                                                                             Linac upgrade
(Inverse Nanobarns)
Weekly Luminosity

                      4000                                                                Run Ia ends

                               Run Ia begins
                                                                                                                                   Run Ib begins


                             08/31/92           11/09/92     01/18/93        03/29/93     06/07/93    08/16/93         10/25/93   01/03/94        03/14/94

                             COLLIDER RUN 1: WEEKLY AND PEAK LUMINOSITY The bars represent weekly luminosity and
        1994, the problem was traced to a                    Fermilab used the “nitrogen                            Researchers greeted the end of
        misaligned Tevatron magnet.                       drought” to carr y out a planned                      Run I with mingled pride, regret,
        Workers realigned the magnet and                  accelerator maintenance program—                      and relief. “The original 1981 CDF
        luminosity instantly shot up.                     and to make arrangements for a                        design report talked about a lumi-
        “Fermilab’s collective sigh of relief             more reliable future nitrogen supply.                 nosity on the scale of 1 pb-1,” said
        was heard as far away as Glasgow,                    On May 10, 1995, the Tevatron                      CDF Cospokesman Bill Carithers,
        scene of the International High                   set the peak luminosity record for                    “It discussed the likelihood of dis-
        Energy Physics Conference,” said                  Run I. And on June 22, the lights                     covering the top quark if its mass was
        Fermilab’s 1994 Annual Report.                    went out. “Blackout disr upts                         less than 25 GeV!” In fact, CDF
           Tevatron performance soared until              Fermilab operations,” reported the                    recorded 129 pb-1 of data in Run I,
        the end of August 1994, when trou-                Aurora Beacon-News. “Power was                        and the top quark weighed in at
        ble str uck again. The 5000.3B                    cut off for more than four hours to                   something over 180 GeV.
        “Occurrence Report” to DOE told                   Fermilab here Thursday, but it could                      Run I was the first Fermilab col-
        the tale: “On Friday, August 26,                  take much longer than that for nor-                   lider r un with two detectors, as
        1994, the outside vendor contracted               mal operations to resume at the site                  DZero joined CDF, across the accel-
        by Fermilab to provide liquid nitro-              of the world’s highest energy-                        erator ring. “When DZero started
        gen (LN2) to the Accelerator                      producing accelerator. The outage                     out, the feeling was that Run I would
        Division’s Central Helium Liquefier               occurred at about 10:20 a.m., when                    be an ‘engineering run’ to get the
        (CHL) for use in operation of the                 a [cherry] tree made contact with the                 kinks out of our detector,” said
        Tevatron accelerator ceased their                 345-kilovolt electrical line that sup-                DZero cospokesman Paul Grannis.
        scheduled deliveries of LN2.                      plies power to the laborator y and                    “Of course, it turned out to be noth-
        Laboratory personnel were notified                created a short...” Recovery took a                   ing of the sort. I am very pleased at
        by a representative of the vendor at              couple of weeks.                                      our ability to search for new physics
        approximately 0800 hours on                                                                             in areas far beyond what had been
        8/26/94 that there would be no                    GOOD-BYE RUN I, HELLO                                 done before.”
        more deliveries to CHL in the imme-               RUN II                                                    Now, as they continue to analyze
        diate future beyond the one just then                Following a summer 1995 shut-                      Run I data, the collaborations will
        completed.                                        down to allow progress on construct-                  move on to upgrading the detectors
           “CHL is the source of the LN2                  ing Fermilab’s new Main Injector,                     for Run II, the first run with the the process of achieving and            Run I ended with a dazzling flourish                  Main Injector. Soon the two 5,000-
        maintaining the superconducting                   of high luminosity.                                   ton detectors will roll out of the col-
        temperatures in Tevatron compo-                                                                         lision halls and into view for the first
        nents necessary for Tevatron opera-                                                                     time in over three years. “It will be a
        tion. Onsite inventories and relique-                                                                   pleasure to see our old long-lost
        faction capability are insufficient to                                                                  friend again,” Grannis says, “and to
        maintain operating cryogenic tem-                                                                       kick its tires and climb around inside
        peratures in the Tevatron without                                                                       it. I’m really looking for ward to
        daily deliveries of LN2 from an out-                                                                    sprucing it up for the next phase of
        side vendor.”                                                                                           its career.” t

                            Nitrogen drought

gnet realigned
                                                           Top quark discovery announced

                                                                               May 10, 1995
                                                                                                                    Run Ib ends              2.50E+31

                                                                                                                                                        Peak Luminosity

                                                                                                         Construction shutdown
                                                                                           Cherry tree
                                                                                           knocks out                                        1.00E+31


 08/01/94        10/10/94         12/19/94     02/27/95         05/08/95       07/17/95             09/25/95        12/04/95      02/12/96

represent peak luminosity. Dates refer to the beginning of the week.
                                  UNIVERSITY CLOSE-UP

                               Blue Devils at Fermilab
                               Duke University continues its long history at
                               Fermilab with work on the CDF upgrade
                               by Donald Sena, Office of Public Affairs                                                    undergraduates with physics majors and 70
                                                                                                                           graduate students, six of whom are specializing

                               T    he term “March Madness” on the Duke
                                    University campus usually evokes images
                               of storied basketball players leading the Blue
                                                                                                                           in experimental high-energy physics.
                                                                                                                              Alfred Goshaw, physics professor at Duke,
                                                                                                                           said he was first attracted to Fermilab—and is
                               Devils to numerous Final Four appearances.                                                  still active here—because the Laboratory’s
                               But in March of 1995, as Duke was left off the                                              sophisticated physics tools give his group the
                               NCAA’s hoop dance card, another institution                                                 best arena in which to perform research at the
                               at the university was participating in its own                                              energy frontier.
                               brand of March Madness.                                                                        Fermilab’s beam of subatomic particles “is
                                   The Duke University high-energy physics                                                 now, and will be for the next ten years, the
                               group, a member of the large Collider                                                       highest energy particle beam” in the world,
                               Detector at Fermilab (CDF) collaboration,                                                   said Goshaw. “We thought then, and believe
                               was a player in the discovery of the top quark,                                             now, it has the greatest potential for elemen-
                               the final quark of the standard model. CDF                                                  tary research anywhere in the world.”
                               and DZero, Fermilab’s other collider collabo-
                               ration, announced top’s discovery one year                                                  YEARS OF PHYSICS
                               ago this March. Duke’s participation in CDF                                                     Martin Block founded the high-energy
                               is the latest manifestation of a partnership with                                           physics group at Duke in the early 1950s, and
                               Fermilab that dates back to bubble chamber                                                  Earl Fowler led the team from the late 1950s
                               experiments more than 20 years ago.                                                         to 1970. Soon after, William Walker, now pro-
                                   The Department of Physics at Duke has 22                                                fessor emeritus of physics at Duke, arrived to
                               faculty members, including six professors of                                                help lead the university’s first collaboration
                               particle physics. The department has about 50                                               with Fermilab. He built the Laboratory’s 30-
                                                                                                                           inch bubble chamber while at the University
                                                                                                                           of Wisconsin. (After stints at Wisconsin and
                                                                                                                           Argonne National Laborator y, the bubble
                                                                                                                           chamber was moved to Fermilab in 1971,
                                                                                                                           where many universities used it.) Walker’s
                                                                                                                           team engaged in several studies with the
                                                                                                                           physics device, the last of which, E597, stud-
                                                                                                                           ied collisions of hadrons with nuclei in 1981;
                                                                                                                           the Duke professor is in the process of pub-
                                                                                                                           lishing the final paper on that experiment.
                                                                                                                               In the 1980s, the Duke collaboration partici-
                                                                                                                           pated in fixed-target experiments and collider
                                                                                                                           studies at Fermilab. In the fixed-target area,
                                                                                                                           Lloyd Fortney, physics professor at Duke, led his
                                                                                                                           team’s work on E705, a study of charmonium
                                                                                                                           and directly-produced photons. Specifically,
                                                                                                                           Fortney’s group developed the reconstruction
                                                                                       Photo courtesy of DUKE UNIVERSITY

                                                                                                                           software of the electromagnetic calorimeter,
                                                                                                                           among other tasks. Duke also participated in an
                                                                                                                           outgrowth of that experiment called E771,
                                                                                                                           which was designed to study B physics.
                                                                                                                               In parallel with the fixed-target work, the
                                                                                                                           rest of the Duke professors and students par-
                                                                                                                           ticipated in an early collider study using the
From left : Daniel Cronin-Hennessy, research assistant and graduate student; Seog                                          Tevatron at the CZero section of Fermilab.
Oh, associate professor of physics; William Ebenstein, instructor and engineer, Duke                                       Experiment 735, which began in 1985, stud-
Department of Physics.                                                                                                     ied the production of relatively low-momen-
tum particles produced from high-energy colli-
sions—a precursor to the present studies of
particles with higher momentum.
   The group built the straw tube detectors,
charged-particle tracking devices, for CZero.
They also developed a photon detector using
sodium-iodide crystals. Cal Loomis, presently

                                                                                                       Photo by REIDAR HAHN
at Rutgers University, worked on the photon
detector while a graduate student at Duke
University. Goshaw said that the experiment
gave the Duke collaboration an expertise in
collider physics and, more specifically, in the      Some members of the Duke University high-energy
development of high-rate tracking detectors.         physics group in the CDF control room in 1995.
From CZero, Goshaw, Seog Oh, Walker and              Left to right: Alfred Goshaw, Daniel Cronin-
the Duke group moved to CDF where they               Hennessy, Jay Dittmann. Standing is
joined Run Ia. Their initial contribution to the     Wolfgang Kowald.
experiment included helping to develop and
install tracking detectors and their accompany-      all that extra luminosity. As a result, they need                             Fermilab
ing electronics.                                     upgrades for the various layers of tracking.
   CZero “is where we built up our knowl-                The Duke team, along with other groups,                                 “has a very
edge,” said Goshaw, who is also the chairman         have designed and hope to build the newest
of Fermilab’s Users Executive Committee.             version of the straw tube detectors. A straw                             long and exciting
“...We then joined [CDF] and carried over            tube detector consists of a wire chamber filled
some of that” expertise.                             with gas that measures the trajector y of                                   future, and
   For Run Ib, Duke helped organize data dis-        charged par ticles in an environment of
tribution for the entire 450-person collabora-       extremely high luminosity. The straw tube                                  we are looking
tion, among other duties. After the detectors        layer is just outside the layer of silicon vertex
and computing infrastr ucture detect and             trackers and scintillating fiber—other compo-                                forward to
record the data from the experiment,                 nents of the CDF detector getting upgrades.
researchers process it through reconstruction            Funding is a key issue with the detectors,                            contributing to
programs. The data are then divided among            however. CDF and DZero need adequate
the collaboration. Goshaw said each group            funding to keep their upgrades on schedule.                               that and being
only wants certain data, depending on which          Insuf ficient funding will delay the Main
trigger they are interested in or worked on.         Injector’s benefits, according to Fermilab                                 involved with
Getting the right data to the proper group is        sources.
essential for productive analyses and for mak-                                                                                [more] discoveries,
ing discoveries.                                     STUDENT INVOLVEMENT
   “The efficiency with which you get the data           The leaders of the Duke collaboration are                                hopefully.”
analyzed depends on the speed with which you         performing their straw tube research and pro-
                                                                                                                                  – Alfred Goshaw,
get it distributed to collaborators,” said Goshaw.   totype construction at Fermilab and at Duke’s
                                                                                                                                  physics professor
                                                     Durham, North Carolina campus—an arrange-                                             at Duke
A FUTURE AT CDF                                      ment that benefits younger students. The par-
   Goshaw, Oh and the Duke team plan to              allel operation allows the group to bring some
build upon their knowledge of tracking detec-        work home and get undergraduates involved
tors by contributing to the CDF detector’s           with the technology and physics.
critical upgrade. Fermilab recently completed            “There is certainly a bright and active stu-
the latest run of collider experiments. Though       dent body at Duke, and we take advantage of
the fixed-target experiments will take center        that for help,” said Goshaw.
stage for the next few years, work on CDF and            Goshaw said he hopes continued collabora-
DZero will continue. Experimenters will work         tion with the Laborator y will bring more
to upgrade the detectors to get ready for            chances for students to perform research at the
Fermilab’s newest accelerator. The Main              energy frontier, and possibly be part of “new
Injector, scheduled to switch on in 1999, will       physics.”
greatly increase the Tevatron’s luminosity,              Fermilab “has a ver y long and exciting
resulting in many more collisions per second at      future, and we are looking forward to con-
CDF and DZero. The detectors in their cur-           tributing to that and being involved with
rent mode would not be able to keep up with          [more] discoveries, hopefully,” said Goshaw. t
 s 1990 Mitsubishi Eclipse GSX,
 all-wheel drive, 16 valve dual over-
 head cam intercooled turbo, 5
 speed, AC, cruise, FM/AM cas-
 sette, 68,952 miles. New: 1KA
 battery, brakes, timing belts, Pirelli
 P7000 205/55ZR16. Must see
 (no rust) and test drive; $8651.
 Call Bob x3769, (708) 879-6355,
 or flora@admail.fnal. gov.
by the Editors, Office of Public Affairs

B    ob Flora of Fermilab’s Accelerator
     Division began advertising his
1990 Mitsubishi in the December 8
FermiNews, and he hasn’t missed an
issue since. Over the months, accord-
ing to analysis by the FermiNews staff,
(see Figure 1) mileage on the car has
increased monotonically from 67,215
miles to 68,952 miles. The price
increased slowly until January, went
through a local maximum at $9513,
and thereafter decreased precipitously.
Analysts are at a loss to explain the

                                                                                                                        Photo by REIDAR HAHN
period of negative depreciation of the
vehicle, but suggest that the
mileage/price ratio may soon reach a
new peak. Figure 2 shows the vehicle,
and its owner. “It’s a very special car,”
says Flora, “and it’s in excellent condi- Figure 1 (right) and Figure 2 (above)
tion. I do all the maintenance on it
myself. It’s got four-wheel drive and
it’s a great winter car—it’s great in the   “It’s a very special car,
summer too.” Flora advises readers
that interest in the red and black vehi-           and it’s in
cle has recently picked up. If the car
runs as faithfully as the ads, this could    excellent condition.”
be a transportation opportunity. t

                                                 LAB NOTES
1996 SUMMER DAY CAMP                       x2548 for more information and for     CLAIMS DEADLINE
   Fermilab will again sponsor three       a registration form.                      The filing deadline for submit-
supervised day camp sessions for chil-                                            ting 1995 claims to your Health
dren of employees, visitors, and
                                           AREA CODE CHANGE                       Care Reimbursement Account and
                                             Fermilab’s telephone area code
Fermilab contractors. Session dates                                               Dependent Care Reimbursement
                                           will change from 708 to 630 on
are June 17-July 5, July 8-July 26,                                               Account is March 31, 1996.
                                           August 3, 1996. Watch for further
and July 29-August 16. The fee is                                                 CIGNA must have your claims in
                                           information in future issues of
$225 per child, per session.                                                      their claims office by the close of
Admission is by lottery drawing on                                                business on that date.
April 1. Contact Jean Guyer at
                                          is necessary. Children under 12 are      management and budget counseling
     FERMILAB                             exempt from the materials fee, and       by Diane Bedenbaugh of Consumer
     CALENDAR                             there will be a “juniors’ fly-off” at    Credit Counseling in Aurora. Noon-
                                          7 p.m. For more information, call Jay    1 p.m. in 1 West.
                                          Hoffman, x4156, Kurt Krempetz,
MARCH 8, 22                               x4657, or Jim Zagel, x4076.              MARCH 29
   The Fermilab International Film                                                    Fermilab Lecture Series presents
Society will be showing the following     MARCH 17                                 Cosmic Revolutions: 1609, 1929,
films during the month of March.             The Fermilab Folk Club is spon-       1999 by Dr. Edward W. Kolb,
   Eat Drink Man Woman on                 soring an afternoon barn dance from      Fermilab/University of Chicago
March 8 at 8 p.m.                         2 to 5 p.m. in the Village Barn.            Remarkable new instr uments
   A witty and emotionally involving      Music will be provided by the            today reveal the universe in unprece-
stor y of generational conflict in        Elmwood String Band, with calling        dented depth and detail. Dr. Kolb
which food plays a pivotal role in        by Paul Ford. We do contra, square,      explores these recent findings in his
observations on a changing Chinese        and circle dances. All dances are        lecture at 8 p.m. in Fermilab’s
culture.                                  taught. Admission is $5. Contact         Ramsey Auditorium.
   Cobb on March 22 at 8 p.m.             Dave Harding x2971 or L ynn                 Admission is $5. Tickets are non-
   The dark side of the American          Garren x2061 for more information.       refundable. For further information
dream told with wit, bravery, passion                                              or telephone reservations, call 708-
and depth through the story of base-      MARCH 19                                 840-ARTS weekdays between 9 a.m.
ball’s finest, if most demonic, player,      Blood Pressure Screening, 11:30       and 4 p.m.
Ty Cobb.                                  a.m. to 1:00 p.m., in the Users Office
   Admission is $4. The films are                                                  APRIL 16
shown in Ramsey Auditorium,               MARCH 20                                    Blood Pressure Screening, 11:30
Wilson Hall.                                The Wellness Committee presents        a.m. to 1 p.m., Users Office.
                                          Dollars and Cents, a lecture on debt
   The Fermilab Folk Club is spon-
soring an acoustic jam from 3 to
5:30 p.m. in the Village Barn.
Contact Lynn Garren x2061, gar- for more information.

   There will be a barn dance in the
Village Barn from 7 to 10 p.m. The
                                                       Lunch served from 11:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. - $8/person
Saturday Night Occasionals will be
                                                              Dinner served at 7 p.m. - $20/person
playing and Tony Scarimbolo will be
calling. We do contra, square, and                                 For reservations call x4512
circle dances. All dances are taught.                       Dietary Restrictions - Contact Tita, x3524
No experience is necessar y.                     WEDNESDAY, MARCH 13                   THURSDAY, MARCH 14
Admission is $5. Contact Dave
                                              Chicken and Three Bean Burritos       Steamed Mussels in White Wine
Harding x2971 or L ynn Garren
x2061 for more information.                          Latin Confetti Salad            Grilled Pork Loin with Garlic
                                                     Pina Colada Mousse                      Almond Sauce

MARCH 13                                                                                    Wilted Greens
   The Fermilab Barnstormers Radio                                                       Chocolate Pecan Tart
Control Model Club will host their               WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20                   THURSDAY, MARCH 21
annual Delta Dart Night at the Kuhn
                                                Vegetable and Cheese Strudel              Steamed Artichokes
Barn starting at 5:30 p.m. Everyone is            with Mixed Green Salad                  with Maltaise Sauce
invited. Delta Darts are rubber-band-
                                                     Lemon Ginger Cake             Grilled Tuna with Rosemary Butter
powered airplanes constructed of                  with Lemon Cream Cheese
balsa wood and tissue paper. For a $1                                                     Boiled Red Potatoes
materials fee, club members will pro-                                                   Vegetable of the Season
vide guidance in constructing and fly-                                                    Mixed Green Salad
ing these planes. (You can build one                                                        Strawberry Tart
in about half an hour.) No experience
     Dear Editor:                                                   CLASSIFIEDS
     I’d just like to express my con-          FOR SALE                                   s Sega Game Gear with recharge-
 gratulations to the Visual Media              s 1991 Honda Civic hatchback.              able powerpack, like new,
 Services and Duplicating groups for           Blue, 4-speed, no rust, excellent          $75/o.b.o. Includes 2 game car-
 the fine demonstration they put               condition. 56,000 miles. $5,400.           tridges. Call Hank at x8105 or
 together to present the newest                Call Marise at (708) 898-4631.             (708) 475-1160.
 acquisition of equipment to the               s 1990 Plymouth Voyager, SE,               s Insulated steel entry door, 36” w.
 duplicating room, the Docutech.               3.3 l., v6, 4-speed automatic,             x 80” h., with single side lite and
 What a “cool” machine, I can’t wait           ps/pb, cr uise, tilt, AM/FM,               complete frame. Six panel design.
 to try it out. The demo was educa-            Cassette stereo, luggage rack, 78k         Also, matching Emco “Forever”
 tional, informational, and easy to            miles. Good condition, $7,500.             storm door with self-storing screen
 understand. The staff did a really            Call Jim Shallenberger at x5441            and glass window. Very good con-
 nice job setting up the demo,                 weekdays or (815) 824-2936                 dition, only eight years old. $100
 addressing the different needs                Monday–Thursday.                           for all. Call Bill at x4396 or email
 Fermilab has, and explaining them                                                        to
 to us. The vendor representative              s 1987 Plymouth Horizon, 125k
 was informative and able to answer            miles, good condition, runs great,         WANT TO RENT
 all of our questions. Thanks for              5-speed. New battery, tires, clutch,       s Garage space for small classic car,
 doing a terrific job showing us what          starter. $1,000/obo. Call Mark at          now through August. Aurora or
 a terrific machine we can all access.         x2253.                                     Batavia preferred. Len Bugel x3266
               -Luann O’Boyle, Directorate     s 1987 Mazda 626 LX, 4-door,               or
                                               full power, fully loaded, moon roof,       SEEKING ROOMMATE
                                               5-speed transmission. Must                 s I live in a very nice apartment in
ACCELERATOR                                    sell/must see. Only $4,000/obo.            Naperville, about 20 minutes dri-
UPDATE                                         Call 879- 8256 for Denise.                 ving from Fermilab, and I am look-
    Feb. 14–Feb. 27 saw the accelerator        s 1985 Ford F150 pickup with bed           ing for a roommate star ting in
involved in colliding beam physics and         liner, 302 V8 engine, 78K mi.,             April. I would prefer someone who
Tevatron studies before accelerator            $3000. Call Leon at x4065 or               plans to be around for a year at
staf f turned of f the beam for an             (708) 892-7120                             least. If you are interested, you can
extended maintenance period. On                                                           contact me at
Feb. 14, store #5906 was colliding at
9:11 a.m. with an initial luminosity of
1.52 x 1031. From 8 a.m. Feb. 16 to 8          The deadline for the Friday, March 22 issue of FermiNews
a.m. Feb. 19, the accelerator operated         is Tuesday, March 12.
very reliably with 61.5 hours of high-         Please send your article submissions, classified advertisements
energy physics. From 8 a.m. Feb. 19            and ideas to the Office of Public Affairs, MS 206 or Email:
to 8 a.m. Feb. 20, the accelerators  
were involved in a period of repairs
and studies, and studies continued for         FermiNews welcomes letters from readers.
the remainder of the week. On Feb.             Please include your name and daytime phone number.
27, Accelerator Division staff turned
of f the Main Ring, Tevatron and
Antiproton Source for an extended
maintenance period, effectively ending
collider physics for a number of years.

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 Wide Web. It can be found at                FermiNews is published by the Fermilab Office of Public Affairs                  MS 206, P.O. Box 500 Batavia, IL 60510 • 708-840-3351 •
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