Civil War

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					War Between the States
     Discussion/Essay Question
1.   ―The Northern victory over the Confederacy
     was inevitable.‖
     Assess the validity of this statement.

Bicentennial of Lincoln‘s Birth Essay
2. Why should Americans honor the legacy of
    Lincoln today?
                 5 paragraph Essay.
                          Civil War
                        Need to Know
   The Union                          The abolition of slavery
       Mobilization and finance           Confiscation Acts
       Civil liberties                    Emancipation Proclamation
       Election of 1864                   Freedmen's Bureau
   The South                              Thirteenth Amendment
       Confederate constitution       Effects of war on society
       Mobilization and finance           Inflation and public debt
       States' rights and the             Role of women
        Confederacy                        Devastation of the South
   Foreign affairs and                    Changing labor patterns
   Military strategy, campaigns,
    and battles
          The Effects of the War
   618,000 died in the Civil War
   Ended States Rights concept forever
   Strengthened the Supremacy of Federal Government
    over the States
   Accelerated economic development of the North
   Made Republican Party a powerful and enduring force
   Devastated the Economy of the South
   Ended Slavery (Emancipation Proclamation 1863 and
    13th Amendment 1865)
         Lincoln’s First Inauguration
         “Carrot and Stick Approach”
              Carrot:                              Stick:
   Tried to reassure the South         He would fight.
    that he would not interfere         He would, ―Employ all
    with Slavery where it existed.       powers…to reclaim the
   He would enforce Fugitive            public property and places
    Slave Act                            which have fallen; places
   ―We are not enemies but              belonging to the
    friends. Though passion may          government.‖
    have strained, it must not
    break our bonds of
    President Lincoln's First Inaugural
          Address, March 4, 1861
   ―Inyour hands, my dissatisfied fellow-
    countrymen, and not in mine, is the
    momentous issue of civil war. The
    Government will not assail you. You
    can have no conflict without being
    yourselves the aggressors. You have no
    oath registered in heaven to destroy the
    Government, while I shall have the
    most solemn one to ''preserve, protect,
    and defend it.”
   ―It seems clear that in both the North and
    South, sectional antagonisms had risen to such a
    point that the existing terms of union had
    become untenable.‖
   ―They had grown to be two distinct and
    incompatible civilizations‖
   They were incapable of living together in peace.
      Sentiments on Both sides were
   RW Emerson ―I do not see how a barbarous
    community and a civilized community can
    constitute one state.‖ (Northern View)

   (Southern View) ―These people hate us, annoy
    us, and would have us assassinated by our slaves
    if they dared. They are different people from us,
    whether better of worse, and there is no love
    between us. Why then continue together?‖
   After Fort Sumter both sides rush to war
   Nationalism was high
   Volunteers were plentiful
   The Confederates wanted independence
   The Yankees wanted to punish the traitors
   Armies were raised, equipped, and prepared for
The Union and Confederacy in 1861
Why did Border States remain in the
     Preparations for War: North
        Advantages                     Disadvantages
Natural Resources, $         At first not prepared for war
Superior Navy                People thought it would only
Population 3x more             last a short time
90% of country‘s Factories   Needed arms, munitions,
Railroads                      equipment
Production of Firearms,      Poor leadership
  cloth, iron, boots/shoes   Had to fight a war of
                               conquest= Invade the South
                             Divided Public Opinion
       Preparations for War: South
            Advantages                     Disadvantages
   Food Production                At first Weapons Shortage
   Virginia had Armories and      Lacked Manufacturing
    produced weapons               Lacked Transportation
   Harpers Ferry Armory           Few Rail Roads
   Cotton $                       Needed to import Arms and
   Good military leadership-       Equipment
   Robert E. Lee                  (British)
   Nathan Bedford Forrest         Low population
   Good soldiers                  Low Resources
                                   Little Navy
Resources: North & the South
    Railroad Lines, 1860

                   Financing the War
   North                         South
       Borrow Money- (most)          Borrow Money- Bonds
        ($2.6 Billion)                Print Money-Causes
       Bonds ($400 million)           inflation
       Print Money-Causes            Taxes
        inflation                     Cotton export
       Levying Taxes
            Income Taxes
            Taxes on goods
       Men Present for Duty
         in the Civil War
                          Union had only 16,000
                          Troops in 1861
2 million
served in
                                   “A Poor Man’s War”
Enrolment Act                      People drafted could hire
   =Draft                           substitutes or pay a $300
                                    fee to be released
   1863- Volunteers for the
    Army decrease drastically
                                   Draft law causes
   War is bloody and tens          tremendous resistance
    of thousands die                especially in New York City
   Union passes and                Irish Immigrants riot 4 days
    enforces a draft law-           July 1863
                                   Racial overtones
   Raise troops for the war
                                   NYC Democratic City
   46,000 conscripted
                                   Some wanted to secede
                                    from the Union and even
                                    make it a neutral city
        Lincoln and Civil Liberties
   1862- as the war goes badly       Authorizes arrests of Anti-
    for the North                      War Protestors
   Lincoln uses executive power      Anyone associated with
    to remove criticism and            ―Disloyal Practices‖
    insure order                      Especially in Border States
   Executive order of war            Arrested 13,000 people
    powers suspends Habeas
    Corpus Due process= rights
    to a trial                     Example= ―Copperheads‖
                                     Peace Democrats
                                    Northerners who were
                                     against the war
    Example- Northern Civil Liberties
   Copperhead Congressman Clement
   Ohio politician
   Arrested and denied Habeas Corpus
   Opposed the war, arrested and then deported to
    the CSA
   Good Link
   Ex parte Merriman and Ex parte Milligan
 Civil War

                 Northern Strategy
   Lincoln: Saw that the North should win by resource
       Saw the key to victory = Destruction of the CSA Armies
        (not the conquest of territory)
   Isolate the South from trade
   Squeeze the South into Submission
   Large scale invasion of Southern Territory
   1862 Concept of Total War- ―There is no hope for
   ―We must conquer the Rebels or be conquered by
         Course of the War (Map)
   Statistics of Battles
   Timeline of Civil (War Link)
   April 1861 Fort Sumter
   April 17, Virginia Secedes
   1861 Blockade
   July 1st First Bull Run/Manassas (CSA Victory)
   McClellan Appointed General in Chief USA
   November 1861 Trent Affair
   1861 Confiscation Act addresses slaves that come
    under the power of the Union forces ―All slaves used
    for insurrection purposes would be considered freed .‖

   Stalemate in the East
   Movement and progress for the Union in the WEST
   Feb 25 Nashville Falls to Union
   March 9 Monitor and Merrimac (CSS Virginia) fight
    (Ironclad Ships)
   April 9 Battle of Shiloh (TN) Grant US Victory 23,746
    killed (US 63,000 KIA 13,000) (CS 40,000 KIA 11,000)
   May Peninsula Campaign Begun US attacks South
    trying to take Richmond
   April 25 New Orleans Falls to Admiral Farragut US
  May ―Stonewall Jackson‖ defeats US in Shenandoah Valley; US
  troops rush to protect Washington DC. (CS Victory)
 May 31 Seven Pines Battle (on Peninsula) US vs Lee (CS
 July 2 Seven Days Battle, Lee wins Peninsula Campaign (CS
 July 10 McClellan removed from top spot in US Army, General
  Halleck appointed commander US forces
 August 2nd Bull Run/Manassas Pope defeated (CS victory)
 Sept Army of Northern Virginia (Lee‘s Army) Marches North to
 Sept 17 Bloodiest single day of the war
 Battle of Antietam- Lee invades and is met at town of
  Sharpsburg, 2, 108 Union KIA, 9,549 wounded
 CSA 2,700 KIA, 9,024 wounded (US victory)
 December 11-15 Fredericksburg, 13,000 US casualties, 5,000 CS
  casualties (CS victory)
The Progress of War: 1861-1865

              Progress of war
War in the East: 1861-1862

                       The War
                       the East
                 McClellan quote
   After being demoted by Lincoln and Stanton the
    Secretary of War
   He had ―lost all regard and respect for the
    administration and doubted the propriety of my brave
    men‘s blood being shed to further the designs of such a
    set of heartless villains.‖
   Regarding Hallek ―vented his anger at serving under an
    officer ‗whom I know to be my inferior.
   As for Stanton, he was a ―deformed hypocrite &
    villain…if he had lived in the time of the Savior, Judas
    Iscariot would have remained a respected member of the
    fraternity of Apostles.‖
Foreign Affairs
Wanted no foreign
Wanted recognition from
 foreign governments-
 Britain or France
Wanted intervention from

                                                         “Ye s, I b elieve I’m goin g to h ave to r ecogn ize
                           “Wasn’t th at Je ff Davis?”   him soo n.”
1863 (Link)
   January Emancipation Proclamation
   March First Conscription Act Passed
   April 27 – May 1 Chancellorsville
       Lee defeats US Hooker by splitting his forces and attacks in 3 places
        (CSA Victory)
   May 10 Stonewall Jackson dies
       Lee loses his best General
   July Vicksburg falls (Grant) to Union forces, Mississippi is
    controlled by US.
   July 1-3 Gettysburg
       Lee invades Pennsylvania trying to gain recognition of England and
       Terrible Battle 90,000 US vs 75000 CSA
       Lee loses 1/3 of his army and can not get them back (28,000)
       Meade does not continue the attack and Lee retreats back to VA and is
        able to continue the fight. (lost 23,000)
              1863 Continued Link
   September 19-20 (WEST) Battle of Chickamauga TN
       CS Victory CS 70,000 vs US 56,000
       Casualties CS 18, 454 US 16,179
   November 19, Gettysburg Address
       Lincoln refocuses the struggle ―A new birth of freedom.‖
   November 23-25 Battle of Chattanooga
       Grant Drives CS out of Tennessee
   December Lincoln‘s Reconstruction Plan announced
                    Gettysburg Address
   Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a
    new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all
    men are created equal.
    Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or
    any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met
    on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that
    field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that
    nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
    But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can
    not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled
    here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The
    world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never
    forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to
    the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly
    advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining
    before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that
    cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here
    highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this
    nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that
    government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish
    from the earth.
     African Americans
       and the Union
   186,000 serve in Union
    Army, Navy, and
   Most blacks served in
   54th Massachusetts, Capt.
    Robert Gould Shaw
   Blacks captured were
    returned to slavery or
                  Confiscation Acts
   May 1861- Law that allowed Union forces to seize
    enemy material and property of rebellious states and
    citizens for the war effort.
       Property included slaves
       Allowed Federal Government to use these slaves for the war
   1862 2nd Confiscation Act
       Declared free slaves of persons aiding and supporting the
       Authorized President to employ Freed Slaves as soldiers
   January Emancipation Proclamation signed
     Lincoln was pressured to create a policy regarding
      slaves in the rebellious states.
     Previous, Confiscation Acts were used to address
      Slaves that come under the jurisdiction of Union
     After the victory of Antietam he was persuaded to
      try and weaken the Confederacy
      Emancipation Proclamation
   Executive order of the President
   Applied only to Slaves in Rebellious states (except those
    already under Union control- TN, West VA, Southern
   Stated as of January 1, 1863
   ―I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves
    within said designated States and parts of States are,
    and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive
    government of the United States, including the military
    and naval authorities thereof, shall recognize and
    maintain the freedom of said persons.‖
       Significance of Emancipation

   The war was expanded to end Slavery

   Allowed for the recruitment and use of Blacks
    into the Union Army
   Did not address slavery in Border States of
    Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, or Delaware
                 Radical Republicans Review

   ―Free every slave-slay every
    traitor-burn every rebel
    mansion, if these things be
    necessary to preserve this
    temple of freedom. We must
    treat this war as a radical
    revolution, and remodel our
   Radical Republicans
       Thaddeus Stevens (Rep PA)
       Charles Sumner (Senator MA)
       Benjamin Wade (Senator OH)
        January- Grant appointed Commander of US forces
         and has new plan
          He has now lots of troops ready to fight with many
    1.     Attack South through Georgia (Sherman)
    2.     Attack due South from DC to Richmond and keep up
           relentless pressure.
        May 5-7 (East) Battle of Wilderness (CSA Victory)
          US 115,000 vs CS 73,000
          Casualties US 55,000 CS 31,000
        May 8-12 (East) Battle of Spotsylvania (Union
          5 day battle, Grant doesn‘t wait to attack Lee after
          Casualties US 18,000 CS 12,000
   June 1-3 (East) Battle of Cold Harbor (CSA Victory)
       Grant still pushing South after Lee, Grant loses 7,000 in 20
       CS 62,000 vs US 108,000
       Casualties CS 2,500 US 12,000
   June (East) (US) Siege of Petersburg begins (getting
    close to Richmond)
       Key RR transport and supply for Richmond
       Grant still pushing Lee
   June Battle of Kennesaw Mountain (GA) (CSA Victory)
       Sherman attacking South from TN
       US 90,000 vs CS 60,000
   July Crater at Petersburg
       Union miners dig under city fortifications and blow up tons
        of explosives and rush in to be slaughtered.
   September – December Sherman‘s March to the Sea
   September 2 Battle of Atlanta (US Victory)
       Sherman conquers and burns Atlanta
       Begins ―March to the Sea‖ = Savannah GA
   November Lincoln Re-elected President
       Johnson VP (Democrat from TN) on the Union Ticket
   December Sherman reaches Savannah (Union Victory)
       Leaves devastation of 60 miles wide swath
        Sherman’s March to the Sea
           Nov. 1864-Dec. 1864
   Sherman marches through Georgia perpetrating
    massive destruction in an effort to break the will
    of the South
   ―I can make the march and make Georgia
   ―We cannot change the hearts of those people
    of the South, but we can make war so terrible
    and make them so sick of war that generations
    would pass away before they would again appeal
    to it.‖
            Pictures of Sherman
   Civil War Pictures
   http://www.wildwestwe
Election of 1864
                Election in which the candidates
                 were George McClellan and
                 Abraham Lincoln
                George McClellan was a ―Peace
                 Democrat‖ or Copperhead and
                 he wanted to negotiate a
                 compromise with the South.
                Abraham Lincoln and the
                 Republicans campaigned for
                 continuation of the War until the
                 South surrendered unconditionally
                Sherman‘s Victory in Atlanta
                 saves Lincoln‘s reelection
                 and the Union
                Lincoln won with an astounding
                 55% of the popular vote
n 1864
Election of
   March Lincoln‘s Second Inaugural speech
       Promises Leniency
   March Freedmen‘s Bureau Established
   April Petersburg Falls
       Richmond is cot off from supplies
   April 9 Appomattox Court House
       Lee Surrenders to Grant
   April 14 Lincoln is Shot by John Wilkes Booth and dies
   April 15 Andrew Johnson is the 17th President.
           Lincoln’s Second Inaugural
   ―Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this
    mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet,         What
    if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled   messages is
    by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of
    unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of     Lincoln
    blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another
    drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand           sending to
    years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of      the people
    the Lord are true and righteous altogether."
                                                               of America
   With malice toward none, with charity for all, with        with this
    firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right,
    let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind     speech?
    up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall
    have borne the battle and for his widow and his
    orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a
    just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all
        Lee Surrenders at Appomattox
                 April 9, 1865
   Grant takes Richmond
    and no hope is left for
    the South.
Casualties on Both Sides

     Civil War Casualties
in Comparison to Other Wars

          Casualties compared to other wars
    Northern/Republican Economic
     Measures Passed During War.
   Homestead Act 1862                 Tariff
       Live on it for 5yrs            Transcontinental
       160 acres of public land        Railroad
       Purchased for small fee            Union Pacific West
   Morrill Land Grant Act                  from Omaha, NA
    1862                                   Central Pacific East
       Public land toe state gov           from CA
       States sell land               New National Bank
       Use $ for public
        Education = colleges and
           Reconstruction Quiz
   How do you think the South should be treated
    after the war?
     What should happen politically?
     What should happen to the leaders?

     What should happen to the former slaves?
Southern                                   I rode with Robert E. Lee,
                                            For three years, thereabouts.
                                            Got wounded in four places
Attitudes                                   And starved at Point Lookout.
                                            I caughts the rheumatism
                                            A-camping in the snow.
                                            But I killed a chance of Yankees
   I‘m a Good Old Rebel                    And I'd like to kill some mo'.
    Oh, I'm a good old Rebel
    Now that's just what I am.              Three hundred thousand Yankees
    For this Yankee nation                  Lie still in Southern dust
    I do not give a damn.                   We got three hundred thousand
    I'm glad I fought agin her,             Before they conquered us.
    I only wish we'd won.                   They died of Southern fever
    I ain't asked any pardon                And Southern steel and shot.
    For anything I've done.                 I wish they were three millions
                                            Instead of what we got.
    I hates the yankee nation
    And everything they do,                 I can't take up my musket
    I hates the declaration                 And fight 'em now no more,
    Of independence, too;                   But I ain't going to love 'em,
    I hates the glorious union-             Now that is certain sure;
    ‘tis dripping with our blood-
    And I hates their striped banner,      I don't want no pardon
    I fought it all I could.                For what I was and am,
                                            I won't be reconstructed
                                            And I do not give a damn.
    Reconstruction: Need to Know
   Presidential plans: Lincoln and Johnson
   Radical (congressional) plans
       Civil rights and the Fourteenth Amendment
       Military reconstruction
       Impeachment of Johnson
       African American suffrage: the Fifteenth Amendment
   Southern state governments: problems, achievements,
   Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction
             Reconstruction Essay
   Analyze the goals and strategies of Reconstruction of
    Two of the following:
       President Lincoln
       President Johnson
       Congressional Republicans

   Thesis: President Lincoln and President Johnson‘s
    approach to reconstruction provided for lenient
    reintroduction of Southern states into the Union while,
    conversely Congressional Republicans wanted to only
    reintroduce the Southern states under strict conditions.
         Reconstruction Defined
   Reconstruction: is the process used to bring the
    South back into the political Union.
   Presidential Reconstruction- Lincoln/Johnson

   Radical Reconstruction

   End of Reconstruction
        Each Plan Answered These
   How will the rebellious states participate in
   What terms will they reenter the Union?
   What will happen to the Black Population
   What should happen to the Confederate leaders?
    Reconstruction Begins Before War
                   13th Amendment
   Before the War was over January 1865,
    Congress submitted to the states for ratification:
   Section 1. “Neither slavery nor involuntary
    servitude, except as a punishment for crime
    whereof the party shall have been duly
    convicted, shall exist within the United States, or
    any place subject to their jurisdiction.‖
   Ratification was complete December 1865
        Presidential Plans: Lincoln
   Beginning with the 2nd            Issues a Proclamation of
    Inaugural, “Malice toward          Amnesty and
    none, charity for all…”            Reconstruction
   Lincoln previews his plan to      Spelled out terms for state to
    bring sister states of the         rejoin union
    south back into the                    Ten Percent Plan:
    community of states.                   Full pardon for Confederates
                                           Restore all property
   Goal of easy reintroduction
                                           Loyalty Oath Required
    to Union
                                           Accept Abolition
   Strategy of Leniency
                                           When 10% of the eligible
   No provisions for Freedmen              voters take Oath- State can
                                            reenter the union, send Reps
                                            to Congress.
        Lincoln’s Plan continued
   Suffrage for blacks who:
     Were educated
     Held property

     Fought in the Union Army

   LA, ARK, Tennessee all come into Union under
    Lincoln‘s plans
Congressional Reaction to Lincoln’s
   Congressional Republicans did not like Lincoln‘s Plan
   Too Lenient on the ―Rebels‖
   Need more punitive (punish) components
   Wanted more support for “Freedmen”
   Responded with the Wade-Davis Bill (July 1864)
   A set of extreme requirements included:
        President Appointed Provisional Governor for former CS states
        Majority of Confederates had to take oaths
        Conventions had to be developed to approve new state constitutions
        Disenfranchise Former CSA civil and Military leaders
        Repudiate CSA debts
        New state constitutions had to ban Slavery and hold political rights to
   Lincoln uses the Pocket Veto to veto.
   (Pocket Veto is where the president ignores bill to kill it)
                President Johnson
   Lincoln is                 From Tennessee, A Southerner
    Assassinated               Self-Made Man
   Johnson Sworn in as        Didn‘t like the rich leadership of
    President                   the South
   Johnson was doomed,        Stubborn, Intolerant
    could not work with        Reluctant to Compromise, Racist
    Republican Congress
                               Republicans thought he would
   He was a Democrat           punish the south
   Elected under a Unity      ―Treason is a crime that must be
    Platform (Republicans       made odious… Traitors must be
    and Dems create a           impoverished, They must not
    coalition ticket            only be impoverished but their
    election 1864)              social power must be destroyed.‖
   Personality
   Intemperate
   Tactless
   Resentful
   Insecure
   Hostile to freed slaves
   ―White men alone must
    manage the South‖
Presidential Plans: Johnson similar
        to Wade-Davis Bill
                                        15,000 applied to Johnson for
   Goal to bring the South back         pardons
    into the Union fast- but limit      “I am so sorry---please forgive
    the rich                             me. Please restore my rights!”
                                        Appoint Provisional Governors
   Strategy: Oaths, leniency,          Constitutional conventions were to be held
    limit power of wealthy              Slavery was to be outlawed
   Issued Proclamations:               Nullify acts of secession
                                        Repudiate all debts of the Confederacy
   Amnesty and restoration of
    property rights for all who         Results:
    took oath of loyalty to Union       Southern governments followed the
    and emancipation, 51% of             process- however a number states
                                         refused to recognize 13th Amendment
    eligible voters                     Former confederate leaders where
   Confederate officials-and            appointed and elected to power
    wealthy confederates with           Black Codes were developed to limit
    property of $20,000 or were          former slaves.
    ineligible or could apply
    individually to president.          All of these measures angered the
                                         Republican Congress and they acted to end
                                         force the South to comply
Congress Reacts to Johnson Plan
   End of 1865 all seceded states had      December 1865 Congress Created
    new Govs                                 its own plan for Reconstruction
   Radical Republicans – were angry        Freedmen’s Bureau, a Federal
    newly loyal states send prominent        support organization was
    Confederates to Congress                 extended- helped former slaves
        Stephens (former VP of CSA)         with education, food, settling labor
   After investigation- Congress            disputes, and even helping poor
    found that the ―Freedmen‖ were           whites. (renewed)
    not being treated fairly                Republican Congress wanted
   Black Codes- state laws limiting         protection for freedmen, they
    former slaves                            wanted to change the culture of the
   Fines for vagrancy                       South, including Black Suffrage
   Force blacks to work on                  and land redistribution
    plantations                             Create Joint Committee
                                             on Reconstruction
       Congress Reacts to Johnson
   Civil Rights Act 1866
   Pass Funding Bill for
    Freedman‘s Bureau
   Also declares blacks citizens
   Authorizes Federal Power to
    intervene in States to protect
   Johnson Vetoes bills in
   Republicans unite against
    Johnson and mobilize
                  14 th   Amendment
   14th Amendment Passed
       Aimed at supporting African Americans
       Overturned Dredd Scott decision- Former slaves are now
       Defined citizenship = born in US and naturalized citizens
       Equal protection under the laws = Citizens are granted
        ―Privileges and Immunities guaranteed by constitution‖
       Penalties for denying rights
       Reinforced due process
       Federal Government can intervene to protect equal treatment
        under the law
       Prohibited former CSA from holding office, unless 2/3rds
        congress consented
                      14 th     Amendment
   Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to
    the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state
    wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall
    abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall
    any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process
    of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of
    the laws.

   Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or
    elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military,
    under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an
    oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a
    member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any
    state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged
    in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort
    to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each
    House, remove such disability. (limits former Confederates from holding
   Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
    legislation, the provisions of this article.
       “Radical” or Congressional
       Reconstruction begins 1867
 Republicans Win Congressional Election of 1866- more
  Senate 42 (Radical GOP) to 11 Dem
House143 (Radical GOP) to 49 Dem
 Reconstruction Act 1867- Passed over Johnson‘s veto

 Goals:

 To support Freedmen

 To punish the Southern leadership for the War

 To reorder Southern society so African Americans had
  a chance to change the culture of the South
    Leaders of the Radical Republicans
   Thaddeus Stevens Republican Majority

   Charles Sumner- Republican Senator            Stevens
   Pro-Equality
   ―Strip a proud nobility off their bloated
    states; reduce them to a level with plain
    Republicans; send them forth to labor and
    teach their children to enter the workshops
    or handle the plow and you will thus
    humble the proud traitors.‖
            “Radical” or Congressional
               Reconstruction 1867
   Radical bills passed over Veto
   1868 Tennessee Admitted immediately
        Congress rejected Lincoln-Johnson reconstructed states
   5 Military Districts created the South
        Enforce order to register qualified voters
        All adult black males
        White males not in the rebellion
   New State Constitutions- insure black suffrage
   States had to ratify new states had to ratify 13 and 14th amendments
   Tenure of Office Act: (an effort to remove the president as an obstacle to
    reconstruction efforts)
        Limits President from removing cabinet officers without Senate approval
   Process for states to enter Union:
        New State Constitutional Conventions
        Ratify 14th Amendment
        New State Constitutions must include Black Suffrage
       Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
   Northerners who moved South to exploit the
    poor whites and aid the blacks

   Southerners who worked with the
    Reconstruction forces for greedy purposes
                  15 th   Amendment
   African American Males 21 years old, get the Right to Vote

   Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote
    shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by
    any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of
   Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article
    by appropriate legislation.

   At first Blacks will vote, but as time goes on State laws and
    intimidation (KKK) suppress the black vote- literacy tests and
    Poll taxes
          Johnson Impeachment
   Johnson had tried to obstruct Radical
   He appointed sympathetic military leaders to supervise
    the South
   He encouraged Southerners to resist Federal law
   Resisted the racial equality insisted by Congress
   House Republicans were waiting for an excuse-Johnson
    gave them one when he removed Secretary of War
    Stanton from office.
   The House passed Impeachment Act with a 2/3 vote
   Southern State Governments:
problems, achievements, weaknesses
              Positive                           Negative
   Many blacks participate early      KKK develops to terrorize
   First black Senator elected,        blacks
    Hiram Revels, Mississippi          Redeemers- Southern
   Freedmen‘s Bureau helps a           Democrats want to remove
    lot                                 republican governors in the
   Blacks gain some economic           South and restore traditional
    mobility                            Southern leadership
   Congress tries to help with        Segregation develops
    Enforcement Acts- to repress       Old Southern leadership
    the KKK and help protect            regains power and
    blacks                              reconstruction seems to be a
                                        complete failure.
          Freedmen Convention
   ―We claim exactly the same rights priveleges and
    immunities as are enjoyed by white men; we ask
    nothing more and will be content with nothing
       Grant Administration 1868
   US Grant nominated by Republicans-
   Corruption
               Life in the South
   Devastated economically- (Sherman)
   ―In Alabama alone, two hundred thousand
    persons are in danger of extreme suffering, if
    not of actual starvation‖ December 1865
            African American Life
   Immediately after war      Sharecropping
    trends develop for          Develops
    African Americans          Freedmen plant and
   Many moved from             work plots of land in
    plantations                 exchange for a % of the
   Reunited with family        crop that goes to the
   Institutions created        owner.
       Schools                Keeps blacks poor and
       Churches                in perpetual debt
    Southerners Create Black Codes
   Black Codes were laws created to limit political,
    economic and social aspects of life for former slaves
   Contracts for labor
   Employment laws
   Licenses to work
   Travel limitations
   Segregation
   Race mixing laws
   All laws were used to limit blacks so they would be
    second-class citizens
                    KKK 1866
   Responding to new social circumstances
   Former Confederates- (Nathan Bedford
    Forrest) form Ku Klux Klan

   To terrorize and enforce traditional
    subordination of African Americans
                Compromise of 1877

   Election of 1876
   Repubs = Rutherford B. Hayes, Ohio ―His Fraudulency‖
   Dems = Samuel J. Tilden, New York
   In the middle of an Economic Depression
   Corruption on both sides, deadlock in electoral college
   Commission, decision agreed upon, Hayes wins the Presidency-
    although no evidence, seem there was a deal to withdrawal
    Federal troops from the rest of the South.
   Redeemer governments would take over (all Democrats) and
    the South would continue in the Democratic party structure till
    the 1960‘s
   Resulted in the End of Reconstruction
   ―Nast‖ Cartoon
                  New South
   Redeemers
   New South Creed
   Romanticization of the South
Crop Lien System
          Booker T. Washington
   Atlanta Compromise
   Up from slavery
   Tuskegee Institute (AL)
   Plessey V. Ferguson
   Jim Crowe Laws
   Grandfather Laws/Clause
   Poll Tax
   Literacy Tests
   Lynching
   Ida B Wells

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