Chapter 14 - Section 1 by yaoyufang


									Immigration and Urbanization
      Chapter 14, Section 1
          pp. 464-469
NOTE TAKING   Reading Skill: Main Ideas
New Immigrants Come to America
 Always came to American for economic and religious
 Until 1870s – mostly Protestant and from Northern
  and Western Europe
 After 1870s – “new” immigrants – from Southern and
  Eastern Europe
 Different from “old” immigrants
      Unskilled, poor
      Catholic or Jewish
      Settled in cities, not farms
      Came without families
CHART   Immigration, 1870-1910
Immigrants Decide to Leave Home
 “Push Factors” which led to immigration –
  pushed people from their home countries
     1880s – tough time for farmers across the
     Many came to America for new start
     Wars and revolutions in Europe were
      disruptions to normal life
     Religious persecution
Leave Home, cont.
 “Pull Factors” which led to immigration – things that
  made America attractive to immigrants
      Plentiful land and employment
      Homestead Act of 1862 – cheap land
      Aid from railroads – jobs building, etc.
      Many came to search for gold
      Many jobs available – mines, oil fields, harvests,
      “Chain immigrants” – newcomers that came over after
       someone in their family was established
      Religious and political freedom
The Immigrant Experience
 Trip to America was huge task – needed money,
    often had to leave family behind
   Only brought what they could carry – clothes,
    pictures, tools and instruments
   Traveled in poor conditions – steerage – illness grew
   Processed at Ellis Island in New York Harbor - it was
    decided there who could and couldn’t stay
   Once cleared, sent to New York City – most cleared,
    process was fast
   Asian immigrants went through San Francisco Bay –
    processed at Angel Island – all turned away after
    1882 unless they already had relatives in the U.S. –
    often held to process for months in bad conditions
Opportunities and Challenges in
 Tough life even if allowed in – had to learn language,
    find work and home, etc.
   Most stayed in cities – close to factory jobs
   Lived in ethnic neighborhoods – called ghettoes –
    shared language, religion, and culture
   Cities had huge immigrant populations by 1890
   Americanization programs begin – meant to help
    immigrants learn English, dress and act American,
    even eat American style foods
   “Melting pot” idea – all groups contributed to one
    another – held on to some traditions, adopted some
    from America
Challenges, cont.
 Nativism – belief that native born Americans were
    superior – anti-immigrant
   Fears over lower wages, religious differences, and
    cultural differences
   Many wouldn’t hire Catholics or Jews, for example
   Chinese Exclusion Act – outlawed Chinese
    immigration and limited civil rights for those already in
   Poor immigrants or those with criminal records (or
    even just likely to commit a crime) not allowed in
ANALYZE   Political Cartoons: Keeping Foreigners Out
Immigrants Change America
 Immigrants made American industry grow
 Gained citizenship and suffrage over time
 Developed new farming techniques
 Key to growth of U.S.
 Became active in politics and labor unions
 Demanded reforms
 Redefined “American”
               Progress Monitoring Transparency

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