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Solar System, Galaxy, and Universe Web Review Guide 1. Identify and provide evidence for the movement of the earth, moon, and sun within the solar system. Fear of Physics, 2005. Sun, Earth, and Moon in Motion http://www.fearofphysics.com/SunMoon/sunmoon1.html accessed 8/15/2008. BBC, 2005, Earth, Sun, and Moon, http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/9_10/earth_sun_moon.shtml accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/6ff9c3b1c91d8c65a32152cbd60e8b87/unit VIIIA.html #1 2. How did the moon originate? How will the moon orbit change over time? How will the earth’s rotation change over time? http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454aa/unit VIIIB.html #15 Curious About Astronomy? 2002. Is the Moon moving away from the Earth? When was this discovered? http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=124 accessed accessed 8/15/2008. NASA, Cosmicopia, http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_earth.html accessed accessed 8/15/2008. Go to question 83. 3. Can you demonstrate an understanding of the phases of the moon? Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2001. Educator's Guide to Moon Phases http://www.solarviews.com/eng/edu/moonphas.htm accessed 8/15/2008. National Air and Space Museum, 1999. Phases of the Moon. http://www.nasm.si.edu/events/apollo30th/moontheater/phases.html accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/6ff9c3b1c91d8c65a32152cbd60e8b87/unit VIIIA.html #10 4. How does the sun and moon affect tides? How do tides vary daily/monthly? http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/6ff9c3b1c91d8c65a32152cbd60e8b87/ unitVIIIA.html #13 NOS, 2004. Tides and Water Levels http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/tides/tides01_intro.html accessed 8/15/2008. Ast 161, 2005. Lunar Tides http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/tides.html accessed 8/15/2008. 5. Differentiate the conditions resulting in a solar from lunar eclipse. Exploring Earth, 2005. Observing Solar Eclipses http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2505/es2505 page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization accessed 8/15/2008. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2001. Educator's Guide to Eclipses http://www.solarviews.com/eng/edu/eclipses.htm accessed 8/15/2008. UCAR, 2001, Lunar Eclipses, http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/moon/eclipse.html&edu=mid&back=/search/se arch_navigation.html accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/6ff9c3b1c91d8c65a32152cbd60e8b87/unit VIIIA.html #11, #12 UCAR, 2001, Solar Eclipses, http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/sun/atmosphere/solar_eclipse.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008. 6. How does the earth’s motion (rotation, revolution, axial tilt) result in day/night and the seasons? UCAR, 2001, Earth's Tilt Is the Reason for the Seasons! http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/climate/cli_seasons.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008. NASA, 2005. Ask an Astrophysicist. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980211f.html accessed 8/15/2008. UCAR, 2001, The Earth’s Rotation. http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/earth2.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008 7. What are the characteristics of different objects in the solar system (planets, asteroids, meteors, comets, moons) in the solar system? Define your answer in terms of object location, size (relative) , composition, weather (for planets and moons), trajectory (direction of travel), and origin. UCAR, 2001, Our Solar System, http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/solar_system.h tml&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008. Arnett, B. 2005. The Ten Planets. http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/nineplanets.html accessed 8/15/2008. Hamilton, C. 2005. Views of the Solar System http://www.solarviews.com/eng/homepage.htm accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/6ff9c3b1c91d8c65a32152cb d60e8b87/unitVIIIA.html #14, #16, #20, #22, #23 8. What physical laws (consider gravity as proposed by Kepler and Newton) control the movement of all objects in the solar system? http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/6ff9c3b1c91d8c65a32152cbd60e8b87/unit VIIIA.html #17 to #19 Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Cornell University, 2005, http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses/astro201/orbits_kepler.htm accessed 8/15/2008. 8. Explain retrograde motion using Mars as an example. University of Illinois, 2000, Retrograde a Matic, http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/projects/data/Retrograde/ accessed 8/15/2008. (use the Copernican and not the Ptolemaic explanation) LaSalle University, 2005. Retrograde Motion, http://alpha.lasalle.edu/~smithsc/Astronomy/retrograd.html accessed 8/15/2008. 9. Discuss current theory regarding the origin of the solar system? Exploring Earth, 2005, Observe an animation showing the origin of the solar system. http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0401 /es0401page01.cfm?chapter_no=04 accessed 8/15/2008. Crary, F. 1998. The origin of the solar system http://www.nineplanets.org/origin.html accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #13, #14 What conditions are necessary for life as we know it on other planets? NASA, 2005, Goal 5: Establish Limits for Life in Environments That Provide Analogues for Conditions on Other Worlds, http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/sciencegoals/g5_limits_life.html accessed 8/15/2008. Bruining, S. 2005, Which primary conditions are necessary for life as we know it? http://www.astro.rug.nl/~onderwys/sterIIproject97/bruining/ accessed 8/15/2008. 10. Explain how an H-R diagram can be used to explain the stages of stars, their temperatures, brightness, and masses. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #5, #6, #7, #8 Smith, H. 1999. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram http://cassfos02.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/HR.html accessed 8/15/2008. ASPIRE, Interactive H R Diagram, http://aspire.cosmic- ray.org/labs/star_life/hr_interactive.html accessed 8/15/2008. Soper, D. 2005. Basics of the HR diagram http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~soper/Stars/hrdiagram.html http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~soper/Stars/hrdiagram.html 11. What are the energy producing mechanisms found in stars? Project 2061, 2005. NSES Content Standard D http://www.project2061.org/publications/rsl/online/COMPARE/NRC/NRC2BS L/9_12/NSES278.HTM accessed 8/15/2008. Strobel, N. 2005. The Sun’s Power Source. http://www.astronomynotes.com/starsun/s3.htm accessed 8/15/2008. 12. Identify the characteristics of red giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars, double stars, supernovae, black holes, and star clusters. BBC, 2005. Star Types, http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/stars/startypes/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/stars/startypes/ accessed 8/15/2008. Earth System Science Education, 2001. Classifying Stars, http://www.esse.ou.edu/fund_concepts/Fundamental_Concepts1/Universe/Classif ying_Stars.html accessed 8/15/2008. 13. Describe our sun’s layered composition. Why do stars have varying temperatures? Explain how stars are moving relative to us (See Doppler Shift question for this part of the question)? http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #4 Imagine the Universe. 2005. What is a star? http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/stars.html accessed 8/15/2008. University of Pittsburg, 2005. Star cut away http://www- nutev.phyast.pitt.edu/~naples/class/sun/bbtlf1204_a.jpg accessed 8/15/2008. 14. What factors impact the absolute versus apparent magnitude of stars? Stargazer, 2002, Astronomy star dictionary. http://www.nameastargift.com/astronomydictionary/ accessed 8/15/2008. look under “Things that influence magnitudes” 2001. Exercise: the magnitude scale and absolute magnitude, http://coke.physics.ucla.edu/laptag/Astro.dir/astrocls.dir/magscale.htm#factors accessed 8/15/2008. 15. What supporting evidence exists regarding the “Big Bang” theory? What is the age of the universe? Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe. http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008. Ask an Astronomer, 2005. How do we know the age of the Universe and the Earth http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=45 accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #10 Ben Artzi, Y et al. 1998. Evidence of the Big Bang, http://www.leyada.jlm.k12.il/proj/black/evidence.htm accessed 8/15/2008. 16. What processes are involved in the formation of the solar system? Describe the position and motion of our solar system in relation to the Milky Way Galaxy. UCAR, 1999. Solar system formation. http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/formation.html&edu= high accessed 8/15/2008. Ask and Astronomer, 2004. What is the evidence supporting the nebula theory of Solar System formation? http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=600 accessed 8/15/2008. Think Quest. 2005. The Milky Way. http://www.tqnyc.org/NYC041174/galaxy.php accessed 8/15/2008. Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe. http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #2 17. What are the different types of galaxies? In what directions are galaxies moving? Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe. http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008. Astronomy Unbound, 1997. Classification of galaxies, http://www.herts.ac.uk/astro_ub/a21_ub.html accessed 8/15/2008. UCAR, 2000. Galaxies. http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/Galaxy.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #1 18. What is dark matter? Ask an Astronomer, 2003. What is dark matter? http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=361 accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #12 19. What is the red shift (in Doppler Effect) and why is it important? Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe. http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #11 Ask an astronomer, 2005. How is it proved that the Universe is expanding? http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=169 accessed 8/15/2008. Curtis, D. 1995. The Doppler Effect, http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/Bima/doppler.html accessed 8/15/2008. Fendt, W. 2002, An example of the Doppler Effect, http://www.walter- fendt.de/ph11e/dopplereff.htm accessed 8/15/2008. 20. How are elements created? Ask an Astronomer, 2002, How are light and heavy elements formed? http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=345 accessed 8/15/2008. UCAR, 2005, The life cycle of stars, http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/sun/Solar_interior/Nuclear_Reactions/F usion/Fusion_in_stars/star_life.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/8025faa84312920808b2c2166e927 96b/unitVIIIB.html #16 21. What are the major events in the history of astronomy (consider particularly Aristotle, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, and Copernicus) and space exploration. UCSD, 2002, Discovery of the solar system, http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/ita/05_1.shtml accessed 8/15/2008. Smith, G. 1999, A brief history of astronomy http://cassfos02.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/History.html accessed 8/15/2008. UCAR, 2005, People in astronomy, http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/people.html accessed 8/15/2008. http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/6ff9c3b1c91d8c65a32152cbd60e8b 87/unitVIIIA.html #15 22. Know, very briefly, the significance of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Pioneer 10, Hubble, and Shuttle programs. Briefly know the significance of the following missions: Landsat, Voyageur, Deep Impact, Mars Exploration Rover, Cassini, Galileo. UCAR, 2005, A history of manned space missions, http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/space_missions/manned_table.html accessed 8/15/2008. NASA, 2005, Launching NASA, http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/factsheet.htm accessed 8/15/2008. NASA, 2005, Science Missions, http://science.hq.nasa.gov/missions/phase.html accessed 8/15/2008. NASA, 2005, Space Science, http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/oss/missions/, accessed 8/15/2008. 23. What procedures are necessary to observe the sun safely? NASA, 2005, NASA eclipse home page, http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEhelp/safety2.html accessed 8/15/2008. European Space Agency, 2004. Safety tips for observing the sun, http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMB6P7O0MD_index_0.html accessed 8/15/2008. 24. Why does the position of the constellation and planets change seasonally? Tie this to the ecliptic. Discuss perceived and actual movement of the moon and planets across the sky. Kaler, J. 2002, Measuring the sky, http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/celsph.html accessed 8/15/2008. UCAR, 2005. As the world turns, http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/Constellations/constellatio ns4.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008. Ask an Astronomer, 2005. Why do different stars appears with the seasons? http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=300 accessed 8/15/2008. 25. How would radio waves, color of stars, moon and meteor samples, give us information about our universe? http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #9 NASA, 2005, Radio Waves, http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/radio.html accessed 24 November 2005. Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe. http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008. Wilderness Center, 2005. Chemistry of stars. http://www.twcac.org/Tutorials/spectroscopy.htm accessed 8/15/2008. University of Illinois, 1998. http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/spectra.html#absan accessed 8/15/2008. NASA, 2005. Rocks and soils from the moon, http://www- curator.jsc.nasa.gov/curator/lunar/lunar.htm accessed 8/15/2008. King, D. 1998. Origin of meteorites, 2http://meteorites.lpl.arizona.edu/origin.html accessed 8/15/2008. 26. Briefly address the concept of sidereal time University of St. Andrews, 2005, Positional Astronomy, http://star-www.st- and.ac.uk/~fv/webnotes/chapter6.htm accessed 8/15/2008. Cornell University, 2005, Sidereal Time, http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses/astro201/sidereal.htm accessed 8/15/2008. 27. How is distance measured in space? http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/sctemp/b29dcf863ae5fe410fb5c173577454 aa/unitVIIIB.html #3 Multiple Choice Questions Which of the following historical accomplishments provided the first convincing evidence that the earth and other planets orbited the sun? A. Copernicus's explanation for the retrograde motion of Mars B. Galileo's observation that Venus went through phases like the moon C. Aristotle's careful observations of planetary motions D. Tycho Brahe's observation that stars were outside the sphere of planets 2. In the H-R diagram above, stars are plotted as dots based on their luminosity and spectral class or temperature. Near which of the following regions of the H-R diagram would a red giant most likely be located? A. near the W B. near the X C. near the Y D. near the Z 3. Over the course of several thousand years, the position of Polaris, the North Star, in the night sky has changed. This phenomenon is due to: A. the continuous rotation of the solar system. B. changes in the angle of the earth's orbital plane to the solar system. C. the continuous revolution of the Milky Way galaxy. D. changes in the orientation of the earth's rotational axis. 4. Which of the following best explains why typical sunrises and sunsets are often characterized by red-, yellow-, and orange-colored skies? A. The relative humidity tends to be higher in the atmosphere at those times of day, and water vapor preferentially absorbs visible light in the blue region of the spectrum. B. The low angle of the sun results in the light passing through a thicker atmosphere, and longer wavelengths are more likely to penetrate without being scattered. C. The higher concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere at those times of day is more likely to scatter longer wavelengths across the sky than shorter wavelengths. D. The greater distance the sun's light travels to reach the earth results in the Doppler effect, shifting incident light toward the longer wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. 5. A sidereal day (based upon star reference) is 23 hours and 56 minutes long. A mean solar day (based upon solar reference) is 24 hours long. Which of the following is most important in explaining the discrepancy in the two times? A. the movement of stars away from the center of the galaxy B. the movement of the earth along its orbit C. the amount of time it takes light to travel from a star to the earth D. the gravitational pull of the sun 6. Some scientists believe that the solar system was formed from condensation of a rotating disk of gas and dust debris produced by a supernova explosion. Which of the following hypothetical discoveries would be the strongest evidence against this theory? A. A tenth planet is found that orbits the sun in a direction opposite to that of the other planets. B. The asteroids in the asteroid belt are found to be remnants of an ancient planet. C. Studies indicate that the solar system is more than twice as old as previously thought. D. A moon of Jupiter is found to be a captured asteroid. 7. Use the data below to answer the question that follows. Location: inside orbit of Uranus Diameter: 138,350 km Surface gravity: 2.64 Earth gravities Description of characteristics: Thick, turbulent atmosphere composed primarily of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and helium; no solid crust; a thick layer of liquid hydrogen is believed to surround a small, solid, rocky core; has large, intense radiation belts and a small ring system Which of the following planets is described by the data above? A. Neptune B. Venus C. Mercury D. Jupiter 8. The northern and southern lights, known respectively as the aurora borealis and the aurora australis, are caused by: A. the interaction of high energy particles from the sun with the earth's magnetic field. B. the ionization of gases from the troposphere as they enter regions of extreme cold in the thermosphere. C. the ignition of volatile gases in the ionosphere by ultraviolet radiation from the sun. D. the reflection of visible light from the sun off dust particles in the upper atmosphere. 9. In astronomy, the concept of "dark matter" has been used to explain which of the following phenomena? A. the microwave background radiation B. the rate of expansion of the universe C. the birth of the solar system D. the formation of black holes 10. The diagram below shows Earth, the Moon, and the Sun s rays as viewed from space. Key: 1. B, 2. C, 3. D, 4. B, 5. A, 6. B, 7. D, 8. A, 9. B, 10. 11. (1), 12.
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