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									Solar System, Galaxy, and Universe Web Review Guide

   1. Identify and provide evidence for the movement of the earth, moon, and sun
      within the solar system.

Fear of Physics, 2005. Sun, Earth, and Moon in Motion
http://www.fearofphysics.com/SunMoon/sunmoon1.html accessed 8/15/2008.

BBC, 2005, Earth, Sun, and Moon,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/9_10/earth_sun_moon.shtml accessed

VIIIA.html #1

   2. How did the moon originate? How will the moon orbit change over time? How
      will the earth’s rotation change over time?

VIIIB.html #15

Curious About Astronomy? 2002. Is the Moon moving away from the Earth? When was
this discovered? http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=124 accessed
accessed 8/15/2008.

NASA, Cosmicopia, http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/qa_earth.html accessed accessed
8/15/2008. Go to question 83.

   3. Can you demonstrate an understanding of the phases of the moon?

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2001. Educator's Guide to Moon Phases
http://www.solarviews.com/eng/edu/moonphas.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

National Air and Space Museum, 1999. Phases of the Moon.
http://www.nasm.si.edu/events/apollo30th/moontheater/phases.html accessed 8/15/2008.

VIIIA.html #10
4. How does the sun and moon affect tides? How do tides vary daily/monthly?

   unitVIIIA.html #13

NOS, 2004. Tides and Water Levels
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/tides/tides01_intro.html accessed 8/15/2008.
Ast 161, 2005. Lunar Tides http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/time/tides.html
accessed 8/15/2008.

   5. Differentiate the conditions resulting in a solar from lunar eclipse.

Exploring Earth, 2005. Observing Solar Eclipses
page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization accessed 8/15/2008.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2001. Educator's Guide to Eclipses
http://www.solarviews.com/eng/edu/eclipses.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

UCAR, 2001, Lunar Eclipses,
arch_navigation.html accessed 8/15/2008.

VIIIA.html #11, #12

UCAR, 2001, Solar Eclipses,
accessed 8/15/2008.

   6. How does the earth’s motion (rotation, revolution, axial tilt) result in day/night
      and the seasons?

UCAR, 2001, Earth's Tilt Is the Reason for the Seasons!
accessed 8/15/2008.

NASA, 2005. Ask an Astrophysicist.
http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980211f.html accessed 8/15/2008.

UCAR, 2001, The Earth’s Rotation.
accessed 8/15/2008

   7. What are the characteristics of different objects in the solar system (planets,
      asteroids, meteors, comets, moons) in the solar system? Define your answer in
      terms of object location, size (relative) , composition, weather (for planets and
      moons), trajectory (direction of travel), and origin.
              UCAR, 2001, Our Solar System,
              accessed 8/15/2008.

              Arnett, B. 2005. The Ten Planets.
              accessed 8/15/2008.

              Hamilton, C. 2005. Views of the Solar System
              http://www.solarviews.com/eng/homepage.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

              d60e8b87/unitVIIIA.html #14, #16, #20, #22, #23

8. What physical laws (consider gravity as proposed by Kepler and Newton) control the
movement of all objects in the solar system?

VIIIA.html #17 to #19

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Cornell University, 2005,
http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses/astro201/orbits_kepler.htm accessed

   8. Explain retrograde motion using Mars as an example.

       University of Illinois, 2000, Retrograde a Matic,
       http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/projects/data/Retrograde/ accessed 8/15/2008.

       (use the Copernican and not the Ptolemaic explanation) LaSalle University, 2005.
       Retrograde Motion, http://alpha.lasalle.edu/~smithsc/Astronomy/retrograd.html
       accessed 8/15/2008.

   9. Discuss current theory regarding the origin of the solar system?

       Exploring Earth, 2005, Observe an animation showing the origin of the solar
       /es0401page01.cfm?chapter_no=04 accessed 8/15/2008.

       Crary, F. 1998. The origin of the solar system
       http://www.nineplanets.org/origin.html accessed 8/15/2008.

       aa/unitVIIIB.html #13, #14
   What conditions are necessary for life as we know it on other planets?

   NASA, 2005, Goal 5: Establish Limits for Life in Environments That Provide
   Analogues for Conditions on Other Worlds,
   http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/sciencegoals/g5_limits_life.html accessed

   Bruining, S. 2005, Which primary conditions are necessary
   for life as we know it?
   http://www.astro.rug.nl/~onderwys/sterIIproject97/bruining/ accessed 8/15/2008.

10. Explain how an H-R diagram can be used to explain the stages of stars, their
    temperatures, brightness, and masses.

   aa/unitVIIIB.html #5, #6, #7, #8

   Smith, H. 1999. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
   http://cassfos02.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/HR.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   ASPIRE, Interactive H R Diagram, http://aspire.cosmic-
   ray.org/labs/star_life/hr_interactive.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   Soper, D. 2005. Basics of the HR diagram

11. What are the energy producing mechanisms found in stars?

   Project 2061, 2005. NSES Content Standard
   D http://www.project2061.org/publications/rsl/online/COMPARE/NRC/NRC2BS
   L/9_12/NSES278.HTM accessed 8/15/2008.

   Strobel, N. 2005. The Sun’s Power Source.
   http://www.astronomynotes.com/starsun/s3.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

12. Identify the characteristics of red giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars, double stars,
    supernovae, black holes, and star clusters.

   BBC, 2005. Star Types, http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/stars/startypes/
   http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/stars/startypes/ accessed 8/15/2008.
   Earth System Science Education, 2001. Classifying Stars,
   ying_Stars.html accessed 8/15/2008.

13. Describe our sun’s layered composition. Why do stars have varying
    temperatures? Explain how stars are moving relative to us (See Doppler Shift
    question for this part of the question)?

   aa/unitVIIIB.html #4

   Imagine the Universe. 2005. What is a star?
   http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/stars.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   University of Pittsburg, 2005. Star cut away http://www-
   nutev.phyast.pitt.edu/~naples/class/sun/bbtlf1204_a.jpg accessed 8/15/2008.

14. What factors impact the absolute versus apparent magnitude of stars?

   Stargazer, 2002, Astronomy star dictionary.
   http://www.nameastargift.com/astronomydictionary/ accessed 8/15/2008.

   look under “Things that influence magnitudes” 2001. Exercise: the magnitude
   scale and absolute magnitude,
   accessed 8/15/2008.

15. What supporting evidence exists regarding the “Big Bang” theory? What is the
    age of the universe?

   Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe.
   http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   Ask an Astronomer, 2005. How do we know the age of the Universe and the
   Earth http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=45 accessed

   aa/unitVIIIB.html #10

   Ben Artzi, Y et al. 1998. Evidence of the Big Bang,
   http://www.leyada.jlm.k12.il/proj/black/evidence.htm accessed 8/15/2008.
16. What processes are involved in the formation of the solar system? Describe the
    position and motion of our solar system in relation to the Milky Way Galaxy.

   UCAR, 1999. Solar system formation.
   high accessed 8/15/2008.

   Ask and Astronomer, 2004. What is the evidence supporting the nebula theory of
   Solar System formation?
   http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=600 accessed 8/15/2008.

   Think Quest. 2005. The Milky Way.
   http://www.tqnyc.org/NYC041174/galaxy.php accessed 8/15/2008.

   Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe.
   http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   aa/unitVIIIB.html #2

17. What are the different types of galaxies? In what directions are galaxies moving?

   Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe.
   http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   Astronomy Unbound, 1997. Classification of galaxies,
   http://www.herts.ac.uk/astro_ub/a21_ub.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   UCAR, 2000. Galaxies.
   accessed 8/15/2008.

   aa/unitVIIIB.html #1

18. What is dark matter?

   Ask an Astronomer, 2003. What is dark matter?
   http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=361 accessed 8/15/2008.

   aa/unitVIIIB.html #12
19. What is the red shift (in Doppler Effect) and why is it important?

   Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe.
   http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   aa/unitVIIIB.html #11

   Ask an astronomer, 2005. How is it proved that the Universe is expanding?
   http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=169 accessed 8/15/2008.

   Curtis, D. 1995. The Doppler Effect,
   http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/Bima/doppler.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   Fendt, W. 2002, An example of the Doppler Effect, http://www.walter-
   fendt.de/ph11e/dopplereff.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

20. How are elements created?

   Ask an Astronomer, 2002, How are light and heavy elements formed?
   http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=345 accessed 8/15/2008.

   UCAR, 2005, The life cycle of stars,
   usion/Fusion_in_stars/star_life.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008.

   96b/unitVIIIB.html #16

21. What are the major events in the history of astronomy (consider particularly
    Aristotle, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, and Copernicus) and space

   UCSD, 2002, Discovery of the solar system,
   http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/ita/05_1.shtml accessed 8/15/2008.

   Smith, G. 1999, A brief history of astronomy
   http://cassfos02.ucsd.edu/public/tutorial/History.html accessed 8/15/2008.

   UCAR, 2005, People in astronomy,
   http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/people.html accessed

   87/unitVIIIA.html #15
22. Know, very briefly, the significance of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Pioneer 10,
    Hubble, and Shuttle programs. Briefly know the significance of the following
    missions: Landsat, Voyageur, Deep Impact, Mars Exploration Rover, Cassini,

   UCAR, 2005, A history of manned space missions,
   accessed 8/15/2008.

   NASA, 2005, Launching NASA,
   http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/factsheet.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

   NASA, 2005, Science Missions, http://science.hq.nasa.gov/missions/phase.html
   accessed 8/15/2008.

   NASA, 2005, Space Science, http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/oss/missions/,
   accessed 8/15/2008.

23. What procedures are necessary to observe the sun safely?

NASA, 2005, NASA eclipse home page,
http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEhelp/safety2.html accessed 8/15/2008.

European Space Agency, 2004. Safety tips for observing the sun,
http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMB6P7O0MD_index_0.html accessed 8/15/2008.

24. Why does the position of the constellation and planets change seasonally? Tie
    this to the ecliptic. Discuss perceived and actual movement of the moon and
    planets across the sky.

   Kaler, J. 2002, Measuring the sky, http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/celsph.html
   accessed 8/15/2008.

   UCAR, 2005. As the world turns,
   ns4.html&edu=high accessed 8/15/2008.

   Ask an Astronomer, 2005. Why do different stars appears with the seasons?
   http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=300 accessed 8/15/2008.
    25. How would radio waves, color of stars, moon and meteor samples, give us
        information about our universe?

        aa/unitVIIIB.html #9

        NASA, 2005, Radio Waves, http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/radio.html accessed
        24 November 2005.

        Gore, P. 2005. Our solar system in the Milky Way and the Universe.
        http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/GPS/galaxies.html accessed 8/15/2008.

        Wilderness Center, 2005. Chemistry of stars.
        http://www.twcac.org/Tutorials/spectroscopy.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

        University of Illinois, 1998.
        http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/spectra.html#absan accessed 8/15/2008.

        NASA, 2005. Rocks and soils from the moon, http://www-
        curator.jsc.nasa.gov/curator/lunar/lunar.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

        King, D. 1998. Origin of meteorites, 2http://meteorites.lpl.arizona.edu/origin.html
        accessed 8/15/2008.

    26. Briefly address the concept of sidereal time

        University of St. Andrews, 2005, Positional Astronomy, http://star-www.st-
        and.ac.uk/~fv/webnotes/chapter6.htm accessed 8/15/2008.

        Cornell University, 2005, Sidereal Time,
        accessed 8/15/2008.

    27. How is distance measured in space?

        aa/unitVIIIB.html #3

Multiple Choice Questions

Which of the following historical accomplishments provided the first convincing evidence that
the earth and other planets orbited the sun?
A. Copernicus's explanation for the retrograde motion of Mars
B. Galileo's observation that Venus went through phases like the moon
C. Aristotle's careful observations of planetary motions
D. Tycho Brahe's observation that stars were outside the sphere of planets

2. In the H-R diagram above, stars are plotted as dots based on their luminosity and spectral class
or temperature. Near which of the following regions of the H-R diagram would a red giant most
likely be located?
A. near the W
B. near the X
C. near the Y
D. near the Z

3. Over the course of several thousand years, the position of Polaris, the North Star, in the night
sky has changed. This phenomenon is due to:
A. the continuous rotation of the solar system.
B. changes in the angle of the earth's orbital plane to the solar system.
C. the continuous revolution of the Milky Way galaxy.
D. changes in the orientation of the earth's rotational axis.

4. Which of the following best explains why typical sunrises and sunsets are often characterized
by red-, yellow-, and orange-colored skies?
A. The relative humidity tends to be higher in the atmosphere at those times of day, and water
vapor preferentially absorbs visible light in the blue region of the spectrum.
B. The low angle of the sun results in the light passing through a thicker atmosphere, and longer
wavelengths are more likely to penetrate without being scattered.
C. The higher concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere at those times of day
is more likely to scatter longer wavelengths across the sky than shorter wavelengths.
D. The greater distance the sun's light travels to reach the earth results in the Doppler effect,
shifting incident light toward the longer wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.

5. A sidereal day (based upon star reference) is 23 hours and 56 minutes long. A mean solar day
(based upon solar reference) is 24 hours long. Which of the following is most important in
explaining the discrepancy in the two times?
A. the movement of stars away from the center of the galaxy
B. the movement of the earth along its orbit
C. the amount of time it takes light to travel from a star to the earth
D. the gravitational pull of the sun

6. Some scientists believe that the solar system was formed from condensation of a rotating disk
of gas and dust debris produced by a supernova explosion. Which of the following hypothetical
discoveries would be the strongest evidence against this theory?
A. A tenth planet is found that orbits the sun in a direction opposite to that of the other planets.
B. The asteroids in the asteroid belt are found to be remnants of an ancient planet.
C. Studies indicate that the solar system is more than twice as old as previously thought.
D. A moon of Jupiter is found to be a captured asteroid.

7. Use the data below to answer the question that follows. Location: inside orbit of Uranus
Diameter: 138,350 km Surface gravity: 2.64 Earth gravities Description of
characteristics: Thick, turbulent atmosphere composed primarily of methane,
ammonia, hydrogen, and helium; no solid crust; a thick layer of liquid hydrogen is
believed to surround a small, solid, rocky core; has large, intense radiation belts and a
small ring system Which of the following planets is described by the data above?
A. Neptune
B. Venus
C. Mercury
D. Jupiter

8. The northern and southern lights, known respectively as the aurora borealis and the aurora
australis, are caused by:
A. the interaction of high energy particles from the sun with the earth's magnetic field.
B. the ionization of gases from the troposphere as they enter regions of extreme cold in the
C. the ignition of volatile gases in the ionosphere by ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
D. the reflection of visible light from the sun off dust particles in the upper atmosphere.

9. In astronomy, the concept of "dark matter" has been used to explain which of the following
A. the microwave background radiation
B. the rate of expansion of the universe
C. the birth of the solar system
D. the formation of black holes

10. The diagram below shows Earth, the Moon, and the Sun s rays as viewed from space.
Key: 1. B, 2. C, 3. D, 4. B, 5. A, 6. B, 7. D, 8. A, 9. B, 10. 11. (1), 12.

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