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					    62     The Body Systems: Clinical and Applied Topics

    The Muscular System                                          muscular paralysis are usually caused by ner-
                                                                 vous system disorders. These movements will
    The muscular system includes over 700 skeletal               be described further in sections dealing with
    muscles that are directly or indirectly attached to          abnormal nervous system function.
    the skeleton by tendons or aponeuroses. The mus-
    cular system produces movement, as the contrac-
    tions of skeletal muscles pull on the attached            SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    bones. Muscular activity does not always result in        OF MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    movement, however; it can also be important in
    stabilizing skeletal elements and preventing move-        DISORDERS
    ment. Skeletal muscles are also important in              Two common symptoms of muscular disorders are
    guarding entrances or exits of internal passage-          pain and weakness in the affected skeletal mus-
    ways, such as those of the digestive, respiratory,        cles. The potential causes of muscle pain include:
    urinary, or reproductive systems, and in generating
    heat to maintain our stable body temperatures.            1. Muscle trauma: Examples of traumatic injuries
        Skeletal muscles contract only under the com-            to a skeletal muscle would include a laceration,
7   mand of the nervous system. For this reason, clini-          a deep bruise or crushing injury, a muscle tear,
    cal observation of muscular activity may provide             or a damaged tendon.
    direct information about the muscular system, and         2. Muscle infection: Skeletal muscles may be
    indirect information about the nervous system. The           infected by viruses, as in some forms of myosi-
    assessment of facial expressions, posture, speech,           tis, or colonized by parasitic worms, such as
    and gait can be an important part of the physical            those responsible for trichinosis (p. 64). These
    examination. Classical signs of muscle disorders             infections usually produce pain that is restrict-
    include the following:                                       ed to the involved muscles. Diffuse muscle pain
    •    Gower’s sign is a distinctive method of stand-          may develop in the course of other infectious
         ing from a sitting or lying position on the floor.      diseases, such as influenza or measles.
         This method is used by children with muscular        3. Related problems with the skeletal system:
         dystrophy (p. 65). They move from a sitting             Muscle pain may result from skeletal problems,
         position to a standing position by pushing the          such as arthritis (p. 59) or a sprained ligament
         trunk off the floor with the hands and then             near the point of muscle origin or insertion.
         moving the hands to the knees. The hands are
                                                              4. Problems with the nervous system: Muscle pain
         then used as braces to force the body into the
                                                                 may be experienced due to inflammation of
         standing position. This extra support is neces-
                                                                 sensory neurons or stimulation of pain path-
         sary because the pelvic muscles are too weak
                                                                 ways in the CNS.
         to swing the weight of the trunk over the legs.
    •    Ptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid. It may         Muscle strength can be evaluated by applying
         be seen in myasthenia gravis (p. 66), botulism       an opposite force against a specific action. For
         (p. 65), myotonic dystrophy (p. 65), or following    example, the examiner might exert a gentle extend-
         damage to the cranial nerve (N III) innervating      ing force while asking the patient to flex the arm.
         the levator palpabrae superioris muscle of the       Because the muscular and nervous systems are so
         eyelid.                                              closely interrelated, a single symptom, such as
                                                              muscle weakness, can have a variety of different
    •    A muscle mass, an abnormal dense region with-        causes (Figure A-22). Muscle weakness may also
         in a muscle, is sometimes seen or felt in a skele-   develop as a consequence of a condition that affects
         tal muscle. A muscle mass may result from torn       the entire body, such as anemia or acute starvation.
         muscle or tendon tissue, a hematoma, or the              Figure A-23 (p. 64) provides an overview of
         deposition of bone around a skeletal muscle, as      muscular system disorders.
         in myositis ossificans.
    •    Abnormal contractions may indicate problems               Necrotizing Fasciitis              EAP p. 178
         with the muscle tissue or its innervation. Muscle
         spasticity exists when a muscle has excessive        Several bacteria produce enzymes such as
         muscle tone. A muscle spasm is a sudden,             hyaluronidase or cysteine protease. Hyaluronidase
         strong, and painful involuntary contraction.         breaks down hyaluronic acid and the proteoglycans
    •    Muscle flaccidity exists when the relaxed skele-     (large polysaccharide molecules linked by polypep-
         tal muscle appears soft and relaxed and its          tide chains) that make up the intercellular cement
         contractions are very weak or absent.                between adjacent cells. Cysteine protease breaks
                                                              down conective tissue proteins. These bacteria are
    •    Muscle atrophy is skeletal muscle deterioration,     dangerous because they can spread rapidly by
         or wasting, due to disuse, immobility, or inter-     liquifying the matrix and dissolving the intercellu-
         ference with the normal muscle innervation.          lar cement that holds epithelial cells together. The
    •    Abnormal patterns of muscle movement, such           streptococci are one group of bacteria that secrete
         as tics, choreiform movements, or tremors, and       both of these enzymes. Streptococcus A bacteria are
                                                                                          The Muscular System          63


                                                         Infection

                                                     Myositis
                                                     Trichinosis
              Trauma                                                                             Inherited disorders
           Muscular bruise
                                                                                             Muscular dystrophies
            or tear
                                                                                             Myotonic dystrophy



                                                         Primary
                                                     Muscular System
                                                        Disorders


        Probable immune
            disorders                                                                                                       7
         Myasthenia
          gravis
         Guillain–Barré
          syndrome                                                                             Cardiovascular
                                                                                                 problems
                                                   SYMPTOM:
                                                MUSCLE WEAKNESS                                 Anemia
                                                                                                Heart failure
                                                                                                Vascular blockage
      Metabolic or
      nutritional problems

      Electrolyte disturbances
       (ex.: hypercalcemia,
       hypocalcemia)                                                                       Problems with
      Starvation                                                                           peripheral nerves

                                                     Nervous System                        Trauma
                                                        Disorders                          Demyelination
                                                                                            disorders
                                                                                           Diphtheria




                   Problems with                      Destruction of                       Problems at
                   motor pathways                     motor neurons                        synaptic knobs
                                                                                           in neuromuscular
                   Spinal cord                        Stroke                               junctions
                    injuries                          Polio
                   Multiple                           Rabies                               Botulism
                    sclerosis                         Huntington’s                         Other neurotoxins
                   Demyelination                       disease
                    disorders


Figure A-22    Potential Causes of Muscle Weakness




involved in many human diseases, most notably                      minor cuts become major open wounds, with interi-
“strep throat,” a pharyngeal infection. In most                    or connective tissues dissolving. There were only 7
cases the immune response is sufficient to contain                 reported cases, but 5 of the victims died. The
and ultimately defeat these bacteria before exten-                 pathogen responsible was a strain of Streptococcus A
sive tissue damage has occurred.                                   that overpowered immune defenses and swiftly
    However, in 1994 tabloid newspapers had a field                invaded and destroyed soft tissues. More over, the
day recounting stories of “killer bugs” and “flesh-eat-            pathogens eroded their way along the fascial wrap-
ing bacteria” that terrorized residents of the city of             ping that covers skeletal muscles and other organs.
Gloucester, England. The details were horrific—                    The term for this condition is necrotizing fasciitis.
    64    The Body Systems: Clinical and Applied Topics

                        Infection                                                                     Trauma
                  Myositis
                  Necrotizing fasciitis                                                         Hernias
                  Tetanus                                                                       Compartment syndrome
                  Trichinosis                                                                   Bruises and tears
                  Fibromyalgia                                                                  Carpal tunnel syndrome



                                                                 MUSCLE
                                                                DISORDERS
                   Inherited disorders                                                                 Tumors

              Muscular dystrophy                                                                      Myomas
               Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy                                                          Sarcomas
7
                                                               Secondary disorders


                                          Nervous system:                 Immune problems:
                                          Botulism                         Myasthenia gravis
                                          Poliomyelitis



                                          Cardiovascular system:          Metabolic problems:
                                          Anemia                           Hypercalcemia
                                          Heart failure                    Hypocalcemia




    Figure A-23   Disorders of the Muscular System


    In some cases the muscle tissue was also destroyed,                   larvae then migrates through the body tissues to
    a condition called myositis.                                          reach the muscles, where they complete their early
         The problem is not restricted to the United                      development. The migration and subsequent set-
    Kingdom. Some form of very aggressive infectious                      tling produce a generalized achiness, muscle and
    soft tissue invasion occurs roughly 75–150 times                      joint pain, and swelling in infected tissues. An esti-
    annually in the U.S. At present it is uncertain                       mated 1.5 million Americans carry Trichinella
    whether the recent surge in myositis and necrotizing                  around in their muscles, and up to 300,000 new
    faciitis reflects increased awareness of the condition                infections occur each year. The mortality rate for
    or the appearance of a new strain of strep bacteria.                  people who have symptoms severe enough to
                                                                          require treatment is approximately 1 percent.
         Trichinosis                                      EAP p. 178
                                                                                Fibromyalgia and Chronic
    Trichinosis (trik-i-N«-sis; trichos, hair + nosos,
    disease) results from infection by a parasitic nema-                        Fatigue Syndrome         EAP p. 178
    tode worm, Trichinella spiralis. Symptoms include                     Fibromyalgia (-algia, pain) is a disorder that has
    diarrhea, weakness, and muscle pain. The muscu-                       formally been recognized only since the mid-1980s.
    lar symptoms are caused by the invasion of skele-                     Although first described in the early 1800s, the
    tal muscle tissue by larval worms, which create                       condition is still somewhat controversial because
    small pockets within the perimysium and endomy-                       the reported symptoms cannot be linked to any
    sium. Muscles of the tongue, eyes, diaphragm,                         anatomical or physiological abnormalities.
    chest, and leg are most often affected.                               However, physicians now recognize a distinctive
        Larvae are common in the flesh of pigs, horses,                   pattern of symptoms that warrant consideration as
    dogs, and other mammals. The larvae are killed                        a clinical entity.
    when the meat is cooked; people are most often                             Fibromyalgia may be the most common muscu-
    exposed by eating undercooked pork. Once eaten,                       loskeletal disorder affecting women under 40 years
    the larvae mature within the intestinal tract, where                  of age. There may be as many as 6 million cases in
    they mate and produce eggs. The new generation of                     the United States today. Symptoms include chronic
                                                                                     The Muscular System          65

aches, pain, and stiffness and multiple tender             and calcium levels rise to the point that key pro-
points at specific, characteristic locations. The four     teins denature. The muscle fiber then degenerates.
most common tender points are (1) just below the           Researchers have recently identified and cloned the
kneecap, (2, 3) distal to the medial and lateral epi-      gene for dystrophin; that gene is located on the X
condyles of the humerus, and (4) the junction              chromosome. Rats with DMD have been cured by
between the second rib and the cartilage attaching         insertion of this gene into their muscle fibers, a
it to the sternum. An additional clinical criterion is     technique that may eventually be used to treat
that the pains and stiffness cannot be explained by        human patients.
other mechanisms. Individuals with this condition              The inheritance of DMD is sex-linked: Women
frequently report chronic fatigue; they feel tired on      carrying the defective genes are unaffected, but each
awakening and often complain of awakening                  of their male children will have a 50 percent chance
repeatedly during the night.                               of developing DMD. Now that the specific location of
     Most of these symptoms could be attributed to         the gene has been identified, it is possible to deter-
other problems. For example, chronic depression can        mine whether or not a woman is carrying the defec-
lead to fatigue and poor-quality sleep. As a result, the   tive gene. It is also possible to use an innovative
pattern of tender points is really the diagnostic key to   prenatal test to determine if a fetus has this condi-         7
fibromyalgia. This symptom distinguishes fibromyal-        tion. In this procedure, a small sample of fluid is col-
gia from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The cur-          lected from the membranous sac that surrounds the
rent symptoms accepted as a definition of CFS              fetus. This fluid contains fetal cells, called amnio-
include (1) sudden onset, usually following a viral        cytes, that are collected and cultivated in the labora-
infection, (2) disabling fatigue, (3) muscle weakness      tory. Researchers then insert a gene, called MyoD,
and pain, (4) sleep disturbance, (5) fever, and (6)        that triggers their differentiation into skeletal muscle
enlargement of cervical lymph nodes.                       fibers. These cells can then be tested not only for the
     Attempts to link either fibromyalgia or CFS to a      signs of muscular dystrophy but for indications of
viral infection or to some physical or psychological       other inherited muscular disorders.
trauma have not been successful, and the cause
                                                           MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Myotonic dystrophy is
remains unknown. Treatment is limited to relieving
                                                           a form of muscular dystrophy that occurs in the
symptoms when possible. For example, anti-inflam-
                                                           united states at an incidence of 13.5 per 100,000
matory medications may help relieve pain, drugs
                                                           population. Symptoms may develop in infancy, but
can be used to promote sleep, and exercise pro-
                                                           more often develop after puberty. As with other
grams may help maintain normal range of motion.
                                                           forms of muscular dystrophy, adults developing
                                                           myotonic dystrophy experience a gradual reduction
     The Muscular Dystrophies
                                                           in muscle strength and control. Problems with other
                                            EAP p. 185     systems, especially cardiovascular and digestive sys-
The muscular dystrophies (DIS-tr|-fƒz) are inher-          tems, often develop. There is no effective treatment.
ited diseases that produce progressive muscle                  The inheritance of myotonic dystrophy is
weakness and deterioration. One of the most com-           unusual because children of an individual with
mon and best understood conditions is                      myotonic dystrophy commonly develop more severe
Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD). This                  symptoms than those of the parent. The increased
form of muscular dystrophy appears in childhood,           severity of the condition appears to be related to
often between the ages of 3 and 7. The condition           the presence of multiple copies of a specific gene on
generally affects only males. A progressive muscu-         chromosome 19. For some reason, the nucleotide
lar weakness develops, and the individual usually          sequence of that gene gets repeated several times,
dies before age 20 because of respiratory paralysis.       and the number can increase from generation to
Skeletal muscles are primarily affected, although          generation. This has been called a “genetic stutter.”
for some reason the facial muscles continue to             The greater the number of copies, the more severe
function normally. In later stages of the disease,         the symptoms. It is not known why the stutter
the facial muscles and cardiac muscle tissue may           develops, nor how the genetic duplication affects
also become involved.                                      the severity of the condition.
    The skeletal muscle fibers in a person with
DMD patient are structurally different from those                Botulism                           EAP p. 184
of other individuals. Abnormal membrane perme-             Botulinus (bot-≈-LI¯-nus) toxin prevents the release
ability, cholesterol content, rates of protein synthe-     of ACh at the synaptic terminal. It thus produces a
sis, and enzyme composition have been reported.            severe and potentially fatal paralysis of skeletal
DMD sufferers also lack a protein, called dys-             muscles. A case of botulinus poisoning is called
trophin, found in normal muscle fibers. It is              botulism.1 The toxin is produced by a bacterium,
attached to the inner surface of the sarcolemma            Clostridium botulinum, that does not need oxygen to
near the triads. Although the functions of this pro-       grow and reproduce. Because the organism can live
tein remain uncertain, dystrophin is suspected to
play a role in the regulation of calcium ion chan-         1 This disorder was described 200 years ago by German
nels in the sarcolemma. In children with DMD, cal-         physicians treating patients poisoned by dining on contami-
cium channels remain open for an extended period,          nated sausages. Botulus is the Latin word for sausage.
    66    The Body Systems: Clinical and Applied Topics

    quite well in a sealed can or jar, most cases of botu-   unknown reasons, women are affected twice as
    lism are linked to improper canning or storing pro-      often as men. Estimates of the incidence of this
    cedures, followed by failure to cook the food            disease in the United States range from 2 to 10
    adequately before eating. Canned tuna or beets,          cases per 100,000 population.
    smoked fish, and cold soups have most often been             One approach to therapy involves the adminis-
    involved with cases of botulism. Boiling for a half      tration of drugs, such as neostigmine, that are
    hour destroys both the toxin and the bacteria.           termed cholinesterase inhibitors. As their name
        Symptoms usually begin 12–36 hours after eat-        implies, these compounds are enzyme inhibitors;
    ing a contaminated meal. The initial symptoms are        they tie up the active sites at which cholinesterase
    often disturbances in vision, such as seeing double      normally binds ACh. With cholinesterase activity
    or a painful sensitivity to bright lights. These         reduced, the concentration of ACh at the synapse
    symptoms are followed by other sensory and motor         can rise enough to stimulate the surviving receptors
    problems, including blurred speech and an inabili-       and produce muscle contraction.
    ty to stand or walk. Roughly half of botulism
    patients experience intense nausea and vomiting.              Polio                                  EAP p. 184
7   These symptoms persist for a variable period (days
                                                             Because skeletal muscles depend on their motor
    to weeks), followed by a gradual recovery; some
                                                             neurons for stimulation, disorders that affect the
    patients are still recovering after a year.
                                                             nervous system can have an indirect affect on the
        The major risk of botulinus poisoning is respi-
                                                             muscular system. The poliovirus is a virus that
    ratory paralysis and death by suffocation.
                                                             does not produce clinical symptoms in roughly 95
    Treatment is supportive: bed rest, observation,
                                                             percent of infected individuals. The virus produces
    and, if necessary, use of a mechanical respirator.
                                                             variable symptoms in the remaining 5 percent.
    In severe cases drugs that promote the release of
                                                             Some individuals develop a nonspecific illness
    ACh, such as guanidine hydrochloride, may be
                                                             resembling the flu. A second group of individuals
    administered. The overall mortality rate in the
                                                             develop a brief meningitis (p. 74), an inflammation
    United States is about 10 percent.
                                                             of the protective membranes surrounding the CNS.
                                                             In the third group of people, the virus attacks
         Myasthenia Gravis                    EAP p. 184     somatic motor neurons in the CNS.
    Myasthenia gravis (mª-as-TH¬-nƒ-uh GRA-vis) is                In this third form of the disease, the individual
    characterized by a general muscular weakness that        develops a fever 7–14 days after infection. The fever
    is often most pronounced in the muscles of the           subsides, but recurs roughly a week later, accom-
    arms, head, and chest. The first symptom is usual-       panied by muscle pain, cramping, and paralysis of
    ly a weakness of the eye muscles and drooping eye-       one or more limbs. Respiratory paralysis may also
    lids. Facial muscles are often weak as well, and the     occur, and the mortality rate for this form of polio
    individual develops a peculiar smile known as the        is 2–5 percent for children and 15–30 percent of
    “myasthenic snarl.” As the disease progresses,           adults. If the individual survives, some degree of
    pharyngeal weakness leads to problems with chew-         recovery usually occurs over a period of up to 6
    ing and swallowing, and it becomes difficult to hold     months.
    the head upright.                                             For unknown reasons, the survivors of paralyt-
        The muscles of the upper chest and upper             ic polio may develop progressive muscular weak-
    extremities are next to be affected. All the volun-      ness 20–30 years after the initial infection. This
    tary muscles of the body may ultimately be               postpolio syndrome is characterized by fatigue,
    involved. Severe myasthenia gravis produces respi-       muscle pain, and weakness, and, in some cases,
    ratory paralysis, with a mortality rate of 5–10 per-     muscular atrophy. There is no treatment for this
    cent. However, the disease does not always               condition, although rest seems to help.
    progress to such a life-threatening stage. For                Polio has been almost completely eliminated
    example, roughly 20 percent of patients experience       from the U.S. population due to a successful
    eye problems with no other symptoms.                     immunization program. In 1954 there were 18,000
        The condition results from a decrease in the         new cases in the United States; there were 8 in
    number of ACh receptors on the motor end plate.          1976, and none since 1994. The World Health
    Before the remaining receptors can be stimulated         Organization now reports that polio has been erad-
    enough to trigger a strong contraction, the ACh          icated from the entire Western Hemisphere.
    molecules are destroyed by cholinesterase. As a          Unfortunately, many parents refuse to immunize
    result, muscular weakness develops.                      their children against the poliovirus, because they
        The primary cause of myasthenia gravis               assume that the disease has been “conquered.”
    appears to be a malfunction of the immune system.        Failure to immunize is a mistake because (1) there
    Roughly 70 percent of the individuals with myas-         is still no cure for polio, (2) the virus remains in the
    thenia gravis have an abnormal thymus, an organ          environment in many areas of the world, and (3) up
    involved with the maintenance of normal immune           to 38 percent of children ages 1–4 have not been
    function. In myasthenia gravis, the immune               immunized. A major epidemic could therefore
    response attacks the ACh receptors of the motor          develop very quickly if the virus were brought into
    end plate as if they were foreign proteins. For          the United States from another part of the world.
                                                                               The Muscular System       67

                                                         abdominal organs slide into the thoracic cavity,
     Hernias                               EAP p. 204
                                                         most often through the esophageal hiatus, the
When the abdominal muscles contract forcefully,          opening used by the esophagus. The severity of the
pressure in the abdominopelvic cavity can increase       condition will depend on the location and size of
dramatically, and those pressures are applied to         the herniated organ(s). Hiatal hernias are actually
internal organs. If the individual exhales at the same   very common, and most go unnoticed. Radiologists
time, the pressure is relieved, because the              see them in about 30 percent of individuals whose
diaphragm can move upward as the lungs collapse.         upper gastrointestinal tracts are examined with
But during vigorous isometric exercises or when lift-    barium contrast techniques. When clinical compli-
ing a weight while holding one’s breath, pressure in     cations develop, they usually occur because
the abdominopelvic cavity can rise to 106 kg/cm2         abdominal organs that have pushed into the tho-
(1500 lb/in.2), roughly 100 times normal pressures.      racic cavity are exerting pressure on structures or
Pressures this high can cause a variety of problems,     organs there. As is the case with inguinal hernias,
among them the development of a hernia.                  a diaphragmatic hernia may result from congenital
    A hernia develops when a visceral organ pro-         factors or from an injury that weakens or tears the
trudes abnormally through an opening in a muscu-         diaphragmatic muscle.
lar wall or partition. There are many types of
                                                                                                                7
hernias; we will consider only inguinal (groin) her-          Sports Injuries                    EAP p. 208
nias and diaphragmatic hernias here.
    Late in the development of the male, the testes      Sports injuries affect amateurs and professionals
descend into the scrotum by passing through the          alike. A 5-year study of college football players
abdominal wall at the inguinal canals. In the adult      indicated that 73.5 percent experienced mild
male, the spermatic ducts and associated blood           injuries, 21.5 percent moderate injuries, and 11.6
vessels penetrate the abdominal musculature at           percent severe injuries during their playing
the inguinal canals on their way to the abdominal        careers. Contact sports are not the only activities
reproductive organs. In an inguinal hernia, the          that show a significant injury rate; a study of 1650
inguinal canal enlarges, and the abdominal con-          joggers running at least 27 miles per week reported
tents such as a portion of the intestine (or more        1819 injuries in a single year.
rarely the bladder) are forced into the inguinal             Muscles and bones respond to increased use
canal (Figure A-24). If the herniated structures         by enlarging and strengthening. Poorly conditioned
become trapped or twisted within the inguinal sac,       individuals are therefore more likely to subject
surgery may be required to prevent serious compli-       their bones and muscles to intolerable stresses
cations. Inguinal hernias are not always caused by       than are people in good condition. Training is also
unusually high abdominal pressures. Injuries to          important in minimizing the use of antagonistic
the abdomen, or inherited weakness or distensibili-      muscle groups and keeping joint movements within
ty of the canal, may have the same effect.               the intended ranges of motion. Planned warm-up
    The esophagus and major blood vessels pass           exercises before athletic events stimulate circula-
through an opening in the diaphragm, the muscle          tion, improve muscular performance and control,
that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic           and help prevent injuries to muscles, joints, and
cavities. In a diaphragmatic hernia, also called a       ligaments. Stretching exercises stimulate muscle
hiatal hernia (hª-£-tal; hiatus, a gap or opening),      circulation and help keep ligaments and joint cap-
                                                         sules supple. Such conditioning extends the range
                                                         of motion and prevents sprains and strains when
                                                         sudden loads are applied.
                                                             Dietary planning can also be important in pre-
                                                         venting injuries to muscles during endurance
                                                         events, such as marathon running. Emphasis has
                                                         often been placed on the importance of carbohy-
                          Inguinal                       drates, leading to the practice of “carbohydrate
     External               canal
    abdominal                                            loading” before a marathon. But while operating
      oblique                             Inguinal       within aerobic limits, muscles also utilize amino
                                           hernia        acids extensively, so an adequate diet must include
        External                                         both carbohydrates and proteins.
        inguinal                                             Improved playing conditions, equipment, and
          ring                       Herniated
                                     intestine           regulations also play a role in reducing the inci-
              Spermatic                                  dence of sports injuries. Jogging shoes, ankle or
                cord
                                                         knee braces, helmets, and body padding are exam-
                                                         ples of equipment that can be effective. The sub-
                                                         stantial penalties now earned for personal fouls in
                                                         contact sports have reduced the numbers of neck
                                                         and knee injuries.
                                                             Several injuries common to those engaged in
Figure A-24     An Inguinal Hernia                       active sports may also affect nonathletes, although
68     The Body Systems: Clinical and Applied Topics

the primary causes may differ. A partial listing of
activity-related conditions includes the following:
                                                             Carpal Tunnel Syndrome EAP p. 211
                                                        Tenosynovitis is the inflammation of a tendon
•    Bone bruise: Bleeding within the periosteum of
                                                        sheath. Carpal tunnel syndrome results from
     a bone
                                                        tenosynovitis of the tendon sheath surrounding the
•    Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae around        flexor tendons of the palm. The inflammation leads
     one or more joints                                 to compression of the median nerve, a mixed (sen-
•    Muscle cramps: Prolonged, involuntary, and         sory and motor) nerve that innervates the palm.
     painful muscular contractions                      Symptoms include pain, especially on palmar flex-
                                                        ion, a tingling sensation or numbness on the palm,
•    Sprains: Tears or breaks in ligaments or tendons
                                                        and weakness in the abductor pollicis. This condi-
•    Strains: Tears in muscles                          tion is fairly common and often strikes those
•    Stress fractures: Cracks or breaks in bones        engaged in repetitive hand movements, such as
     subjected to repeated stresses or trauma           typing, working at a computer keyboard, or playing
                                                        the piano. Treatment involves administration of
•    Tendinitis: Inflammation of the connective tis-    anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, injection
     sue surrounding a tendon                           of anti-inflammatory agents, such as glucocorti-
Many of these conditions have been discussed in         coids (steroid hormones produced by the adrenal
previous chapters.                                      cortex), and use of splints to prevent wrist flexion
    Finally, many sports injuries would be prevent-     and stabilize the region.
ed if people who engage in regular exercise used            Carpal tunnel syndrome is an example of a
common sense and recognized their personal limi-        cumulative trauma disorder, or overuse syndrome.
tations. It can be argued that some athletic events,    These disorders are caused by repetitive move-
such as the ultramarathon, place such excessive         ments of the arms, hands, and fingers. These mus-
stresses on the cardiovascular, muscular, respira-      culoskeletal problems now account for over 50
tory, and urinary systems that they cannot be rec-      percent of all work-related injuries in the United
ommended, even for athletes in peak condition.          States.




CRITICAL-THINKING QUESTIONS                                 c. increase the force and strength of muscle
                                                            contractions
    3-1. A patient experiencing a severe hyper-
kalemia could have the following related problems:      CeCe answers this question correctly but becomes
                                                        immediately concerned about this effect on a select
     a. a below-normal potassium ion concentration      group of skeletal muscles. What is CeCe concerned
     of the interstitial fluid                          about?
     b. a more-negative membrane potential of               3-3. Tom broke his right leg in a football game.
     nerves and muscles                                 After six weeks in a cast, the cast is finally
     c. unresponsive skeletal muscles and cardiac       removed, and when he takes his first few steps, he
     arrest                                             loses his balance and falls. What is the most likely
     d. muscle weakness and increased strength of       explanation?
     twitch contractions                                    a. the bone fracture is not completely healed
     e. all of the above                                    b. the right leg muscles have atrophied due to
    3-2. Making hospital rounds, Dr. R., an anes-           disuse
thesiologist, meets with a first-semester anatomy           c. Tom has an undiagnosed neuromuscular
and physiology student named CeCe who is sched-             disorder
uled for surgery the next day. Having just finished         3-4. Samples of muscle tissue are taken from a
the unit on skeletal muscles and the nervous sys-       champion tennis player and a nonathlete of the
tem, CeCe is eager to learn about the anesthesia        same age and gender. Both samples are subjected
that will be used during the surgery. Dr. R.            to enzyme analysis. How would you expect the two
explains he will be using a drug, succinyl choline,     samples to differ?
that competes with acetylcholine and blocks the
action of this neurotransmitter at the neuromuscu-          3-5. Calvin steps into a pothole and twists his
lar junction. What effect will this have on CeCe’s      ankle. He is in a great deal of pain and cannot stand.
skeletal muscles?                                       In the hospital, the examining physician notes that
                                                        Calvin can plantar flex and dorsiflex the foot, but he
     a. produce paralysis of all the skeletal muscles   cannot perform inversion without extreme pain.
     b. cause tetany of the skeletal muscles            Which muscle has probably been injured?
        The Muscular System   69

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Description: This is an example of muscular system diseases. This document is useful in studying the muscular system diseases.
Mary Jean Menintigar Mary Jean Menintigar
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