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functions of the digestive system

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					           Medical Health Pathway & Science @ West Hills High School




      Anatomy & PHYSIOLOGY
 Digestive System
List and define the functions of the digestive system.

Describe where chemical and physical digestion occurs.

Describe the layers of the alimentary tube wall (the tunics), note the composition of each.

Explain how food moves through the alimentary tube (or canal). (peristalsis & segmentation & excretion)

Describe the swallowing reflex. (buccal, pharyngeal, esophageal phases)

Know the functions & location of the major salivary glands.

Name the components and functions of gastric juice.

Define the following terms:
       Mastication            mucins                peristalsis
       Bolus                  chyme                 emulsification
Understand the functions and secretions of the following cell types:
       Serous cells           parietal cells        enteroendocrine cells
       Mucous cell            chief cells
       Goblet cell            epithelial cells
Understand the functions of the following enzymes and where each come from:
       Amylase                nucleases                     lactase
       Lipase                 peptidases                    sucrase
       trypsin(ogen)          chymotrypsin                  maltase
       Pepsin(ogen)           (pro)carboxypeptidase

Explain how the structure of the small intestines helps in absorption.

Explain how the duodenum gets help in digestion from the liver, gall bladder & pancreas.

Explain why the digestive enzymes do not digest the cells that secrete them.

List and understand the major functions of the liver.

Explain how the liver “cleans” the blood of the microorganisms and worn out RBC’s.

List and understand the functions of the major components of bile.

Describe the following disorders of the digestive system:
  Peritonitis                gallstones              vomiting (emisis)          nausea
  Heart burn                 jaudice                 ulcer (peptic, gastric & duodenal)
  Hepatitis (A & B,C,D,E) anorexia (a. nervosa) bulimia                         dyspepsia
               Medical Health Pathway & Science @ West Hills High School
                                         Urinary System
Be able to describe the functions of the urinary system.

Describe the path of flow of urine through the urinary system.

Be able to describe the blood supply to, within and from the kidneys.

Describe the structure and function of the nephron. Be able to trace filtrate through the nephron.

Describe and differentiate the renal medulla and the renal cortex.

Explain how ADH regulates the blood composition by affecting the kidneys.

Explain the functions of rennin.

Explain how urine is formed.

Identify the components of the urinary system and the kidney from cat*, model or diagram:
  Kidney*                         capsule*                      Minor & major calyx
  Hilus*                          cortex*                       papilla of pyramid
  Medulla*                        pelvis*                       lobe
  Renal pyramids                  nephron                       renal column

Identify the components of the nephron from models and diagrams.
  Glomerulus                             distal convoluted tubule
  Proximal convoluted tubule             collecting duct
  Bowmans capsule                        loop of Henle

Identify the components of the bladder* and urethra*.
   Ureter*                               detrusor muscle
   Internal & external sphincter         trigone
   Transitional epithelium (slide)       rugae

Identify the main branches of arteries and veins in the kidney:
   Renal (vein/artery)                           afferent arteriole
   Efferent arteriole                            peritubular capillaries
   Segmental, interlobar, arcuate, interlobular arteries
   Interlobular, arcuate, interlobar veins
              Medical Health Pathway & Science @ West Hills High School



Endocrine
Describe the different types of hormones. Be able to give examples of each.

Be able to describe the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Its structure and how it functions.

Explain, in general, how these hormones work and are transported.

Compare exocrine and endocrine glands.

For each of the following glands:     1) name all major hormones produced (see last page)
                                      2) give a brief function of each hormone
                                      3) know, identify the gland’s location (*on cat)

   hypothalamus
   ovary*
   parathyroid
   thyroid*
   thymus*
   adrenal cortex*
   pancreas*
   testes*
   anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
   posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
   pineal gland

Describe the following health applications:
  Type I diabetes mellitus          Type II diabetes mellitus           diabetes insipidus
  Grave’s disease                   hypo- / hyperthyroidism             goiter
              Medical Health Pathway & Science @ West Hills High School

                                     Reproductive System
Know the hormones involves with reproduction and where they are produced.

Understand the general hormonal and anatomical changes that occur during pregnancy.

Identify the following structures from a model, diagram, or cat* and know their general functions:

   Male                                         Female
    Testis*                                       infundibulum
    Scrotum                                       ovary*
    Seminiferous tubule                           vagina
    Epididymis                                    fimbriae
    Ductus deferens (vas deferens)*               uterine (fallopian) tube*
    Seminal vesicle                               cervix
    Bulbourethral gland                           broad ligament
    Penis                                         labium majora
    Glans penis                                   labium minora
    Inguinal ring                                 clitoris
    Prostrate gland                               uterus*
    Ejaculatory cord*                             mons pubis
    Spermatic cord*                               vulva
    Corpora cavernosum                            vaginal and urethral orifices
    Corpus spongiosum                             hymen
                                                  Mammary glands

Understand the functions and be able to identify these structures from slides or modles.
   Testes: seminiferour tubules, intersititial cells, sertoli cells
   Spermatids
   Sperm: spermatocyte, head, acrosome, midpiece, tail
   Ovary: follicles (primary, secondary, Graafian), oocyte, corpus luteum, corpus albicans
   Corona radiata
   Uterine wall: endometrium, myometrium, serosa (perimetrium)
   Placenta
                Medical Health Pathway & Science @ West Hills High School
Gland                                    Hormones
Pineal Gland – Melatonin

Hypothalamus – releasing & inhibiting hormones for anterior pituitary

Anterior pituitary-               1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
(adenohypophysis)                 2. Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH)
                                  3. Leutinizing hormone (LH)
                                  4. Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH)
                                  5. Growth hormone
                                  6. Prolactin (PRL)
                                  7. Melanocyte Stimulating hormone (MSH)

Posterior pituitary -             1. Oxytocin
(neurohypophysis)                 2. vasopressin or Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Parathyroid – Parathyroid hormone

Thyroid – The thyroid hormones (TH):            1. Triiodothyronine (T3)
                                                2. Tetraiodothyronine (T4)

Thymus – Thymosin (combo of several different hormones)

Adrenal cortex -                  1. Glucocorticoids (dominant = cortisol)
                                  2. Mineralocorticoids (dominant = aldosterone)
                                  3. Sex Hormones (especially androgens)

Pancreas -          1. Insulin
                    2. Glucagon
                    3. Somatostatin

Testes -     Sex hormones – dominated by androgens, especially testosterone

Ovary - 1. Sex hormones – dominated by estrogens, especially estradiol- 17

Chorion – Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) – first maternal- fetal connection

Placenta - 1. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) – the 1st trimester
           2. Progesterone – the 2nd & 3rd trimesters

				
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Richard Cataman Richard Cataman
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