muscular system diagram

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					                                  Human Body
                                    Systems




                                  By Deanne Erdmann, M.S.




                                    BioEd Online




Levels of Organization in the Body

 Cells
 Tissues
    Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
 Organs
    Examples include stomach, liver, heart
 Organ Systems
    Examples include digestive and circulatory systems




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Tissues in the Human Body

 Epithelial
    Covering or lining tissue
 Connective                                     Blood

    Joins, stores and supports
 Muscle
   Internal and external movement
                                                Muscle
 Nerve
    Conducts electrical signals
                                                 Nerve



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Human Organ Systems

Skeletal                 Muscular
Circulatory              Immune
Respiratory              Digestive
Excretory                Reproductive
Nervous                  Endocrine
Integumentary




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Human Skeletal System

 Functions
    Framework and support
    Protection
    Storage
 Axial and appendicular skeleton
 Bone structure
 Joints and ligaments




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                       Human Skeleton Diagram
                                                    Skull


                       Scapula                     Clavicle
                      Humerus                         Sternum
                                                   Ribs
                         Ulna
                       Radius
                    Carpals
               Metacarpals
                                                    Pelvis
                Phalanges
                                                    Femur
                                                    Patella
             Fibula
                                                    Tibia
             Tarsals
       Metatarsals
        Phalanges

 Phalanges
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                        Compact Bone Tissue




                                                            Haversian system


Blood vessels
                                                             Osteocyte




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  Human Muscular System
                            Functions
                               Movement
                               Warmth
                               Posture
                            Muscle Properties
                               Ability to contract
                               Ability to be stretched
                               Ability to respond to a stimulus
                            Muscle Types
                               Skeletal
                               Smooth
                               Cardiac


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   Human Muscular System Diagram


                         Deltoid
                      Pectoralis major
                      Biceps brachi


                     Gluteus maximus
                      Rectus femoris




                      Gastrocnemius




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  Three Types of Human Muscle Tissue

  Skeletal



                           Smooth



                                           Cardiac




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        Skeletal Muscle Contraction



             Myosin


             Actin




               Sarcomere




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 Human Circulatory System

   Transports nutrients, gases, wastes, water, and
   hormones and also distributes heat
   Structures of circulatory system
      Heart
      Vessels
      Blood
   Lymphatic system
                                      Erythrocytes
                                                       White blood cells




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                   Diagram of Human Heart


                                                 Aorta

Superior vena cava
                                                     Pulmonary artery

                                                      Left atrium
   Right atrium
                                                       Mitral Valve
 Tricuspid Valve

                                                       Left Ventricle
 Right Ventricle

                   Anterior
                   view


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 Human Immune System

   Nonspecific defense responses
      Skin and mucous membranes
      Inflammatory response
      Temperature
      Proteins
      White blood cells
   Specific immune responses
      Humoral immunity
      Cell-mediated immunity



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Disease Prevention in Humans

 Identifying Pathogens - Koch’s Postulates
 Vaccination - Edward Jenner
 Disorders
    Allergies
    Autoimmune disease
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome




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Human Respiratory System

 Respiration is gas exchange between an organism and
 the environment
 Respiratory structures include the nose, pharynx,
 larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
 Mechanics of Breathing
 Respiratory Diseases                 Exhalation



                                               Inhalation




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       Human Respiratory System Diagram



     Nasal Passage
                                       Pharynx

              Larynx
                                         Trachea


Bronchioles                                  Bronchus



   Alveoli



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Human Digestive System

 Digestion is the breakdown of nutrients to a level that
 can be used by cells of the body.
 Structures
    GI tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,
    small intestine, large intestine)
    Accessory (teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall
    bladder, pancreas)
 Nutrition




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            Human Digestive System Diagram


               Mouth                   Pharynx


            Esophagus


                Liver                    Stomach
                                         Large Intestine

                                         Small Intestine
    Villi




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Human Excretory System

 Excretion is the removal of metabolic wastes from the
 body, including toxic chemicals, excess water, carbon
 dioxide and salts.
 Excretory Organs
    Skin
    Lungs
    Kidneys




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               Human Urinary System Diagram




                                                  Nephron


      Kidney
                                Kidney
     Ureter


    Urinary
    Bladder

    Urethra



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  Human Reproductive System

    Produces gametes (eggs and sperm)
    Fertilization – produce zygote
    Male Reproductive System
         Testes
         Epididymus, vas deferens, urethra, seminal vesicle,
         prostate gland, Cowper’s gland
    Female Reproductive System
         Ovary
         Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina



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               Human Male Reproductive System


Urinary bladder
   Vas deferens
 Prostate gland                                        Seminal vesicle

                                                      Epididymus
       Urethra

         Penis




                                                        Testis




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      Human Female Reproductive System

                          Fallopian tube
                          Uterus
                          Urinary bladder
                          Vagina

                               Anterior View

         Sagittal
          View



  Fallopian tube                                  Uterus

         Ovary                                      Vagina




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Human Endocrine System

 The endocrine system consists of ductless glands that
 produce hormones.
    Hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid,
    parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary,
    testes
 Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through
 the blood stream and affect activities throughout the
 body.
    Steroid hormones
    Nonsteroid hormones



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       Human Endocrine System Diagram


 Hypothalamus and
    Pituitary gland

                                   Thyroid and
                                   Parathyroid glands
        Thymus



  Adrenal gland                      Pancreas


                                            Ovary



          Testis




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 Human Nervous System

   Controls and coordinates functions throughout the
   body
   Neurons are specialized cells that transmit impulses
   throughout the body.
   Nervous System
     Central Nervous System
      Peripheral Nervous System
             Somatic
             Autonomic




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                  Human Neuron Diagram



  Dendrite                        Cell body


                                     Myelin sheath
     Axon                               Node of Ranvier
                                                     Axon
                                                      terminals




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                  Diagram of Human Brain

                                                     Cerebrum



                                                     Corpus
                                                      callosum
   Thalamus
Hypothalamus



              Midbrain
                                                      Cerebellum
                   Pons
                 Medulla
                 oblongata
                   Spinal cord




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Human Integumentary System

 Consists of the skin, hair, and nails
 Skin
    Epidermis
    Dermis
 Subcutaneous tissue
 Hair and nails




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Homeostasis:
Regulating the Internal Environment

 A controlled, stable internal environment
 Gains and losses must balance
 Control systems
    Receptor, control center, effector
    Feedback loops
        Negative feedback
        Positive feedback




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Thank You

 This concludes a brief review of the human body
 systems.
 You may find additional information on this section of
 Domain IV, The Diversity of Life, in the expanded
 content talks, and in the notes attached to each slide in
 the library.




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