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                       STANDING ORDERS


       These Standing Orders for The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery replace those
issued on 01 February 1999.

         These Standing Orders reaffirm the customs and traditions of The Royal Regiment, and
reflect current organizations and dress regulations.

       All Gunners must be aware of the customs and traditions of The Royal Regiment. They
must strive to uphold this heritage and to enhance the great reputation that The Royal Regiment
of Canadian Artillery has established over the years. To do less is to break faith with those
Gunners who have preceded us and to diminish the inheritance of those who will follow.

R.P. Beaudry, CD                                           S.J. Gillies, CD
Brigadier-General                                          Colonel
Colonel Commandant                                         Director of Artillery

01 February 2001

               THE MOTTOS








                          AMENDMENT LIST

AL #   Signature   AL #    Signature       AL #   Signature


ARTICLE                                                                                                 PAGE

PREFACE………………………………………………………………………… i

CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION…………………………….............………… 1-1

101   Historical Introduction……………………………………………………. 1-1
102   Titles……………………………………………..………………………… 1-1
103   Lineages………………………………………….………………………... 1-2
104   Precedence..........................................................................….....…………. 1-2
105   Battle Honours, Mottos and Arms…………………...………….….….….. 1-4
106   Alliances………………………………………….…………...……….….. 1-4
107   The Home Station………………………………………..…...…………… 1-4
108   The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Home Messes............….......... 1-5
109   Honorary Membership in Artillery Officers’ Messes...............……............ 1-6

CHAPTER 2 - REGIMENTAL ORGANIZATION..............………...................2-1

201   General...................................................………………...............................   2-1
202   Royal and Honorary Appointments....................…………..........................                 2-1
203   The Captain-General............................…..........…………….......................            2-1
204   The Colonel Commandant................................……………........................               2-2
205   Honorary Colonels and Lieutenant-Colonels...............………....................                   2-4
206   The Artillery Council................................…………………........................              2-4
207   The Director of Artillery......................………….........................................      2-4
208   The Commander Home Station...............…………..............…...................                   2-8
209   Regimental Headquarters The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.......                           2-9
210   The Royal Canadian Artillery Association.....……………..........................                      2-10


301   The RCA Regimental Fund - General................…………........................... 3-1
302   Fund Operations....................................…………........................................ 3-1
303   Non-Public Property...................................……......….…........................... 3-3
304   The RCA Museum..............................................…….................................. 3-4
305   The RCA Kit Shop........................................................……........................ 3-4

ARTICLE                                                                                                   PAGE

CHAPTER 4 - COLOURS AND BADGES.........................……...….................. 4-1

401     General.......................………………..........................................................    4-1
402     The Royal Cypher...........…………….........................................................         4-1
403     Arms of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery..........…….................                     4-2
404     Badges and Crests.....................................…………….……………..........                       4-3
405     The Grenade............................……………….............................................        4-4
406     Colours...............................…………………..............................................       4-4
407     The King’s Banner............………………...................................................            4-5
408     The Royal Canadian Artillery Standard.....…………..................................                  4-6
409     The Artillery Flag......................………………...........................................         4-7
410     Artillery Pennants...............………………..................................................         4-8
411     The Corps Colour of The Royal Regiment..................................................          4-10

CHAPTER 5 - DRILL AND CEREMONIAL.................…....……..................... 5-1

501     General.............................................…………….…...................................    5-1
502     The Right of the Line.....................……………..........................................         5-1
503     Drill................................…………………..................................................    5-2
504     Artillery Gun Salutes.................……………..............................................         5-2
505     Wedding Ceremonies..........…………….....................................................            5-3
506     Military Funerals.................................……………….................................         5-3
507     Notification of Death of Serving and Former Members of
        The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery..........……...............................               5-4
508     Artillery Change of Command Parades......………….................................                    5-5
509     Change of RSM Ceremonies............…………….......................................                  5-6

CHAPTER 6 - MUSIC...................…………….................................................... 6-1

601     General..................................………………...............................................    6-1
602     Regimental Marches.........................…………….......................................           6-1
603     The Royal Artillery Slow March.........……………....................................                  6-2
604     British Grenadiers.....................……………...............................................       6-2
605     The Screw Guns....................................………………...............................           6-2
606     Commanding Officer’s Trumpeter..........…………....….............................                    6-2
607     Regimental Calls...........................................……………...........................       6-3
608     Bands..................................................................………………..................   6-3

ARTICLE                                                                                                 PAGE

CHAPTER 7 - ARTILLERY CUSTOMS.................….....…….......................... 7-1

701     General....................……………….............................................................. 7-1
702     Artillery Day.............………………............................................................ 7-1
703     The Artillery Birthday…………………………………....……….....……. 7-1
704     St. Barbara.................................………………........................................... 7-1
705     Artillery Neck Tie...................……………….............................................. 7-2
706     Unit Birthdays..........................……......…………....................................... 7-2
707     Artillery Memorials...........................…….……...……................................ 7-3
708     The National Artillery Memorial......................…………............................ 7-3
709     Canoe River Memorial.....................................…………....…..................... 7-4
710     Major Short/Staff-Sergeant Wallick Memorial...........….....……................. 7-4
711     The Silver (Korea) Gun...............................…………….............................. 7-4
712     The Royal Canadian Dragoons Mounted Trooper......…….....…................. 7-4
713     Forms of Address............…………….......................................................... 7-5
714     Calling Cards.....................……………….................................................... 7-6

CHAPTER 8 - DRESS..........................……………............................................. 8-1

801     General........................................……………….......................................... 8-1
802     Ceremonial Dress...........................……………......…................................. 8-1
803     Regimental Full Dress - General.................………...…............................... 8-2
804     Regimental Full Dress - RCHA.................……………............................... 8-2
805     Regimental Full Dress - RCA..................……………................................. 8-3
806     RCA Band Parade Dress.................................…………….......................... 8-3
807     RCA Band Concert Dress....................……………..................................... 8-4
808     RCA Band Accoutrements...........................……………............................ 8-5
809     Historical Period Dress..........................……………................................... 8-5
810     Mess Dress........................................………………................................... 8-6
811     Army Service Dress................……………................................................. 8-9
812     Operational Dress.........................………………….................................... 8-11
813     Ceremonial Accoutrements................…….................................................. 8-11
814     Swords.........…………………………………............................................. 8-11
815     Sword Slings and Sword Knot..................................................................... 8-12
816     White Waist Belt.......…………………………............................................ 8-12
817     Canes and Pace Sticks.......................………............................................... 8-13
818     Instructors-in-Gunnery and Assistant Instructors-in-Gunnery..................... 8-13
819     Regimental Tie................…………............................................................. 8-13
820     Regimental Scarf.......……………............................................................... 8-14
821     Regimental Blazer..........…………….......................................................... 8-14
822     Wearing of Medals and Insignia................................................................... 8-14
823     The Artillery Lanyard..........………………………..................................... 8-14
824     RCA Track Suit.................……………………........................................... 8-15

ARTICLE                                                                                                  PAGE

CHAPTER 9 - GUEST NIGHTS..........................……...……….......................... 9-1

901     General...............................………………..................................................   9-1
902     Conduct of Guest Nights..................……………........................................           9-1
903     Customs and Procedures...........……………................................................           9-3
904     Deportment.....................………………......................................................      9-5
905     Music.....................................…………………...........................................     9-5

          OF CANADIAN ARTILLERY.................…....………................. 10-l

1001 Introduction...............………………............................................................ 10-2
1002 Battle Honours and Colours…….................................................................. 10-2
1003 Early Militia Artillery 1636-1870………..................................................... 10-2
1004 The Formation of Canada’s Permanent Force - 1871................................... 10-3
1005 Formation of The North West Mounted Police - 1873................................. 10-4
1006 The Father of Canadian Artillery……………………………..….....……... 10-4
1007 The North West Rebellion – 1885…………………………….……..……. 10-5
1008 The Yukon Field Force 1898-1899............................................................... 10-5
1009 The South African War 1899-1902.............................................................. 10-6
1010 Turn of the Century – The Pre-War Years……………………...………… 10-7
1011 The First World War 1914-1918……………………………….……..…... 10-8
1012 The Inter-War Period 1919-1938…………………………….………..….. 10-10
1013 The Second World War 1939-1945……………………………………….. 10-11
1014 Post-War Vigilance………………………………………………….......… 10-14
1015 The Korean Conflict 1950-1953…............................................................... 10-15
1016 Reserve Force Artillery in Post-Second World War Canada……..………. 10-15
1017 Service with the NATO Brigade 1951-1992…………………….……..…. 10-16
1018 Re-Arming and Reorganizing – The Mid-1950’s Through to the Present... 10-16
1019 Operations Other Than War…………………………………….…..…….. 10-18
1020 The Gulf War – 1991………………………………………………..……. 10-19
1021 The Artillery Bands……………………………………………….….…… 10-19
1022 The 125th Anniversary Celebrations – 1996…………………………..…... 10-20
1023 Conclusion……………………………………………………………...…. 10-23
1024 References…………………………………………………………………. 10-24


                                           LIST OF ANNEXES

ANNEX                                                                                                       PAGE


Annex A -    Grouping of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.……….......1A-l
Annex B -    Unit Titles and Precedence in The Royal Regiment
             of Canadian Artillery......……....................................………….........1B-l
Annex C -    The Organization of Canadian Artillery Units and Formations
             at Various Times ................................................................................ 1C-1


Annex A -    Colonels Commandant of The Royal Regiment of Canadian
             Artillery............................……………………................................... 2A-1
Annex B -    Officers Administering Royal Canadian Artillery and
             Directors of Artillery or Equivalent.......................…….................... 2B-l
Annex C -    Commanders of A3 CATC Shilo and Commanders Home Station
             The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery........................................ 2C-1


Annex A - Master Roll of Approved Artillery Pennants (Deleted from this version - Contact

Annex A -    Table of Salutes Accorded to Important Personages.........…............. 5A-l


Annex A -    Screw Guns................…………………............................................. 6A-l
Annex B -    Regimental Calls..................…….…………...................................... 6B-l
Annex C -    St. Barbara’s Day................................................................................ 6C-1


Annex A -    Artillery Unit Birthdays............................……............….................. 7A-l
Annex B -    Artillery Memorials...............……………......................................... 7B-l
Annex C -    The Silver (Korea) Gun...……………............................................... 7C-l
Annex D -    Calling Cards............……………….................................................. 7D-l

ANNEX                                                                                           PAGE


Annex A -      Positioning of Artillery Collar Badges on Service Dress ................ 8A-l


Annex A - Seating Plans..................……………............................................... 9A-l
Annex B - Gun Drill for 32 Pdr Model Guns.........…………............................ 9B-l
Appendix 1- Positions in Action and Stores Layout..…………............................ 9B1-1


Annex A -      RCA Unit Histories (Serving Units)................................................. 10A-1

                                           LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE         TITLE                                                                            PAGE

Note: These have been reduced to screen resolution , and will not print properly - contact RHQ
RCA for high resolution versions

        1     The Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II......................…................. 4-1
        2     The Full Achievement of the RCA Badge...................…….…......... 4-2
        3     The RCA Badge.............................……………................................ 4-3
        4     The RCHA Badge..............................................................……........ 4-3
        5     The Universal Grenade..................................………….................... 4-4
        6     The RCA Grenade................…….…………..................................... 4-4
        7     The RCA Standard................…….………........................................ 4-6
        8     The RCA Flag.....................……….…….......................................... 4-8
        9     The RCHA Flag......................……….……...................................... 4-8
        10    CO’s Trumpeter, RCHA.................................................................... 6-3
        11    Number 1B Order or Dress, RCHA........…..……............................. 8-2
        12    Number 1B Order of Dress, RCA...……….….................................. 8-3
        13    The RCA Band Parade Dress..............……...….…........................... 8-4
        14    The RCA Band Concert Dress................…………........................... 8-4
        15    The Artillery Pattern Mess Dress, Male.....…………........................ 8-8
        16    The Artillery Pattern Mess Dress , Female …...............……....….... 8-8
        17    The Artillery Pattern Mess Dress (Summer).....………..................... 8-9
        18    Gold Sword Knot, Slings and Belt.........…………............................ 8-13
        19    RCHA Track Suit………………………...…………………………. 8-15
        20-74 Historical Photos (Deleted from this version - See history)

                                          CHAPTER 1



1.       Many of the units and batteries of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery are older
than Canada itself, and the history of artillery in Canada is older yet. The first company of
artillery to be formed in Canada was organized in Quebec in 1750. The Regiment has always
been formed from two important components - the Regular Force and the Reserve Force. Both
Regular Force and Reserve Force gunners have fought in every war in which Canada has
participated. Canadian gunners have played an important part in the lives of many Canadian
communities and in the history of Canada.

2.      The Militia Act of 1855 authorized the first Canadian paid force of 5,000 men. This
force included seven independent batteries of artillery. Three of the original seven batteries
are perpetuated by Reserve Force batteries today. Prior to 1855, volunteer Canadian artillery
batteries existed but the continuity of some of these batteries is difficult to trace. One of these
pre-1855 units, the “Loyal Company of Artillery”, was formed in Saint John, N.B., in 1793, and
is perpetuated today by the 3rd Field Regiment RCA.

3.      The regular component of The Royal Regiment was formed on 20 October 1871 when
two batteries of garrison artillery, A and B Batteries, were authorized and located at Kingston
and Quebec respectively. These batteries were to perform garrison duties and also to serve as
“Schools of Gunnery”. A and B Batteries are the oldest regular component of the Canadian
Forces having served continuously as “regulars” since their formation. They serve today as
part of the 1st Regiment Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. The Royal Regiment has adopted 20
October 1871 as its birthday, as that date marks the beginning of the Royal Regiment’s role in
the newly formed Dominion.

4.     A condensed history of The Royal Regiment is found at chapter 10.

102.   TITLES

1.       Queen Victoria, as a special honour on the occasion of her birthday in 1893, conferred
the title “Royal” on the artillery units of Canada, whose title thus became “The Royal Canadian
Artillery”. The entire Regiment was redesignated “The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery”
on 29 October 1956. The official abbreviation is RCA. It should be noted that the word “The”
in the full title is always capitalized.

2.      These titles exist in both official languages as: “The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artil-
lery / Le Régiment royal de l’Artillerie canadienne”; “Royal Canadian Artillery / Artillerie royale
canadienne”; and “RCA/ARC”.

3.      The designation Royal Canadian Horse Artillery was first adopted in Canada in 1905
when 13-pounder guns were purchased for the Regular Force artillery units. Since then, Royal
Canadian Horse Artillery units have been found in the regular component of The Royal Regiment
of Canadian Artillery. In 1952-53, it was decided that all field artillery regiments of the Regular
Force would be units of the RCHA and all other artillery units would be RCA. This decision was
reconfirmed in 1967. Thus when the “5e Régiment d’artillerie légère du Canada”(5 RALC) was
formed, it became a unit of the RCHA.

4.     Battery groupings are shown at Annex A.


1.      Throughout most of the Regiment’s history, continuity of tradition has been at the battery
level. That is to say, batteries were the basic unit of artillery organization, which were brigaded
as required for operational or training purposes. Organization above battery level therefore
underwent numerous changes although batteries retained specific community or geographic
identity. This remains true today insofar as the Reserve Force is concerned, but is not so with
Regular Force batteries, which have served in various parts of the country and overseas.

2.      Following WW II, batteries were grouped into regiments on a relatively permanent
basis and continuity by regiment became the norm. During periods of reorganization, however,
batteries were reassigned to new regimental organizations or given the status of independent
batteries. For the purpose of historical record, the Director History and Heritage retains extensive
records of these lineages. These records are cross-referenced and it is therefore possible to trace
lineages backward from current titles or forward from former battery or regimental designations.
Wartime units and all branches of artillery are included in these records.

3.      The artillery lineages are published separately as a draft on this CD. DHH will publish
the final documents as part of the Army Lineage, A-AD-267-000/AF-003, in the near future. A
snapshot of The Royal Regiment at various times from 1866 to 2000 is included at Annex C.

4.      The correct, approved unit titles and abbreviations are reproduced at Annex B. It should
be noted that unit titles are just that; they may not be translated into the other official language.
Exceptions to this rule are made for the air defence regiments and the Royal Canadian Artillery
School, all of which have approved titles in the two official languages. Future unit titles will
be translated and designated in both official languages in accordance with Canadian Forces
Administrative Order (CFAO) 2-15.


1.     Precedence for units of The Royal Regiment is set out in this section. Further details on
precedence for the land element of the Canadian Forces are contained in CFAO 61-6.

2.       It should be noted that seniority and precedence are not necessarily the same. Regiments
and units take seniority within The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery according to their
date of embodiment in the Regular Force or Reserve Force. Precedence is based on tradition
and type of unit, and relates to a unit’s position on parade or succession of listing in the case
of distribution lists.

3.      On mounted parades, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery units take precedence over all units
of the land force except formed bodies of Officer Cadets of the Royal Military College of Canada
representing the College. RCHA units, when on parade with their guns, take the Right of the
Line and march past at the head of all units of the land force.

4.     Other units of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery take precedence immediately
following units of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps. For details see CFAO 61-6.

5.     The following general rules apply to establishing precedence within The Royal Regiment
of Canadian Artillery:

       a.      Regular Force in numerical sequence by units and alphabetical sequence by

       b.      Reserve Force in numerical sequence by units and batteries;

       c.      operational and combat units take precedence over training schools;

       d.      where further definition is required, the following orders of precedence apply:

               (1)    field artillery;

               (2)    heavy artillery;

               (3)    missile artillery (surface to surface);

               (4)    locating (target acquisition);

               (5)    air defence guns;

               (6)    air defence missiles; and

               (8)    headquarters;

       e.      the command element take their normal positions on parade in accordance with
               the detail specified in A-PD-201-000/PT-000 Canadian Forces Manual of Drill
               and Ceremonial. HQ and services batteries, parade on the left of a unit; and

       f.     when batteries participate in a parade separate from their parent units, they will
              take precedence after any units with headquarters on parade but before any
              independent batteries.

6.     Precedence for artillery units is outlined in Annex B.


1.     The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery has two mottos: “Ubique” (Everywhere)
and “Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt” (Whither Right and Glory Lead). These may be borne on
regimental appointments. The first motto “Ubique” takes the place of all battle honours in
recognition of the artillery’s service in all battles and campaigns.

2.     In 1832, King William IV of England granted the Royal Regiment of Artillery the right
to wear on their appointments the royal arms and supporters over a cannon with the motto,
“Ubique Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt” (Everywhere Whither Right and Glory Lead). The next year
(1833), the order was amended to make clear that “Ubique” and “Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt”
were two separate mottos.

3.      The Canadian Artillery was authorized to wear on its appointments the same royal arms
and the motto “Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt”, plus the word “Canada”. After the First World War,
when the issue of battle honours was being decided, the RCA asked permission to use “Ubique”
in place of “Canada” in recognition of distinguished overseas service in all campaigns. This was
approved by King George V on 5 August 1926, and promulgated by G042/1927 the next year.

4.      Royal Canadian Horse Artillery units are distinguished by the presence of the Royal
Cypher on their regimental flags. The motto on the cypher is “Honi soit qui mal y pense” (“Evil
be to him who evil thinks”), and is the motto of the Order of the Garter, not an artillery motto.


1.     The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery is allied with the Royal Regiment of Artillery.

2.     The following unit alliance exists:

       a.     1 RCHA with 1 RHA; and

       b.     2 RCHA with The Princess of Wales’ Royal Regiment (Queen’s and Royal


1.      The Canadian Army has had a continual presence in the CFB Shilo area since before the
First World War, when Camp Sewell was established five kilometres Northeast of the present
CFB Shilo, in 1910. It was established to train Militia infantry, cavalry and artillery units of
Militia district No. 10 (Saskatchewan, Manitoba and parts Northern Ontario).

2.      Camp Sewell was renamed Camp Huges in 1915 in honour of the then Minister of
National Defence, Sir Sam Hughes. Over 24,000 Canadian troops were trained here in trench
warfare prior to being shipped overseas to Europe during the First World War. Camp Huges
remained open until 1934. Afterwards it saw occasional use as a training site until the 1950’s
as part of CFB Shilo (known originally as Camp Shilo), which was established in 1933 in the
present location. The move resulted primarily from a requirement for more training area, which
was available for lease further to the south rather than in the immediate Camp Hughes area.
Many of the original Camp Hughes buildings were moved to Shilo.

3.       Until 1946, CFB Shilo was an all arms training camp, however, a large Gunner presence
had been established in the 1930’s with the Non-Permanent Active Militia (NPAM) artillery
training. In 1940, A3 CATC was organized to conduct wartime field, medium and antitank
artillery training, and it held exercises every summer in Shilo until it was permanently moved
there in January 1943. In 1946, the Royal Canadian School of Artillery at Shilo was established
under General Order 87 “war and home establishments”, (effective 30 January 1946, amended
by G.O. 179 and 189 of the same year). Therefore, it can be considered that 30 January 1946 is
the ‘official’ date of origin for the home station of the RCA. The last commanding officer of A#
CATC, Lieutenant-Colonel H.E. Brown, OBE, ED, became the first commandant of the RCSA
in January 1946. A list of former commanding officers of A3 CATC and a list of commanders
of the home station are at Annex C to Chapter 2. The base headquarters was set on 1 November
1948 (CdnV/643B/3).

4.     CFB Shilo became home station of Gunners of all branches of The Royal Regiment of
Canadian Artillery in 1960, as a result of the closing of the Coastal Artillery and Anti-Aircraft
Schools. The Royal Canadian Artillery Museum and The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery
Regimental Headquarters are co-located at the home station.


1.      The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Home Station Officers’ Mess is located
at CFB Shilo, Manitoba. Its abbreviated name is the “RCA Officers’ Mess” and its Gunner
traditions are maintained by the artillery units and officers located at CFB Shilo on behalf of
all Canadian gunners.

2.      The original post-Second World War officers’ mess in Shilo was the combined mess
of 71 Field Regiment Royal Canadian Artillery (later designated 1st Regiment, RCHA), 127th

Anti-Tank Battery, 68th Medium Battery and the Royal Canadian School of Artillery. During this
period there were also artillery officers’ messes at the Royal Canadian School of Artillery (Anti-
Aircraft) at Picton, Ontario, the Royal Canadian School of Artillery (Coast and Anti-Aircraft) at
Esquimalt, British Columbia, and the combined Mess of 128th and 129th Anti-Aircraft Batteries,
RCA at Gordon Head, British Columbia (which was normally referred to as the Gordon Head
Officers’ Mess). On the amalgamation of the three artillery schools in August 1960, the Officers’
Mess in Shilo became the home mess of the Regiment.

3.     The home mess of the Warrant Officers and Sergeants of The Royal Regiment of
Canadian Artillery is the Warrant Officers’ and Sergeants’ mess located at CFB Shilo and bears
the name: “Royal Canadian Artillery Home Station Warrant Officers’ and Sergeants’ Mess.”

4.      As the home station messes are repositories of much RCA memorabilia and tradition,
they receive support from the Royal Canadian Artillery Association and the RCA Regimental


All officers of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery are honorary members of the Royal
Artillery Mess in Woolwich while on duty in Britain. The RCA Officers’ Mess in Shilo extends
reciprocal privileges to Commonwealth artillery officers.

(110 to 199 inclusive - not allocated)



1.     Letter-designated batteries are grouped as follows (bold italics indicate organizations not
currently on the order of battle):

       a.      A, B, C, Z - under command 1 RCHA;

       b.      D, E, F, Y - under command 2 RCHA;

       c.      G, H, J, U - under command 3 RCHA;

       d.      K, L, M, N - under command 4 RCHA;

       e.      X, Q, R, S- under command 5 RALC;

       f.      W Bty RCA - under command Royal Canadian Artillery School; and

       g.      T Bty RCA - under command Divisional Artillery (Target Acquisition)

2.     Numbered batteries are grouped as follows:

       a.      51, 87 - under command 1 Fd Regt RCA;

       b.      7, 50, 66 - under command 2 Fd Regt RCA;

       c.      89, 115 - under command 3 Fd Regt RCA;

       d.      5, 55 - under command 5 (BC) Fd Regt RCA;

       e.      57, 58 AAA, 59 - under command 6 RAC ARC;

       f.      9, 15, 130 - under command 7 Tor Regt RCA;

       g.      18, 64 - under command 10 Fd Regt RCA;

       h.      11, 16, 29 - under command 11 Fd Regt RCA;

       i.      31, 68 - under command 15 Fd Regt RCA;

       j.      61, 78 - under command 20 Fd Regt RCA;

     k.     13, 71 - under command 26 Fd Regt RCA;

     m.     1, 2 - under command 30 Fd Regt RCA;

     n.     30, 148 - under command 49 Fd Regt RCA;

     p.     10, 54, 69 - under command 56 Fd Regt RCA;

     q.     81, 185 - under command 62 RAC ARC;

     r.     89 AD, 109 AD - under command 1 AD Regt RCA;

     s.     119 AD, 127 AD, 128 AD, 129 AD - under command 4 AD Regt RCA;

     t.     20 AD, 39 AD - under command 18 AD Regt RCA; and

     u.     3, 4 - under command RCAS.

3.   The following batteries are independent within the RCA:

     a.     84 Indep Fd Bty RCA; and

     b.     116 Indep Fd Bty RCA.


                         UNIT TITLES AND PRECEDENCE IN

The table below shows unit titles, their abbreviations and precedence for artillery units in
accordance with CFAO 61-6 and CFOOs. Bilingual unit titles appear in both official languages
where units were granted bilingual unit titles. Shoulder titles shown are worn as detailed in
Chapter 8. A commander or commanding officer may order the wearing of ARC/RCA shoulder
titles for operational or security reasons.

                                                                         SHOULDER TITLE
APPROVED UNIT TITLE                                 ABBREVIATION         CLOTH      METAL

1st Regiment Royal Canadian Horse Artillery         1 RCHA               RCHA         RCHA

2nd Regiment Royal Canadian Horse Artillery         2 RCHA               RCHA         RCHA

5e Régiment d’artillerie légère du Canada           5 RALC               RALC         RALC

4th Air Defence Regiment, RCA/                      4 AD Regt RCA/       ARC/RCA      ARC/RCA
4e Régiment d’artillerie antiaérienne, ARC          4 RAAA ARC

Royal Canadian Artillery School/                    RCAS                 ARC/RCA      ARC/RCA
L=École d’Artillerie royale canadienne

1st (Halifax-Dartmouth) Field Artillery Regiment,   1 Fd Regt RCA        1 FD REGT    RCA

2nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                   2 Fd Regt RCA        2 FD REGT    RCA

3rd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                   3 Fd Regt RCA        3 FD REGT    RCA

5th (British Columbia) Field Artillery Regiment,    5 (BC) Fd Regt RCA   5 FD REGT    RCA

6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne, ARC           6 RAC ARC            6 RAC        ARC

7th Toronto Regiment, RCA                           7 Tor Regt RCA       7 TOR REGT   RCA

10th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                  10 Fd Regt RCA       10 FD REGT   RCA

11th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                  11 Fd Regt RCA       11 FD REGT   RCA

15th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                  15 Fd Regt RCA       15 FD REGT   RCA

20th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                  20 Fd Regt RCA       20 FD REGT   RCA

26th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                  26 Fd Regt RCA       26 FD REGT   RCA

                                                                             SHOULDER TITLE
APPROVED UNIT TITLE                                   ABBREVIATION           CLOTH          METAL

30th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                    30 Fd Regt RCA         30 FD REGT   RCA

49th (Sault Ste Marie) Field Artillery Regiment,      49 Fd Regt RCA         49 FD REGT   RCA

56th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                    56 Fd Regt RCA         56 FD REGT   RCA

62e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne, ARC            62 RAC ARC             62 RAC       ARC

84th Independent Field Battery, RCA                   84 Indep Fd Bty RCA    84 FD BTY    RCA

116th Independent Field Battery, RCA                  116 Indep Fd Bty RCA   116 FD BTY   RCA

1st Air Defence Regiment (Lanark & Renfrew            1 AD Regt RCA          1 AD REGT    RCA/ARC
Scottish), RCA / 1er Régiment d’artillerie
antiaérienne (Lanark & Renfrew Scottish), ARC

18th Air Defence Regiment, RCA/                       18 AD Regt RCA         18 AD REGT   RCA/ARC
18e Régiment d’artillerie antiaérienne, ARC

58e Batterie d’artillerie antiaérienne, 6e Régiment   58 BAAA ARC            6 RAC        ARC
d’artillerie de campagne, ARC


  The Organization of Canadian Artillery Units and Formations at Various Times
 (gathered from Militia Lists, Defence Forces Lists, official histories, other docu-

Note: these lists aim to provide the basic structure of the Canadian artillery at that
      moment and do not necessarily provide the full titles and designations for each
      unit (as detailed in their individual lineage charts)

1 March 1866                                            London Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery of Artil-
Lower Canada

Quebec Field Battery                                    1 January 1895
Montreal Field Battery
Provisional Brigade of Garrison Artillery, Quebec       Permanent Force
        – No. 1 Battery
        – No. 2 Battery                                 Royal Canadian Artillery
        – No. 3 Battery                                        – Field Batteries
        – No. 4 Battery                                                – “A” Battery
Sherbrooke Garrison Battery                                            – “B” Battery
Montreal Garrison Battery                                      – Garrison Companies
Brigade of Garrison Artillery, Montreal (includes six                  – No. 1
unnumbered companies)                                                  – No. 2

Upper Canada                                            Active Militia

Ottawa Field Battery                                    Field Batteries
Gun Detachment Brockville
Kingston Field Battery                                  1st Brigade
Hamilton Field Battery                                          – No. 11 Battery
“Port Colborne” Field Battery                                   – No. 16 Battery
London Field Battery                                    No. 1 “Quebec” Field Battery
Toronto Field Battery                                   No. 2 “Ottawa” Field Battery
Ottawa Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery of Artil-    No. 3 “Montreal” Field Battery
lery)                                                   No. 4 “Hamilton” Field Battery
Prescott Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery of         No. 5 “Kingston” Field Battery
Artillery)                                              No. 6 “London” Field Battery
Gananoque Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery of        No. 7 “Welland Canal” Field Battery
Artillery)                                              No. 8 “Gananoque” Field Battery
Morrisburg Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery of       No. 9 “Toronto” Field Battery
Artillery)                                              No. 10 “Woodstock” Field Battery
Iroquois Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery of         No. 12 “Newcastle” Field Battery
Artillery)                                              No. 13 “Winnipeg” Field Battery
Goderich Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery of         No. 14 “Durham” Field Battery
Artillery)                                              No. 15 “Shefford” Field Battery
St. Catharine’s Battery (Volunteer Garrison Battery     No. 17 “Sydney” Field Battery
of Artillery)

Garrison Battalions and Companies         Garrison Regiments and Companies

1st “Halifax” Battalion                   1st “Halifax” Regiment
2nd “Montreal” Battalion                           – 1st Division
3rd “New Brunswick Battalion”                              – No. 1 Company
4th “Prince Edward Island Battalion”                       – No. 2 Company
5th “British Columbia” Battalion                           – No. 3 Company
No. 1 Company, Lévis                                       – No. 4 Company
No. 2 Company, Lévis                               – 2nd Division
Cobourg Company                                            – No. 5 Company
Mahone Bay Company                                         – No. 6 Company
Digby Company                                              – No. 7 Company
Pictou Company                                             – No. 8 Company
Yarmouth Company                          2nd “Montreal” Regiment
Quebec Company                                     – No. 1 Company
                                                   – No. 2 Company
                                                   – No. 3 Company
                                          3rd “New Brunswick” Regiment
                                                   – No. 1 Company
1 July 1900                                        – No. 2 Company
                                                   – No. 3 Company
Permanent Force                                    – No. 4 Company
The Royal Canadian Artillery              4th “Prince Edward Island” Regiment
       – Field Division                            – No. 1 Company
       – Garrison Division                         – No. 2 Company
                                                   – No. 3 Company
Militia                                            – No. 4 Company
                                                   – No. 5 Company
Field Batteries                           5th “British Columbia” Regiment
                                          6th “Quebec and Lévis” Regiment
1st Brigade Division                               – No. 1 Company
        – 11th Battery                             – No. 2 Company
        – 16th Battery                             – No. 3 Company
2nd Brigade Division                               – No. 4 Company
        – 4th Battery                     Cobourg Company
        – 7th Battery
        – 9th Battery
1st “Quebec” Field Battery                1 July 1907
2nd “Ottawa” Field Battery
3rd “Montreal” Field Battery              Permanent Force
5th “Kingston” Field Battery
6th “London” Field Battery                Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
8th “Gananoque” Field Battery                    – “A” Battery
10th “Woodstock” Field Battery                   – “B” Battery
12th “Newcastle” Field Battery            Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery
13th “Winnipeg” Field Battery                    – No. 1 Company
14th “Durham” Field Battery                      – No. 2 Company
15th “Shefford” Field Battery                    – No. 3 Company
17th “Sydney” Field Battery                      – No. 4 Company
                                                 – No. 5 Company

Militia                                                       – No. 1 Battery
                                                              – No. 2 Battery
1st Brigade (Field)                                           – No. 3 Battery
         – 11th Battery                                       – Ammunition Column
         – 16th Battery                              3rd “New Brunswick” Regiment (Heavy Brigade)
         – Ammunition Column                         (garrison)
2nd Brigade (Field)                                           – No. 1 Company
         – 4th Battery                                        – No. 2 Company
         – 7th Battery                                        – No. 3 Company
         – 9th Battery                               4th “Prince Edward Island” Regiment (Heavy Bde)
         – Ammunition Column                         (garrison)
3rd Brigade (Field)                                           – No. 1 Company
         – 17th “Sydney Battery”                              – No. 2 Company
         – 18th Battery                                       – No. 3 Company
         – Ammunition Column                         5th “British Columbia” Regiment (garrison)
4th Brigade (Field)                                           – No. 1 Company
         – 10th “Woodstock” Field Battery                     – No. 2 Company
         – 12th “Newcastle” Battery                           – No. 3 Company
         – Ammunition Column                         6th “Quebec and Levis” Regiment (garrison)
5th Brigade (Field)                                           – No. 1 Company
         – 1st “Quebec” Battery                               – No. 2 Company
         – 20th Battery                                       – No. 3 Company
         – Ammunition Column                         7th Nova Scotia Regiment (Heavy Brigade) (gar-
6th Brigade (Field)                                  rison)
         – 3rd “Montreal” Battery                             – No. 1 Company
         – 21st Battery                                       – No. 2 Company
         – Ammunition Column                                  – No. 3 Company
7th Brigade (Field)                                           – No. 4 Company
         – 15th “Shefford” Battery                   Cobourg Company (heavy battery)
         – 22nd Battery
         – Ammunition Column
8th Brigade (Field)
         – 2nd “Ottawa” Battery                      11 November 1918
         – 23rd Battery
         – Ammunition Column                         see G.W.L. Nicholson, The Gunners of Canada.
9th Brigade (Field)                                  The History of the Royal Regiment of Canadian
         – 5th “Kingston” Battery                    Artillery, vol. 1 (Toronto, 1967), Annex B,
         – 8th “Gananoque” Battery                   pp.397-399
         – Ammunition Column
10th Brigade (Field)
         – 14th “Midland Battery”
         – 24th Battery                              November 1935
         – Ammunition Column
6th “London” Battery                                 Permanent Force
13th “Winnipeg” Battery
19th Battery                                         Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
Ammunition Park                                             – “A” Battery
1st “Halifax” Regiment (garrison)                           – “B” Battery
         – No. 1 Company                                    – “C” Battery
         – No. 2 Company                             Royal Canadian Artillery
         – No. 3 Company                                    – 1st Heavy Battery
         – No. 4 Company                                    – 2nd Heavy Battery
2nd “Montreal” Regiment (Heavy Brigade) (garri-             – 3rd Medium Battery
son)                                                        – 5th Heavy Battery

Non-Permanent Active Militia                                      – 48th Field Battery
                                                                  – 55th Field Battery
1st Field Brigade                                                 – 56th Field Battery
         – 1st Field Battery                                      – 7th Reserve Field Brigade
         – 2nd (Ottawa) Field Battery (H)                8th Field Brigade
         – 25th Field Battery                                     – 10th (St. Catharines) Field Battery
         – 51st Field Battery                                     – 11th (Hamilton) Field Battery
         – 1st Reserve Field Brigade                              – 40th Field Battery
2nd Montreal Regiment                                             – 54th Field Battery (H)
         – 2nd Field Brigade                                      – 8th Reserve Field Brigade
                  – 5th (Westmount) Field Battery        9th Field Brigade
                  – 7th (Montreal) Field Battery                  – 3rd (Gananoque) Field Battery
                  – 27th Field Battery (H)                        – 32nd (Kingston) Field Battery
                  – 66th Field Battery                            – 34th Field Battery
                  – 2nd Reserve Field Brigade                     – 74th Field Battery
         – 2nd Medium Brigade                                     – 9th Reserve Field Brigade
                  – 1st Medium Battery                   10th Field Brigade
                  – 3rd Medium Battery (H)                        – 18th Field Battery
                  – 7th Medium Battery (H)                        – 60th Field Battery
                  – 10th Medium Battery (H)                       – 65th Field Battery
                  – 2nd Reserve Medium Brigade                    – 77th Field Battery
7th (Toronto) Regiment                                            – 10th Reserve Field Brigade
         – 3rd Field Brigade                             11th Field Brigade
                  – 9th (Toronto) Field Battery (H)               – 16th Field Battery
                  – 15th Field Battery                            – 29th Field Battery (H)
                  – 30th Field Battery                            – 43rd Field Battery
                  – 53rd Field Battery                            – 63rd Field Battery
                  – 3rd Reserve Field Brigade                     – 11th Reserve Field Brigade
         – 4th Medium Brigade                            12th Field Brigade
                  – 21st Medium Battery                           – 8th Field Battery
                  – 23rd Medium Battery (H)                       – 28th (Newcastle) Field Battery
                  – 24th Medium Battery (H)                       – 89th (Woodstock) Field Battery
                  – 25th Medium Battery (H)                       – 90th Field Battery (H)
                  – 4th Reserve Medium Brigade                    – 12th Reserve Field Brigade
4th Field Brigade                                        13th Field Brigade
         – 4th Field Battery                                      – 57th (Quebec) Field Battery
         – 14th (Midland) Field Battery                           – 82nd Field Battery
         – 4th Reserve Field Brigade                              – 94th Field Battery
         – 22nd Medium Battery (attached)                         – 13th Reserve Field Brigade
5th Field Brigade                                        14th Field Brigade
         – 13th (Winnipeg) Field Battery                          – 52nd Field Battery
         – 17th Field Battery                                     – 84th Field Battery (H)
         – 19th Field Battery                                     – 87th Field Battery
         – 38th Field Battery (H)                                 – 88th Field Battery
         – 5th (Reserve) Field Brigade                            – 14th Reserve Field Brigade
         – 11th Medium Battery (H)                       15th Field Brigade
6th Field Brigade                                                 – 31st Field Battery
         – 24th (Shefford) Field Battery                          – 68th Field Battery
         – 35th Field Battery (H)                                 – 85th Field Battery (H)
         – 79th Field Battery                                     – 15th Reserve Field Brigade
         – 81st Field Battery                                     – 5th Medium Battery
         – 6th Reserve Field Brigade                              – 5th Reserve Medium Battery
7th Field Brigade                                        16th Field Brigade
         – 12th (London) Field Battery                            – 6th (Sydney) Field Battery

         – 36th Field Battery (H)                    6th (Quebec and Levis) Coast Brigade
         – 83rd Field Battery                                – 57th Heavy Battery
         – 86th Field Battery                                – 58th Heavy Battery
         – 16th Reserve Field Brigade                        – 59th Heavy Battery
17th Field Brigade                                           – 6th Reserve (Quebec and Levis) Coast
         – 21st Field Battery (H)                    Brigade
         – 44th Field Battery                                – 3rd Anti-Aircraft Section (attached)
         – 64th Field Battery
         – 67th Field Battery
         – 17th Reserve Field Brigade
18th Field Brigade                                   November 1939
         – 20th Field Battery
         – 39th Field Battery                        Permanent Force
         – 93rd Field Battery (H)
         – 18th Reserve Field Brigade                Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Kingston, Ont
19th Field Brigade                                          – A Battery same
         – 22nd Field Battery                               – B Battery same
         – 23rd Field Battery (H)                           – C Battery Winnipeg, Man
         – 91st Field Battery
         – 19th Reserve Field Brigade                Royal Canadian Artillery Halifax, NS
20th Field Brigade                                          – 1st Heavy Battery same
         – 61st Field Battery                               – 2nd Heavy Battery same
         – 78th Field Battery                               – 3rd Medium Battery Kingston, Ont
         – 92nd Field Battery (H)                           – 4th Anti-Aircraft Battery same
         – 20th Reserve Field Brigade                       – 5th Heavy Battery Esquimalt, BC
59th Field Battery
62nd Field Battery (H)                               Non-Permanent Active Militia
1st (PEI) Medium Brigade
         – 2nd Medium Battery (H)                    1st Field Brigade
         – 8th Medium Battery (H)                             – 1st Field Battery
         – 14th Medium Battery                                – 2nd (Ottawa) Field Battery (H)
         – 1st Reserve (PEI) Medium Brigade                   – 25th Field Battery
1st (Halifax) Coast Brigade                                   – 51st Field Battery
         – 51st Heavy Battery                        2nd Montreal Regiment
         – 52nd Heavy Battery                                 – 2nd Field Brigade
         – 53rd Heavy Battery                                          – 5th (Westmount) Field Battery
         – 54th Heavy Battery                                          – 7th (Montreal) Field Battery
         – 1st Reserve (Halifax) Coast Brigade                         – 27th Field Battery (H)
         – 1st Anti-Aircraft Section (attached)                        – 66th Field Battery
         – 9th Heavy Battery (H) (attached)                   – 2nd Medium Brigade
3rd (NB) Medium Brigade                                                – 1st Medium Battery
         – 4th Medium Battery (H)                                      – 2nd Medium Battery (H)
         – 6th Medium Battery (H)                                      – 7th Medium Battery (H)
         – 15th Medium Battery                                         – 10th Medium Battery (H)
         – 3rd Reserve (NB) Medium Brigade                             – 5th Anti-Aircraft Battery
5th (BC) Coast Brigade                                                 – 2nd Survey Company
         – 55th Heavy Battery                        7th (Toronto) Regiment
         – 56th Heavy Battery                                 – 3rd Field Brigade
         – 5th Res (BC) Coast Brigade                                  – 9th (Toronto) Field Battery (H)
         – 12th Heavy Battery (H) (attached)                           – 15th Field Battery
         – 12th Reserve Heavy Battery (H)                              – 30th Field Battery
(attached)                                                             – 53rd Field Battery
         – 58th Field Battery (attached)                      – 4th Medium Brigade
         – 2nd Anti-Aircraft Section (attached)                        – 21st Medium Battery

                 – 23rd Medium Battery (H)                  – 94th Field Battery
                 – 24th Medium Battery (H)          14th Field Brigade
                 – 25th Medium Battery (H)                  – 52nd Field Battery
4th Field Brigade                                           – 87th Field Battery
         – 4th Field Battery                                – 88th Field Battery
         – 14th (Midland) Field Battery             17th Field Brigade
         – 45th Field Battery (H)                           – 21st Field Battery (H)
         – 56th (Grenville) Field Battery                   – 44th Field Battery
         – 2nd (Cobourg) Medium Battery                     – 64th (Yorkton) Field Battery
(attached)                                                  – 67th (Rosetown) Field Battery
5th Field Brigade                                           – 1st (Yorkton) Light Anti-Aircraft Battery
         – 13th (Winnipeg) Field Battery            (attached)
         – 17th Field Battery                       18th Field Brigade
         – 19th Field Battery                               – 20th Field Battery
         – 38th Field Battery (H)                           – 39th Field Battery
6th Field Brigade                                           – 93rd Field Battery (H)
         – 24th (Shefford) Field Battery                    – 112th Field Battery
         – 35th Field Battery (H)                   19th Field Brigade
         – 79th Field Battery                               – 22nd Field Battery
         – 81st Field Battery                               – 23rd Field Battery (H)
7th Field Brigade                                           – 91st Field Battery
         – 12th (London) Field Battery                      – 95th Field Battery
         – 26th (Lambton) Field Battery             20th Field Brigade
         – 48th Field Battery (H)                           – 61st Field Battery
         – 55th Field Battery                               – 78th Field Battery
8th Field Brigade                                           – 92nd Field Battery (H)
         – 10th (St. Catharines) Field Battery              – 96th Field Battery
         – 11th (Hamilton) Field Battery            21st Field Brigade
         – 40th Field Battery                               – 97th (Bruce) Field Battery (H)
         – 54th Field Battery (H)                           – 98th (Bruce) Field Battery
9th Field Brigade                                           – 99th Field Battery
         – 3rd (Gananoque) Field Battery                    – 100th Field Battery
         – 32nd (Kingston) Field Battery            22nd (Assiniboia) Field Brigade
         – 34th Field Battery                               – 65th Field Battery
         – 47th (Napanee) Field Battery (H)                 – 76th Field Battery
10th Field Brigade                                          – 101st Field Battery
         – 18th Field Battery                               – 110th Field Battery (H)
         – 60th Field Battery                       23rd Field Brigade
         – 77th Field Battery                               – 8th Field Battery
         – 113th Field Battery (H)                          – 28th (Newcastle) Field Battery
11th Field Brigade                                          – 103rd Field Battery
         – 16th Field Battery                       24th (Kootenay) Field Brigade
         – 29th Field Battery (H)                           – 107th Field Battery
         – 43rd Field Battery                               – 108th Field Battery (H)
         – 63rd Field Battery                               – 109th Field Battery
12th Field Brigade                                          – 111th (Nelson) Field Battery
         – 89th (Woodstock) Field Battery           25th (Norfolk) Field Brigade
         – 90th Field Battery (H)                           – 33rd Field Battery
         – 104th Field Battery                              – 41st Field Battery
         – 105th Field Battery                              – 42nd Field Battery
13th Field Brigade                                          – 46th Field Battery (H)
         – 57th (Quebec) Field Battery              26th Field Brigade
         – 82nd Field Battery                               – 37th Field Battery
                                                            – 59th Field Battery

         – 70th Field Battery                         3rd Anti-Aircraft Battery
         – 71st Field Battery (H)                     6th Anti-Aircraft Battery
27th Field Brigade                                    7th Anti-Aircraft Battery
         – 72nd Field Battery                         8th Anti-Aircraft Battery
         – 73rd Field Battery (H)
         – 74th Field Battery                         1st Searchlight Regiment
         – 75th Field Battery                                 – 1st Searchlight Battery
62nd Field Battery (H)                                        – 2nd Searchlight Battery
69th Field Battery
102nd (Wentworth) Field Battery
1st (PEI) Medium Brigade
         – 2nd Medium Battery (H)
         – 8th Medium Battery (H)                     8 May 1945
6th (Quebec and Levis) Medium Brigade
         – 57th Medium Battery (H)                    see G.W.L. Nicholson, The Gunners of Canada.
         – 58th Medium Battery (H)                    The History of the Royal Regiment of Canadian
         – 59th Heavy Battery (attached)              Artillery, vol. 2 (Toronto, 1972), Annex C, pp
         – 3rd Anti-Aircraft Battery (attached)       647-651.
7th Medium Brigade
         – 16th Medium Battery (H)
         – 17th Medium Battery (H)
         – 18th Medium Battery
9th Heavy Battery (H)                                 11 August 1959
102nd (North BC) Heavy Battery
1st (Halifax) Coast Brigade                           Regular Force
         – 51st Heavy Battery
         – 52nd Heavy Battery                         1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
         – 53rd Heavy Battery                                 – “A” Battery
         – 1st Anti-Aircraft Battery (attached)               – “B” Battery
         – 10th Searchlight Battery (CD) (attached)           – “C” Battery
3rd (NB) Coast Brigade                                2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
         – 4th Heavy Battery                                  – “D” Battery
         – 15th Heavy Battery                                 – “E” Battery
         – 1st Searchlight Battery (CD) (attached)            – “F” Battery
5th (BC) Coast Brigade                                        – “T” Battery
         – 55th Heavy Battery                                 – “Z” Battery
         – 60th Heavy Battery                         3rd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
         – 17th Searchlight Battery (CD) (attached)           – “G” Battery
15th (Vancouver) Coast Brigade                                – “H” Battery
         – 31st Heavy Battery                                 – “J” Battery
         – 58th Heavy Battery                                 – “U” Battery
         – 85th Heavy Battery                                 – “X” Battery
16th Coast Brigade                                    4th Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
         – 6th (Sydney) Heavy Battery                         – “K” Battery
         – 36th Heavy Battery                                 – “L” Battery
         – 86th Heavy Battery                                 – “M” Battery
         – 9th (CB) Searchlight Battery (CD)                  – “V” Battery
(attached)                                                    – “W” Battery
1st Anti-Aircraft Regiment
         – 9th Anti-Aircraft Battery                  Reserve Force
         – 10th Anti-Aircraft Battery
         – 11th Anti-Aircraft Battery                 6th Field Regiment
1st Anti-Aircraft Battery                                      – 58th Field Battery
2nd Anti-Aircraft Battery                                      – 59th Field Battery

         – 80th Field Battery                                – 27th Field Battery
         – 82nd Field Battery                        37th Field Regiment
         – 187th Field Battery                               – 66th Field Battery
7th Field Regiment                                           – 106th Field Battery
         – 12th Field Battery                                – 131st Field Battery
         – 26th Field Battery                        39th Field Regiment (SP)
         – 48th Field Battery                                – 13th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)
8th Field Regiment                                           – 17th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)
         – 11th Field Battery                                – 19th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)
         – 40th Field Battery                        44th Field Regiment
         – 102nd Field Battery                               – 10th Field Battery
11th Field Regiment                                          – 33rd Field Battery
         – 16th Field Battery                                – 46th Field Battery
         – 29th Field Battery                        46th Field Regiment
         – 43rd Field Battery                                – 72nd Field Battery
12th Field Regiment                                          – 73rd Field Battery
         – 8th Field Battery                                 – 74th Field Battery
         – 89th Field Battery                        53rd Field Regiment
         – 90th Field Battery                                – 64th Field Battery
14th Field Regiment                                          – 65th Field Battery
         – 84th Field Battery                                – 76th Field Battery
         – 88th Field Battery                                – 162nd Field Battery
         – 133rd Field Battery                       56th Field Regiment
15th Field Regiment                                          – 54th Field Battery
         – 31st Field Battery                                – 69th Field Battery
         – 85th Field Battery                                – 169th Field Battery
         – 158th Field Battery                       166th Field Regiment
18th Field Regiment (SP)                                     – 213th Field Battery
         – 20th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)               – 214th Field Battery
         – 39th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)               – 215th Field Battery
         – 93rd Field Battery (Self-Propelled)       6th Independent Field Battery
21st Field Regiment                                  2nd Medium Regiment
         – 97th Field Battery                                – 50th Medium Battery
         – 99th Field Battery                                – 83rd Medium Battery
         – 100th Field Battery                       10th Medium Regiment
26th Field Regiment (SP)                                     – 18th Medium Battery
         – 38th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)               – 21st Medium Battery
         – 70th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)               – 44th Medium Battery
         – 71st Field Battery (Self-Propelled)       19th Medium Regiment
27th Field Regiment                                          – 23rd Medium Battery
         – 24th Field Battery                                – 78th Medium Battery
         – 35th Field Battery                                – 91st Medium Battery
         – 75th Field Battery                        33rd Medium Regiment
29th Field Regiment (SP)                                     – 14th Medium Battery
         – 9th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)                – 45th Medium Battery
         – 15th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)       40th Medium Regiment
         – 130th Field Battery (Self-Propelled)              – 116th Medium Battery
30th Field Regiment                                          – 118th Medium Battery
         – 1st Field Battery                         42nd Medium Regiment
         – 2nd Field Battery                                 – 123rd Medium Battery
         – 25th Field Battery                                – 125th Medium Battery
34th Field Regiment                                  1st Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment
         – 5th Field Battery                                 – 51st Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery
         – 7th Field Battery                                 – 52nd Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery

        – 53rd Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery               – 191st Light Anti-Aircraft Battery
3rd Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment                         – 192nd Light Anti-Aircraft Battery
        – 104th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      3rd Independent Medium Battery
        – 115th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      5th Independent Medium Battery
        – 117th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      22nd Independent Medium Battery
24th Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment                96th Independent Medium Battery
        – 109th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      1st Locating Regiment
        – 111th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      3rd Locating Battery
25th Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment                32nd Locating Battery
        – 105th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      57th Locating Battery
        – 124th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      15th Harbour Defence Troop
        – 206th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery
36th Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment
        – 87th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery
        – 201st Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery
        – 205th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      31 January 1966
43rd Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment
        – 209th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      Regular Force
        – 210th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery
        – 211th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
49th Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment                        – “A” Battery
        – 30th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery               – “B” Battery
        – 148th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery              – “C” Battery
        – 153rd Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery              – “H” Battery
50th Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment                        – “W” Battery
        – 149th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery      2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
        – 150th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery              – “D” Battery
        – 151st Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery              – “E” Battery
51st Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment                        – “F” Battery
        – 79th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery       3rd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
        – 112th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery              – “G” Battery
        – 126th Medium Anti-Aircraft Battery              – “J” Battery
54th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment                         – “X” Battery
        – 163rd Light Anti-Aircraft Battery               – “Z” Battery
        – 164th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery       4th Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
        – 165th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery               – “K” Battery
57th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment                         – “L” Battery
        – 170th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery               – “M” Battery
        – 171st Light Anti-Aircraft Battery
        – 172nd Light Anti-Aircraft Battery       Reserve Force
58th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment
        – 173rd Light Anti-Aircraft Battery       1st (Halifax-Dartmouth) Field Artillery Regiment
        – 174th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery                – 51st Field Battery
        – 175th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery                – 52nd Field Battery
59th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment                          – 87th Field Battery
        – 176th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery       3rd Field Artillery Regiment (The Loyal Company)
        – 177th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery                – 89th Field Battery
        – 178th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery                – 90th Field Battery
62nd Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment                          – 104th Field Battery
        – 81st Light Anti-Aircraft Battery        6th Field Artillery Regiment
        – 185th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery                – 58th Field Battery
        – 186th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery                – 59th Field Battery
64th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment                          – 80th Field Battery
        – 190th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery

7th Toronto Regiment RCA(M)                                   – 72nd Field Battery
         – 9th Field Battery                                  – 73rd Field Battery
         – 15th Field Battery                                 – 74th Field Battery
         – 130th Field Battery                       49th (Sault Ste. Marie) Field Artillery Regiment
8th Field Artillery Regiment                                  – 30th Field Battery
         – 11th Field Battery                                 – 148th Field Battery
         – 40th Field Battery                                 – 153rd Field Battery
         – 102nd (Wentworth) Field Battery           50th Field Artillery Regiment (The Prince of Wales
10th Field Artillery Regiment                        Rangers)
         – 18th Field Battery                                 – 14th Field Battery
         – 65th Field Battery                                 – 45th Field Battery
         – 76th Field Battery                                 – 149th Field Battery
11th Field Artillery Regiment                        53rd Field Artillery Regiment
         – 16th Field Battery                                 – 64th Field Battery
         – 29th Field Battery                        56th Field Artillery Regiment (Dufferin and Hal-
         – 43rd Field Battery                        dimand Rifles)
14th Field Artillery Regiment                                 – 54th Field Battery
         – 84th Field Battery                                 – 69th Field Battery
         – 88th Field Battery                                 – 169th Field Battery
         – 133rd Field Battery                       57th Field Artillery Regiment
15th Field Artillery Regiment                                 – 10th Field Battery
         – 5th (British Columbia) Field Battery               – 171st Field Battery
         – 31st Field Battery                                 – 172nd Field Battery
         – 85th Field Battery                        62nd (Shawinigan) Field Artillery Regiment
         – 158th Field Battery                                – 81st Field Battery
         – 209th Field Battery                                – 185th Field Battery
18th Field Artillery Regiment                        7th Field Battery
         – 20th Field Battery                        50th Field Battery
         – 39th Field Battery                        116th Field Battery
         – 93rd Field Battery                        44th Independent Field Battery
20th Field Artillery Regiment
         – 78th Field Battery
         – 95th Field Battery
         – 96th Field Battery                        October 2000
21st Field Artillery Regiment
         – 97th Field Battery                        Regular Force
         – 99th Field Battery
         – 100th Field Battery                       1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
26th Field Artillery Regiment                                 – “A” Battery
         – 13th Field Battery                                 – “B” Battery
         – 19th Field Battery                                 – “C” Battery
         – 38th Field Battery                        2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
         – 70th Field Battery                                 – “D” Battery
         – 71st Field Battery                                 – “E” Battery
27th Field Artillery Regiment                                 – “F” Battery
         – 24th Field Battery                        5e Régiment d’artillerie légère du Canada
         – 35th Field Battery                                 – “Q” Batterie
         – 75th Field Battery                                 – “R” Batterie
30th Field Artillery Regiment                                 – “X” Batterie
         – 1st Field Battery                         4th Air Defence Regiment, RCA
         – 2nd Field Battery                                  – 119th Air Defence Battery
         – 25th Field Battery                                 – 128th Air Defence Battery
46th Field Artillery Regiment                        Royal Canadian Artillery School
                                                              – “W” Battery, RCA

Reserve Force                                                   – 10th Field Battery
                                                                – 54th Field Battery
1st Air Defence Regiment, RCA                                   – 69th Field Battery
         – 89th Air Defence Battery                     62e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne, ARC
         – 109th Air Defence Battery                            – 81e Batterie de campagne
1st Field Artillery Regiment, RCA                               – 185e Batterie de campagne
         – 51st Field Battery                           84th Independent Field Battery, RCA
         – 87th Field Battery
2nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 7th Field Battery
         – 50th Field Battery
         – 66th Field Battery
3rd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 89th Field Battery
         – 115th Field Battery
5th (British Columbia) Field Artillery Regiment,
         – 5th Field Battery
         – 55th Field Battery
6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne, ARC
         – 57e Batterie de campagne
         – 58e Batterie d’artillerie antiaérienne
         – 59e Batterie de campagne
7th Toronto Regiment, RCA
         – 9th Field Battery
         – 15th Field Battery
         – 130th Field Battery
10th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 18th Field Battery
         – 64th Field Battery
11th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 11th Field Battery
         – 16th Field Battery
         – 29th Field Battery
15th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 31st Field Battery
         – 68th Field Battery
18th Air Defence Regiment, RCA
         – 20th Air Defence Battery
         – 39th Air Defence Battery
20th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 61st Field Battery
         – 78th Field Battery
26th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 13th Field Battery
         – 71st Field Battery
30th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
         – 1st Field Battery
         – 2nd Field Battery
49th (Sault Ste. Marie) Field Artillery Regiment,
         – 30th Field Battery
         – 148th Field Battery
56th Field Artillery Regiment

                                      CHAPTER 2

                          REGIMENTAL ORGANIZATION

201.   GENERAL

The regimental affairs of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery are regulated both by
tradition and by a combination of appointments and governing bodies.


1.       The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery is honoured by acceptance by the Sovereign
of a Royal Appointment. Royal Appointments are held by members of the Royal Family and are
for life. The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery is also honoured by and extends honour to
distinguished personages by means of Honorary Appointments within the Regiment and within
individual units.

2.      The reigning Sovereign holds the Royal Appointment of Captain-General. In the Cana-
dian Forces, the appointment of Captain-General is unique to The Royal Regiment of Canadian

3.    A distinguished retired officer of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery holds the
Honorary Appointment of Colonel Commandant.

4.    Artillery units of the Primary Reserve may nominate retired officers or distinguished
Canadian citizens to the appointment of Honorary Colonel or Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel.


1.    The Captain-General is the ceremonial head of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and of
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.

2.      During a guest night at Woolwich in December 1950, His Majesty King George VI
expressed a desire to change his title from Colonel-in-Chief to Captain-General. This change in
title was effected on 26 January 1951, thus reviving an old rank, which dates from the fifteenth
century. The rank of Captain-General had been replaced by that of Field Marshal in 1736
although it did not actually disappear from common usage until about 1799.

3.     The Royal Canadian Artillery requested that His Majesty change his Canadian title as
he had done for the Royal Artillery, and on 10 January 1952, His Majesty became the Captain-
General of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.

4.     Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, was graciously pleased on coronation in 1953 to assume
the appointment of Captain-General of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. (Extra issue
Canada Gazette Number 7 dated 1 June 1953).


1.     The office of Colonel Commandant is an honorary one. It symbolizes the Regimental
family and traditions drawing together all its members: serving and retired; regular and reserve.
CFAO 3-4 refers.

2.      Distinguished retired officers of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, normally in
the rank of Colonel or above, are eligible for the appointment of Colonel Commandant. After
consultation with artillery units, senior gunner officers, the Artillery Council and the Royal
Canadian Artillery Association, the Director of Artillery submits a recommendation for the
appointment of Colonel Commandant to the Chief of the Defence Staff. The Chief of the Defence
Staff then submits the recommendation to the Minister of National Defence for approval. The
appointment is then authorized by the Governor General.

3.     It is the duty of the Colonel Commandant to:

       a.      foster esprit-de-corps throughout the Regiment;

       b.      provide the channel of communication to the Captain-General and to the Master
               Gunner St. James’s Park;

       c.      advise on all matters of significance to the Regiment and in particular on:

               (1)    dress, customs and traditions,

               (2)    regimental charities, museums, memorials and organizations,

               (3)    the disposition of regimental non-public funds and property,

               (4)    regimental publications, and

               (5)    the naming of artillery buildings and properties;

       d.      maintain close liaison between the Regular and Reserve Force components of The
               Royal Regiment and between The Royal Regiment and other branches;

       e.      advise the Director of Artillery and The Royal Canadian Artillery Association (in
               which he is an ex-officio member of the Executive Committee) on all artillery
               matters; and

       f.      oversee affiliations with allied regiments or units.

4.      The tenure of office is normally three years. Extensions in office beyond the initial term
may be approved by the Chief of the Defence Staff on the recommendation of the Director
of Artillery.

5.      The Colonel Commandant and the Master Gunner, St. James’s Park form the link
between The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery and the Royal Regiment of Artillery. The
Master Gunner, St. James’s Park is the head of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in all regimental
matters, and traditionally, as the Sovereign’s advisor on artillery matters, takes a keen interest in
the affairs of Commonwealth artillery. The appointment of Master Gunner, Saint James’s Park,
which dates from 1263, is made by the Captain-General.

6.     A direct channel of communication is authorized between the Colonel Commandant and
the Director of Artillery. The Colonel Commandant may also communicate with:

       a.      the Captain-General regarding significant Regimental activities and exchange of
               birthday or similar greetings;

       b.      Commanders of Commands; and

       c.      the Chief of the Defence Staff.

7.      The Colonel Commandant sends loyal greetings to Her Majesty the Queen at Christmas,
on Artillery Day (26 May) and on St. Barbara’s Day (4 December). He may also send loyal
greetings on any other occasions which warrant such action.

8.      The Colonel Commandant, as head of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, should
be consulted on arrangements for visits and celebrations involving other organizations and
distinguished persons.

9.       Arrangements for the Colonel Commandant’s visits and travel are made through the
office of the Director of Artillery. It will be normal for an ADC to be appointed from the unit to
assist the Colonel Commandant during his visit.

10.    The Colonel Commandant, as an officer appointed in accordance with QR&O 3.06, shall
wear the current uniform, insignia, accoutrements and accessories appropriate to the honorary
rank and appointment which he holds.

11.      Portraits of the Colonels Commandant hang in the RCA Officers’ Mess at CFB Shilo. A
list of the serving and past Colonels Commandant is at Annex A.


1.     Within the Primary Reserve, Honorary Colonels and Honorary Lieutenant-Colonels may
be appointed for regiments and independent batteries.

2.      Honorary Colonels and Honorary Lieutenant-Colonels assist and advise their regiment or
battery on such matters as regimental traditions, dress, procedure and finances.

3.      Honorary Colonels and Honorary Lieutenant-Colonels are chosen from among retired
officers or citizens prominent in the community. They are appointed for an initial period of three
years. The appointees are normally selected by unit Commanding Officers in consultation with
their advisors. The subsequent recommendation is submitted through the chain of command for
approval by the Minister of National Defence.


1.      The Artillery Council has been formed to provide advice and guidance to the Director
of Artillery on artillery matters.

2.      The Artillery Council comprises the Colonel Commandant and all serving Reserve and
Regular Force artillery General Officers. The senior serving Regular Force artillery General
Officer is the Chair. The Director of Artillery is a member of the council and acts as secretary.
The Commander Home Station, when a Gunner, is an invited member of the Council. The RCAA
nominates a representative to the council after consultation between the President of the RCAA
and the Chairman of the Artillery Council.

3.       The Council meets at the direction of the Chairman, normally twice yearly, and considers
such matters as are placed before it by the Chairman or the Secretary. The Artillery Council
reviews and recommends the filling of key artillery appointments and approves all major policy
initiatives and decisions.


1.      Throughout the history of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, there has normally
been a senior serving artillery officer appointed and made responsible to provide direction to the
Regiment. The duties have varied, as have the titles, whether Inspector of Artillery or Officer
Administering the Royal Canadian Artillery or the present-day Director of Artillery. With the
move of the Director of Artillery to NDHQ and the closure of G3 Artillery at LFCHQ, a number
of responsibilities that were normally held by the Director of Artillery were transferred to the
Commander Home Station (see Article 208).

2.      Branch Advisor. The Director of Artillery is the focal point for Artillery Branch
identity, and provides essential input into the maintenance of the “good health” of all Artillery

MOCs (22, 021, 022, R22, R26, R021, and R022). The Director identifies problems, prepares
position papers, and can report directly to the Commander of the Army on matters related to
professional standards, career patterns, trade specifications and structures, force development,
force employment, training and doctrine.

3.     Regimental Affairs

       a.      Governance

               (1)    secretary for Artillery Council,

               (2)    chair for the RCA Advisory Board,

               (3)    representative at the Conference of Defence Associations,

               (4)    ex-officio member of the Executive Committee of the Royal Canadian
                      Artillery Association,

               (5)    liaison with all artillery associations,

               (6)    chair Director of Artillery Conference,

               (7)    act as the official link between the Regiment and the Colonel Com-

               (8)    provide guidance to the RCA Executive Board,

               (9)    provide guidance for the maintenance of artillery funds, non-public prop-
                      erty, competitions, museums and ceremonial standards,

               (10)   recommend allied affiliations, exchange of officers, and honorary appoint-
                      ments related to the Regiment,

               (11)   appoint Extra Regimentally Employed (ERE) representatives for both
                      officers and non-commissioned members (NCMs) of The Royal Regiment
                      of Canadian Artillery. These representatives in turn voice the concerns of
                      ERE officers and NCMs to the Director, as well as keeping ERE members
                      informed on current artillery affairs, and

               (12)   appoint the Regimental Sergeant-Major of The Royal Regiment of Cana-
                      dian Artillery (RSM RCA);

     b.    Colonel Commandant

           (1)    Assist the Colonel Commandant in the performance of his duties,

           (2)    appoint a permanent staff officer to:

                  (a)    arrange/coordinate the Colonel Commandant’s calendar, travel
                         arrangements and personal administrative requirements,

                  (b)    provide information on Regimental matters as required,

                  (c)    assist in speech preparations as requested by the Colonel Com-
                         mandant, and

                  (d)    conduct other duties as directed by the Director of Artillery;

           (3)    budget and manage the Colonel Commandant’s financial account,

           (4)    provide a DND telephone calling card,

           (5)    provide information on all major developments and activities within The
                  Royal Regiment, and

           (6)    initiate and staff the selection and appointment process for new Colonel

     c.    Communications

           (1)    provide periodic artillery SITREPS to the Commander of the Army, and
                  the entire Royal Regiment,

           (2)    report annually to the Royal Canadian Artillery Association, and

           (3)    report to the Artillery Council as required;

     d.    Correspondence. Advise the Regimental Headquarters of The Royal Regiment
           of Canadian Artillery (RHQ RCA) of any special correspondence requirements in
           addition to those listed at Article 208, para 2.c.

4.   Personnel/Career Management

     a.    provide the Chief of the Land Staff with the Regimental recommendations for
           commanding officer appoitments for consideration by the LFC Command Selec-
           tion Board;

       b.     prepare the command plot for all Regular Commanding Officers, 2ICs and Battery

       c.     provide advice to the Commander of the Army Selection Board on the selection
              of Reserve Commanding Officers;

       d.     prepare the appointment plot for all Regular CWOs; and

       e.     liaise with the officer and NCM career managers on issues related to postings,
              reengagements, promotion boards, promotion forecasts, releases, MOC profiles
              and occupational analysis.

5.      Equipment. Liaise with Director Land Requirements staff (DLR 2 Firepower) and moni-
tor developments with respect to artillery policy regarding equipment requirements, modifica-
tions, scales and trials; CFTOs; and ammunition.

6.      Artillery Master Development Plans. Coordinate with Director Land Requirements
staff (DLR 2 Firepower) the upkeep of the Field and Air Defence Master Development Plans.

7.    Doctrine. Liaise and coordinate with Director Army Doctrine staff (DAD 7 Firepower
and DAD 11 Force Structure) on doctrinal matters.

8.     Organization/Structures. Liaise and coordinate with Director Army Doctrine staff
(DAD 11 Force Structure) and Director Concepts Staff on matters related to artillery

9.     Force Readiness. Liaise and coordinate with Director Land Force Readiness staff on
readiness and employment options for artillery forces.

10.    Concepts. Liaise and coordinate with Director Army Training staff on strategic concepts
and force development planning issues affecting artillery forces.

11.      Training. Liaise and coordinate with Director Army Training staff on matters related to
artillery training development, policy, evaluation and professional development.

12.    Special Projects. Provide direction and guidance on any project which will enhance the
well-being of The Royal Regiment.

13.    Miscellaneous

       a.     Any matter as directed by the Colonel Commandant and Artillery Council; and

       b.     Any matter that is considered to have an impact on the well-being of The Royal

14.     He is assisted in the performance of his duties by the staff of RHQ RCA, and selected
officers at NDHQ.

15.    A list of the current and past Directors of Artillery is at Annex B.


1.      As CFB Shilo has been designated the Home Station of The Royal Regiment of Canadian
Artillery, the Base Commander, if an artillery officer, becomes automatically the Commander
Home Station.

2.     The principal duty of the Commander Home Station is to oversee all non-public affairs
of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery for the benefit of all serving and former serving
members. Specifically this includes:

       a.     Governance

              (1)     invited member of the Artillery Council,
              (2)     member of the RCA Advisory Board,
              (3)     responsible for the RCA Standing Orders,
              (4)     responsible for the RCA Administrative Manual, and
              (5)     assistance to the Director of Artillery;

       b.     Communications and Public Relations

              (1)     The Canadian Gunner,
              (2)     the Quadrant,
              (3)     the RCA web site, and
              (4)     appropriate brochures/flyers as required;

       c.     Correspondence

              (1)     Loyal greetings and birthday greetings (on behalf of the Colonel Com-

              (2)     preparation of appropriate letters for the Colonel Commandant and the
                      Director of Artillery for:

                      (a)     senior appointments,
                      (b)     unit and sub-unit command appointments,
                      (c)     RSM appointments,
                      (d)     awards and commendations,
                      (e)     promotions,

                      (f)    death and illnesses, and
                      (g)    other noteworthy events;

              (3)     preparation of information letters to senior retired RCA officers and ERE

       d.     Junior Officers’ Course. Planning and conduct of the course, including cor-
              respondence with and coordination of guest speakers;

       e.     Supporting Commander for The Royal Canadian Artillery Museum

              (1)     the RCA Museum Board is responsible to the Supporting Commander for
                      overall governance of the museum, and

              (2)     the Supporting Commander ensures that the traditions and history of The
                      Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery are maintained through the opera-
                      tion and maintenance of the RCA Museum;

       f.     RCA Regimental Fund

              (1)     President of the RCA Executive Board, and

              (2)     responsibilities include:

                      (a)    financial status of the RCA Regimental Fund,

                      (b)    investments,

                      (c)    RCA Regimental Fund Programmes, including but not restricted
                             to Bursaries, Soldier Recognition, Emergency assistance and Com-
                             munications, and

                      (d)    communicating information concerning all aspects of the RCA
                             Regimental Fund business to all members of The Royal Regiment
                             of Canadian Artillery.

3.     The RCA Regimental Fund is discussed in more detail in Chapter 3. A list of the current
and past Commanders Home Station is at Annex C.


1.    To ensure that the affairs of the Regiment are handled in a professional and expeditious
manner, a small staff is located at the Home Station and is known as Regimental Headquarters
RCA (RHQ RCA). They are responsible to the Commander Home Station for the detailed

management of the RCA Regimental Fund, the RCA Museum and the RCA Kit Shop and
other regimentally related matters. These matters include maintenance of a Regimental database,
operation of the RCA Web Site, publication of The Canadian Gunner and Quadrant, and assisting
the Colonel Commandant, the Director of Artillery and the Commander Home Station in the
performance of their duties.

2.     The staff consists of:

       a.      the Regimental Major;

       b.      the Regimental Adjutant;

       c.      the Director RCA Museum; and

       d.      sufficient staff to conduct the affairs of the Regiment. This staff is provided
               normally by 1 RCHA, the Home Station Regiment, as agreed to by the Director
               of Artillery.

3.    In addition to the RHQ RCA staff, there is also a Regimental Sergeant-Major (RSM
RCA). The Director of Artillery appoints a Chief Warrant Officer to fill this position, normally
the RSM of the Artillery School.


1.      The Royal Canadian Artillery Association (RCAA) was founded in 1876 with the object
of promoting the efficiency and welfare of the Royal Canadian Artillery and other matters
pertaining to the defence of Canada. A general meeting of the RCAA is normally held annually.

2.     The following are eligible for membership:

       a.      all serving artillery officers and NCMs, both regular and reserve; and

       b.      all retired artillery officers and NCMs of the Canadian and of other Common-
               wealth and NATO forces acceptable to the Association.

3.     The following may affiliate with the RCAA:

       a.      artillery regiments and independent batteries;

       b.      artillery schools; and

       c.      artillery associations.

4.    Any person deemed to have rendered outstanding service to the artillery may be elected
an Honorary Life Member of the RCAA at a General Meeting. Record of service in The Royal
Regiment of Canadian Artillery will normally be the principal factor in selection.

5.     Any serving or retired officer of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery may make
application to become a Life Member. The application should be forwarded to the Secretary of
the RCAA for consideration at the next General Meeting.

6.    Application for membership and information about dues may be obtained through the
Regimental Major.

(211 to 299 inclusive - not allocated)


                         COLONELS COMMANDANT

1 April 1925 - 20 May 1925          Major-General T. B. Strange

10 July 1925 - 19 March 1928        Colonel D. T. Irwin, CMG, VD

20 March 1928 - 25 August 1934      Brigadier-General W. O. H. Dodds, CMG, DSO, VD

1 November 1934 - 17 January 1948   Major-General H. A. Panet, CB, CMG, DSO

18 January 1948 - 17 January 1958   Major-General H. O. N. Brownfield, CBE, MC, CD

18 January 1958 - 17 January 1964   Brigadier P. A. S. Todd, CBE, DSO, ED, CD

18 January 1964 - 17 January 1969   Major-General A. B. Matthews, CBE, DSO

18 January 1969 - 17 January 1975   Major-General H. A. Sparling, CBE, DSO, CD

18 January 1975 - 3 August 1979     Brigadier-General E. M. D. Leslie, DSO, CD

4 August 1979 - 31 August 1986      Brigadier-General W. W. Turner, CD

1 September 1986 - 30 August 1991   Lieutenant-General W. A. B. Anderson, OBE, CD

31 August 1991 - 1 September 1995   Colonel, The Honourable R. A. Jacobson, CD

1 September 1995 - 2000             Brigadier-General R.P. Beaudry, CD


                         OR EQUIVALENT


      October 1919                  Colonel A.T. Ogilvie, DSO
      June 1922                     Colonel L.A.G.O. Roy
      November 1926                 Colonel W.H.P. Elkins, DSO
      February 1930                 Lieutenant-Colonel J.C. Stewart, DSO
      March 1934                    Colonel W.G. Hagarty, DSO
      September 1939                Colonel C.V. Stockwell, DSO


      February 1936                 Colonel N.O. Carr


      September 1940                Colonel G.P. Morrison, CBE, CD

                         DIRECTOR OF ARTILLERY

      July 1942                     Colonel S.E.E. Morres, CD
      November 1943                 Colonel W.E. Van Steenburgh
      January 1946                  Colonel J.S. Ross, DSO
      November 1948                 Lieutenant-Colonel H.W. Sterne, MBE (acting)
      September 1949                Colonel L.G. Clarke, OBE
      January 1954                  Lieutenant-Colonel G.P. Marriott, ED, CD
      August 1954                   Colonel A.J.B. Bailey, DSO, OBE, ED, CD
      August 1957                   Colonel H.W. Sterne, DSO, MBE, CD
      August 1960                   Colonel E.G. Brooks, DSO, OBE, CD
      November 1963                 Colonel J.L. Drewry, DSO, CD

                           CHIEF OF ARTILLERY

      October 1965                  Colonel J.P. Beer, MBE, CD
      July 1969                     Colonel D.W. Francis, CD


August 1970              Colonel D.W. Francis, CD
July 1972                Colonel D.H. Gunter, CD
June 1974                Colonel A. Sosnkowski, CD
January 1975             Lieutenant-Colonel J.O. Ward, CD (acting)
July 1975                Colonel J.A. Cotter, CD
July 1977                Colonel H.J. Stein, CD
August 1980              Colonel R.P. Beaudry, CD
June 1981                Colonel H.R. Wheatley, CD
July 1983                Colonel D.B. McGibbon, CD
August 1985              Colonel J.A. MacInnis, CD
July 1986                Colonel D.B. Walton, OMM, CD
July 1988                Colonel R.A. Dallaire, OMM, CD
July 1989                Colonel L.T.B. Mintz, CD
July 1991                Colonel M.K. Jeffery, CD
July 1992                Colonel G.J. Oehring, CD
July 1993                Colonel J.D. Briscoe, OMM, CD
July 1995                Colonel D.W. Read, CD
July 1998                Colonel M.D. Capstick, CD
August 2000              Colonel S.J. Gillies, CD


                       COMMANDERS OF A3 CATC SHILO

      May 1940                      Lieutenant-Colonel D.R. Agnew
      September 1940                Lieutenant-Colonel A.J. Brice, VD
      November 1941                 Lieutenant-Colonel A.L.S. Nash, MM
      September 1942                Lieutenant-Colonel R.E. Bliss
      December 1943                 Lieutenant-Colonel W.J. Finney, OBE
      March 1944                    Colonel A.L.S. Nash, OBE, MM
      May 1945                      Colonel H.S. Griffin, DSO ED
      November 1945                 Lieutenant-Colonel H.E. Brown, OBE, ED

                    COMMANDERS HOME STATION

      October 1946                  Lieutenant-Colonel D.K. Todd, DSO, CD
      February 1948                 Lieutenant-Colonel R.H. Webb, DSO, CD
      January 1949                  Lieutenant-Colonel J.W.D. Symons, CD
      August 1949                   Colonel R.M. Cathcart, OBE, CD
      January 1951                  Lieutenant-Colonel A.J. Lake, CD (acting)
      July 1951                     Colonel Dollard Menard, DSO, CD
      August 1955                   Colonel J.M. Houghton, OBE, CD
      August 1958                   Colonel A.C. Perron, ED, CD
      August 1960                   Colonel G.P. Marriott, ED, CD
      October 1962                  Colonel W.S. Hunt, CD (RCEME)
      December 1965                 Colonel G.P. Marriott, ED, CD
      June 1966                     Colonel J.S. Orton, MBE, MC, CD
      August 1967                   Colonel D.W. Francis, CD
      July 1969                     Colonel D.H. Gunter, CD
      July 1970                     Colonel L.C. Baumgart, CD
      July 1972                     Colonel D.R. Baker, CD
      December 1974                 Colonel A.D.M. Matheson, OMM, CD (RCD)
      July 1975                     Colonel M.D. Calnan, CD
      August 1977                   Colonel C.R. Simonds, CD
      July 1981                     Colonel J.H.L.C. Archambault, CD
      July 1983                     Colonel J.A. MacInnis, CD
      August 1985                   Colonel L.T.B. Mintz, OMM, CD
      July 1988                     Colonel D.B. Walton, OMM, CD
      July 1991                     Colonel J.L.H.L.P. Boucher, OMM, CD
      July 1994                     Colonel T.J. Guiler, OMM, CD
      August 1996                   Colonel J.J. Selbie, CD
      October 1997                  Lieutenant-Colonel R.S. Wilson, OMM, CD

                                         CHAPTER 3



1.      The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery has, throughout its history, established funds
to undertake various activities that cannot be publicly funded yet benefit The Royal Regiment
and all its members. Membership is voluntary and open to all past and present members of The
Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.

2.      Initially, a Corps Fund was established by the Director of Artillery under authority of
Directorate of Administration Bulletin 53/1, 3 February 1953. The Fund was re-established
under authority of Chapter 6 Section 2 of Institute Rules, 1 March 1964. Under the authority
of CFAO 27-8, the Regimental Fund established several individual funds to include the RCA
Non-Public Property Fund, RCA Sergeants’ Regimental Fund and the RCA Officers’ Regimental
Fund. As of 18 November 1984, all previous funds were amalgamated as the Royal Canadian
Artillery (RCA) Regimental Fund, and on 16 August 1988 Revenue Canada approved a change
of name to “The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Regimental Fund”.

3.      The RCA Executive Board has been established to conduct the non-public affairs of
the Royal Regiment, for the benefit of all serving and former serving members. Membership
of the Executive Board is defined within the constitution of the RCA Regimental Fund. The
constitution is embodied in the RCA Administrative Manual.


1.     The RCA Regimental Fund is a non-profit organization of the Regular Force component
of The Royal Regiment. Revenue Canada recognizes this fund as a charitable organization for
income tax purposes, with a registered Charity number - 11925 2997 RR 0001. Its purpose is to
provide financial support for the non-public affairs (NPA) of The Royal Regiment.

2.      Non-Public Affairs (NPA). The aim of NPA is to preserve artillery historical traditions
and values and to help define, promote and support the distinctiveness, character and well being
of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. The Fund does this through a number of programs
as outlined below:

       a.     Regimental Identity Program. Provision of Regimental Standing Orders to all
              units, an initial issue of regimental dress accoutrements and an initial issue of the
              regimental tracksuit to Regular Force QL3 and Phase IV graduates;

       b.     Member Recognition Program. Provision of top student awards on various
              courses, Colonel Commandant’s Commendations, expressions of sympathy and
              retirement gifts;

       c.     Member Assistance Program. The award of bursaries to encourage members
              and eligible dependants to further their education, and the provision of emergency
              assistance funding to gunners and gunner families in need;

       d.     Regimental Heritage Program. The provision of funding for acquisition and
              maintenance of Regimental Non-Public Property(NPP), and the purchase and
              upkeep of period uniforms;

       e.     Regimental Professional Development Program. Conduct of the Junior Offic-
              ers’ Course, and funding to assist Master Gunner Conferences. Provision of
              prizes for the Brooks Memorial Essay Competition;

       f.     Regimental Communication Program. Maintenance of the RCA Web Site,
              publication of The Canadian Gunner and Quadrant, and prizes for the RCA Photo

       g.     support of the operation of the RCA Museum, and the maintenance of gunner
              monuments and memorials; and

       h.     the support of miscellaneous and special projects such as unit messes, stand easy
              areas, freedom of city celebrations and the RCA Band.

3.       Contributions. Voluntary contributions by Regular Force members of The Royal Regi-
ment form the major source of revenue for the RCA Regimental Fund. Contributions to the Fund
are classed as a tax deductable charitable donation. The suggested monthly contribution scale is
held at all units and at RHQ RCA in Shilo. The simplest and preferred way to contribute is to
make a pay assignment to code P028. This option is currently only open to gunners on Regular
or class C terms of service. Retired or former members of the Regular component and members
of the Reserve component of the RCA may belong to the Fund through an annual contribution.
Details on annual contributions are available from RHQ RCA. Members providing an annual
contribution to the RCA Regimental Fund, at the recommended scale, receive complimentary
gifts of the periodicals The Canadian Gunner and Quadrant, and the tax advantage offered by
the charitable contribution.

4.      Access to Fund Programs. A number of the Fund’s programs are intended to provide
benefit to The Royal Regiment as a whole (i.e. Regular and Reserve components). These include
heritage upkeep and promotion, communications programs, professional development, monu-
ment and memorial upkeep, and member recognition. Certain components of other programs,
due to their administrative and financial nature, have limited access criteria as follows:

       a.     Uniform Accoutrements. All Regular Force RCA QL3 graduates;

       b.     Regimental Track Suits. All Regular Force RCA QL3 and Phase IV graduates;

       c.     Emergency Assistance and Expressions of Sympathy. All Serving Regular
              Force members of the RCA and their immediate family;

       d.     Educational Bursaries. Serving and former serving Regular Force members of
              the RCA and their qualified dependants;

       e.     Reserve Force members of the RCA and former Regular Force members of
              the RCA who actively contribute to the RCA Regimental Fund on an annual basis
              also have access to the restricted programs in paras 4.c. and 4.d. above; and

       f.     Retirement Gifts. Regular Force Members of the RCA are eligible to receive
              retirement gifts as follows: with six or more years of continuous service, a retire-
              ment scroll; and with 20 or more years of continuous service, their choice of a
              Field or Air Defence Artillery statuette.

5.      Information. Financial statements, budgets and major decisions regarding the Fund
will be published annually in The Canadian Gunner and minutes of Board meetings available
on request. The RCA Regimental Fund Administrative Manual is held by all members of
the Executive Board and all units. It explains in greater detail the operations of the fund.
More direct information may be obtained through unit commanding officers, the national ERE
representative, the local ERE representative or directing enquiries to:

       a.     Regimental Major, RCA - telephone (204) 765-3000 ext 3536;

       b.     Regimental Adjutant, RCA - telephone (204) 765-3000 ext 3535;

       c.     E-mail through the AWAN;

       d.     E-mail through the Internet at; or

       d.     Mailing Address:

              Regimental Headquarters RCA
              P.O. Box 5000 Stn Main
              Canadian Forces Base Shilo, MB R0K 2A0


1.      The RCA Regimental Fund owns all non-public property of the Regular Force component
of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, wherever held. This includes all articles of real,
historic or sentimental value which are held by units, headquarters or institutes of the RCA.
Property returns in the format specified by the RCA NPP Committee are required from each
organization holding RCA NPP by 1 June annually. These records are held and maintained at
RHQ RCA. RCA NPP includes all classes of NPP which are artefacts and memorabilia, such as

silver, plaques, trophies, works of art and other items entrusted to the Regiment or acquired by
the Regiment to ensure safekeeping and remembrance.

2.      Property belonging to Reserve Force units of the RCA is governed by the regulations in
CFAO 27-7 and CFAO 27-10. Reserve Force units wishing to avail themselves of the record
keeping services of RHQ RCA may do so by applying to the RCA NPP Committee for the
allotment of an identifying block of property numbers. However, ownership and responsibility
for insurance coverage remain with the Reserve Force unit as required by CFAO 27-10.


1.      The RCA Museum is located at the Home Station and was officially opened by the
Colonel Commandant in January 1962. It is established by and operates under the provisions of
CFAO 27-5 and is an authorized Canadian Forces Museum. Since the museum is an instrument
of the Crown in right of Canada, it is allowed under Section 118.1 of the Income Tax Act to issue
income tax receipts for any donations it receives. These donations are classified as donations
to the Crown. As a result, the museum is not required to maintain charitable status, unlike
the RCA Regimental Fund, which is considered a private corporation. The museum maintains
memberships in numerous professional museum associations.

2.      The museum’s mandate is the collection, preservation, restoration and interpretation
of artefacts directly or indirectly associated with military service with emphasis on artillery
particularly Canadian artillery. All gunner disciplines are encompassed.

3.      Museum property is acquired by many means. It may be surplus to military requirements
and held by the museum on behalf of DND, by donation or by outright purchase. All artifacts
donated to or acquired by the RCA Museum become the property of DND, and are held in trust
by the RCA Museum on DND’s behalf. Acquisition, preservation and ultimate disposal of these
artifacts is controlled through the Directorate of History and Heritage at NDHQ.

4.    The museum is governed locally by a Museum Board responsible to the Base Commander
CFB Shilo.


1.     The RCA Kit Shop is operated by the RCA Regimental Fund as an NPF activity in
accordance with CFAO 27-8. It is located in the RCA Museum at the Home Station.

2.      Kit Shop operations are intended to provide a service to members of The Royal Regiment,
with all profits going to the RCA Regimental Fund.

3.     The Kit Shop stocks approved regimental accoutrements, unique regimental memorabilia
and provides engraving, custom framing and printing services. Items of approved regimental

pattern, not available through the normal supply system, are stocked. The Kit Shop provides the
services of a central warehouse to regular and Reserve Force unit kit shops, and to cadet corps
for certain unique gunner items.

4.     The Kit Shop is governed by a Kit Shop Committee responsible to the RCA Executive

(306 to 399 inclusive - not allocated)

                                           CHAPTER 4

                                  COLOURS AND BADGES

401.   GENERAL

1.     The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery has been authorized to take into use a variety
of pennants, flags and badges.

2.     The use of these devices is limited to those authorized and described in this chapter.

3.   Additional copies of the graphics of the badges shown herein are available from RHQ


1.     In Great Britain, guns were originally inscribed with the “Founders Mark” of the private
foundry that manufactured the guns. By contrast, in France, the arms of the reigning monarch
were customarily inscribed on the barrels. As the Royal Ordnance Factory, whose mark was
the Royal Cypher, became responsible for the manufacture of most British artillery, it became
customary to inscribe the Royal Cypher on all guns.

2.      When, in 1893, Queen Victoria conferred the title “Royal” on the artillery in Canada, the
honour included the right to engrave on artillery equipment the Imperial Cypher VRI surmounted
by the Imperial Crown. The honour is perpetuated today by inscribing the Royal Cypher of the
reigning monarch on each artillery piece (see figure 1 below).

3.     Instructions concerning the application of the Royal Cypher are found in Canadian
Forces Technical Order (CFTO) C-71-010-021/MN 000.

                           Figure 1 - The Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II


1.      Before 1832, the Royal Artillery used the Ordnance Arms or the Royal Cypher as part
of the insignia on its buttons and badges. The Ordnance Arms had as their central devices
three cannons and three cannonballs. The Royal Cypher consisted of either the garter and motto
surmounted by a crown enclosing the monarch’s monogramme or the monarch’s monogramme
alone surmounted by a crown.

2.      In 1832, the Royal Arms with supporters, together with the mottos “Ubique” and “Quo
fas et gloria ducunt” and a cannon were granted to the Royal Regiment of Artillery as a badge
by warrant of William IV. In this form, it constituted the full achievement of the gunner badge.
The more flamboyant uniforms of that time enabled this large badge to be displayed effectively.
For the next hundred years, it was featured on shako stars, helmet plates, shoulder belt plates,
sabretaches, cross belt pouches and busby plume holders.

3.      Canadian gunners adopted the “Full Achievement of the Badge” and it was used from
1855 as a helmet plate and on sabretaches and cross belt pouches. “Canada” was used instead
of the motto “Ubique”.

4.      The Arms of the Royal Regiment of Artillery are the source of the rank badges tradition-
ally worn by Chief Warrant Officers and Master Gunners. The Royal Arms were first used as an
arm badge by all Warrant Officers Class 1 in 1915. Since 1945, the Arms of Canada have been
used and this practice continues today with the rank of Chief Warrant Officer. The gun has been
part of the badge of all Master Gunners since 1864. From 1915 to 1945 the Royal Arms were
worn above the gun. In Canada since 1945 the gun badge alone (always pointing forward) has
been the badge of the Master Gunner.

5.     The Director of Ceremonial authorized the use of the “Full Achievement of the Badge” on
29 June 1988 for special ceremonial purposes such as on commendations and certificates.

                           Figure 2 - The Full Achievement of the RCA Badge


1.      As uniforms were simplified to meet the demands of modern warfare, it became apparent
that the full achievement of the gunner badge was too large. Beginning with the introduction of
the peaked forage cap in 1907, abbreviated versions of the full achievement have been adopted
for day to day use. In 1926 the word “Canada” was replaced by the motto “Ubique” in the
RCA badge.

2.     The badge of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery is shown at Figure 3. The
RCA badge is used both as a cap badge and as a crest. The Colonel Commandant approved the
design and colour of the RCA badge on 22 February 1961.

3.      The RCHA badge is shown at Figure 4. This badge is only used by RCHA units and
associations as a crest. The RCHA badge is based on the badge of the Order of the Garter which
dates from 1348. The motto of the Order of the Garter, “Honi soit qui mal y pense” (“Evil be
to him who evil thinks”), is not considered as a motto of the artillery. The background colour,
including the centre of the garter is the colour of the material on which the crest is mounted. The
Colonel Commandant approved the design and colour of the RCHA badge on 22 February 1961.
This badge may be used on RCHA unit flags, plaques, stationary, silverware, and decals. When it
is displayed with the RCA badge, the RCHA badge shall take precedence.

                Figure 3 - The RCA Badge                      Figure 4 - The RCHA Badge

4.     Use of the RCA and RCHA Badges

       a.      use of these Badges on official correspondence is restricted to The Director of
               Artillery, the Colonel Commandant, The Commander Home Station, RHQ RCA,
               other RCA HQs and by Commanding Officers of RCA/RCHA units and independ-
               ent sub-units. The badges may be used on private correspondence and on products
               sold through unit kit shops provided the badge is displayed in good taste;

       b.        the RSM RCA will, on behalf of the Director, establish a policy on the use of the
                 badges and will ensure that units adhere to this policy; and

       c.        Units will use only graphics of the badges that are provided by RHQ RCA.
                 Both designs are based on originals prepared by the College of Arms in 1949 as
                 reproduced in The Journal of the Royal Artillery, Vol. LXXVII, No 1, January


1.       The grenade, like St. Barbara, has a common heritage with all those who work with
explosives and pyrotechnics - artillerymen, engineers, grenadiers and fusiliers. The word
grenade derives from the ancient French “pomme grenate” or pommegranate. Heraldically, the
grenade is depicted as a sphere spouting flame. The relation to the pommegranate is retained in
the orifice-like appendage from which the flame spouts.

2.      The grenade was first worn by gunners in the mid-1880s as both a collar badge and a cap
badge on the coloured field service (wedge) cap. The grenade used was the universal grenade
(Figure 5) which was also worn by the engineers and by several fusilier regiments. In 1907 a
revised grenade was adopted with a more stylized flame and “Canada” in a scroll underneath. At
this time the convention was established to depict the artillery grenade with seven flames. The
Engineers adopted a grenade of the same pattern but with nine flames. The Fusiliers retained
variations of the universal pattern grenade.

3.     At the time of the adoption by The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery of the “Ubique”
motto in 1926, that motto replaced “Canada” on the scroll beneath the grenade (Figure 6). With
minor variations in size and material the grenade continues in use today as the collar badge of
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.

            Figure 5 - The Universal Grenade                  Figure 6 - The RCA Grenade

406.   COLOURS

1.     Traditionally, the colours of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery are its guns.
They serve the same central role in pride and identity as do the guidons or colours of armour
and infantry regiments.

2.      The custom of the guns being the colours of the artillery has its origin in the British
practice of designating the largest piece in an artillery train as the “flag gun”. This gun was
accorded the honour of carrying the equivalent of today’s Queen’s Colour. Use of the flag gun
has been recorded as early as 1722. Later, the guns themselves came to be regarded as the
colours of the artillery as gunners in battle rallied to their guns in the same fashion as regiments
of cavalry and infantry rallied to their colours.

3.       The introduction of rockets and missiles has in some cases changed the nature of the
artillery’s equipments. Consequently, the term “guns” shall be deemed to include all weapon
systems of the artillery, other than small arms, used to inflict damage or casualties on the enemy.
Thus, rocket and missile launchers, despite not being inscribed with the Royal Cypher, will
be accorded compliments when they are on ceremonial parade with formed artillery units or

4.     Compliments are not paid by the troops on parade to the guns during roll pasts or other
parade movements. The artillery has no equivalent to the “Trooping the Colour” ceremony. It
should be noted that spectators will pay compliments to the guns, as colours, during a roll past or
during similar movements on formal parades and ceremonies.

5.      Although it may be impracticable in modern times to treat guns as colours in non-
ceremonial circumstances, they must be accorded the dignity and respect they deserve. Such
practices as smoking on or near the guns, sitting or leaning on them, decorating them for social
occasions and leaving them unprotected are intolerable.


1.      In November 1904 King Edward VII presented banners to the Royal Canadian Field
Artillery and the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery. It was His Majesty’s pleasure to present
these banners to commemorate the service of C, D and E (Special Service) Batteries during
the Boer War.

2.      The banners were officially presented by the Governor General, Lord Minto, in a cer-
emony on Parliament Hill. A similar banner was also presented to the Royal Canadian Regiment.
The banners were accorded the honours of colours but did not supplant the guns as the colours
of the Regiment.

3.     The original King Edward VII Banners have not been paraded for many years. Only
one remains, and it is in safekeeping in the RCA Museum. Because of its fragile state, it

is no longer loaned out to units. The RCA Battle School had a replica banner made, and in
1997 received permission from the Colonel Commandant to parade it at the Battle School’s
disbandment ceremonies. The replica banner was subsequently presented to the RCA Museum
for safekeeping. The replica banner may be paraded on memorial parades and other special
occasions with the permission of the Colonel Commandant through RHQ RCA. The command-
ing officer of a unit parading the replica banner will ensure that the parading unit affords the
banner the honour of a guidon or colour. It is also customary that spectators pay compliments
to the banner the same honour as a colour. The Banner does not supplant the guns as the
colours of the Regiment.


1.      The Royal Artillery Standard was approved by the Colonel-in-Chief, HM King George
VI, in 1947. Major General H.O.N. Brownfield, CBE, MC, CD, then Colonel Commandant,
applied in 1956 for permission for the adoption of the Standard by The Royal Regiment of
Canadian Artillery. The Master Gunner warmly welcomed this proposal, St. James’s Park (then
Field Marshall, the Viscount Alanbrooke, KG, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO) and permission was
gladly given. The Royal Artillery Standard was used as the Standard of The Royal Regiment
of Canadian Artillery until 31 May 1989. The Standard is reproduced in colour in RCA Notes
No. 43, 1947 and in black and white in Army Headquarters letter, HQ 1175-1/3 (D Arty) dated
14 May 1956 and in A-AD-200-000/AG-000 Flags, Ensigns, Colours, Pennants and Honours
for the Canadian Forces.

2.      On the recommendation of the Artillery Council of 29 April 1988, the Director Ceremo-
nial on 31 May 1989 revoked the authority for units and sub-units to place formation and unit
badges, designators, devices and traditional crests on the RCA Standard. At the same time, the
Director Ceremonial approved the addition of a gold maple leaf in the centre of the field between
the gun badge and the first white diagonal, and the addition of the seventh flame to the grenade.
This version is the current approved Royal Canadian Artillery Standard (Figure 7).

                                    Figure 7 - The RCA Standard

3.             The Royal Canadian Artillery Standard is intended for ceremonial use only. It
       is not carried on parade. It is not broken and shall be flown from flagpoles. The
       occasions when it will be flown are at the discretion of artillery commanders, but in
       general will be:

       a.     visits of royalty;

       b.     visits and inspections by the Colonel Commandant or artillery officers of briga-
              dier-general rank and above;

       c.     visits by the Director of Artillery;

       d.     visits of allied artillery officers of comparable rank;

       e.     visits and inspections by the Governor-General and by Lieutenant-Governors; and

       f.     regimental birthdays, St. Barbara’s Day, Artillery Day and Canada Day.

4.     On such occasions, the Standard may be flown at all artillery headquarters including
formations, units, sub-units and artillery schools.

5.     The Colonel Commandant may fly the Royal Canadian Artillery Standard at his residence
on special occasions.

6.     The RCA Standard is produced in three sizes. All are available from the RCA Kit Shop:

       a.     Small

              (1)     Size. 51/2" x 20", and

              (2)     How used. Used as the Colonel Commandant’s distinguishing flag;

       b.     Medium

              (1)     Size. 1' x 4’, and

              (2)     How used. Indoor parades or on small flag poles; and

       c.     Large

              (1)     Size. 2’ x 8', and

              (2)     How used. On larger outdoor flagpoles (30' to 35').


1.       The Artillery Flag is used as a camp flag in garrison and bivouac to mark the location
of artillery units. It may be flown at headquarters, camps and bivouacs daily from sunrise to
sunset. It will not be carried on parade. This use of the flag is in accordance with regulations
published in A-AD-200-000/AG-000 Flags, Ensigns, Colours, Pennants and Honours for the
Canadian Forces.

2.      The Artillery Flag is bisected horizontally. The upper half shall be dark red and the lower
half a dark blue colour. The RCA badge in gold is in the centre of the flag. RCHA units shall use
the RCHA badge, in full colour. See Figures No 8 and 9.

3.     The normal size of the Artillery Flag is six feet long by three feet in breadth. A smaller
version, three feet long by two feet in breadth is also authorized.

4.     The RCA and RCHA Flags are available from the RCA Kit Shop.

              Figure 8 - The RCA Flag                          Figure 9 - The RCHA Flag


1.     Artillery pennants are authorized for use by field officers and above who are commanders
of sub-units, units, or formations (never flown at RSM or BSM levels). In order that all
gunners and outside agencies readily recognize command position within The Royal Regiment of
Canadian Artillery, all vehicle pennants, within the Regiment, will be standardized in accordance
with A-AD-200-000/AG-000 Flags, Ensigns, Colours, Pennants and Honours for the Canadian

2.     The following instructions will apply to the production of vehicle pennants for RCA

       a.      Dimensions. All vehicle pennants will be seven inches in width by twelve inches
               in length with a one inch white sleeve attached to the hoist. Two one-half inch
               grommets shall be attached one-half inch from the top and the bottom of the

b.   Colour scheme. The upper half shall be dark red and the lower half a dark blue
     colour. All lettering and numbers shall be white in colour and their size shall not
     exceed one and three quarter inches in height except where there is a requirement
     to stack numbers or letters. The minimum acceptable size shall not be less than
     one inch in height. Pennants shall be sewn double sided;

c.   Official Languages. The language used in word and abbreviations shall be the
     working language specified in the unit’s CFOO. Bilingual units may use either
     language as decided by the CO; and

d.   Identification. Certain staff officers and commanding officers of regiments,
     schools or independent batteries shall be identified in the following manner:

     (1)    Director of Artillery by the full achievement of the badge embroidered in
            colour and centred on the pennant,

     (2)    COs of RCHA units by the RCHA badge embroidered in gold on the
            pennant and the number of the regiment clearly displayed in the canton,

     (3)    COs of RCA units (except Air Defence) by the RCA badge embroidered in
            gold on the pennant and the unit number clearly displayed in the canton,

     (4)    COs of Air Defence units by the crossed gun barrel and missile superim-
            posed over a vertical lighting bolt embroidered in Gold on the pennant and
            the unit number clearly displayed in the canton,

     (5)    the CDA’s pennant shall conform in colour, material and overall size. It
            is shaped in accordance with the Brigadier-General’s pennant described in
            Annex A to Chapter 3 of A-AD-200-000/AG-000 Flags, Ensigns, Colours,
            Pennants and Honours for the Canadian Forces. It may be described as
            a swallow-tailed pennant with truncated bottom with the fly cut at centre-
            line to a depth of 5 cm. It carries a centred gold maple leaf and the
            Divisional number centred in the canton,

     (6)    the G3 Artillery pennant conforms in all respects to the standard pattern
            and bears a centred gold maple leaf, and the alpha-numeric combination
            “G3”, with the Divisional number below it, centred in the canton,

     (7)    the guidelines in sub-para 3 applies to the RCAS with the addition of
            “RCAS” attached to the fly of the pennant,

     (8)    independent batteries shall follow the guidelines for Commanding Offic-
            ers with the addition of the abbreviation “Bty” or “Bie” attached to the

               (9)     regimental seconds-in-command of RCHA units shall fly the white horse
                       centred on the pennant with the number of the regiment displayed in the

               (10)    regimental seconds-in-command of RCA units shall fly the abbreviated
                       “2IC” or “CMDT A” over the number of the regiment in the canton,

               (11)    battery commanders of RCHA gun batteries shall fly a horse of the
                       appropriate battery colour centred on the pennant with the applicable bat-
                       tery letter, in white displayed in the canton. Battery colours are as shown
                       at Annex A. Battery Commanders of headquarters and services batteries
                       shall fly a white horse and the abbreviated “HQ” or “CS” over the number
                       of the regiment in the red field, and

               (12)    battery commanders of RCA gun batteries shall fly the number of their
                       battery displayed in the canton. Battery Commanders of headquarters and
                       services batteries shall fly the abbreviated “HQ” or “CS” over the number
                       of the regiment in the red field.

3.     Units can purchase the proper pennants through special order from the RCA Kit Shop at
minimal cost. A master roll of approved pennants is shown at Annex A (note: not incl in this
version - contact RHQ RCA for details).


1.      The corps colour of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery is red. It is a deeper shade
than scarlet but lighter than cherry. Blue has traditionally been the colour of an artilleryman’s
coat. The reason for this has been lost to historical record but it has been suggested that blue was
a preferable colour due to the dirty nature of working with black powder guns, and that cavalry
and infantry alone were entitled to wear the royal scarlet being the servants of the sovereign.
Artillerymen, being originally the civilian employees of the various officials of the ordnance, did
not enjoy this privilege and so adopted the sister colour of blue. This distinction was eventually
recognized and perpetuated when clothing regulations were formalized, with blue being generally
accepted as belonging to the artillery.

2.      The corps colour, red, is not used on full dress or mess dress. The correct colour is
the distinguishing colour of the Artillery, which is scarlet. The distinguishing colour is used
for facings, cuffs, trouser stripes, busby bags, and similar applications. These applications of
scarlet reflect the traditional royal facings on artillery uniforms and have nothing to do with
the corps colour.

3.     The Artillery uses red over blue on regimental flags, standards, pennants, signs, and
wherever else artillery colours are required. The colours are a direct extract from the British Flag
and are referred to as Union Jack Red and Blue.

4.     Information on the proper colour and material for the production of flags, pennants,
standards, etc, are available from RHQ RCA.

(412 to 499 inclusive - not allocated)
                                           CHAPTER 5

                               DRILL AND CEREMONIAL

501.   GENERAL

The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery follows, in general, standard forms of drill
and ceremonial. However, the Regiment does lay claim to certain prerogatives and has
preserved some unique traditions.


1.      The honour of “The Right of the Line”, on an army parade, is held by the units of
the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery when on parade with their guns. On dismounted parades,
RCHA units take precedence over all other land force units except formed bodies of Officer
Cadets of the Royal Military College representing their college. RCA units parade to the left
of units of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps. Details concerning precedence within the
Canadian Forces are given in CFAO 61-6.

2.     The artillery company of the Troupes de la Marine (formed in Quebec in 1750) was
considered a “corps d’élite” and on parade took the position of honour at the right of the line.
At about this time, the Royal Artillery was officially accorded the same honour.

3.      It has not been clearly established exactly when the Royal Artillery was first given its
position on the right of the line but it was very likely in Flanders about 1742-1748. It is
recorded that in 1742, at a camp at Lexden Heath near Colchester, “The Artillery on its own
authority, moved from the left of the camp to the right, which was its customary place.”

4.     In 1756, the matter was brought to official notice on a complaint by a Capt Pattison,
whose company of artillery was denied its usual place on the right during a parade to witness
the execution of a deserter. He based his claim on the custom in Flanders. The claim was
upheld and the official letter on the subject concluded as follows:

“It is the Duke of Cumberland’s order that Colonel Bedford write to Capt Pattison and
acquaint General Bland, it is His Royal Highness’ command that the Artillery take the right of
all foot on all parades and likewise of Dragoons when dismounted”.

5.       In 1773, at Gibraltar, the Commander Royal Artillery protested that the governor had
changed the accepted order of precedence in parading the Guards. The protest was then taken
to His Majesty, who upheld the Gunners’ claim. The custom was again upheld in 1787 when
it was questioned whether the Royal Irish Artillery should parade on the right or left of the
Royal Military Artificers who were the next in order of precedence after the Royal Artillery.
The answer to this question was: “The Royal Artillery to be on the right, either English or
Irish, there is no exception.”

6.      From its formation in 1793, the Royal Horse Artillery took precedence over all
cavalry including the Household Cavalry, following the established precedence of the Foot
Artillery over all infantry including the Foot Guards. This precedence was confirmed in
1804 but was modified by Queen Victoria in 1868 so that the Royal Horse Artillery when on
parade with their guns would take precedence over the Household Cavalry, who otherwise
held the right of the line as part of the Body Guard of the Sovereign.

7.     Precedence within The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery is as outlined at article

503.   DRILL

1.      Instructions for both mounted and dismounted drill for all units of the Royal Regiment
of Canadian Artillery are contained in A-PD-201-000/PT-000 Canadian Forces Manual of
Drill and Ceremonial. The following traditional artillery drill practices will, however, be
observed within the Regiment:

       a.      an artillery parade is always handed over “at ease”. This applies at all levels of
               command up to and including the commander of an artillery formation. However,
               artillery sub-units, units and formations will receive an inspecting officer at
               “attention”. This practice dates from the period before recoil mechanisms when
               guns had to be run back by hand into firing position. After hours of sponging,
               loading, firing and running the guns back into battery, the gunners were exhausted.
               Commanders extending their congratulations to gunners for their contribution to
               victory granted them the privilege of receiving these accolades “at ease” rather
               than “attention”. A parade will receive an inspecting officer at “attention”;

       b.      officers and men serving the weapons and equipment of the Regiment will carry
               out their duties at the double unless orders to the contrary are issued and except
               when handling ammunition; and

       c.      bayonets will be carried by Artillery personnel who are issued with rifles and
               bayonets. The artillery does not, as a matter of routine, fix bayonets except when
               ordered for ceremonial parades or when on guard, etc, with members of other
               branches or corps carrying fixed bayonets.


1.      When gun salutes are fired in conjunction with Royal or General Salutes, the Royal or
General Salute shall be conducted in its normal manner regardless of the fact that the gun salute
is continuing.

 2.     When gun salutes are fired by The Royal Regiment in conjunction with Royal or General
salutes, they should commence as the final movement of the “Present Arms” is performed. On all
other occasions the firing shall be controlled and timed by the firing troop commander.

3.      The form of the salute shall be governed by the overall parade format and the aural
comfort of dignitaries and spectators. Particular attention must be paid to noise when horses
are involved in the ceremonies.

4.      The saluting troop should consist of four guns commanded by a Troop Commander with
a Gun Position Officer and a Troop Sergeant Major. Kneeling gun drill shall be employed. The
saluting troop should be deployed, if possible, in a prominent position and should be inspected by
the Reviewing Officer during the parade.

5.     Annex A to this chapter details a table of salutes accorded to important personages.
Further regulations governing the firing of gun salutes on all occasions are detailed in CFAO
61-8 and A-PD-201-000/PT-000 Canadian Forces Manual of Drill and Ceremonial.


1.     Military uniform is appropriate for wear by either or both of the marriage partners and
members of the wedding party. Service dress (1 or 1A) may be worn. Members of the wedding
party may wear swords in the church.

2.      A sword arch is a traditional accompaniment for the wedding of a serviceperson, whether
the wedding party is in uniform or not. The sword party consists of three or four pairs of fellow
officers with one named to command the sword party. The sword party lines both sides of the
departure walk in facing pairs with swords drawn. On the command “Form arch”, the sword
is brought to the recover position and, after a regulation pause, the right arm is extended fully
upward at a 45o angle. As the arm is extended, the wrist is rotated 270o counter-clockwise into
the final position with the back of the sword facing down, the edge of the blade and the guard
facing up. Following the passage of the wedding party, the movements are repeated in reverse
order on the command “Attention”. Instructions for the drill movements for a sword arch are
contained in A-PD-201-000/PT-000 Canadian Forces Manual of Drill and Ceremonial.

3.      It is traditional for the bride and groom, after having passed under the arch of swords, to
ride on a waiting gun limber from the church to the reception.

4.      Wedding receptions take the usual form but the bride and groom may use a sword to
cut the cake.


1.      Since prehistoric times, kings and warriors have been borne to their graves with their
weapons - Roman soldiers carried on their shields, Viking chieftains were dispatched on their
burning longship and warrior knights buried with their horse. Two current funeral customs have
their origins with these mystic beginnings - the riderless horse and the use of a gun carriage
as a hearse.

2.      A black horse saddled but with spurred boots reversed in the stirrups symbolized the
soldier who will ride into battle no more. As a mounted corps, it is an appropriate custom for
any artillery funeral.

3.       Gun carriages with a special platform for accepting the casket have long been used at
funerals. The gun may be with or without limber and drawn by hand, horse or vehicle. The most
popular guns for this purpose are the 25 pounder and the 105-mm C1 because they have excellent
stability and a reasonable height for the casket bearing platforms. Pallbearers march on either
side of the gun carriage in the funeral procession. The use of a gun carriage for a hearse is not
restricted to gunners but is customary for all military funerals.

4.    CFAO 24-5 and A-PD-201-000/PT-000 Canadian Forces Manual of Drill and Ceremonial
contain other details on military funerals.


1.       Communication and Co-ordination. It is imperative that the Colonel Commandant,
the Director of Artillery and RHQ RCA be promptly informed of the death of a serving or former
member of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. OPIs, as listed below, are responsible
to notify the Director of Artillery and the Regimental Major RCA in the event of such a death
in their geographical area:

       a.      Land Force Atlantic Area.
               OPI. The Commandant Artillery School;

       b.      Land Force Quebec Area.
               OPI. The Commanding Officer 5 RALC;

       c.      Land Force Central Area.
               OPI. The Commanding Officer 2 RCHA;

       d.      Land Force Western Area. Less province of British Columbia.
               OPI. The Commanding Officer 1 RCHA;

        e.     British Columbia.
               OPI. The Commanding Officer 15 Field Regiment RCA;

        f.     Canadian Forces Northern Area.
               OPI. Senior Gunner Officer in CFNA HQ; and

        g.     Europe/USA.
               OPI. The Senior Gunner Officer on staff at CDLS (L)/CDLS(W) or an officer
               appointed by DArty.

2.      All notices are to be forwarded to the respective OPI’s via their affiliated unit headquar-

3.     Upon notification of the death of a serving or former member of The Royal Regiment of
Canadian Artillery, the Director of Artillery will effect liaison with the necessary authorities in
NDHQ, or the Base Commander or Commanding Officer concerned, to ensure that Regimental
representation and assistance are provided if required. Notifications will be promulgated to the
Colonel Commandant, RHQ RCA and all artillery units for their information. RHQ RCA will
then post a death notice on the RCA Web Site and publish it in the next Quadrant.


1.      Although a unit change of command can be a simple office signing ceremony, it is
traditional that a Regimental parade be held to mark the occasion. The Colonel Commandant
should be invited to all such parades.

2.      The following procedures should take place on parade:

        a.     the incoming commanding officer arrives with the reviewing officer and accompa-
               nies the reviewing officer as part of the inspecting party;

        b.     the regiment marches past once and reforms on the inspection line;

        c.     presentations, certificate signing and addresses take place:

               (1)     first, any presentations to other than the outgoing commanding officer,

               (2)     second, the outgoing commanding officer addresses his/her unit for the
                       final time,

               (3)     third, the change of command certificates are signed (see para 3), followed
                       by any presentations, such as the commanding officer’s pennant, etc, to the
                       outgoing commanding officer, and

               (4)     last, an address is made by the reviewing officer, with the incoming com-
                       manding officer making a short reply to both addresses if circumstances

       d.      the regiment, under the incoming commanding officer, marches past the outgoing
               commanding officer;

       e.      the regiment advances in review order and pays compliments to the reviewing
               officer; and

       f.      the reviewing officer departs, accompanied by the outgoing commanding officer.

3.      For the signing ceremony, the presiding officer, accompanied by the incoming command-
ing officer, takes up a position in front of the dais. The outgoing commanding officer proceeds
forward and halts in front of the presiding officer, and the outgoing commanding officer salutes.
The Commanding Officer’s Pennant is brought forward, usually by the driver or trumpeter, and
given to the outgoing commanding officer who in turn presents it to the presiding officer. The
incoming and outgoing commanding officers proceed to a table placed at one side of the dais
and sign the change of command certificates, under the supervision of the presiding officer.
The presiding officer then presents the incoming commanding officer with the Commanding
Officer’s Pennant.

4.      This type of ceremony should also be encouraged at the battery level with the changing
of battery commanders.


1.      The recent tradition of having the commanding officer pass the Regimental Cane from
the outgoing RSM to the incoming RSM is encouraged by The Royal Regiment. This simple
ceremony allows the commanding officer to charge the new RSM with carrying out the duties
and responsibilities of the appointment with the unit as witness.

2.      The drill should be simple in format. At the completion of a regimental parade the
commanding officer should call forward the outgoing and incoming RSMs and exchange the
Cane. After dismissing the outgoing RSM the commanding officer orders the new RSM to take
up position on parade. Once the parade has been turned back to the RSM by the 2IC, the new
RSM should march the regiment off the parade ground with the outgoing RSM on the dais at
the position of attention.

3.    This type of ceremony should also be encouraged at the battery level with the changing
of BSMs.

(510 to 599 inclusive - not allocated)



                                                                              TITLE OF       STRENGTH          GUN
SERIAL                            PERSONAGES                                   SALUTE        OF GUARD         SALUTE

   1     HM The Queen; HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh; HM              Royal            100            21
         Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother
   2     Other Members of The Royal Family                                       Royal            100            21
         Foreign Sovereigns and Members of Reigning Foreign Families,           Royal or          100            21
   3     Presidents and Heads of State of Commonwealth and Foreign               State
   4     Governor General of Canada                                              Royal            100            21
   5     Governors General of Commonwealth Countries                             Royal            100            21

   6     Lieutenant-Governor of a Canadian Province within sphere of his/        Royal            100            15
         her jurisdiction

         The Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Ministers of Commonwealth          General            50            19
   7     and Foreign Countries, Ambassadors and High Commissioners

   8     The Minister of National Defence and the equivalent of Com-            General            50            17
         monwealth and Foreign Countries

         Defence Council, Naval Board, Army Council or Air Council of           General            50            15
   9     Commonwealth Countries (when acting as a corporate body; two or
         more members to constitute a quorum)

         Field Marshall or equivalent                                           General            50            19
  10                                                                            General            50            17
         General or equivalent
         Lieutenant-General or equivalent                                       Genral             50            15
         Officers Commanding Commands, Air Divisions, Areas, Groups,
         Brigades; entitlement shall be in accordance with rank as listed

         Major-General or equivalent                                            General            50            13
         Brigadier-General or equivalent                                        General            50            11
  12     Colonel Commandant                                                     General      Quarter Guard 11 or as per
  13     Director of Artillery                                                  General      Quarter Guard       nil

  14     Colonel to Major inclusive                                             General            nil           nil
         Distinguished personages not included in previous serials:
  15     Honours as directed by NDHQ. Such Honours shall normally be those accorded the distinguished personage
         when officially visiting an establishment of his/her own nation except that a gun salute, if prescribed, shall
         not exceed 19 guns.

                                          CHAPTER 6


601.   GENERAL

1.      The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery has adopted the marches and much of the
traditional music of the Royal Regiment of Artillery.

2.      Regimental marches were not officially adopted in the British Army until 1882-83;
however, the marches and music now associated with gunners have been in use since a much
earlier period. It is known that the four regimental marches currently in use by the artillery
- The Royal Artillery Slow March (The Duchess of Kent), British Grenadiers, Keel Row and
Bonnie Dundee - constituted the parade music at Queen Victoria’ s review of the Royal Regiment
of Artillery at Woolwich in July 1856 on its return from the Crimea. The Royal Artillery in
1995 adopted a medley of British Grenadiers and Voice of the Guns as the Royal Artillery
Quick March.


1.     The Royal Artillery Slow March, British Grenadiers and the Trot Past Keel Row are
authorized marches for The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. In addition, the Gallop Past
Bonnie Dundee is authorized for units of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery. For further detail,
see CFA0 32-3.

2.     The marches are used as follows:

       a.     Royal Artillery Slow March - for dismounted parades, concerts, and dinners by all
              artillery units. This is the principal artillery march;

       b.     British Grenadiers - for dismounted parades;

       c.     Keel Row - for mounted parades; and

       d.     Bonnie Dundee - RCHA - for mounted parades.

3.     The following are the metronome marks at which the Regimental airs should be played:

       a.     Royal Artillery Slow March - MM half note (65);

       b.     British Grenadiers - MM quarter note (120);

       c.      Keel Row - MM half note (86); and

       d.      Bonnie Dundee - MM dotted quarter note (120).

4.      Artillery units which have been converted from cavalry, armour or infantry will adopt The
Royal Artillery Slow March, British Grenadiers and Keel Row. Such units may be authorized
to retain the traditional marches which they used prior to conversion. In addition to artillery
marches, 49th Field Artillery Regiment RCA is authorized to use the march A Hundred Pipers
with a pipe band.

5.     At guest nights and concerts all of the above marches may be played. If marches are
played, The Royal Artillery Slow March will normally be played first. Other music closely
associated with The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery includes The Screw Guns, St.
Barbara’s Day and The Post Horn Gallop, which are normally played on such occasions (see
Chapter 9, Article 905).


The Royal Artillery Slow March was either composed or arranged for the Royal Regiment
of Artillery in 1836 by Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of Kent, Queen Victoria’s Mother.
This tune with its royal connection has always been regarded with special favour by gunners.
Nevertheless, its use as the artillery signature tune dates only to 1909 and its general use as
the primary gunner tune at Guest Nights was not established until 1921. Today, it remains the
primary gunner music on Guest Nights - its stirring chords evocative of the soul of the regiment.


British Grenadiers, as a song dates to 1779 but the tune is older still. It was one of several
marches used by the Royal Artillery in the first half of the l9th century along with The Artillery
Grenadiers, Geary Owen, I’m Ninety Five and Highland Laddie. By 1855, however, custom had
determined British Grenadiers to be the regimental quick march.


The Screw Guns is a very popular gunner tune, albeit with no official status. Wherever gunners
gather, they sing The Screw Guns by Rudyard Kipling. It is a description of an elite force, the
Mountain Artillery, whose feats were legendary. First published in The Scots Observer on 12
July 1890, the ballad has come to symbolize the elan and spirit of all gunners. It is sung to the
melody of The Eton Boating Song. The words and music are found at Annex A.

                                 Figure 10 - CO’s Trumpeter, RCHA


1.     A commanding officer of a regiment or independent battery may employ a trumpeter.
The trumpeter will parade four paces behind the commanding officer and will conform to his

2.     Both trumpet and bugle are carried. The trumpet is normally carried in the hand. The
bugle cord is slung over the left shoulder; the bugle hanging on the right side (Figure 10).


Regimental calls are authorized for units of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery in the
publication Regimental Trumpet and Bugle Calls for the Canadian Army - 1961. These are
reproduced at Annex B to this chapter. Trumpet and bugle calls for both routine and field calls
in the artillery are authorized in the publication Trumpet and Bugle Sounds for the Army - 1927.
Bugles are used to sound field calls and trumpets for routine calls. The music for these calls may
be obtained from the office of the Commanding Officer, RCA Band.

608.   BANDS

1.    The Royal Canadian Artillery Band (RCA Band), is the oldest Regular Force band in the
Canadian Forces. The RCA Band traces its roots to Quebec City. In 1879, the “B” battery Band

of the Royal Canadian Artillery became the first permanent military band in Canada. This band,
composed of many professionally trained musicians from France and England was a concert
favorite in Quebec. In 1899 this band became The Royal Canadian Artillery Band of Canada.
The RCA Band is one of six military bands in the Regular Force. It operates under the aegis
of Land Force Western Area. The RCA Band is a brass and reed band and has a complement
of thirty-five professional musicians. On 4 December 1997 (St. Barbara’s Day), the RCA Band
marked its move to its present location at Edmonton Garrison.

2.   Artillery units may organize voluntary bands in accordance with procedures detailed in
CFAO 32-7.

(609 to 699 inclusive allocated)


                                        SCREW GUNS

                                      by Rudyard Kipling

           Smokin’ my pipe on the mountings, sniffin’ the mornin’ cool,
           I walks in my old brown gaiters along o’ my old brown mule,
           With seventy gunners be’ind me, an’ never a beggar forgets
           It’s only the pick of the Army that handles the dear little pets -
           ‘Tss! ‘Tss!

                    For you all love the screw guns -
                    The screw guns they all love you!
                    So when we call round with a few guns
                    O’ course you will know what to do - hoo! hoo!
                    Jest send in your Chief an’ surrender -
                    It’s worse if you fights or you runs;
                    You can go where you please, you can skid up the trees,
                    But you don’t get away from the guns!

           They send us along where the roads are, but mostly we goes where they ain’t,
           We’d climb up the side of a sign-board an’ trust to the stick o’ the paint,
           We’ve chivied the Naga an’ Looshai, we’ve give the Afreedeeman fits,
           For we fancies ourselves at two thousand, we guns that are built in two bits -
           ‘Tss! ‘Tss!

                    For you all love the screw guns -

           If a man doesn’t work, why, we drills ‘im an’ teaches ‘im ‘ow to behave;
           If a beggar can’t march, why, we kills ‘im an’ rattles ‘im into ‘is grave.
           You’ve got to stand up to our business an’ spring without snatchin’ or fuss.
           D’ you say that you sweat with the field guns? By God, you must lather with
           us -
           ’Tss! ‘Tss!

           For you all love the screw guns -

           The eagles is screamin’ around us, the river’s a-moanin’ below,
           We’re clear o’ the pine an’ the oak-scrub, we’re out on the rocks an’ the snow,
            An’ the wind is as thin as a whip-lash what carries away to the plains
           The rattle an’ stamp o’ the lead-mules - the jinglety jink o’ the chains -
           ‘Tss! ‘Tss!

                    For you all love the screw guns -

           There’s a wheel on the Horns o’ the Mornin’ an’ a wheel on the edge o’ the Pit,
           An’ a drop into nothin’ beneath you as straight as a beggar can spit:
           With the sweat runnin’ out o’ your shirt-sleeves, an’ the sun off the snow in
           your face,
           An’ ‘arf’ o’ the men on the drag-ropes to hold the old gun in ‘er place -
           ‘Tss! ‘Tss!

        For you all love the screw guns -

Smokin’ my pipe on the mountings, sniffin’ the mornin’ cool,
I climbs in my old brown gaiters along o’ my old brown mule.
The monkey can say what our road was - the wild goat ‘e knows where we
Stand easy you long-eared old darlin’s! Out drag-ropes! With shrapnel! Hold
‘Tss! ‘Tss!

        For you all love the screw guns -
        The screw guns they all love you!
        So when you take tea with a few guns
        O’ course you will know what to do - hoo! hoo!
        Jest send in your Chief an’ surrender -
        It’s worse if you fights or you runs:
        You may hide in the caves, they’ll be only your graves,
        But you can’t get away from the guns!


                                     REGIMENTAL CALLS

1.     RCHA Regimental Call.



First Regiment - precede with

Second Regiment - precede with

Third Regiment - precede with    -


2.     RCA Regimental Call.



Senior Regiment - precede with

Next Senior Regiment - precede with

Next Senior Regiment - precede with


3.     49th Field Artillery Regiment RCA Call.


* If to be played on a bugle, read one octave higher

4.     56th Field Artillery Regiment RCA Call.


* If to be played on a bugle, read one octave higher

5.     RCA Special Guest Night Calls:

       a.      Officers Dress for Dinner (2 hour call);

       b.      Quarter Call (15 minutes call); and

       c.      Officers Mess Call (5 minutes call).


                              ST. BARBARA’S DAY

Composer:   Pipe Major H.D. Macpherson, CD
            Canadian Forces, 1984.

                                          CHAPTER 7

                                   ARTILLERY CUSTOMS

701.   GENERAL

There are several customs and procedures that are unique to the artillery. These are described
in this chapter.


1.      Artillery Day is celebrated annually on the 26th of May. In 1952, the then Colonel
Commandant, Major-General H.O.N. Brownfield, sought and received permission to adopt the
Royal Artillery birthdate (26 May 1716) as Artillery Day for The Royal Regiment of Canadian

2.     Artillery Day may be celebrated with special parades, sports days, guest nights, parties,
open houses and the like.


A and B batteries Garrison Artillery, which were the first regular components of the Canadian
Forces, were formed on 20 October 1871. While a number of Militia artillery units pre-date this,
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery has adopted the 20th of October as its birthday. It is
also celebrated as 1 RCHA’s unit birthday. As with Artillery Day, the Artillery Birthday may be
celebrated with special parades, sports days, guest nights, parties, open houses and the like.

704.   ST. BARBARA

1.      St. Barbara is the Patron Saint of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.
  According to legend, St. Barbara was the extremely beautiful daughter of a wealthy heathen
named Dioscorus, who lived near Nicomedia in Asia Minor. Because of her singular beauty and
fearful that she be demanded in marriage and taken away from him, he jealously shut her up in a
tower to protect her from the outside world.

2.      Shortly before embarking on a journey, he commissioned a sumptuous bathhouse to be
built for her in the tower, approving the design before he departed. Barbara had heard of the
teachings of Christ, and while her father was gone, she spent much time in contemplation. From
the windows of her tower she looked out upon the surrounding countryside and marveled at the
growing things; the trees, the animals and the people. She decided that all these must be part
of God’s master plan, and that the idols of wood and stone worshipped by her parents must
be condemned as false.

3.      Gradually she came to accept the Christian faith. As her belief became firm, she directed
that the builders redesign the bathhouse her father had planned, adding another window so that
the three windows might symbolize the Holy Trinity. She also traced a cross in the marble of
the bath. Upon his return, her father was wild with rage that she had disobeyed his instructions
regarding the bathhouse windows, and when he learned their religious significance, he drew his
sword to kill her. St. Barbara fell on her knees in prayer and was miraculously transported to a
mountain. Here she was found by a shepherd who betrayed her to Dioscorus. She was dragged
before Marcian, the prefect of the province, who decreed that she be tortured and put to death
by beheading. Dioscorus himself carried out the death sentence. On his way home he was struck
by lightning and his body consumed.

4.      Saint Barbara lived and died about the year 300 AD. She was venerated as early as the
seventh century. The place of her martyrdom is variously given as Heliopolis, a town in Egypt,
and as Nicomedia, Asia Minor. The year varies from 235 AD to 303 AD. The legend of the
lightning bolt, which struck down her persecutor, caused her to be regarded as the patron saint in
time of danger from thunderstorms, lightning, fires and sudden death.

5.      When gunpowder made its appearance in the Western world, Saint Barbara was invoked
for aid against accident resulting from explosions. Since some of the earlier artillery pieces often
blew up instead of firing their projectile, Saint Barbara became the patroness of the atillerymen.
She is also traditionally the patron of armourers, gunsmiths, miners and anyone else who worked
with cannon and explosives. She is invoked against thunder and lightning and all accidents
arising from explosions of gunpowder.

6.     Saint Barbara is represented in art as standing by a tower with three windows, often
holding a chalice, or carrying the palm of a martyr in her hand. She may also be portrayed with
the Host or Bible above. Sometimes there are cannons nearby.

7.       St. Barbara’s Day, 4 December, may be celebrated by artillery formations, units and
sub-units with church parades, sports days, guest nights, cocktail parties, open house, and other


It is customary to wear the artillery tie (red lightning bolt over blue) when civilian clothes are
worn on Fridays.


The unit birthdays for Regular Force and Reserve Force units are at Annex A. These dates are
based on information provided from DHH, based on official RCA lineage charts. The dates
normally represent the first date that each Regiment was authorized, not necessarily when its
component batteries were authorized.


1.     A listing of artillery memorials in Canada and on foreign soil is at Annex B.

2.     It is customary for a designated gunner officer serving in England, normally the Canadian
Exchange Officer at the Royal School of Artillery, Larkhill, to lay a wreath at the Royal Artillery
Memorial, Hyde Park, at the Armistice Day Service each year. The Royal Canadian Artillery
Association provides the wreath on behalf of all Canadian gunners, serving and retired.

3.       Artillery Park, located in the north east corner of the old walled section of Quebec City
bears witness to more than two and a half centuries of history. The artillery presence began after
the fall of the French when soldiers of the Royal Artillery took up quarters in the barracks. By
1816, the Royal Artillery had become the main occupant of the fortifications and the soldiers
began calling the section “Artillery Barracks, Yard and Ordnance Stores”.

4.     In 1984, at CFB Petawawa, another Artillery Park was officially opened. The park was
constructed by the gunners of 2 RCHA on the site of the Artillery Officers’ Mess known as
A-12. Artillery Park, CFB Petawawa, commemorates the service of Petawawa gunners in peace
and war.

5.      A new Artillery Park, centered on the Canoe River Memorial at CFB Shilo (Article 709),
was dedicated on 2 July 2000. It contains cairns dedicated to Proctor Field (Airborne), Flewin
Field (Air OP) and the German Army Training Establishment Shilo (GATES) 1974-2000.


1.      The first public, official act of the newly appointed Governor General of Canada, Major-
General Georges P. Vanier, was the unveiling of the National Artillery Memorial in Ottawa on
21 September 1959. The money for the construction of this impressive memorial came from
donations from all ranks of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery at the end of World War
II, from individuals and from units as time for construction drew near, and from a grant from
the Royal Canadian Artillery Association. Distinguished guests at the ceremony included the
Prime Minister, members of the Cabinet, the Leader of the Opposition, senior military officers
and civilian officials, officers from the UK and USA and gunners from across Canada. The
Commanding Officers of every artillery unit in Canada paraded together in front of the Memorial
immediately prior to its unveiling.

2.      On 24 May 1998, distinguished guests and members of the Artillery family assembled
in Green Island Park, Ottawa, to rededicate the National Artillery Memorial. The Memorial
had stood for 39 years in Major’s Hill Park, and was moved in 1997 as part of the National
Capital Commission’s restructuring plan. Green Island Park locates the Memorial with the Com-
monwealth Airforce Memorial across from City Hall, and provides a distinguished and scenic
location for this important Monument.

3.      On November 11 of each year, a memorial service is held at this Memorial immediately
following the national ceremony at the Cenotaph. A wreath is laid by the Colonel Commandant
or the Director of Artillery on behalf of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.


1.      On 21 November 1950, 17 soldiers of 2 RCHA were killed in a train wreck while en route
to the West Coast and embarkation for Korea. The wreck occurred near Canoe River, a remote
settlement in the Rocky Mountains.

2.   The Canoe River memorial located at CFB Shilo marks this tragedy. A wreath is laid on
Remembrance Day each year in memory of these soldiers.

3.      On 9 May 1989, 2 RCHA dedicated a cairn in Valemount, British Columbia, to their
fallen soldiers. Canadian National Railway has also placed a cairn near the site of the disaster.


1.       On the morning of 16 May 1889, a conflagration broke out in the suburb of Saint-
Sauveur, Quebec, which threatened to destroy most of the city. B Battery, under command
of Major J.C. Short, helped to fight the flames. They decided to blow up some buildings in
order to isolate the district, which was on fire. Major Short, followed by Staff-Sergeant Wallick
G., attempted to position a barrel of gunpowder inside one of the buildings. It is said that a
spark spurted out from an opening and the gunpowder exploded while the two soldiers were
still inside.

2.      In memory of Major Short and Staff-Sergeant Wallick, the citizens of Quebec erected an
impressive memorial, which they located centrally in the city on the Grande-Allée, facing the
“Manège Militaire”. These valiant soldiers, represented by bronze half-length statues, appear
side by side with a flag wrapped around their shoulders. A female figure, symbolizing the
grateful population of Quebec City, holds the flagstaff from one hand and supports a shield
hoisting the City Arms with the other one.


1.      In recognition of service in Korea, HQ RCA 1st Commonwealth Division presented
sterling silver 25 pounder guns to 1 RCHA, 2 RCHA and 4 RCHA. It became tradition, at
guest nights and other occasions, to lay the gun on a large hill in Korea known by its height
in metres as “Hill 355”. The regiments involved fired tons of ammunition from and onto Hill
355 during the war.

2.     4 RCHA maintained the tradition until it was disbanded. 2 RCHA continues the tradition
in remembrance of those who fought in the engagements on and about Hill 355. The drill
format is at Annex C.


1.      The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery holds, as a gift from the Royal Canadian
Dragoons, a statuette of a mounted trooper dressed and equipped for the South African War.
This statuette was presented by Major-General C.C. Mann, CBE, DSO, CD, in 1962 to com-
memorate the long association between the Royal Canadian Dragoons and the Royal Canadian
Horse Artillery.

2.      The association began with the formation of the Cavalry School in Quebec City in 1883
to join “A” Battery, Royal School of Gunnery, which had been transferred there from Kingston
in 1880. The association was firmly cemented during World War I when the RCHA Brigade
supported the Canadian Cavalry Brigade, of which the Royal Canadian Dragoons were the senior
regiment. The association continued through Sicily, Northwest Europe and post war garrison
duties in Canada and with 4 CMBG in Europe.

3.      The presentation had been to the RCHA collectively. Therefore, it was not deemed
acceptable that the trophy be held permanently by either “A” or “B” Batteries, which had
the earliest association with the Royal Canadian Dragoons. The then Colonel Commandant,
Brigadier P.A.S. Todd, decided that the trophy would be held by the RCHA Regiment stationed
closest geographically to the Royal Canadian Dragoons.

4.      The statuette accordingly went to 1 RCHA stationed in Gagetown with the RCD. When
1 RCHA rotated to Germany in 1967, the statuette remained with 2 RCHA in Gagetown. With
the rotation of the RCD to Germany in 1968, the statuette eventually returned to 1 RCHA. In
the summer of 1987, with the completion of Operation SPRINGBOK-CORONET and the return
of the RCD to Petawawa, the statuette moved again. Today, it is held in trust by 2 RCHA on
behalf of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery as a perpetual memorial to the long and
continuing association in peace and war between the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery and the
Royal Canadian Dragoons.


1.        The title “Master Gunner” may be used by all graduates of the Master Gunner course.
It may be used both as a form of address and when referring to the individual in question. It
may not be used in place of rank in formal correspondence. Traditionally, in correspondence, the
title is placed in parentheses after the rank, in the form, Chief Warrant Officer (Master Gunner)
or CWO (Mr Gnr).

2.     The terms “Master Bombardier”, “Bombardier” and “Gunner” shall be used within The
Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. “Master Bombardier” is the correct designation for a
Master Corporal who is a member of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. The term
“Master Corporal” shall be used when referring to any Master Corporal who is not a member of
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery even though he may be serving with an artillery unit.
The same rule applies to the use of the terms “Bombardier”/”Corporal” and “Gunner”/”Private”.

3.     Chief Warrant Officers shall be addressed as follows:

       a.      by all ranks by rank and surname, or by appointment;

       b.      by officers and ranking peers, by “Mister”, “Mrs”, “Ms” or “Miss” as appropriate,
               followed by their surname; and

       c.      by their juniors, as “Sir” or “Ma’am” as appropriate. They are never addressed
               as “Chief”.


1.       Until a few years ago, official calling was very important in the lives of regimental
officers and their wives. Newly arrived wives made official calls on the wife of the Commanding
Officer, and vice versa. Cards were always left on a silver salver (tray) in the front hall. Officers
when visiting other units never failed to leave their cards on a silver salver or in the card rack on
the wall near the entrance. Many officers continue this custom, although the tradition of formal
calling by the spouses is not followed in many units today because of changing lifestyles and a
generally more informal attitude. Cards are still carried by many officers and are mandatory in
some units. Many spouses still have their own cards which they use to accompany flowers or
fruit, drop off when calling and finding no one at home or other circumstances. Officers still
require cards at the National Defence Headquarters New Year’s levee in Ottawa, at Government
House and on other official occasions.

2.      Calling cards for officers are of size three inches by one and one-half inches, and in
script as shown at Annex D. Decorations will be included. DND pattern business cards are
an acceptable substitute.

3.     Spouse’s calling cards are of size three and one-quarter inches by two and one-quarter
inches. Engraving, in script, shall be as shown at Annex D.

(715 to 799 inclusive - not allocated)


                                         ARTILLERY UNIT BIRTHDAYS

All dates have been validated and are in accordance with new lineage charts produced by the Directorate of History
and Heritage. The dates represent the earliest date of formation or conversion of the unit as an artillery ‘regiment’,
and not the dates of formation of any of its subunits. Once a unit is disbanded, it ceases to exist afterwards. A new
unit with the same designation which is raised at a later date, takes its birthday as that date. Note that some revisions
have taken place. Copies of the lineage documents are available through the Regimental Major RCA. Should a
unit possess hard documentation which clearly disputes these dates, the unit is to forward such documentation to
RHQ RCA for furtherance to DHH.

1.       Regular Force Unit Regimental Birthdays

         1 RCHA                                                           20 October 1871*

         2 RCHA                                                           7 August 1950

         5 RALC                                                           6 May 1968

         4 AD Regt RCA                                                    27 November 1987**

         RCAS                                                             16 September 1946***

         CFB Shilo                                                        25 June 1934

2.       Reserve Force Unit Regimental Birthdays

         1 Fd Regt RCA                                                    10 September 1869****

         2 Fd Regt RCA                                                    27 November 1856****
                 (7 Fd Bty - 27 September 1855)

         3 Fd Regt RCA                                                    10 September 1869****
                 (The Loyal Company - 4 May 1793)

         5 (BC) Fd Regt RCA                                               17 October 1954****

         6 RAC ARC                                                        1 August 1899

         7 Tor Regt RCA                                                   1 April 1942****
                 (9 Fd Bty - 9 Mar 1866)

         10 Fd Regt RCA                                                   2 February 1920****
                 (18 Fd bty - 1 April 1910)

         11 Fd Regt RCA                                                   24 March 1880****
                 (11 Fd Bty - 6 Dec 1855)

15 Fd Regt RCA                                                    2 February 1920

20 Fd Regt RCA                                                    17 October 1961****
        (78 Fd Bty - 2 February 1920)

26 Fd Regt RCA                                                    15 December 1936

30 Fd Regt RCA                                                    9 May 1905****
        ( 1 Fd Bty - 22 March 1861)

49 Fd Regt RCA                                         1 April 1946
        (converted from2nd (Reserve) Battalion, The Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury Regiment -
        15 November 1913)

56 Fd Regt RCA                                         1 April 1946
        (converted from The Dufferin and Haldimand Rifles of Canada - 28 September 1866)

62 RAC ARC                                                        1 April 1946

1 AD Regt RCA                                             10 November 1992****
       (converted from Lanark & Renfrew Scottish Regt - 5 October 1866)

18 AD Regt RCA                                                    1 February 1908

84 Indep Fd Bty RCA                                               4 October 1878****

116 Indep Fd Bty RCA                                    1 April 1946****
        (16th Medium Battery (How.), RCA - 15 December 1936)

*       1 RCHA was originally authorized on 1 December 1898 as the ‘Royal Canadian Artillery (Field Division)’
        of The Royal Canadian Artillery. Prior to that, A, B and C Batteries operated as independent units. 1 RCHA
        holds birthday celebrations each year on 20 October to mark the formation of A and B Batteries.

**      4 AD Regt was authorized within the Regular Force on 27 November 1987 as the ‘4th Air Defence Regiment,
        RCA’. It was reduced to nil strength in July 1992 and was subsequently authorized to reorganize on
        15 March 1995.

***     The Artillery school was authorized on 16 September 1946 as the ‘The Royal Canadian School of Artillery’.
        It was redesignated ‘Canadian Forces School of Artillery’ on 15 February 1969. The school was amalgam-
        ated with the Combat Arms School in 1970 under the latter title. The school was authorized on 19 May 1987
        as ‘the ‘Field Artillery School’. It was redesignated ‘Field Artillery School, RCA’ on 23 November 1993.
        The school was amalgamated with the Air Defence Artillery School, RCA, on 15 February 1996 to form the
        ‘Royal Canadian Artillery School’.

****    Denotes modified date IAW DHH Lineage Documents. (Dates in brackets indicate formation of earliest
        subunit, or date of origin of the unit from which the artillery unit was converted).


                           ARTILLERY MEMORIALS


     a.   The National Artillery Memorial - Green Island, Ottawa, Ontario;

     b.   The RCHA Brigade Memorial - King and Barrie Streets, Kingston, Ontario;

     c.   The 9th Canadian Siege Battery, RCGA Memorial - RA Park, Halifax, Nova

     d.   The 2 RCHA Canoe River Memorial - CFB Shilo, Manitoba;

     e.   The Major J.C. Short/ Staff-Sergeant G. Wallick Memorial, la rue Grande-Allée,
          Quebec City, Quebec;

     f.   Artillery Memorial Dominion Square, Montréal, Quebec;

     g.   Gunners’ Cairn and 25 Pounder - Brantford, Ontario;

     h.   Brownfield Memorial Gun - RMC, Kingston, Ontario;

     i.   Simonds Cairn, Simonds Barracks, CFB Petawawa, Ontario;

     j.   2 RCHA Canoe River Memorial - Royal Canadian Legion, Valemount, British

     k.   The Brigadier-General E.M.D.Leslie Cairn - Leslie Parade Square, CFB Shilo,

     l.   The Flewin Field Cairn, Artillery Park, CFB Shilo; and

     m.   The Proctor Field Cairn, Artillery Park, CFB Shilo.


     a.   The Vimy Memorial erected in 1918 by Canadian Gunners, at the village of
          Thélus just below Vimy Ridge in France; and

     b.   The RCA Memorial Pew in the Sandhurst Chapel, Camberley, England, dedicated
          on 27 October 1950.


                                THE SILVER (KOREA) GUN


1.     It is a longstanding tradition in 2 RCHA to lay the Silver (Korea) Gun at the feature
known as Hill 355 in Korea, east of the Sami-ch’on River. This is done at 2 RCHA Guest Nights
and Regimental Officers’ Dinings-In in remembrance of the gallant actions of those who fought
and died in the taking of this objective.

2.     The following is a brief extract from the “The Gunners of Canada”, Vol II, Chap XIV:

       “Among the key objectives gained in the bitter fighting was a hill, Kowang-San, ... to the
       troops of the Commonwealth Division, who were later to shed much blood in its defence,
       it was always known by its height in metres, Hill 3-5-5”.

3.      2 RCHA supported the taking of Hill 355 and then handed over to 1 RCHA.
1 RCHA was succeeded by 81st Fd Regt (later 4 RCHA). All three Regiments fired tons upon
tons of ammunition from and onto Hill 355 during the course of the Korean War.


4.      In recognition of service in Korea, HQ RCA 1st Commonwealth Division presented
sterling silver 25 pounder guns to 1 RCHA, 2 RCHA and 4 RCHA.

5.      One condition was stipulated during the presentation ceremonies. It was that the gun was
always to be laid on Hill 355. This condition was virtually impossible to meet and still display
the gun in the mess effectively. Therefore, the tradition evolved of laying the gun accurately for
special occasions only. This tradition is maintained by 2 RCHA.

6.      Hill 355, known locally as Little Gibraltar due to its shape, was frequently shelled by 2
RCHA during the Korean War. Hill 355 is located approximately 35 kilometres east north east
of KAESONG at grid reference 0317350 4218000, map section NAMCH OMJOM. The bearing
from 2 RCHA Officers’ Mess to Hill 355 is 4762 mils. The range exceeds 15 Million metres. A
one mil error in bearing at this range will cause an error in fall of shot of 15 kilometres, hence
the requirement for accurate laying.


7.   The drill for laying the gun is as follows:

     a.     two officers are required, a gunner and a GPO/CPO;

     b.     the gun shall be placed on a table in the centre of the room, in front of the
            Head Table;

     c.     orders shall be given to lay the gun as per an FPF; and

     d.     the GPO/CPO shall report the gun laid to the CO.

8.   Orders to lay the gun:

     a.     The officers of 2 RCHA will lay the Korean Gun (gunner ack);

     b.     Number 1 Gun, Tgt (ack);

     c.     HE 119 - Cap on (ack);

     d.     Charge 3 (ack);

     e.     Site 0 (ack);

     f.     Line 43 27" (ack);

     g.     Range 15,000 (ack);

     h.     Fire by Order (ack);

     i.     Number 1 gun ranging (ack);

     j.     Gunner reports “Number 1 Ready” (CPO ack); and

     k.     CPO/GPO reports to Commanding Officer “Korea Gun laid on Hill 355, Sir!”

9.   This drill is to be carried out on order of the CO or the PMC of the day.


                         CALLING CARDS

                     CaptainJohn Henry Black, CD
                         The Royal Regiment
                          Canadian Artillery


                        Lieutenant Jane Finn
                    Royal Canadian Horse Artillery

                         Mrs. John Henry Black


                          Ms. Lynn Ann Black

                                           CHAPTER 8


801.   GENERAL

1.     Policies and instructions for wearing Canadian Forces uniforms are contained in A-AD-
265-000/AG-001 (CFP 265), Canadian Forces Dress Instructions, the primary authority in
matters of dress. This chapter is intended only to provide a ready reference and to amplify detail
concerning items of dress which are particular to The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.

2.      All references to dress in this chapter shall be in accordance with the categories of dress
detailed in CFP 265. These categories are:

       a.      ceremonial dress;

       b.      Mess Dress;

       c.      Service Dress;

       d.      operational dress; and

       e.      occupational dress.


1.     Within the category of Ceremonial Dress there are three orders. Dress order 1 and 1A are
based on service dress with weapons, medals and ceremonial accoutrements as detailed in CFP
265. Dress order 1B encompasses all patterns of full dress uniforms.

2.     The following distinctive patterns of artillery ceremonial dress may be worn on appropri-
ate occasions:

       a.      Regimental Full Dress RCHA;

       b.      Regimental Full Dress RCA;

       c.      RCA Band Parade Dress;

       d.      RCA Band Concert Dress; and

       e.      historical period dress.


1.      Details of both RCHA and RCA Full Dress may be found in The Dress Regulations for
the Officers of the Canadian Militia 1907 and its amendments. These have been assembled in
a publication of the New Brunswick Museum, Canadian Militia Dress Regulation 1907 (1977).
This volume is held in many libraries. Assistance may be requested from the office of the
Director of Artillery or from the Regimental Major.

2.     The RCA Regimental Fund owns a number of RCHA and RCA Full Dress uniforms.
These uniforms may be loaned to units for wear on appropriate occasions. Maintenance of these
uniforms is the responsibility of the unit to which the uniforms are on loan. Any restoration
or new purchases must be to the standards of these Standing Orders and as described in the
Dress Regulations 1907 and amendments. All new uniforms shall become the property of the
RCA Regimental Fund.

3.      Regimental Full Dress may be worn on ceremonial occasions only. It may be worn by
formed units or sub-units, Quarter guards or ceremonial gun detachments or by individuals acting
as sentries, doormen and escorts for VIP visits, guest nights or other formal occasions. CFP 265
provides further details on occasions for wear.


1.      The pattern of full dress was introduced in 1905. It is similar to RHA Full Dress with
a dark blue tunic with scarlet collar, gold braid and lace, silver collar grenades and gilt buttons.
Gold cap lines are worn with the busby, which has a white ostrich plume with red base. The
red feathers at the base of the plume form the distinguishing feature from RHA Full Dress
(see Figure 11).

                              Figure 11 - Number 1B Order of Dress RCHA

2.       Both officer and NCM versions exist, the main difference being in gold wire accoutre-
ments for officers and wool worsted gold braid for NCMs. The wearing of RCHA Full Dress is
restricted to RCHA units and sub-units. The correct designation of this dress for the purpose of
parade instructions or orders is Order of Dress 1B (RCHA).


1.      This uniform is described in the 1907 Dress Regulations. It consists of a dark blue
tunic and trousers with scarlet collar, piping, shoulder straps and trouser stripe. The uniform is
appointed with gold lace, braid, pouch belt, waist belt and sword slings. A black patent pouch
with gilt badge is also worn (see Figure 12).

2.      RCA Full Dress may be worn on ceremonial occasions by RCA units. Artillery Bands
may also wear this uniform. The correct designation of this dress for the purposes of parade
instructions or orders is Order of Dress 1B (RCA).

                              Figure 12 - Number 1B Order of Dress RCA


The RCA Band has been authorized to acquire and wear the Artillery Band Parade Dress on
parade and other ceremonial occasions. This uniform is a modified version of the original
uniform worn by both the RCA and RCHA bands up to 1968 (see Figure 13). In the 1980’s the
RCA Band wore a modified version of Dress 1B (RCA). In 1997, the Colonel Commandant
and the Director of Artillery, in conjunction with advice from the directorate of History and
Heritage, decided that a return to the original uniform would be authorized. The existing band
uniforms were in poor shape, and the colours used in the old uniforms could not be matched
with newer materials. With the Centennial of the band fast approaching, it was decided that

new uniforms would be acquired, using the historical pattern to give the band a distinctive look.
This uniform is maintained partially at public expense and partially by non-public funds. The
correct designation of this dress for the purposes of parade instructions or orders is Order of
Dress 1B (Band Parade).

                                 Figure 13 - RCA Band Parade Dress


The RCA Band is also authorized to wear the RCA Band Concert Dress at formal concerts, guest
nights and similar occasions. This uniform is shown at Figure 14. This uniform is purchased
and maintained by a combination of public and non-public funds. The correct designation of this
dress for the purposes of parade instructions or orders is Order of Dress 1B (Band Concert).


1.       Bandsmen were traditionally armed with a short sword. Artillery bands so desiring may
wear the Sword and Scabbard, Drummers Mark II, 1902 pattern. The sword has a brass hilt,
a 13.1 inch blade with a total length of 18.4 inches. The Royal Cypher is incorporated into
the hilt. The scabbard is brass mounted black leather. Approved alternates to the formal band
sword are either the 1907 pattern bayonet for the Long Lee Enfield suitably chromed or the
Snider-Enfield sword bayonet.

2.     Additional band accoutrements may include capes, music pouches and a drum major’s
sash. Details are available from the Director of Artillery or the Regimental Major.

                                Figure 14 - The RCA Band Concert Dress


1.      Certain ceremonies may incorporate historical re-enactments or the display of artillery
weapons when uniforms representative of the period may be appropriate. While these uniforms
do not all fall within the category of ceremonial dress, regulations for their wear are included here
because of the ceremonial nature of the displays.

2.      CFP 265 sets out the conditions under which former patterns of Service and Ceremonial
Dress uniforms may be worn in Articles 2.16.2 and 10.05. Except for Mess Dress, former
Canadian Army patterns of uniform shall not be worn by members of the Regular Force except
members of Canadian Forces Bands and personnel participating in special events as authorized
by the commander of a command or the NDHQ equivalent. Members of the Reserve Force may
wear such uniforms when ordered.

3.      Permission to wear these uniforms would normally be restricted to occasions illustrating
the historical traditions and heritage of the Regiment such as tattoos, dedications of colours or
historical re-enactments.

4.     Some examples of historical period dress under this heading include:

       a.      Battle Dress with 25 pdr;

       b.      WW I uniform with 18 pdr;

       c.      Boer War khaki with 12 pdr;

       d.      RCHA Patrol Dress;

       e.      RCA Patrol Dress; and

       f.      uniforms of the Loyal Company.


1.      The Mess Dress of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery is a variation of the Army
pattern approved in 1986 and is known as the “Artillery Pattern Mess Dress” (see Figure 14).
It is No 2 order of dress. All previous patterns of Mess Dress are obsolete. Members of the
Regiment who possess former patterns of Mess Dress are permitted to wear them under the
following “grandfather clauses” which will remain effective until the member retires or until the
uniform must be replaced:

       a.      officers commissioned in the Canadian Army prior to 1 February 1968 may
               continue to wear their former Army Pattern Artillery Mess Dress;

       b.      members who purchased a CF Midnight Blue Mess Dress (No 2D) shall be
               permitted to continue to wear that uniform;

       c.      members who purchased the scarlet pattern (No 2F) (formerly known as CM-1)
               shall be permitted to wear that uniform; and

       d.      female members have the choice of wearing the skirt in place of trousers.

2.     Artillery Pattern Mess Dress. This Mess Dress (No 2) was authorized in FMC 5250-2
(Comd) 23 October 1986. It is based on the Army pattern which consists of a scarlet jacket
with shawl collar, midnight blue trousers and midnight blue waistcoat. Regimental detail is
based on facings, collars and cuffs in midnight blue and a broad scarlet stripe on the trousers
(Figure 13). On the skirt the scarlet stripe is the same width as on the trousers, but is limited
to bordering both edges of the side slits (Figure 16). Detailed specifications are available from
the Director of Artillery or the Regimental Major. Generally, specifications for the RCA Pattern
Mess Dress are as follows:

       a.      Policy. Wear is approved for all ranks except as indicated below;

b.   Jacket

     (1)      Material

              (a)    officers/CWOs - scarlet doeskin, and

              (b)    NCMs - scarlet barathea or doeskin,

     (2)      Design. Buttonless, simple breasted body with shawl lapels and surgeon

     (3)      the colour for lapels, shoulder straps and cuffs is midnight blue (doeskin or
              barathea to match the material use in the jacket body),

     (4)      senior officers wear crowsfoot sleeve embellishment, junior officers and
              CWOs do not wear cuff embellishments, as indicated in CFP 265, Chapter

     (5)      artillery buttons (26 ligne) are used on the epaulettes only,

     (6)      badges, accoutrements and CF rank insignia of gold wire pattern is worn.
              NCMs shall wear gold wire insignia with midnight blue backing. Officers
              shall use single braid available from the supply system. Gold wire grenade
              collar badges and scarlet backed hazardous skill badges are worn, and

     (7)      miniature medals/decorations are worn;

c.   Waistcoat. Waistcoat is of midnight blue doeskin or barathea and uses four 20
     ligne buttons;

d.   Trousers

     (1)      trousers, skirts and overalls are of midnight blue barathea. Overalls have
              a high english back, and

     (2)      the trouser/overall stripe is 1.5” scarlet barathea, and

     (3)      the skirt stripe is scarlet barathea, and is limited to bordering both edges
              of the side slits;

e.   Shirt/blouse

     (1)      Males (optional for Females). Pleated front, turn down collar and French
              cuffs. Wingtip collars are not authorized,

           (2)     Females. Blouse white long sleeved with gold buttoned front closure and
                   high collar, no bow tie,

           (3)     studs are regimental pattern (RCA/RCHA) or plain gold, and

           (4)     cufflinks are regimental pattern (RCA/RCHA);

  f.       Bow Tie. Bow tie is black, 4.75" in length by 1.5" at the squared ends;

  g.       Footwear. Wellington boots if wearing overalls and may wear shoes if wearing
           trousers. For females, pumps may be worn with the skirt;

  h.       Spurs. Stainless steel gooseneck spurs are worn with overalls. Spurs are not
           worn on board HM ships, while dancing, or with straight trousers; and

Figure 15 - Artillery Pattern Mess Dress            Figure 16 - Artillery Pattern Mess Dress
                  Male                                               Female

  i.       White summer jacket

           (1)     is similar in design to the No 2F scarlet jacket, with the exception
                   that the front is closed by a pair of 30 ligne artillery buttons, and that
                   senior officers do not wear the gold crow’s foot embellishment on
                   the sleeves. It may be worn as optional summer dress by officers
                   and CWOs only (see Figure 17),

           (2)     an artillery pattern cummerbund will be worn,

              (3)    the shoulder straps are white with 26 ligne artillery buttons,

              (4)    badges, accoutrements and CF rank insignia of gold wire pattern
                     is worn. CWOs shall wear gold wire insignia with midnight blue
                     backing. Officers shall use single braid available from the supply
                     system. Gold coloured metal grenade collar badges and miniature (if
                     available) metal hazardous skill badges are worn, and

              (5)    Miniature medals/decorations are worn;

       j.     Gloves. White gloves as required.

                        Figure 17 - The Artillery Pattern Mess Dress (Summer)

3.      No 2B (Mess Service). This is an optional mess dress uniform for wear in prefer-
ence to No 3 order of service dress on occasions when mess dress would be considered
appropriate. This uniform consists of the service dress tunic and trousers with a plain
white shirt and black bow tie. Details are available in CFP 265. The following personnel
may wear it:

       a.     newly commissioned Regular or Reserve Officers during the six months accorded
              them to obtain mess dress;

       b.     officer cadets; and

       c.     non-commissioned members of both Regular and Reserve Forces.

4.     The supply cataloguing information for artillery mess dress cloth is:

       Scarlet 8305-21-876-0623 Cloth Tropical, Wool/Polyester 203 g/sq m Scarlet (SP No
       DCGEM 255-77) Plain or scarlet superfine english doeskin (650 g/sq m) for officers and
       either doeskin or a scarlet barathea cloth for NCOs mess dress.


1.     Head Dress. The rifle green beret shall be worn with all orders of dress by all members
of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, except when they are entitled or required to wear
the maroon beret or the blue United Nations beret.

2.       Army service dress will be worn with artillery buttons, collar badges, cap badge, shoulder
titles, and narrow web belt.

3.     Artillery accoutrements are issued to officer cadets on the commencement of their second
phase of training at the Artillery School and to recruits on graduation from QL 3 training at
the RCA Battle School.

4.     Artillery Buttons. Gold coloured half-round artillery buttons with the RCA crest are
worn as follows:

       a.      front of jacket - 30 ligne buttons;

       b.      jacket pockets - 26 ligne buttons;

       c.      epaulettes - 26 ligne buttons; and

       d.      fur hat - 30 ligne buttons.

5.      Collar Badges. Gold coloured badges consisting of a grenade of seven flames and the
motto “UBIQUE” are worn on the collar of the service dress jacket. The badges are 13" high by
e” wide. The collar badges are worn centred on the stitching of the collar/lapel seam with the
base of the badge parallel to the ground and with the collar/lapel seam passing diagonally under
the centre of the collar badge. (see diagram at Annex A).

6.      Small Cap Badge. An embroidered artillery badge, 1.5" high and 1.75" wide (Insignia
Embroidered Officers RCA), will be worn by officers and Chief Warrant Officers on the CF
green beret and the Canex fur hat. All others wear a gold plated artillery badge 1.5" high and
1.75" (Insignia Service Cap, The RCA, 1953) on the beret and Canex fur hat.

7.      Shoulder Titles. Artillery shoulder titles are available in metal for wear with service
dress jackets and cloth for wear with slip-ons. They shall be worn as follows:

       a.      members of RCHA units will wear RCHA/RALC on both the army service dress
               jacket (metal) and slip-ons (cloth);

       b.      in accordance with long standing custom, officers serving on the staff of the Royal
               Military College of Canada may retain their RCHA/RALC distinction if posted
               directly from a RCHA unit; and

       c.      all others shall wear RCA or ARC on both the army service dress jacket (metal)
               and slip-ons (cloth).

8.     Since shoulder titles are approved in both English and French versions, the choice of
language will be determined as follows:

       a.      for personnel on regimental duty, as directed by the CO;

       b.      for personnel ERE, as a matter of individual choice;

       c.      regimental duty as used above includes field and air defence regiments, independ-
               ent field and air defence batteries, the Royal Canadian Artillery School; and

       d.      the wearing of mixed English and French shoulder titles on the same order of
               dress shall not be permitted.

9.       Belts. The narrow black web belt is to be worn with all uniforms except combat dress.
The brass buckle will be inscribed with the RCHA Badge for RCHA units, and the RCA badge
for all others. The belt shall be fastened in such a manner as to ensure that not more than two
inches of black belt material protrudes through the belt buckle. As such, the commencement of
brass tip attached to the running end of belt will appear two inches to the right of the buckle
as seen by the observer.

10.    Occupational Badges. Occupational badges recognize advanced levels of trade profi-
ciency. The designs are symbolic of the skills associated with field artillery, air defence artillery
and locating artillery. The badges of the Master Gunners and Assistant Instructors-in-Gunnery
recognize their role in the Regiment in the instruction and continuity of technical expertise.
These badges are worn as detailed in CFP 265.


1.     The normal operational dress is combat clothing and will be worn as detailed in CFP
265 and local orders.

2.     Shoulder titles. Abbreviated shoulder titles are to be worn on epaulettes as follows:

       a.      RCHA units: RCHA/RALC respectively; and

       c.      RCA, ARC or abbreviated unit title if approved (see Annex B, Chapter 1 for
               authorized shoulder identifiers).

3.     Other forms of operational dress for specific theatres shall be worn as designated by
operational commanders.


Approved artillery ceremonial accoutrements include swords, sword slings, white waist belt with
regimental buckle, canes and pace sticks.

814.   SWORDS

1.      Like the Sovereign’s Commission, the sword has long been the traditional hallmark of
an officer. RSMs wear (but do not draw) swords as a mark of the special position of trust and
responsibility which they hold. While today swords are an optional item of dress, their use on
ceremonial occasions is encouraged.

2.      As befits its traditions as a mounted corps, the sword of The Royal Regiment of Canadian
Artillery is based upon the Light Cavalry Pattern of 1822. The grip is covered in sharkskin or
simulated sharkskin and wire bound and the pommel is stepped.

3.      The blade is slightly curved, single edged and spear pointed. In cross section, it conforms
to the “Wilkinson” pattern with a wide fuller and no pipe back. The blade length may vary
from 28 to 36 inches to conform to the wearer’s height. The blade is embossed on the
obverse with the crown, cypher, “UBIQUE” motto and regimental badge. On the reverse
is embossed “ROYAL CANADIAN” above bolts of lightning and either “ARTILLERY” or
“HORSE ARTILLERY” beneath. Additional embossing in the spaces provided is at the owner’s
discretion. The steel scabbard has two bands and loose rings.


1.       The gold cord sword knot is worn with the sword with Ceremonial Orders of Dress. The
loop of the sword knot is passed through the slit in the rear of the hilt from the inside and from
the left of the hilt as worn. The acorn is then passed through the loop and the cord or strap pulled
tight. The slide of the cord is positioned midway between the acorn and the point at which the
cord is attached to the hilt of the sword. The sword knot is permitted to hang free (see Figure 18).
The approved pattern sword knot gold 17.5" is available under NSN 8465-21-104-7953.

                            Figure 18 - Gold Sword Knot, Slings and Belt

2.     With ceremonial orders of dress, the sword is carried by slings suspended from a woven
belt worn under the tunic (NSN 8465-21-104-7759 sword belt, red canvas). The slings are
crimson Russia leather one inch wide with plain gold lace .875" wide and lion head buckles. The
sword is always worn at the full extent of the slings and is never hooked up. Slings may be
purchased from the RCA Kit Shop.


1.     For ceremonial parades, non-commissioned members are to wear the Canadian Forces
ceremonial belt (NSN 9390-21-591-2013) with Ceremonial Orders 1 and 1A and other Ceremo-
nial Orders as ordered. The belt shall be worn with the large regimental buckle.

2.     RSMs shall wear their sword carried on a white sword belt (NSN 8440-21-888-7416)
with the large regimental buckle. This belt is worn outside the tunic.

3.     Buckles may be obtained from the RCA Kit Shop.


1.       Regimental Sergeants-Majors should carry CF pace sticks or canes of approved regimen-
tal pattern. Battery Sergeants-Majors should carry canes of approved regimental pattern in
accordance with Chapter 3 of A-AD-265-000/AG-001.

2.      Instructors, while teaching drill, may carry a drill cane. The RCA Kit Shop has approved
drill canes available for purchase.


1.      Instructors-in-Gunnery, when on instructional duty at schools of artillery or on artillery
ranges in an Instructor-in-Gunnery capacity, will wear the former army khaki forage cap with
a red band and large old brass artillery cap badge when wearing combat clothing and garrison

2.     Assistant Instructors-in-Gunnery will, when similarly employed, wear a white cover on
the CF green peaked cap with a red band and large brass artillery cap badge.


1.      The regimental tie is navy blue with red zig-zag stripes running downward from left to
right as worn. The regimental tie is worn with civilian clothes. The design is representative of the
lightning bolts associated with St. Barbara.

2.      The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Brigade Association in Kingston, which perpetuates
the long connection of the Regiment with that city, is authorized to use the tie in regimental
colours with double crimson zig-zag stripes. This tie was authorized for wear by members of
the permanent force horse artillery before the Second World War and its wear is restricted to
members of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Brigade Association.

3.      Master Gunners, serving and retired, are authorized to wear their authorized tie. It is blue
in colour, with one crimson zig-zag at the bottom and a stylized “MG” in the centre.

4.     No other ties are officially recognized as regimental or artillery ties.


The Regimental Scarf is of the same material as the regimental tie.


        Traditionally, the regimental blazer has been of navy blue flannel, worsted or barathea
cloth and either single or double-breasted. Today, it is more common to find the material used
is a navy blue polyester/wool hopsack type. The Royal Canadian Artillery or Royal Canadian
Horse Artillery crest is mounted on the left breast pocket. The buttons are half round, of gilt, and

engraved or superimposed with the RCA or RCHA badge. RCA and RCHA crests are available
from the RCA Kit Shop. Individuals may wear the RCHA crest instead of the RCA Crest if they
have served at least once in an RCHA unit during their careers.


The wearing of orders, medals and insignia with uniform is as detailed in CFP 265. The wearing
of orders, medals and insignia on civilian clothing is summarized in the publication, A Guide to
the Wearing of Orders, Decorations and Medals. This publication may be ordered from:

       The Chancellery of Canadian Orders and Decorations
       Government House
       Ottawa, Canada K1A 0A1


1.      Lanyards developed as an article of military kit as armies adopted khaki uniforms and
accoutrements for campaign purposes. Pistol lanyards and sword knots were used to prevent the
loss of weapons. It was also found convenient to have a shoulder lanyard to secure whistles and
clasp knives. These items had practical uses in mounted units for signalling, in the case of the
whistle, and for emergency repair to kit and guns, and care of horses and harness, in the case
of the clasp knife. In an emergency, the shoulder lanyard was the correct length and strength
to be used as a firing lanyard.

2.      Although issue lanyards were khaki in colour, Commanding Officers were allowed to
take other patterns into wear provided unit uniformity was maintained. The Royal Regiment of
Canadian Artillery adopted the distinctive white lanyard prior to WW I. Originally worn on the
left shoulder, the lanyard was transferred to the right shoulder to avoid conflict with the cartridge
cross belt then in use. The white lanyard, scrupulously cleaned, became a symbol of pride to all
gunners. Other corps and regiments tended to discontinue the use of coloured lanyards during
operations. Gunners, however, took great pride in wearing the white lanyard in the heat of battle
throughout WW I, WW II and the Korean Conflict.

3.      The artillery lanyard was always knotted from a natural fibre-like cotton; the use of nylon
or other synthetics was not acceptable. The lanyard was only awarded on successful completion
of basic and corps training, marking full acceptance into the gunner family. All gunners, up to
and including the rank of Warrant Officer (Staff Sergeant), wore the lanyard. In today’s forces,
lanyards are no longer worn.


The RCA standard tracksuit is heavy weight, high quality, navy blue with RCHA Badge or RCA
Badge emblazoned in gold on the left breast and left leg. Unit number designations will not
appear on the suit (see figure 19). The RCA or RCHA versions of the tracksuit are acceptable
wear on all artillery sports parades. The sole supplier is the RCA Kit Shop. Phase IV and QL 3
graduates will be given an initial issue of the RCA tracksuit at no charge upon graduation.

(825 to 899 inclusive - not allocated)

                                     Figure 19 - RCHA Track Suit


1.   Using the seam “A” as a guide, position the grenade roughly in centre of the seam.

2.   Align the inside apex of the lower flame, point “B”, on the seam line “A”.

3.   Align the left upper most portion of the area provided for the motto “UBIQUE”, point
     “C”, along the seam line “A”.

4.   Pin through material and secure.

                                       CHAPTER 9

                                    GUEST NIGHTS

901.   GENERAL

1.       Guest nights are held by artillery formations and units to foster esprit-de-corps and to
honour guests on appropriate occasions. All must be conversant with the customs which help
make a guest night a success. Most of these customs apply to all dinners, regardless of the
regiment, corps or service involved, however, there are some customs which are peculiar to the
artillery and have become gunner traditions.

2.      There are two types of guest nights in messes of The Royal Regiment of Canadian
Artillery; the first is known as an ordinary guest night and the second as a special guest night.
They are described as follows:

       a.      Ordinary Guest Night. This type of guest night is held at regular intervals and
               is less formal in character than the special guest night. Ordinary guest nights may
               vary from what is sometimes called a “dining-in”, perhaps at weekly intervals
               for living-in officers only, to the more formal regimental guest nights when mess
               dress is required. The procedure for an ordinary guest night may be scaled down
               from that given in this chapter; and

       b.      Special Guest Night. Special guest nights are formal functions that are held on
               particular occasions when guests of honour are invited. Officers should wear mess
               dress while civilian guests should wear evening dress (black tie) with decorations.

3.      The commanding officer, or in the commanding officer’s absence the senior officer of the
unit or mess, is the presiding officer at the dinner.

4.      A president and vice-president should be appointed for a guest night and are known
respectively as the president and vice-president of the day. The vice-president of the dinner is
traditionally the youngest subaltern in the unit.

5.      Although this chapter is written for an Officers’ Mess, the same general procedures apply
to Guest Nights in Artillery Warrant Officers’ and Sergeants’ Messes. The relationship of the
regimental sergeant-major with respect to precedence in the mess and to guests is similar to that
of the commanding officer in the Officers’ Mess.


1.      The success of a guest night is largely dependent on the planning and arrangements made
prior to the occasion.

2.      If possible, one long table should be used with the commanding officer sitting at the
centre of the table. The second in command (2IC) will sit opposite the commanding officer. The
commanding officer will normally sit on the far side of the table so that he is facing the main
entrance. The president of the day will sit at the end of the table to the commanding officer’s
right. If possible, the table should be arranged so that the vice-president of the day sits nearest
the service entrance to the dining room. The remaining officers will take their places at the table
in no particular order of seniority or precedence.

3.      If the attendance at the dinner is large, or if there are guests present, a seating plan
showing where all guests and officers are to sit should be prepared and placed in the ante-room.
This will assist officers and guests to find their respective places and avoid confusion on entering
the dining room. Place cards should be used with silver holders of artillery grenade pattern
when available.

4.      If a “U” shaped table is to be used, officers and guests will take their places as though
the legs of the “U” were straightened out, thus making one long table. Note, however, that
no one will sit opposite the Commanding Officer and that the president of the day will sit at
the right hand end of the Commanding Officer’s table, not at the end of the “U” (see Annex
A for the different layouts)

5.     If there are official guests in attendance, they will take their place at the table in order
of precedence as follows:

       a.      the guest of honour should be seated on the Commanding Officer’s right. How-
               ever, should the representative of the head of state (ie, the ambassador or high
               commissioner) of the guest of honour be present, the representative of the head
               of state will be seated on the right of the Commanding Officer and the guest of
               honour will be seated on the left of the Commanding Officer;

       b.      the next guest will sit on the 2IC’s right;

       c.      the next guest will sit on the CO’s left;

       d.      the next guest will sit on the 2IC’s left;

       e.      if there are more than four official guests, unit officers will be placed between
               guests; and

       f.      private guests should sit beside the officers who invited them. No officers should
               invite guests until they have obtained permission from the president of the day.

6.      For the dinner to proceed satisfactorily, it is necessary to have quiet, quick, efficient
service. Staff requirements are as follows:

       a.      waiters should be on a scale of one to every six or eight officers being served;

       b.      at least two wine waiters should be present. More may be necessary depending
               upon the number of officers dining;

       c.      a mess steward must be in control of the staff; and

       d.      if facilities allow, all waiters should start serving at the same time. When all
               officers have finished a course, the waiters will start removing the plates on a
               signal from the mess steward.


1.     Arrival. Officers will arrive in the ante-room one-half hour before the time fixed for
dinner. A trumpeter or trumpeters should sound the quarter-hour and Officers’ Mess calls at the
appropriate time. A piper may also be used to lead officers and guests into the dining room.

2.     It is customary for each officer on arrival, or at some time during the evening before
going to dinner, to go up to the Commanding Officer and to the guest of honour to say “good

3.      Entry. The mess steward will inform the vice-president of the day when dinner is ready
to be served. The vice-president will then inform the president; the president in turn informs the
Commanding Officer. The Commanding Officer will then escort the guest of honour to the table
followed by the other guests and their hosts. The other officers will not proceed into the dining
room until the guests and their hosts have entered. Seniority or precedence has no further bearing
on the order of entering the dining room. For mixed functions, officers will escort the person
who is to sit on their right to their place at the table. On arrival in the dining room, officers
and guests stand behind their chairs until every officer is present. The Regimental Grace is said
by the chaplain or, if none is present, by the president of the day or an officer delegated by the
president. The Regimental Grace is: “For what we are about to receive, thank God”. Everyone
then seats themselves at the table.

4.      If an officer must leave the table before the senior officer of the mess leaves at the
conclusion of dinner, he or she will first obtain permission from the president of the day and will
report back to the president on his return.

5.      Gun Salutes - Miniature Cannon. In many regiments, it has been a long-standing
tradition before dinner to fire a salute from miniature brass 32 pounders. This custom was
founded in the earliest days of The Royal Regiment when Canadians assumed responsibility for

fortress armaments on departure of the Royal Artillery garrisons. As part of the nightly retreat
and guard mounting, the guns of the fortress were fired. This tradition served two practical
purposes. It warned the garrison and civilian population that the fortress gates were to be
closed. It also confirmed that the powder was dry and that the fortress was in an appropriate
state of defence.

6.       The firing of a salute by miniature guns therefore reminds us of our garrison artillery
heritage and the role that gunners have played in the defence of Canada since the installation of
the first artillery pieces in the fortifications of Quebec in 1608. The salute is fired by detachments
of subalterns at an appropriate time after the arrival of guests. It is normal for the commanding
officer to invite the senior guest to inspect and thank the gun detachments after the salute.

7.      Details of safety and ammunition regulations governing the firing of salutes with mini-
ature cannon may be obtained from the Director of Artillery or the Regimental Major. The gun
drill appropriate for these salutes is found at Annex B.

8.      Table Runners. It is a gunner custom to use table runners, although they are not
normally used in a Warrant Officers’ and Sergeants’ Mess. They will be removed after dessert
has been eaten and the stewards have cleared the table of all china and cutlery, leaving only the
port glasses, which are moved to the centre of the table by the waiters. Under the direction of the
mess steward, the mess waiters will then station themselves at the table ends. On a signal from
the mess steward, they will proceed to twist the runners, the number of turns depending on the
length of cloth. After completion and again on a signal, the mess waiters at the foot of the tables
will pull the runners clear of the length of the table with one swift motion.

9.      Loyal Toast. When the table has been cleared, a decanter of port will be placed in
front of both the president and the vice-president of the day. After removing the stoppers, the
president and vice-president both pass the decanter to the left. A decanter eventually reaches
both the president and vice-president who then fill their glasses. The port will never under
any circumstances be passed to the right. Decanters are passed along the table; they may be
in special bases or carriages for this purpose. The belief that the decanter must never touch
the table is incorrect.

10.      Sometimes, madeira will be passed as well as port. If this is done, the port will be passed
first followed by madeira.

11.    The custom which required every officer to drink The Sovereign’s health in port is no
longer enforced; as long as an officer’s glass is filled to enable them to join in the toast, it is
immaterial whether it contains port, madeira or water.

12.     When the president of the day and the vice-president have filled their glasses, the presi-
dent taps the gavel three times on the table for silence. The president stands and, addressing the
vice-president in either English or French, says “Mr (Madam) Vice, The Queen, our Captain-
General / Monsieur (Madame) le vice-président, La Reine, notre capitaine-général”. The

vice-president then stands and says, in the other language, “Messieurs, La Reine / Gentlemen,
The Queen”. If female officers or guests are present, the vice-president will say “Ladies and
Gentlemen, The Queen / Mesdames et Messieurs, La Reine”.

13.     At this point everyone will stand with his or her glass in the right hand. If a band is
present, “God Save The Queen” will be played after everyone stands and the vice-president has
said “The Queen” or “La Reine” before the toast is drunk. During the playing of “God Save the
Queen”, glasses will be held in the right hand, forearms at right angles to the body. The Loyal
Toast is then drunk. Each officer present will say “The Queen” or “La Reine” before drinking
the toast. It is incorrect for anyone to add “God Bless Her”.

14.     Toasts to heads of foreign countries should be made after the Loyal Toast if an official
representative of the head of the country is present at the dinner. Officers representing their units
in response to formal invitations and officers attending international conferences are normally
regarded as official representatives. In other circumstances, toasts to heads of foreign countries
need not be made merely because officers of foreign countries are present.

15.     Smoking. After the Loyal Toast has been drunk, fruit, nuts, cheese and coffee are served
and the president and vice-president commence the circulation of the port (again to the left) for
a second time. The commanding officer may say, “(Ladies and) Gentlemen, you may smoke” or
indicate his permission by lighting smoking material himself. Officers and guests may not smoke
until such permission has been given. Ashtrays may be distributed by the waiters at this time. It
is becoming more and more customary, however, to not allow smoking in the dining room.

16.     Conclusion. The bandmaster and chef may be invited to have port or any other beverage
with the commanding officer. The director of music, if present, would normally be a guest
at the dinner.

17.     It is not normal to have speeches at artillery dinners except on special occasions. If there
is to be a guest speaker after dinner, he or she will be introduced by the commanding officer.

18.      Dinner is concluded when the commanding officer rises from the table and leaves,
followed by the official guests and senior officers. Officers and other guests rise and remain
standing until the senior officers and official guests leave (ladies shall remain seated). Guests, if
present, may then leave with their respective hosts. The remainder of the officers may remain
at the table.

19.    The president of the day leaves with the senior officers. The vice- president, however,
remains until all officers have left the table.

20.     Post Dinner Protocol. Officers must not leave the mess until the commanding officer
has left or has given special permission for an officer to leave. It is normal to wait until the guest
of honour has left before seeking permission to leave.


A guest night is a formal affair, which contributes much to the regimental and social life of the
officers of the regiment. Nothing must mar the dignity with which a formal dinner is conducted.
“Fun and games” must always be reserved for after dinner or if a band is present, after it has
concluded its performance. After dinner, activities must not be allowed to detract from the
enjoyment of the evening by the mess as a whole.

905.   MUSIC

1.     Music constitutes an integral part of a guest night. It adds to the overall atmosphere of
good manners, pleasant company, camaraderie and regimental tradition. The musical programme
should, therefore, be selected with the same care as the wines and the menu.

2.       A musical programme for a guest night normally consists of three or four parts. Each is
distinctive in character and format and serves a specific purpose. The four parts are:

       a.      pre-dinner fanfares and calls;

       b.      dinner music before the Loyal Toast;

       c.      the Loyal Toast and regimental music; and

       d.      after dinner music.

3.      Pre-dinner fanfares and calls are normally undertaken by a solo trumpeter. If not avail-
able, a piper may be substituted. The arrival of guests may be announced by playing regimental
calls and fanfares. On arrival, the commanding officer shall be greeted with the regimental call
and the first half of “Officers”. Non-gunner guests below the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel should
be greeted with their appropriate regimental call. Lieutenant-Colonels and Colonels should be
greeted with their regimental call and first half of “Officers”. General officers are greeted with
their regimental call and “Flourish”. The artillery calls are reproduced in Chapter 6, Annex A.
Other regimental calls may be found in Regimental Trumpet and Bugle Calls for the Canadian
Army 1961 and Trumpet and Bugle Calls for the Army 1927.

4.       If the main entrance is some distance from the receiving line, a piper may be used to
play the guests from the entrance to the receiving line. Any appropriate march may be used
for this purpose.

5.     After all guests have arrived, the musician(s) will be used to signal the impending com-
mencement of the dinner. If a trumpeter is used, “Officers Dress for Dinner” will be sounded 15
minutes before the scheduled hour of dining and “Mess” five minutes before. If a piper only is
present he will play twice the first part of “Keel Row” five minutes before dinner.

6.      At the appointed hour of dinner, the band will play “The Roast Beef of Old England”.
If a trumpeter only is present he will sound the regimental call and “Mess”. If only a piper is
present, he will play in the diners to “Toronto Exhibition Park”. The music shall continue until
all diners are in position behind their chairs. The slow march “Toronto Exhibition Park” was
selected to commemorate the Musical Drives performed by the RCHA from 1922 - 1933. Many
of the performances were at the Coliseum in the Toronto Exhibition Park (Canadian National
Exhibition). The tune was composed by Piper Major John Wilson of Toronto. Music can be
obtained through RHQ RCA or the RCA Band.

7.      Since the aim of the musical programme is to enhance the dinner, any form of music
is appropriate if it achieves this aim. A military band ensemble, string ensemble, pipers, solo
musicians or vocalists are equally suitable and the choice is at the discretion of the mess.

8.      Available space may be a limiting factor and as a rule it is better to have a small ensemble
positioned where it may be heard rather than a larger band positioned so that it cannot be. On
the other hand the band should not be so large or so positioned that normal conversation is made
difficult. If the dinner is large it may be appropriate to conduct the musical programme as an
interlude between courses rather than during.

9.      The choice of music is at the discretion of the president of the day and the commanding
officer. If a programme of regimental music follows the dinner then only a small portion of the
dinner music should be martial. Light classical music, Broadway tunes and Canadian folk songs
are among the most suitable and popular selections. It is appropriate to show appreciation of the
musical programme by applauding after each set.

10.     After the president of the day has called for the Loyal Toast and the vice-president of the
day has proposed the toast, diners will stand and the band will play the first six bars of “God Save
the Queen”, whereupon the toast will be drunk. A similar procedure is followed if toasts are
proposed to other heads of state officially represented at the dinner. If a piper is present he/she
will play “Point of War” instead of “God Save the Queen”. If a trumpeter is present he/she will
play “Royal Salute” instead of “God Save the Queen”.

11.      After the Loyal Toast, the band should play regimental music. It is appropriate to play
“The Royal Artillery Slow March”, “British Grenadiers”, “Keel Row”, and “Bonnie Dundee” in
that order. If only one tune is played, it shall be “The Royal Artillery Slow March”, the primary
artillery regimental march. These tunes may be followed by other regimental music such as “The
Screw Guns”, “Voice of the Guns” and the “Post Horn Gallop” as desired. If pipers only are
available they shall play “St. Barbara’s Day”, “Keel Row” and “Bonnie Dundee” in that order.
If only one tune is played it shall be “St. Barbara’ s Day”. (“St. Barbara’s Day” was specifically
composed for and dedicated to The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery by Pipe-Major Hugh
McPherson, CD in 1984). The music of “St. Barbara’s Day” can be found at chapter 6, Annex C
and the music for the other pieces can be obtained through the office of the Director of Artillery
or the Regimental Major. Diners shall remain seated for this part of the musical programme.

12.    It is appropriate to honour guests and non-gunner members of the Regiment by playing

their appropriate regimental marches prior to playing the artillery marches and associated music.
The normal precedence as prescribed in CFAO 61-6 shall be followed except that in artillery
messes “The Royal Artillery Slow March” shall be played last as the “host” march. If allied
gunners are present as guests, their artillery marches, national or regimental, shall be played
immediately prior to “The Royal Artillery Slow March” in alphabetical order of nations (English
alphabet). The non-artillery and foreign guests may stand to acknowledge their regimental
march. However, Canadian gunners hosting or in attendance in an artillery mess shall not stand
when any march or selections, including “The Royal Artillery Slow March” are played. It is
incorrect for artillery officers to stand for their affiliated infantry or armour unit march past.
Only when an officer has been posted to another corps may an acknowledgement at formal
dinners be given.

13.     When gunners are present as guests in non-gunner messes or at multi- regimental or
formation functions, it is the custom to stand and acknowledge the regimental march which,
in such cases, shall be “The Royal Artillery Slow March”. Notwithstanding the presence of
RCHA and RCA officers at a dinner of this type, only “The Royal Artillery Slow March” shall
be played. The presence of an RCHA officer shall determine the precedence of the artillery
march in relation to those of other represented regiments/branches (i.e., if even one RCHA officer
is present, “The Royal Artillery Slow March” shall precede marches of the Royal Canadian
Armoured Corps).

14.     It is customary for the commanding officer of the mess and the senior guests to show their
appreciation for the musical programme by inviting the bandmaster or trumpeter to partake of
a glass of port or any other beverage with the commanding officer. Chairs could be provided
to permit the drink to be taken seated. Diners should show their final appreciation for the
musical programme by applauding on the departure of the band master/trumpeter/piper from
the head table.

15.    On many occasions it is now customary for a dance to follow dinner when spouses are
present. The choice of the form and tempo of the music, live or taped, is entirely optional.
Normal courtesy and practice shall be for the first dance to be of such a tempo to permit the
commanding officer to dance with the spouse of the senior guest, and the senior guest to dance
with the commanding officer’s spouse. After a few bars, the remaining couples shall join the
lead couples on the dance floor. The remainder of the dance shall be conducted in an informal
manner with normal courtesies.

(906 to 999 inclusive: not allocated)



                                 Mr./Madam Vice

                 Other Officer                    Other Officer
                        Guest                     Guest
                  Unit Officer                    Unit Officer
                    3rd Guest                     2nd Guest
                          CO                      2IC
                    1st Guest                     4th Guest
                  Unit Officer                    Unit Officer
                        Guest                     Guest
                 Other Officer                    Other Officer


                             Mr./Madam Vice

 Other Officers and Guests

                4th Guest

Senior Battery Commander

                2nd Guest


                1st Guest


                3rd Guest

 Other Officers and Guests



                           Mr./Madam Vice
              An Officer

               A Spouse

               4th Guest

            2IC’s Spouse

Senior Battery Commander

              3rd Spouse

               2nd Guest

              1st Spouse


               1st Guest

            CO’s Spouse


             2nd Spouse

               3rd Guest

              4th Spouse

              An Officer



                     GUN DRILL FOR 32 PDR MODEL GUNS


1.     This precis is written primarily for detachment commanders and instructors.

2.     The following summary of principle duties is not a comprehensive list, but is intended as
a guide to detachment commanders and instructors.


3.    The Saluting Battery is commanded by a Battery Commander (BC). The guns are
manned by a two-man detachment as follows:

       a.     No 1 - Detachment Commander; and

       b.     No 2 - Firing Number.


4.     The following equipment is required (see Appendix 1 for layout):

       a.     water container;

       b.     vent pick (non-sparking);

       c.     vent brush or cleaning device;

       d.     thumbstall;

       e.     heavy leather welders gloves;

       f.     rammer - marked to show the amount of shaft which should be sticking out of the
              muzzle when the cartridge is fully home;

       g.     wet sponge;

       h.     stop watch;

       i.      ammunition; and

        j.      WAD HOOK (non-sparking) Note - WAD HOOK may be fitted to opposite end
                of rammer or come as a separate tool.


5.      The guns are to be lined up in a straight line, five to 10 feet between guns in an open
area (never inside a building).

6.      The muzzle blast area is to be kept clear of spectators, obstacles/ buildings. A crooked
“U” shaped rammer, if available, is to be used. If not, a plain shaft or one with a smooth
tapered ‘’Mississippi’’ head is to be used so that it will force the hand open should a premature
firing occur.

7.     Do not pound the rammer against the round. At no time should more of the body
than absolutely necessary be forward of the muzzle and “never in front of it”. Ensure that all
detachment members are thoroughly familiar with safe ammunition handling and misfire drills.


8.        With the introduction of the igniter friction device, port fire sticks are no longer required
to fire the gun and will not be used under any circumstances. Great care must be taken when
firing the friction tube as the device has a tendency to rocket upwards from the vent when it
is fired.


9.      Prior to the salute, the BC takes up a position of command. The gun detachments should
be in their Stand Easy approximately 15-20 feet to the rear of their guns.


10.   On the appearance of the VIP, the BC orders “Fire Mission... Guns”. The Nos 1
acknowledge and order “Take Post” and the detachments double to their positions as follows:

        a.      No 1 - two paces to the right rear of the gun breech. He will stand to attention,
                holding the rammer horizontally beneath the left arm (head of the rammer to the
                front); and

        b.      No 2 - one pace to the left of the gun breech, kneeling on the right knee in line
                with the vent and so located that he/she remains behind the muzzle, yet is able to
                work in the muzzle area with some degree of comfort.


11.    No 1 will order “Protect”, No 2 will cover the vent with his/her right thumb properly
covered by a thumbstall and report “Finger in, Sir”.


12.      Under the command of the BC, the Saluting Battery will fire a salute, using the following
procedure. Each order will be individually acknowledged by the Nos 1 by raising the right arm
to its fullest extent over the head:

       a.      The... (officers) of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery will fire a Royal/
               General Salute:

               (1)    Fire Mission 4 guns,

               (2)    Charge Blank Load (see paragraph 18),

               (3)    Converge 0,

               (4)    At My Command,

               (5)    Elevation 800,

               (6)    Battery Right - 10 seconds,

               (7)    The No 1 - Reports his Gun “Ready”,

               (8)    BC orders “No 1 Fire”,

               (9)    The No 2 pulls the lanyard to fire the gun, and

               (10)   (10 seconds later) BC orders “No 2 Fire” (and so on).

       b.      NOTE

               (1)    Care must be taken to avoid passing any portion of the body over the
                      igniter friction tube when firing, and

               (2)    The lanyard must be pulled with a constant pressure and at right angles
                      to the axis of the bore.

               Note: It requires considerable pressure or “pull” for the igniter to fire. Care
                      must be taken that the gun does not tip over while in the process of
                      firing the gun.


13.    On the order “Empty Guns”, Nos 1 will report in turn “Number... Empty”. If a gun has
misfired, no report is made.


14.    On the order “Detachments Rear”, Nos 1 place their rammers on the ground to the right of
the gun, with the head of the rammer to the front. The detachment falls in two paces to the rear
and facing the gun. Nos 1 order “Stand at Ease”.


15.    The BC will report to the VIP and ask if the VIP wishes to inspect the Saluting Battery.
The detachments are inspected in turn from the right, each No 1 bringing their detachment to
“Attention” as the inspecting party approaches.

16.    After the inspection, the BC will order “End of Mission”. The Nos 1 call their detach-
ments to “Attention”, “About Turn” and “Quick March” to the rear and “Fall Out”.


17.     Prior to loading and firing of the guns, the No 1 must carry out a thorough preliminary
check of the vent and bore to ensure they are clean and clear of obstructions. The No 1 must also
check that the ordnance is securely mounted to the carriage, and that all stores and ammunition
required are serviceable and laid out in sequence which will reflect the highest standard of gun
drill and safety.

18.     On the command “Load”, the No 2 will remove a ball charge from its safety container
and insert it into the muzzle with his left hand and immediately return his/her thumb to the
protect position.

19.     The No 1 will double forward and smartly adopt the kneeling position facing No 2. The
No 1 will remove the rammer from beneath his/her arm, insert the rammer in the muzzle and with
a single constant motion ram the ball into the bore until the scribe line on the rammer is in line
with the end of the muzzle. The No 1 then reports loud and clear “Round Up, Sir”.

20.     The No 1 will then return the rammer to the position under his arm, double to his/her
position in action, remove an ignition friction tube from its safety container, attach the lanyard
to the wire loop provided on the top of the friction tube. The end result will portray the No 1
at his/her position in action, holding the friction tube in his/her right hand connected to the firing
lanyard with the excess lanyard passing through and supported by the left hand.

21.     The No 2 will remove his thumb from the vent, retrieve the ventpick, insert the tool in
the vent and with a downward push pierce the ball charge, remove the pick tool and immediately
return his thumb to the protect position over the vent.

22.     Note. If the ball charge is properly seated, a noticeable resistance will be felt when the
pick tool is pushed downward.

23.     The No 1 then orders “Get your finger out”, moves forward to the gun, inserts the igniter
friction tube into the vent ensuring it is fully home with the wire loop facing the No 2, and the
lanyard laying over the left side of the breech.

24.    The No 2 will then grasp the firing lanyard in his/her right hand, and report “Ready” to
the No 1 who in turn reports the gun ready to the BC.

25.    Note. If after the initial round has been fired, and there is to be additional firing, the bore
must be swabbed and the vent cleared before the next round is fired as there is a danger of hot
residue being left in the bore and vent after firing.

26.    After the round is fired, the No 1 will order “Load”. The No 2 will place the firing
lanyard beside the friction tube container, then ream the vent with the tool provided.

27.    The No 1 will move forward to the gun, wet the sponge, and clean the bore using the
WAD HOOK tool, then sponge to ensure live or smouldering bits of residue are thoroughly


28.   This drill is designed to disclose the cause of failure to fire and to indicate the correct
immediate remedy.

29.    Failures to fire can be divided into four main classes:

       a.      Poor Ram (ball charge not fully seated to rear of breech areas, causing the pick
               tool and igniter friction tube to bypass charge on insertion);

       b.      Over Ram (ball charge completely compressed to rear of breech area, causing pick
               tool and igniter friction tube to miss ball);

       c.      Jerking the lanyard, causing the igniter friction tube to be pulled from vent; and

       d.      Malfunction of the igniter friction tube.


30.    If all drills are carried out properly by members of the detachment, misfires will not
occur. The malfunction of this type of system is at less than 1% of the total number of charges

31.     If the gun fails to fire, the No 1 will report “Number... Misfire”. The BC will immediately
order that gun to “Check Firing” and the next gun to fire (i.e. “No 1, Check Firing” - “No
2, Fire”).

32.    Friction Tube pulled from Vent

       a.      The No 2 will report “Misfire, Tube Out”. The No 2 will put on the heavy leather
               gloves and goggles and check the friction tube for damage - insert into vent, attach
               the firing lanyard and report “Ready” to the No 1; and

       b.      The No 1 then reports “Number... Ready” to BC and awaits further orders.

33.    Friction Tube Fires but Gun does not Fire

       a.      The No 2 will report “Misfire - Tube Only”. The No 2 will put on the heavy
               leather gloves and goggles, with the vent pick again pierce the ball charge, place
               a new friction tube in the vent, attach the firing lanyard and report “Ready” to
               the No 1;

       b.      The No 1 then reports “Number ... Ready” to the BC and awaits further orders;

       c.      Note

               (1)    At no time after an igniter friction tube has fired will the charge be rammed
                      due to the danger of Hang Fire, and

               (2)    If, after a second attempt to fire the gun is unsuccessful, wait 5 minutes.
                      No 2 will then douse the vent with water, remove the barrel, submerge
                      in water for 30 minutes, remove barrel from the water and remove the

34.    Friction Tube does not Fire

       a.      The No 2 will report “Misfire”. The No 2 will put on the heavy leather gloves and
               goggles, remove the friction tube, replace it with a fresh friction tube, attach the
               firing lanyard and report “Ready” to the No 1;

       b.      The No 1 then reports “Number ... Ready” to the BC and awaits further orders;

       c.      Note

               (1)     If after a second attempt to fire the gun is unsuccessful, you must consider
                       the igniter friction tube lot number to be at fault. Replace lot number or,
                       if not possible, remove igniter and place in safe area, submerge barrel in
                       water for 30 minutes, then remove barrel from water and remove charge
                       from bore, and

               (2)     Wet or broken charges and non-functional igniter friction tubes are to be
                       returned to ammunition storage areas in separate containers accompanied
                       by an ammunition malfunction report.


35.    Before firing, check the bore and vent to ensure they are free of dirt, grit, rust and
propellant fouling; also, excessive oil is removed and the bore is dried.




     1      No 1

     2      No 2


a.   Wad hook with rammer;
b.   Sponge with rammer (carried by no 1 during firing);
c.   Water bucket (large enough to submerge barrel);
d.   Vent pick;
e.   Vent brush;
f.   Igniter friction tubes (in metal container);
g.   Firing lanyard with hook;
h.   Ball charges;
i.   Heavy leather gloves;
j.   Goggles; and
k.   Thumbstopper (worn during firing).

                                                 CHAPTER 10

                         A Condensed History of
            The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, 1793-1998


1.        The purpose of this document is to provide readers with an overview of the history of The Royal Regiment
of Canadian Artillery. The official regimental history is Colonel G.W.L. Nicholson’s The Gunners of Canada at
reference A. Colonel Nicholson’s work is more than an excellent history. It is a reminder to all Canadian Gunners
of the “tradition of high resolve and dedicated service” which The Royal Regiment requires. It is hoped that this
brief look at the story of The Royal Regiment will encourage you to further study, which should include The
Gunners of Canada as a necessary reference. Annex A to this chapter contain brief unit histories of each of the
currently serving regiments, independent batteries and the Artillery School.

2.        A study of The Royal Regiment’s past brings out three points which are critically important and which
the reader should bear in mind. The first of these is the interplay between the Reserve (or Militia) Gunner and
his Regular Force counterpart. The task of providing training support to the Militia Gunner has been an important
peacetime role of the Regular Force artillery. Secondly, Canadians seem to possess a particular aptitude for
Gunnery. We like to compete, and good Gunnery is competitive: from the race against a time to be ready, to the
race to see which gun will be first out of action when “cease firing” is ordered. We like excitement and personal
challenge and it’s there. Thirdly, the very best Gunners have never regarded the business as a job. To men
like Major-General T.B. Strange, Major-General C.W. Drury and General A.G.L. McNaughton, the artillery was
much more than a job. These men were professionals dedicated to the profession of serving the guns advancing
the organization and technical expertise of the Royal Regiment, and promoting a high esteem and confidence of
other arms in the artillery.


1.        The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery has two mottos: “Ubique” (Everywhere) and Quo Fas et Gloria
Ducunt” (Whither Right and Glory Lead). The first motto “Ubique” takes the place of all battle honours in
recognition of the artillery’s service in all battles and campaigns. These honours were approved by His Majesty
King George V in 1926, who in 1920 honoured the RCA by becoming its Honorary Colonel Commandant, and
later in 1929, its Colonel-in-Chief. In 1952, His Majesty King George VI became Captain-General the Royal
Canadian Artillery. No other Canadian corps can claim this distinction, which has been carried on by Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II.

2.        In the old days, regiments of cavalry and infantry were wont to rally on their colours in battle. The
Artillery, on ceasing to carry colours, rallied on its guns. After the Crimean War, Queen Victoria permitted the
Royal Artillery the unique distinction of using its guns as its colours. In this connection, quotation of an early
regulation is of interest: Regulation and Orders for the Active Militia of the Dominion of Canada 1870: “A Battery of
Artillery with its guns is equivalent to a Battalion with its colours, and is to be saluted accordingly”.


1.      The tradition of the “citizen soldier” dates from the earliest settlement of this country. The French Crown
provided no regular soldiers in Canada until 1665. As early as 1636 there is a record of “The Company of One
Hundred Associates” being organized for defence against the Indians. This company procured some artillery pieces
from ships that arrived in the colony. Even after the arrival, in 1665, of the Carignan-Salières Regiment, guns

and Gunnery remained largely the business of the settlers under the guidance of infantry soldiers. Guns were not
prominent in warfare against the Indians because of their lack of mobility in a country possessing such poor roads.
Instead guns were found defending established centres. The first really notable use of artillery by Canadians took
place at Quebec in 1690. The settlers manned gun batteries under the direction of Jacques Le Moyne, a Canadian
officer, and did good service in assisting in the repulse of Sir William Phipps’ attack on the city.

2.        The Royal Artillery presence in Canada dates from at least 1745 when a train of the Royal Artillery was
stationed in Louisbourg after its capture in that year. It played a prominent part in the battles with the French for
control of the country. From the time of the conquest until 1855, the defence of Canada rested mainly with the
British regulars garrisoned here, but, like the French, they also had to rely on Canadian assistance. All Canadian
men between 16 and 60 were liable to be called up for military service in an emergency. Canadians saw service
in 1775-1776, the War of 1812 and the rebellions of 1837. Normally, however, the Canadian commitment entailed
nothing more than an annual muster parade. Enthusiasm varied from place to place and some localities organized
their own militia units. One such unit, “The Loyal Company of Artillery”, was formed in 1793 at Saint John,
New Brunswick. This unit is perpetuated in Saint John today by the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment RCA. Colonel
Nicholson points out that this is “not only the oldest artillery unit in Canada, but also the third oldest in the
British Commonwealth”.

3.       The Militia Act of 1855, passed by the Parliament of the United Provinces of Canada, was a milestone in
Canadian military history. Faced with the withdrawal of British troops for the Crimea, Canadians now had to be
more actively involved in their own defence. The Act provided for the creation of a five thousand man force which
included seven batteries of artillery. The batteries were to undergo twenty days of training per year, ten of which
had to be consecutive. Batteries were formed at Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Kingston, and Hamilton. Three of
these units are perpetuated by batteries serving today as sub units of field artillery regiments: the 2nd Field Battery in
Ottawa, the 7th Field Battery in Montreal and the 11th Field Battery (Hamilton-Wentworth) in Hamilton.

4.       The period between 1855 and Confederation was one in which interest in military matters remained high
because of the Crimean War, the American Civil War, and the threats, real and imagined, which the latter posed
for Canada. The Fenian raids of 1866 saw the militia being called out for service but the role of the artillery was
limited. In fact, the most notable engagement fought by the artillery was one in which the Welland Canal Field
Battery, acting as infantry, defended Fort Erie against the Fenian force returning from their success at Ridgeway.
Their gallant stand was doomed from the start, the Gunners being greatly outnumbered, and they were eventually
forced to surrender but not before they inflicted more casualties on the enemy than had the infantry in the Ridgeway

5.       After Confederation, the Dominion Parliament moved quickly to improve Canada’s organization for defence.
A Militia Bill, passed in 1868, authorized an Active Militia strength of 40,000 men. Essentially, the terms of the bill
extended the militia system then in effect in Ontario and Quebec to the two new provinces of Nova Scotia and New
Brunswick. By 1870 there were 10 field batteries and some 30 batteries of garrison artillery. In Britain, the pressure
to make self-governing colonies responsible for their own defence was particularly high, and, in 1871, all the British
troops in Canada, with the exception of the Halifax and Esquimalt garrisons, were withdrawn.


1.        The permanent element of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery originated on 20 October 1871 with
the formation of A and B Batteries of Garrison Artillery in Kingston and Quebec City respectively. These two
batteries represent the creation of Canada’s Permanent (Regular Force) Army. These batteries also functioned in
the early years as Schools of Gunnery. The schools soon provided the Militia artillery with a leaven of well-trained
NCOs and gunners. Owing to this, the Artillery established itself as the most efficient branch of the Canadian Militia
Service and acquired a pride in itself that it has never ceased to possess.

2.      On 10 August 1883, with the authorization of C Battery, the Regiment of Canadian Artillery came into
being. The battery was manned in Victoria in 1887. The men of C Battery are believed to be the first troops to

complete the trans-Canada crossing on the Canadian Pacific Railway. On 24 May 1893, the regiment was granted
the distinction “Royal” and a few months later was reorganized into two batteries of Royal Canadian Field Artillery
and two companies of Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery. With this change, C Battery became temporarily dormant,
its personnel forming the nucleus of one of the garrison artillery companies. The Non-Permanent Active Militia
(NPAM) component of the Royal Regiment was granted the prefix “Royal” in 1935.

3.        On 1 September 1905, the Royal Canadian Field Artillery was formed into the Royal Canadian Horse
Artillery (RCHA). These, the original batteries of the Permanent Force artillery, are perpetuated today as A, B and C
Batteries, 1st Regiment Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, based in Shilo, Manitoba.


Canadian Gunners claim a close kinship with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) through the formation
of the North West Mounted Police (NWMP). In the autumn of 1873, Lieutenant-Colonel (later Major-General Sir)
George A. French, the first Commandant of A Battery Garrison Artillery, was appointed as the first Commissioner
of the North West Mounted Police. Together with 32 Gunners of A and B Batteries, he formed the nucleus
of the new police force. Thus the RCA became in a sense a parent of the RCMP. With French were 15 Non-
Commissioned Officers, including a Sgt Steele (later Major-General Sir Sam Steele) from A Battery. Steele was
soon commissioned and held a high post in the NWMP during the Yukon Gold Rush of 1898. Steele then returned
to service with the Canadian Army as the first Commanding Officer of the Lord Strathcona Horse, leading them
throughout the South African War.


1.       French’s Colleague, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Bland (“Jingo”) Strange, the first Commandant of B
Battery Garrison Artillery, rose to the rank of Major-General and became Dominion Inspector of Artillery. Strange,
known as the “Father of Canadian Artillery”, was instrumental in forming the Canadian Artillery Association which
provided a uniform system of inspection. Participation in nation-wide firing competitions, inaugurated by the
Association, was shortly extended to meets held in Shoeburyness, England, where Canadian Militia artillery teams
became strong competitors for the coveted British awards. These tournaments increased not only the efficiency but
also established a magnificent esprit-de-corps in the several independent units, an esprit-de-corps that continues in
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery to this day.

2.        His autobiography, Gunner Jingo’s Jubilee, offers a fascinating series of glimpses into the early years of the
Regiment’s permanent force component - “When the last British Legionary departed, mine was the task to form its
first guard of Canadian Artillery. The evacuation had been so rapid, only a few days elapsed between my arrival
and the embarkation of the British garrison, scant time to enlist, arm, uniform and drill the first new guard of the
Citadel.” Equipment for the Quebec garrison would have been a problem had it not been for Strange’s rather direct
manner. The Government of Canada had expected to inherit all the garrison stores but the British Government sold
everything down to and including the bedsteads to local merchants. Strange solved this by not allowing them into
the Citadel to get their purchases. The arms, ammunition and uniforms were taken over from the Quebec Volunteer
Artillery. With drills and practises, Strange quickly brought his garrison into shape. He held his Canadians in very
high regard and the sentiment was eagerly returned.

3.       As Dominion Inspector, Strange visited all artillery units and his inspections were of the most searching
nature, as his numerous reports disclose. He was quick to perceive that the training and efficiency of the artillery
left much to be desired and he began overhauling the Regiment by first ensuring that his own house was in order.
His methods were spartan in their severity. Long snowshoe marches and manoeuvres in the middle of winter were
frequently conducted, with artillerymen bivouacking in 35-pound light cotton 15-man tents. Colonel C.E. Long has
described the methods used by “Jingo” to test alertness and efficiency at Quebec by night firing:

         “The alarm would be sounded during the night...when all hands would stand to. God help the poor
         individual who was not at his post, at the guns of the Citadel, or knew not his duties, when the Commandant
         was making his inspection at a few minutes after the alarm has sounded.”


1.        Canadian Gunners made a name for themselves from their very beginning. The first action by the
Permanent Force batteries was during the North West Rebellion of 1885. In addition to A and B Batteries, many
Militia artillery units participated in this action. The Winnipeg Field Battery, later designated the 13th Winnipeg
Field Battery, supplied two 9-pounder Rifled Muzzle-Loading (RML) guns, and 49 officers and men. Four hundred
members of the Montreal Brigade of Garrison Artillery took up positions in Regina, and representatives of the
Ottawa Field and the Quebec and Maritime Garrison units were actively employed.

2.       On 27 March 1885, A and B Batteries received orders to proceed west on active service. Under the
command of Lieutenant-Colonel C.E. Montizambert, the two batteries left Renfrew, Ontario by rail for Qu’Appelle,
Saskatchewan. On reaching Qu’Appelle, the two batteries split. A Battery, with two 9-pounder RML cannon and
a Gatling machine gun, under the command of Capt C.W. Drury, went north to join Sir Frederick Middleton’s
column. B Battery, with two NWMP 7-pounder smooth bore muzzle loading cannon and a Gatling machine gun,
under the command of Major C.J. Short, went west to Swift Current to join Lieutenant-Colonel William D. Otter’s
force. B Battery would soon regret having traded in their 9-pounder RMLs for the 7-pounders. They had done
so believing that the lighter 7-pounders would be easier to transport. Unfortunately, the light gun carriages tended
to collapse when the guns were fired.

3.        More interesting than the actual details of the battles in the rebellion were the hardships that the troops
endured in the trip west. William Van Horne of the CPR had promised full support to move all the troops from the
East to the prairies. He guaranteed to deliver them to Fort Qu’Appelle within 11 days in spite of the 105 miles of
gaps in the railroad north of Lake Superior. He kept his word, and it was because of the railroad that the uprising
was quelled as quickly as it was. The artillery was the first to leave. Rails had to be put down on ice and snow
wherever possible, and where this wasn’t possible the men rode in sleighs or walked. The trip has been described
by a member of one battery:

         “We had to march, tramp and haul through snow five feet deep - some days below zero - catching on half
         completed gaps of line, entraining and disentraining (sic) in midst of bush, wood, snow or frozen swamp,
         day and night, till we passed the northern end of Lake Superior to Port Arthur, crossing frozen areas of
         the lake. (Once the mounted men rode out towards the lake for hours, the guide having lost the way);
         sleeping one night in an empty schooner frozen in the lake; always haunted with the 9-pounders with their
         carriages and equipment (sleigh and wheel); this was the hardship of the campaign”.

4.       A Battery was the first to see action at Fish Creek on 24th April, firing over the heads of the infantry, while
elements of the battery fought with distinction in an infantry role. The battery suffered casualties of 3 killed and 12
wounded in its first action. A Battery would go on to fight in the battle at Batoche. B Battery fought its first battle at
Cut Knife on 2 May. Successfully beating off determined attacks against its gun positions, the battery had casualties
of 4 wounded. During the encounter, one of the 7-pounders was out of action with a collapsed trail after its first shot.
Brevet-Captain (later Major-General) Rutherford rigged the second carriage with rope and a prayer in an effort to
prevent this, but the cannon had to be lifted back onto its frail carriage after each firing. The Battle of Cut Knife
marked the first use of the machine gun by Canadian soldiers and the last time in Canadian history that bows and
arrows, with which some of the younger braves were armed, were employed in battle.

1008.    THE YUKON FIELD FORCE 1898 – 1899

The discovery of gold in the Yukon in 1896 had generated a rush of miners and speculators. In 1898, in order
to support the NWMP in maintaining law and order, an Order-in-Council authorized the formation of the Yukon

Field Force. The 203-man force was mainly constituted of 133 soldiers from The Royal Regiment of Canadian
Infantry and 46 Gunners of the Royal Canadian Artillery (14 from Kingston and 32 from Quebec). After tremendous
difficulties, the Force finally reached their two main destinations, Fort Selkirk and Dawson City, in September and
October respectively. The Force, commanded by Lt Col T.D.B. Evans, carried out garrison duties and other tasks
normally done by police and customs officers.

1009.    THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR 1899-1902

1.        During the interval between the rebellion and the South African War the Regiment, under the tutelage of
Major (later Major-General) C.W. Drury, became considerably more modernized. Drury, on a posting to Britain,
had paid particular attention to new developments in fire discipline and technical improvements. As Commandant of
the Deseronto Camp, he injected considerably more realism into training, and by stressing competitions, spurred the
militia gunners on to greater efficiency. His contributions were to earn him the name of “Father of Modern Artillery
in Canada.” The Regiment owes him a great deal. He brought it into the modern era and, in a real sense, gave
it the groundwork of knowledge which it would require at the beginning of World War I. The period was one in
which great strides were being made in the development of artillery, and the Canadian share was the acquisition of
12-pounder breech-loading guns, which were available for range practice in 1897.

2.        Shortly after the outbreak of the war between Great Britain and the Boer Republics of the Transvaal and
Orange Free State, public pressure led to the dispatch of two Canadian contingents to South Africa. Three batteries
of field artillery, armed with 12-pounders were brigaded as part of the Second Contingent. The three artillery
batteries designated C, D and E concentrated respectively at Kingston, Ottawa and Quebec. Each battery was formed
from members of the Royal Canadian Artillery (permanent force) with the remaining personnel coming from local
militia units. In command of the Brigade was Lt Col C.W. Drury.

3.        The South African War was frustrating in some respects for Canadian gunners. The nature of the war did
not permit the grouping of the batteries under Drury’s headquarters. The war did, however, teach some valuable
lessons. Indirect fire techniques, for example, were spurred by the actions of this war. Boer marksmanship has been
cited as the motivating factor but, in fact, the widespread use of the rifle in any hands would have been enough to end
the older tactic of galloping up and engaging the enemy over open sights.

4.       C Battery formed part of the Rhodesian Field Force and took part in the relief of Mafeking and then
in operations in the western Transvaal. D and E Batteries originally formed part of Carnarvon Field Force and
then assumed line of communications duties on the main railway line to Kimberly. Later E Battery formed part
of the Gruiqualand column and suffered one killed and eight wounded in action at Faber’s Putt. E Battery had
the heaviest battle casualties of all three batteries: the total for the campaign being one man killed and eleven
wounded in action.

5.        D Battery joined Lord Roberts’ main army in operations on the east Transvaal. It was at Leliefontein
that a historic and successful rear-guard action was fought by a handful of Royal Canadian Dragoons and the left
section of D Battery (the Gunners under the command of Lieutenant (later Major-General) E.W.B. Morrison of
the 2nd Ottawa Field Battery). They defended against an attack by some 200 Boers who had charged to within 70
yards of their position. Three of the Dragoons were awarded the Victoria Cross for this action. Lieutenant Morrison
was awarded the DSO. The gun involved now rests in the Canadian War Museum. The following is an excerpt
from the “Supplementary Report, Organization, Equipment, Dispatch and Services of the Canadian Contingents
during the War in South Africa 1899-1900" from OC D Battery, RCFA to CC Brigade Division RCFA, dated 9
March 1901:

“It was soon evident that the Boers had heavily reinforced since yesterday. Col Lessard with The Royal Regiment
Canadian Dragoons and two Royal Canadian Guns, the latter under Lt Morrison, covered the rear, and I have no
praise too high for the devoted gallantry they all showed in keeping the enemy off the convoy and infantry.”

“In a telegram congratulating Gen Smith-Dorrien on the success of his operations, Lord Roberts said: ‘Col Lessard
with his Canadians had a difficult task in guarding the rear of your return march and deserves great credit as
do all who were with him.’”

“Gen Smith-Dorrien subsequently recommended Lt Morrison for ‘some special mark of Her Majesty’s favour for
the skill and coolness with which he worked and finally saved his guns’. He was duly awarded the Distinguished
Service Order.”

“During the two day’s fighting the section expended 240 rounds ammunition.”

6.        In the Regular Force the service and traditions of C, D, and E Batteries are perpetuated by the RCHA
batteries with the same designation. Because of the size of the contribution of the 7th Battery at St Catherines,
its logical successor, 10th Battery, 56th Field Regiment RCA, perpetuates the South African service of C Battery in
the Reserve Force. For the contribution of a battery commander, a gun section and their distinguished conduct
at Leliefontein, 2nd Field Battery of 30th Field Regiment RCA perpetuates in the reserve force the South African
service of D Battery.

7.       The most rewarding aspect of the Royal Canadian Artillery’s first overseas service was the increased
recognition which now came from the Canadian and Imperial governments not only in the form of increased
appropriations but also an awareness of the excellence achieved by the Regiment.


1.       1906 ended a long chapter in Canadian and British military history. In addition to A and B Batteries, there
were now five companies of Garrison Artillery in the Canadian Permanent Force. These were formed in 1905 and
1906 to take the place of the departing British in the garrisons at Halifax and Esquimalt. Many of the Gunners of the
withdrawing British batteries took their leave from the Imperial Army to serve with the new Canadian units. In 1905
there was a re-organization of the militia artillery grouping the batteries into ten brigades.

2.        Among the most significant developments prior to the First World War from the Royal Regiment’s point
of view was the acquisition of the large new training area at Petawawa. The familiar peacetime routine of summer
practice camps for the militia artillery, presided over by the regular gunners, once again became a feature of
Canadian artillery training. Petawawa gave these practices a scope never before possible. There would soon be
new 13 and 18 pounders with their modern recoil and sighting systems. Indirect fire became a regular feature of

3.        While their numbers were small, the training of Canadian gunners in the years preceding the war was
essentially good. The equipment was up-to-date, indeed, the 18-pounder would remain in service until early in the
Second World War. Tactically, the size of the Petawawa ranges allowed scope for manoeuvre, and the indirect fire
procedure, with its requirements for meteorology and other technical considerations such as communications and
range-finding, became familiar to Canadians.

4.         Changes in techniques and equipment stemmed largely from experiences gained in South Africa. Previous
to this campaign, guns had not normally been specifically allotted in support of a particular arm. With the
redesignation of the Royal Canadian Artillery Field Brigade to the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (RCHA) Brigade
in 1905, a British practice was adopted. It was decided that in future, horse artillery batteries would gallop with
the cavalry while field batteries would support the more slowly moving infantry. Orders were placed in the United
Kingdom for 13-pounder quick-firing (Q.F.) guns for the RCHA, and 18-pounder Q.F. guns for the Militia field

5.       The term “quick-firing” was applied to a gun that fired fixed ammunition, and was also equipped with a
recoil mechanism. Fixed ammunition for guns had come into use in the early 1890’s, after the silk cloth bag which
contained the charge (propellant) had been replaced in certain breech-loading guns by a brass cartridge case which

expanded when fired and thus acted as a seal for the gases at the breech. This innovation made it possible for guns
of small calibre to have the cartridge case joined to the projectile, and the resulting “fixed ammunition” materially
speeded up the process of loading.

6.        The 13- and 18-pounders themselves were a composite of an Armstrong wire-wound gun (barrel and
breech) mated to a Vickers recoil system, and sighting and elevation gear made in the Royal Ordnance factories.
Both guns fired shrapnel and high explosive rounds. The lack of a wire cutting capability was a concern, as the fuzes
in use at the time lacked an instantaneous action, resulting in the round burying itself in the earth before exploding.
The blast and fragments would be projected into the air, with minimal damage to objects along the surface. The
problem was solved with the introduction of the No. 106 instantaneous fuze at Vimy Ridge in 1917.

7.        The 18-pounder entered service on the coat tails of political controversy. Trials of the first four batteries
of guns to be completed were carried out in 1903, and these showed both the new pieces to be satisfactory. But
before the British Equipment Committee made its final recommendation to adopt the 13-pounder for the Royal Horse
Artillery (RHA) and the heavier gun for field artillery, problems arose in the House. One member suggested that the
18-pounder was not sufficiently superior in performance to the lighter weapon to justify the expense of producing
two different equipments where one might do. The indecision that resulted, ended only when the Prime Minister,
Mr. Balfour, cast the deciding vote in favour of retaining the 18-pounder. His choice would be amply vindicated in
the First World War when almost 100 million rounds of 18-pounder ammunition were fired in comparison with 1.5
million 13-pounder rounds. Both types of gun would be used by Canada’s artillery in the First World War.

1011.    THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1914-1918

1.       Of approximately 44,000 Gunners who enlisted during the First World War, some 38,000 served overseas.
The remainder served in depots, coastal batteries and as instructors at the Gunnery schools. By the end of the war
in 1918, Canada had produced for service five divisional artilleries, an army field brigade, an anti-aircraft battery
and three brigades of garrison artillery (including two heavy batteries). The RCHA Brigade, first under Lieutenant-
Colonel Panet and later under Lieutenant-Colonel W.H.P. Elkins, was part of the Canadian Cavalry Brigade. This
brigade served in the Canadian Corps and also in the Indian and British Cavalry Corps. Two Canadian field batteries
served in North Russia and one in Siberia, fighting the Bolsheviks into 1919. A coastal defence company garrisoned
the Island of St Lucia in the British West Indies.

2.        The main armaments used by Canadian Gunners during the war were: the 13-pounder with the RCHA;
the 18-pounder and 4.5-inch howitzer in the field artillery; the “turned up” 13-pounder mounted on a truck in the
anti-aircraft artillery; and 60-pounder, 6-inch, 8-inch and 9.2-inch heavy guns in garrison, heavy and siege artillery
companies. There were also two heavy Trench Mortar batteries using 9.45-inch mortars and four light Trench
Mortar batteries with 6-inch Newton mortars.

3.       The gas attack at Ypres, the battles of the Somme, Passchendaele, Amiens, Arras, Cambrai and Mons mark
the road trodden by Canadian Gunners, but in no battle did they shine more than at Vimy Ridge in April, 1917,
where great sacrifice reaped national honour. It is safe to say that no British offensive up to that time was as
carefully planned as the forthcoming attack by the Canadian Corps.

4.        “The artillery conquers and the infantry occupies.” This was the principle underlying the plans for the
assault on the hitherto impregnable German positions on Vimy Ridge. Experience at the Somme had shown the
necessity of thorough artillery preparation against strong defences. This time, however, there was no intention of
trying to demolish all of the enemy’s trenches. Instead of totally destroying the German wire entanglements, except
in the foremost areas, the fire of medium guns, using the new No.106 instantaneous fuze on high explosive shells,
would cut lanes through the wire for the assaulting infantry. The preliminary bombardment would be directed
against trench junctions, concrete machine-gun emplacements, and other strongpoints, tunnel entrances, and dugouts;
in the rear, road junctions, ammunition dumps, and light railways would receive particular attention. Harassing fire
had proved its value at the Somme; it would now be employed each night to ensure that the enemy’s relieving troops
or carrying parties could use no avenue of approach to their trenches with impunity. Counter battery (CB) work, the

organization and development of which was due largely to the efforts of Lieutenant-Colonel (later General) A.G.L.
McNaughton, would seek out and neutralize hostile guns to an extent far greater than in any previous operation.

5.         General McNaughton must rank as the greatest Gunner this country has ever produced, but to see him only
in this light is an injustice to him. His greatness spanned many fields of endeavour. His overriding purpose in life
was the welfare of Canada - completely - and this ran through everything he did. His devotion to his country was the
most outstanding thing about him. The CB field was a new one, and McNaughton with his scientific background was
one of the few officers in either the British or Canadian Armies who was farsighted enough to see the possibilities
of flash spotting and sound ranging. Under his command, the CB organization of the Canadian Corps was moulded
into the most efficient organization of its type in any army. At a time when casualties were measured in thousands
per day, McNaughton’s insistence on total and continuous support by Canadian guns undoubtedly saved thousands
of Canadian infantry.

6.        Overall command of the artillery in the operation was vested in the General Officer Commanding Royal
Artillery (GOC RA), Canadian Corps, Brigadier E.W.B. Morrison. Total heavy artillery at the Corps level numbered
one hundred and four 6-inch howitzers, thirty-six 8-inch howitzers, thirty-six 9.2-inch howitzers, four 12-inch
howitzers, three 15-inch howitzers, fifty-four 60-pounder guns and eight 6-inch guns.

7.         The Commanders Royal Artillery (CRAs) of the four Canadian divisions, in addition to their own guns, had
under their command a number of British artillery formations for the operation. These included four more divisional
artilleries, seven army field artillery brigades (i.e. regiments) and a brigade of the RHA. The total amount of field
artillery available to the four divisions numbered four hundred and eighty 18-pounders, twenty 13-pounders (A &
B Batteries RCHA with C and K Batteries RHA), one hundred and thirty-eight 4.5-inch howitzers and twenty-four
9.45-inch trench mortars.

8.        During the thirteen days of the preliminary bombardment, over 85,000 rounds of heavy and 190,600 rounds
of field ammunition were fired. During Phase II (2-8 April), a period called by the enemy “the week of suffering”,
an unceasing flow of shells of all calibres poured over the heads of the Canadians in the forward trenches. By the
morning of the assault (9 April), more than a million rounds, with a total weight of 50,000 tons had battered the
German positions into a cratered wilderness. The counter battery fire - 125,900 rounds in the week before 9 April -
attended to 83% of an estimated 212 German guns.

9.        During the assault itself, Canadian Gunners put into action nine captured enemy artillery pieces, in addition
to their own guns. The Vimy operation remains a classic example of the deliberate break-in against strong prepared
positions, and the ability of the assaulting forces to consolidate and hold what they had gained. Vimy set a
new standard in the artillery’s readiness to deal effectively with strong enemy counter-attacks after the infantry’s
successful capture of their objectives.

10.       A stunt that Canadian Gunners would use with effect during the Second World War may have originated
at Vimy as a defence against German counter battery measures. It was known that the German artillery was using
a prominent church spire behind the Canadian lines as a registration point. The tower was carefully dismantled
one dark night and then rebuilt exactly as it had been before, but on a new site far enough away to throw all guns
registering on it several degrees off their targets.

11.      The price of victory during the First World War was high. Canada suffered 232,494 battle casualties,
including 10,097 Gunners. Of the 59,544 fatalities, 2,031 were Gunners. The addition of 534 artillerymen who
died of disease, injury or accident brought the total Canadian artillery fatalities to 2,565. The record of decorations
won by Canadian Gunners during the conflict included 93 awards of the Distinguished Service Order, 308 Military
Crosses, 195 Distinguished Conduct Medals and 1,170 Military Medals. An additional 658 Canadian Gunners were
mentioned in dispatches and a number were awarded foreign decorations.

12.      The war of 1914-1918 would contribute significantly to the growth and efficiency of the RCA. The intimate
cooperation between artillery and infantry, which is the first requisite of modern war found no better example than in
the productive relationship which existed between the Gunners and their supported arms within the Canadian Corps.

General Currie sought at all times to exploit gun power to the limit for the purpose of saving infantrymen’s lives.
In the final two years of the war, when the serious shortage of artillery ammunition no longer existed, Canadian
Gunners were unsparing in their expenditure of ammunition to give the assaulting infantry adequate support.

1012.    THE INTER-WAR PERIOD 1919 - 1938

1.        The First World War was to place very definite limitations on the role of horse artillery. In 1918 the
Canadian Government would reverse the decision taken by Prime Minister Balfour in 1903 (in favour of two
different types of light artillery). The returning Canadian Contingent would not bring back its 13-pounders. The
Defence Department made the 18-pounder the uniform post-war arm for both horse and field artillery in Canada.

2.        The “war to end all wars” philosophy which pervaded public thinking after the war, resulted in political
indifference for matters military, creating a climate in which there was little support for the spending of funds
on defence. It was decided to maintain a nucleus of young officers, Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) and
specialists around which expansion could be quickly effected in the event of an emergency. Thus, between the
two World Wars, the Permanent Force artillery was small and consisted of the RCHA Brigade, a medium battery,
coastal elements and two Schools of Artillery. The RCHA Brigade with A and B Batteries was located at Kingston
together with the 3rd Medium Battery and the 4th Anti-Aircraft (AA) Battery. C Battery, RCHA Brigade was
located at Winnipeg.

3.       During the 1920’s the authorized number of Non-Permanent Active Militia artillery batteries increased from
59 to 121. They trained at local headquarters every winter and spent a week at practice camp in the summer. Units
were small, usually under strength, but keen, judging by the enthusiasm shown by most at the annual competitions
fostered by the Royal Canadian Artillery Association (RCAA). Camps were conducted by the RCHA and the
Schools of Artillery, and were held at Petawawa, Shilo and Sarcee.

4.       In 1924 the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery (RCGA) dropped the word “Garrison” from its name. At the
same time, companies were renamed batteries of the RCA. Various Militia units underwent nomenclature changes,
and the terms CFA and CGA disappeared from Militia lists.

5.         In 1929, the inevitable but sad day arrived, when the RCA was informed that it was to become mechanized.
Everyone had become deeply attached to the horses and each was assigned a number and a name, the name starting
with the battery letter. There are few military spectacles more stirring or picturesque than that of horse-drawn
artillery, and crowds always turned out when the batteries appeared on the streets or highways. It is even recorded
that when B Battery was proceeding to Camp Petawawa in the summer of 1909, the inhabitants of Smiths Falls,
hearing that a stop-over was intended on the outskirts of their town, bought and laid 300 feet of piping for watering
the horses.

6.       The first unit to become mechanized was the 3rd Medium Battery, RCA. It was issued four 6-wheeled
Leyland tractors in 1929 to tow its 60-pounders. A and B Batteries RCHA Brigade were mechanized in 1930. It
wasn’t until 1937 that C Battery parted with its last horses. In 1931, seven field artillery brigades, one medium
brigade and one medium battery were placed on the mechanized establishment, but it would be some years before
these units would see their equipment.

7.       Between 1922 and the early thirties, when horses were replaced, all three batteries of the RCHA performed
the Musical Drive at numerous events for the public. The popular mounted displays were based on the famous
drive performed annually at Olympia by the RHA. The Musical Drives had three main objects. As exhibitions of
considerable colour, dash and skillful precision, they were designed to stimulate and maintain public interest in the
Canadian Army, and the artillery in particular. They served to encourage recruiting among young men, for whom
the varied skills in the artillery held a special appeal. Above all, for the Gunners themselves, the drives developed
excellence in the technique of driving six-horse gun teams, they raised to a very high standard the care of horses
and the maintenance of equipment, and they furnished soldiers with a special interest outside the day-to-day routine
of service in peacetime. Wherever the Musical Drive performed, spectators in their thousands, filling every seat,

thrilled to the sight of four six-horse teams swinging their heavy guns and carriages at full gallop around the arena.
The last drive was performed in Winnipeg in 1933, when Captain “Ham” Roberts (who 19 years later, as Major-
General J.H. Roberts, would command the forces taking part in the Dieppe Raid) staged C Battery’s display.

8.        In keeping with advancements made in air warfare, the first Permanent Force anti-aircraft component of The
RCA was raised in 1937 at Kingston. Designated the 4th Anti-Aircraft Battery, it was equipped with four 3-inch
20-cwt. guns and first conducted firing practice at Point Petre on Lake Ontario in the fall of 1938. In the following
year it proceeded overseas as part of the 2nd Light Anti-Aircraft (LAA) Regiment.

9.        The lack of defence spending during the inter-war years had taken its toll on the Canadian military. Despite
the build-up of international tension from 1932 onward, the Defence Department went into World War Two ill
equipped to fight. A report by the Defence Minister in 1935 revealed a dismal shortage of modern equipment in all
three services. It would take three more years before plans were set in place to re-arm - unfortunately, the rising
crisis in Europe caused the delay or cancellation of armament orders. With no defence industry of her own, Canada
would have to wait her turn for up-to-date equipment to be made available.

1013.    THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1939-1945

1.       The outbreak of war found Canadian Gunners still training on the weapons that their fathers had used in
1918. The forces that were mobilized with commendable speed and efficiency when hostilities commenced would
have to wait many months before they could be fully re-armed with modern equipment.

2.        On 25 August 1939, in view of the growing tension in Europe, volunteers from the NPAM were called
out to man the coastal defences, and the 4th AA Battery was ordered from Kingston to Halifax. On 10 September,
Canada declared war. Within two days, each of the Permanent Force batteries had dispatched 25 of its personnel to
cities and towns across the country to act as assistant Gunnery instructors for the Militia artillery units. Where they
were available, First World War-era 18-pounders and 4.5-inch howitzers were used for gun drill. Other units had to
improvise with barrack room furniture and a chalked outline of a gun on the floor.

3.       By 3 December, the 1st Divisional Artillery began to assemble in Halifax, and by 10 December, the first
convoy left for England. Training in England was initially hampered by the lack of equipment which soon started
to appear.

4.        The field regiments (the term “Brigade of Field Artillery” was dropped at the beginning of the war)
progressed from the 18-pounder to the 18/25-pounder and finally to the new 25-pounder gun-howitzer and the self-
propelled 25-pounder Sexton. The medium regiments received the 5.5-inch and 4.5-inch guns. Anti-tank regiments
(an innovation in this war) were equipped first with the ineffectual 2-pounder, then the more effective 6-pounder,
followed by the 17-pounder towed gun, the 17-pounder self-propelled gun and the American self-propelled M10

5.       Light anti-aircraft (LAA) batteries were equipped with the dependable 40mm Bofors gun for engagement
of low-level aircraft, while the heavy anti-aircraft (HAA) guarded against higher altitude aircraft with the 3.7-inch
gun. Later in the war, once the Allies had established air superiority, anti-aircraft guns were often employed with
devastating effect in the ground role in support of infantry units.

6.         The 3rd Divisional Artillery were specially equipped with American 105mm SP howitzers for the initial
landings at Normandy, and returned to their 25-pounders afterwards. In late 1944 the 1st Rocket Battery was formed
and was equipped with 12 rocket projectors, each projector firing 32 high explosive rockets. Artillery officers also
took to the air with the formation of three Air Observation Post (OP) Squadrons. These Air OP pilots directed
artillery fire from their Auster aircraft while flying over the forward defended localities.

7.         The 1st Field Regiment RCHA (re-named from “the RCHA Brigade” at the beginning of the war) was the
first of the gun regiments to “visit” the continent in the abortive attempt to stem the German invasion of France

in June of 1940. Their stay lasted a mere four days, and they nearly had to leave their guns behind when the
British headquarters ordered all guns and transport destroyed in order to ensure enough room for the evacuation
of personnel. The determination and stubbornness of the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant-Colonel J.H. Roberts
prevailed, and the regiment was the only one to return its field guns to England.

8.       The First Canadian Army (in Europe), which was commanded initially by General A.G.L. McNaughton,
then by General H.D.C. Crerar (both Gunner officers), would have two artillery Army Groups (AGRAs), five
divisional artilleries and two corps artilleries as its primary fire support. The RCA would eventually go on to play a
major part in the campaigns in Sicily, Italy and Northwest Europe.

9.       Elements of the 2nd Divisional Artillery - prepared to man any captured German guns - landed at Dieppe
in 1942. In 1943, the guns of the 1st Division supported Canadian tanks and infantry through Sicily. Next, on the
Italian mainland, the 1st Divisional Artillery, augmented later by 5th Divisional and 1st Corps Artillery, assisted in
smashing a way through the crack German Paratroop Division before Ortona, on through the Gustav, Hitler and
Gothic Lines and onto the Plains of Lombardy.

10.      On 6 June 1944, the Gunners of 3rd Division accompanied the first wave of assaulting infantry on the
“run in” to the Normandy beaches, firing their self-propelled 105mm howitzers from the decks of their landing
craft. This would be followed by the breakout, Falaise Gap, the rush up the Channel Coast, the drive through
Belgium to the Scheldt, the southeast punch through the Hochwald and the Battle of the Rhine. Numerous barrages,
concentrations and ceaseless bombardments were fired in support of the 1st Canadian Army in its bitter engagements
with the Germans.

11.       A total of 89,050 officers and men served in the Royal Canadian Artillery during the Second World War.
Of these, 57,170 served in Europe (including Canadian Gunners manning anti-aircraft defences that protected cities
in the United Kingdom), Newfoundland, the Aleutians and the Caribbean. The remainder served in Canada in
Field Artillery home defence, anti-aircraft and coastal defence units as well as schools and depots. There were three
divisional artilleries in Canada formed as part of the 6th, 7th and 8th Divisions for Home Defence. A Pacific Division,
with its divisional artillery, formed in 1945, made up of volunteers for the Far East, was training in Canada and the
USA when the war with Japan ended. At the war’s end in 1945, a divisional artillery was formed as part of the
Canadian Occupational Forces in Germany.

12.      Total artillery firepower available to the First Canadian Army in Europe by the end of the war included:

         -15 field artillery regiments (264 towed 25-pdr, 48 SP 25-pdr Sextons, 48 SP 105mm Priests);
         - 6 medium regiments (48 5.5-in. guns, 48 4.5-in. guns);
         - 7 anti-Tank Regiments (150 towed 17-pdr, 150 SP 17-pdr);
         - 1 heavy anti-aircraft (HAA) regiment (24 3.7-in. AA guns);
         - 7 LAA regiments (60 towed 40mm, 108 SP 40mm, 84 quad-mounted 20mm)
         - 32 OP vehicles (75mm AFVs in Field Regiments with 4th and 5th Cdn Armd Divs); and
         - 1 rocket battery (36 Land Mattress rocket projectors).

13.       Developments in artillery played a large role in the Allied victory during the Second World War. While
there were no revolutionary changes to artillery weapons from the First World War, there were significant
evolutionary improvements in range, ammunition efficiency, maintenance and mobility of guns. These included the
successful combining of the characteristics of a gun (high velocity) and howitzer (high trajectory) in the 25-pounder
and the development of self-propelled artillery. New types of artillery that appeared in the Second World War were
the anti-tank gun and the barrage rocket (e.g. Land Mattress and German Nebelwerfer).

14.      Canadian Gunners played an important role in a number of artillery developments. One was the develop-
ment of the discarding sabot anti-tank round, which allowed existing guns to fire a much higher velocity round
capable of defeating heavily-armoured tanks. The Germans had produced a tapered gun with its arrow round, which
provided higher velocity at the expense of heavy barrel wear and rounds which were inaccurate due to instabilities
caused by the deformation of the projectile as it was squeezed through the decreasing taper of the barrel. General

A.G.L. McNaughton solved the problem by developing a small shell that could be fired by a larger calibre gun. The
difference in calibre was taken up by a light metal or plastic pot in which the round sat, and which acted as a driving
band to give the projectile its stabilizing spin. The fore part of the projectile was held in place by a serrated band
of three petals. When the round was fired, the high force of gravity broke the serrations, and when the round left
the barrel, the spin and air pressure caused the petals to fly to the sides, while a combination of pressure and drag
caused the pot to fall away. By such means, a small projectile, such as a 2-pounder shell, fired from a 25-pounder
gun would receive a much greater thrust, resulting in significantly increased muzzle velocity and thus greater armour
penetration. Tests with the Super Velocity Discarding Sabot (SVDS) were carried out in France in September
1944 by the 3rd Anti-Tank Regiment RCA, and the Sabot projectile was subsequently used against enemy armour
with excellent results for the remainder of the war. This type of ammunition, with subsequent improvements,
forms the main anti-tank ammunition used in modern tanks. The main difference is in the size and shape of the
sub-calibre projectile and the material used in its construction. Materials used today include Tungsten Carbide
and Depleted Uranium.

15.       Canadians also took part in the most important artillery development of the war - the ability of an allied
commander to quickly bring down the fire of a massive concentration of guns (from division, corps or even army
artillery) onto a single target in a short space of time. This required the development of reliable wireless (radio)
and other communications equipment, more effective, speedy and accurate methods of gun survey and improved
methods of fire control, voice procedure and fire planning. Putting this system into practice required a high level
of proficiency in every troop in every battery. Most concentrations fired during the war were carried out at the
divisional level, where a CRA had at his disposal the fire of three field regiments and occasionally the fire of
flank or higher formations. Major battles, controlled at the Corps or Army level, involved the concentrated fire
of 1000 guns or more.

16.        One of many examples of the effectiveness of Canadian and British artillery providing massed, accurate fire
occurred in early February 1945 during Op Veritable - the First Canadian Army’s attack from Nijmegen southeast
to the Rhineland. General Crerar had to make a frontal attack against three successful fortified zones, each firmly
anchored on the Rhine River. The defences included two and three lines of trench works linking strongpoints and
reinforced by anti-tank ditches. Small towns and villages between the second and third zones had been extensively
fortified. General Crerar’s final objective lay 40 miles from his front lines. Due to this depth, Op Veritable was
planned in three stages, with enough time between each to regroup infantry and armour and to bring supporting
artillery to within range of their new targets. General Crerar had 30th British Corps under command, while 1st
British Corps would provide a secure anchor and deception to the South. Due to the narrow distance between
the Rhine (to the north) and the Maas River (to the south), the initial assault would be made by the five divisions
of 30th Corps (including 2nd Canadian Division), and as the distance widened, 2nd Canadian Corps would join in
on the left flank.

17.      The artillery support for the operation was intended as a major battle-winning factor. The 30th Corps Fire
Plan was designed to take advantage of a 14:1 advantage in Allied versus German artillery to use massive gunfire to
blast a way for the infantry into the enemy’s defences. The Fire Plan called for:

         -   preliminary bombardment to prevent the enemy from interfering with the initial assault;
         -   complete saturation of enemy defences;
         -   destruction of known concrete positions;
         -   immediate supporting fire for the attack; and
         -   maximum fire of the medium regiments on the Materborn feature 12,000 yards from the start line,
             without their having to move forward.

18.      The fire of seven divisional artilleries would be augmented by five AGRA’s and two anti-aircraft brigades
together with units of Corps and Army level artillery, for a total of 1034 guns (in addition to the 17-pounders and
40mm Bofors which would be used with tanks, mortars and machine-guns to “Pepperpot” selected targets). All
known enemy localities, headquarters and communications sites were targeted. An estimated six tons of shell would

fall on each target. The concrete defences of the Materborn would be subjected to the fire of the 8-inch and 240mm
guns of the 3rd Super Heavy Regiment RA located in the 1st British Corps area to the South.

19.      The Fire Plan would open with the preparatory fire from 5:00 to 9:45 A.M. on D Day (8 February 1945).
It would be followed by a Block Barrage planned to support the three central divisions in their advance. This
barrage would last for seventy minutes on the initial positions and was 500 yards deep. At H Hour the barrage
would lift 300 yards, repeating this every twelve minutes to allow for the advancing speed of the infantry and
armour over the difficult terrain.

20.      A novel feature was introduced into the schedule for the preliminary bombardment. Between 7:30 and 7:40
a smoke screen would be fired across the front, followed by 10 minutes of complete silence. It was hoped that the
enemy, assuming that the screen heralded the main assault, would engage with his artillery, thereby exposing his gun
positions. Flash spotters, sound rangers and pen recorders of the locating batteries would attempt to pinpoint the
enemy battery positions, allowing counter battery fire to neutralize the exposed enemy guns before H Hour.

21.      A massive ammunition dumping program was carried out by the 2nd Canadian Corps prior to the assault.
More than half a million rounds, weighing more than 10,000 tons were dumped - 700 rounds per gun on field
gun positions and 400 rounds per gun on medium positions. In addition 120 truck loads per division of 40mm,
17-pounder, 75mm and 12.7mm ammunition was dumped for the “Pepperpot” requirement. More than 10,000
three-inch rockets for the Land Mattress Battery were brought in.

22.      Stunned by the ferocity of the preliminary bombardment of over 500,000 rounds of various natures of
ammunition, and pinned down by the tremendous barrage which had expended more than 160,000 shells, the badly
disorganized enemy troops offered little resistance to the assaulting infantry and armour. The effectiveness of
the counter battery and counter mortar programs was seen in the almost complete lack of German shelling and
mortaring. Most of the Allied casualties, which were relatively light, came from mines rather than artillery or small
arms fire. Interrogators were told that the bombardment had a devastating effect upon morale, producing a feeling
of complete helplessness and isolation, with no prospect of any possible reinforcement. The artillery fire had also
succeeded in seriously disrupting the German lines of communication and resupply.

23.      The day’s success owed much to the contributing factors of well-prepared gun programs, carefully sorted
ammunition, much improved meteorological data and recently-calibrated guns. The massive preparations had been
successful in providing effective artillery support to the operation. It didn’t end there, however. The artillery
would provide continuous support with barrages, screens, direct support and counter battery fire until the enemy
was finally beaten three months later.


1.         In May 1945, The RCA contributed three field regiments, an anti-tank regiment and a LAA regiment to
the Canadian Division serving as occupation forces in the British Zone of Occupation. They would remain there
until the summer of 1946. Most of the remaining units of the Army, which had been activated during the war, were
now deactivated or transferred to the Militia. In 1947, the Canadian Army Active Force was established with an
authorized strength of 25,000, supplemented by a Reserve Force of 50,000. In 1946, 1st Field Regiment RCHA, was
renamed the 71st Regiment RCHA, and was moved to Shilo, Manitoba, when the latter was chosen as the permanent
site for the Royal Canadian School of Artillery (RCSA) (Field, Medium and Anti-Tank).

2.       The Active Force artillery consisted of the 71st Regiment RCHA, the 68th Medium Battery, and the 127th
Anti-Tank Battery at Shilo, the 128th HAA and 129th LAA Batteries at Picton, Ontario, and E Section Signals (71st
Regiment RCHA), Royal Canadian Corps of Signals. In addition to the school in Shilo, two others were formed:
RCSA (AA) at Picton, and RCSA (Coast and Anti-Aircraft) at Halifax. In 1948, The 129th LAA Battery was
re-designated HAA and moved to Esquimalt, British Columbia, together with a Coast Artillery Training Section -
RCSA West Coast. The School at Halifax was re-designated RCSA East Coast that same year.

3.        By the end of 1950, the post-war organization of the Active Force artillery had undergone several changes.
In 1949, 71st Regiment RCHA reverted back to its wartime designation of 1st Field Regiment RCHA. In 1950, it had
under command the 1st Light Battery (Paratroop), which later became Z Battery, and was armed with 75mm pack
howitzers and 4.2-inch mortars. A growing emphasis on air defence resulted in the formation of four composite
anti-aircraft batteries through the conversion of the 127th Anti-Tank Battery and the 128th HAA and 129th LAA
Batteries together with the authorization of the 119th Composite AA Battery. In addition, the RCSA East Coast was
re-designated the 49th Coast Battery. This left the three schools of artillery in Shilo, Picton and Esquimalt.

1015.    THE KOREAN CONFLICT 1950-1953

1.       The 2nd Field Regiment RCHA was raised at Shilo in 1950 as part of the Canadian Army Special Force
destined to support UN operations in Korea (the term “field” was dropped from the RCHA unit titles in 1951).
Volunteers came from 1 RCHA, the Schools and selected Militia artillery units. On the train move to Fort Lewis,
Washington on 21 November 1951, tragedy struck. The third troop train collided head on with an east-bound
passenger train just east of Canoe River, British Columbia. The passengers on the eastbound train escaped injury,
but 17 Gunners on the first two cars of the troop train were killed and 33 injured when the cars fell down an
embankment and were demolished. Four bodies were never recovered.

2.         2 RCHA arrived with its twenty-four 25-pounders in Korea on 4 May 1951, and saw its first action two
weeks later. By May 1952, fighting in support of the 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group, and later with the 1st
Commonwealth Division, 2 RCHA had expended over 300,000 rounds of ammunition, and it was considered to
be one of the most efficient units in the Commonwealth Divisional Artillery. This reputation upheld by 1 RCHA
after it replaced the 2nd Regiment that May.

3.        In 25th Brigade, most of the raids were carried out by the 1st Battalion Royal Canadian Regiment (RCR),
supported by A Battery, 1 RCHA. A bond of mutual admiration grew between the battery and the RCR to the point
where the guns of the battery had the RCR crest painted on them. A letter from the Commanding Officer of 1
RCHA, Lieutenant-Colonel E.M.D. (Teddy) McNaughton (who in March 1953 changed his surname to Leslie), to
the infantry Commanding Officer confirmed this. A phrase in the letter would soon haunt A Battery: “It is also my
intention that should ever the day come, from which the Lord preserve us, that a gun of A Battery shoots short onto
the Royal Canadian Regiment, that gun and the subsection thereafter for twenty-five years will forgo the high honour
and distinction of wearing the Colour and the Cypher of the Royal Canadian Regiment.” It was with commendable
frankness but undoubtedly with no little chagrin that a little more than a month later the Regimental diarist recorded
the forfeiture of this privilege by a gun of A Battery. To the embarrassed members of that gun detachment, 1977
must have seemed far distant indeed! Two years later, however, in view of the consistently fine support given by
1 RCHA to the RCR, the infantry Commanding Officer asked that the penalty be cancelled, and from that time A
Battery has proudly worn the RCR crest on all its guns.

4.        The 79th and 81st Field Regiments RCA had been formed in 1951 and 1952 respectively, by mobilizing six
Militia batteries for service in Europe as part of the Canadian Brigade with NATO. 1 RCHA handed over to the 81st
Field Regiment RCA in April 1953. The 81st Field Regiment served in Korea until nine months after the armistice
in July 1953. In November 1953 its designation was changed to 4 RCHA as part of a reorganization of the Canadian
Army which saw the formation of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division as part of Canada’s commitment to NATO. In
conjunction with this, the 79th Field Regiment RCA was redesignated as 3 RCHA. After serving in Germany for two
years, 3 RCHA replaced 4 RCHA in Korea in the spring of 1954. 3 RCHA remained in Korea for 29 weeks. Of
the 1,543 battle casualties suffered by the Canadian Army in Korea, the artillery lost one officer and 8 men killed, 2
officers and 25 men wounded, and one officer and one man taken prisoner.


1.        The Reserve Force (which had replaced the earlier Non-Permanent Active Militia) was also reorganized
after the war, and the artillery component was authorized at six divisions and corps troops. This provided for six
divisional headquarters, RCA, eight medium regiments, 20 field regiments, eight anti-tank regiments, nine HAA
Regiments, 18 LAA Regiments, five coast regiments, two survey regiments and nine AA gun operations rooms.

2.        This would last until 1954 when a second reorganization resulted in the substantial reduction of the
establishment of the artillery. In the aftermath, both coastal artillery and anti-tank artillery ceased to exist, and the
Militia artillery now consisted of 21 field regiments, six medium regiments, three independent medium batteries,
nine HAA regiments, two harbour defence batteries, a locating regiment and an anti-aircraft fire control battery. It
would be another 10 years or so before any other major changes were made to Militia artillery establishments.

3.         In 1959 the word “Artillery” was authorized to be incorporated into the title of each artillery Militia unit
- e.g. 20th Field Artillery Regiment RCA.

4.         On 1 February 1968, Canada’s three services ceased to exist as separate entities. Integration brought about
the amalgamation of these services to form what is now called the Canadian Armed Forces. With that change came a
severe reduction in the establishments of the Militia. The Reserve Force artillery units were either converted to field
artillery regiments and independent batteries, struck off the order of battle or converted to other arms. Today in the
Reserve Force artillery there are 15 field artillery regiments, two air defence artillery regiments and two independent
field artillery batteries. An additional air defence battery (58 AD Bty) forms part of the 6e Régiment d’artillerie
de campagne RCA (6 RAC). The field regiments operate the C3 105mm towed howitzer, a longer-range version
of the C1. The air defence regiments and 58 AD Bty operate the shoulder-launched Javelin S-15 (Starburst) Air
Defence Missile System.


In 1951, 79th Field Regiment RCA joined the newly formed 27th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group (CIBG) in
Northern Germany under command of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR). Instead of the 25-pounder, the
standard field artillery weapon in Canada, the regiment was initially issued the American 105mm towed howitzer -
the standard NATO gun at that time. Shortly thereafter, however, the regiment reverted to the 25-pounder in order
to solve problems with supply and a lack of uniformity with its sister British units. The regiment was first quartered
at Hohne, and then later at Fort Prince of Wales, near Soest in the Upper Ruhr Valley. Re-named the 3rd Regiment
RCHA in 1953, the regiment was replaced in November 1953 by 2 RCHA during the changeover of 27 CIBG with
1 CIBG. Over the next thirteen years, 1, 2, 3 and 4 RCHA would rotate to Germany. In 1967 1 RCHA became
the permanent artillery regiment in Germany as part of 4 CIBG (later - 4 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group
(CMBG) as the Army replaced its wheeled troop transport with tracked armoured personnel carriers). The Regiment
moved south to the Schwarzwald (Black Forest) with the rest of the brigade group in 1970, to become Central
Army Group’s reserve force, and was based in Lahr, Germany. It would remain there until 1992, when the brigade
group began pulling out of Europe.


1.        By the end of 1954, besides the four RCHA Regiments, the move to a divisional artillery organization
included the formation of a Divisional HQ RCA, the 1st LAA Regiment, the 1st Locating Battery and the No.1
Air OP Flight. Anti-tank Gunnery had been taken over by another corps. In the anti-aircraft field, the missile
systems then under development and the increasing speed of aircraft seemed to imply that the usefulness of the
gun as an anti-aircraft weapon was diminishing. Defence again began to seem too costly when measured against
alternative uses for the money.

2.       A Soldier Apprentice Training Battery was formed in Shilo ln September 1954. This program allowed 16
year old boys to enroll for a two year combined academic and military training. The battery produced potential
NCOs until its closure in June 1967. 1956 saw the birth of The RCA Depot at Shilo, Manitoba. The depot
undertook Gunner recruit training for both field artillery and anti-aircraft artillery units. It was the sole source of
basic Gunner recruits until 15 May 1968 when the last squad (#164) completed their “Passing-Out Parade”.

3.       In the early fifties, each of the four Regular Force regiments were provided with a fourth battery armed
with 4.2-inch mortars. In the mid-fifties the RCHA regiments turned in their 25-pounders for the US 105mm M1A1
towed howitzer (the C1 in its Canadian form), and in 1958 replaced the 4.2-inch mortar in the light batteries with
M114 155mm medium towed howitzers. The Militia regiments would eventually replace their 25-pounders with
the new 105mm howitzers as they became available. In 1968, 1 RCHA replaced its towed guns with self-propelled
M109A1 155mm howitzers.

4.        The 1st Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment RCA was formed in October 1953. It consisted of a HQ and the 2nd
and 3 LAA Batteries, and it was located with the RCSA (Anti-Aircraft) at Picton, Ontario. The remaining battery,

the 4th LAA Battery was at Esquimalt. The Regiment was originally equipped with 40mm Bofors, but converted
to 90mm guns and M33C fire-control equipment in 1955. The 4th LAA Battery in Esquimalt was reduced to nil
strength in 1957. The remainder of the regiment continued to function for three more years during which it helped
to train anti-aircraft Gunners of the Militia.

5.       Changes in defence policy resulted in the 1st LAA Regiment being disbanded in September 1960. The
majority of its personnel went on to form two new units - the 1st and 2nd Surface-to- Surface Missile (SSM) Batteries
RCA - at Hemer, Germany (with 4 CIBG) and Shilo respectively. Each battery was equipped with four 762mm
Honest John Rocket launchers. The Honest John was a nuclear tactical weapon capable of carrying a 1-Kiloton
nuclear warhead to a range of 40 km. Thus was born the nuclear role of The RCA. The SSM Batteries would
remain in service until 1970, when the Canadian NATO Brigade Group’s role was reduced in scope, and the Brigade
Group was repositioned to CENTAG.

6.       With the closure of the 1st LAA Regiment and The RCAS (AA) in Picton in 1960, the only remaining
school of artillery was at Shilo. The school would remain in Shilo until 1970, when it was moved to Gagetown
together with the Infantry and Armour schools (the title “Royal” was dropped from the various Army schools when
the services integrated in 1968). They formed the Combat Arms School, part of the Combat Training Centre
in CFB Gagetown.

7.        Formation of the 1st Divisional Locating Battery in 1954 at Shilo marked the reappearance of a locating
unit in the Order of Battle of the Regular Force after an absence of nine years. After a short, but fruitful existence,
during which it played an active role in numerous exercises, the battery fell victim to a general reorganization of
close support artillery. Among other changes, locating units were decentralized to the Brigade Group level, and
each RCHA regiment in Canada was given a Regimental Locating Battery as part of a new “5-battery organization.”
The 1st Divisional Locating Battery was reduced to nil strength on 30 April 1958. It was revived briefly in 1965,
and its Radar Troop equipped with the new AN/MPQ/501 Counter Mortar Radar. At the same time the RCHA
and Militia locating batteries disappeared. The revived battery was located at Winnipeg, where it conducted drone
and sound ranging trials with the National Research Council. Once the trials ended in 1968, the battery was once
again reduced to nil strength.

8.        Completing the order of battle of the 1st Divisional Artillery at the time of its formation in 1953 was
Canada’s first peacetime Air OP Flight. No. 1 Air OP Flight was formed at Petawawa in 1953, followed by No.2
Air OP Flight in Shilo in 1954.The flights were initially equipped with the British wartime Auster Mark VI aircraft,
and in late 1954 were re-equipped with the US-built Cessna L-19. A number of field artillery officers underwent
basic pilot training at the Brandon Flying Club. They then progressed to the Light Aircraft School at Rivers,
Manitoba for advanced training. Their role was to provide aerial artillery observation, air photography, liaison and
reconnaissance. In 1960, Air Observation Troops were added to the four RCHA regiments (Gagetown, Petawawa,
Shilo and Fort Prince of Wales, Germany), and the two original Flights were reduced to nil strength. The new Air

OP Troops operated under regimental control until 1970-71, when they converted to Kiowa helicopters and were
subsequently absorbed into the Air Command helicopter squadron.

9.       The latter part of the 1960s and the early 1970s saw many changes that would affect the Regular component
of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. With the formation of the Canadian Airborne Regiment on 8 April
1968, the 1st Airborne Battery RCA was created. It remained in Edmonton as an independent battery until 1977 when
the Airborne Regiment was re-organized and moved to CFB Petawawa. At that time the 1st Airborne Battery was
disbanded and E Battery, 2 RCHA was re-designated E Bty (Para).

10.       On 6 May 1968 a Regular Force artillery unit returned to Quebec City after an absence of nearly half
a century. Le 5e Régiment d’artillerie légère du Canada (5 RALC), the first Regular Force French-speaking
regiment, was formed around a nucleus of Gunners from X Battery, 3 RCHA. Initially equipped with towed 105mm
howitzers, it took on its new colours, 105mm L5 pack howitzers, in 1969. Over the next few years, the L5 would
also see service in the airborne role and with ACE Mobile Force Batteries in 2 and 3 RCHA. 3 RCHA now
found itself in Shilo, and on 15 July 1970, 4 RCHA in Petawawa was reduced to nil strength. The majority of
its equipment and personnel were transferred directly to 2 RCHA, which was moved from Gagetown to Petawawa.
A second buy of M109s in 1977 went to equip 3 RCHA. These up-gunned versions of the M109 featured a
longer-calibre barrel as well as other improvements. The guns have been modernized twice since then.

11.      In 1975 two airfield air defence batteries were re-activated in Germany, 128 Airfield Air Defence Battery
RCA at Baden-Soellingen, and 129 Airfield Air Defence Battery RCA at Lahr. Both were equipped with 40mm
Boffin guns and Blowpipe Very Short Range Air Defence (VSHORAD) missiles. The Boffin was a hydraulically
driven naval version of the standard World War Two 40mm Bofors. They had been retrieved from decommissioned
minesweepers and the aircraft carrier Bonaventure. In 1976, 1 RCHA and 2 RCHA each received a troop of
Blowpipe. The Germany-based units were augmented in 1976 by the formation of two fly-over batteries - H Battery
in 3 RCHA, and V Battery in 5 RALC.

12.       In the mid 1980s, The Low Level Air Defence (LLAD) Project, which would be the most expensive single
project to date for the Army ($1 Billion), resulted in the procurement of what is considered to be one of the most
effective Short Range Air Defence (SHORAD) systems in the world. 1985 saw the air defence troop of 2 RCHA
dismantled with the reactivation of 119 Air Defence Battery and the formation of the Air Defence Artillery School
at CFB Chatham. 1987, 4th Air Defence Regiment RCA, incorporating 127, 128 and 129 AD Batteries, was formed
and headquartered in Lahr, Germany. The two airfield defence batteries were each equipped with four Skyguard
sections (a Skyguard fire control radar and two twin 35mm Oerlikon GDF-005 gun systems each), and a troop of
four ADATS SHORAD missile systems. 127 AD Battery, tasked with AD protection of 4 CMBG, was equipped
with 12 ADATS. 119 AD Battery was also re-equipped with ADATS. During this period three Militia units
were re-equipped as air defence artillery: 18th AD Regiment in Lethbridge, 1 AD Regiment in Pembroke and 58e
Batterie d’artillerie antiaérienne, 6 RAC in Levis, Quebec. Each unit received Javelin S-15, the replacement for

13.       In 1992 as part of the reduction of forces and the return of units from Germany, 4th AD Regiment RCA
was reduced to nil strength. It was raised again with a smaller establishment on 2l July 1996 as a Total Force
unit, with a high ratio of reservists. The HQ and 128 AD Battery were located in Moncton, with 119 AD Battery
and 210 AD Workshop located in Gagetown. A third battery’s worth of equipment was positioned at Cold Lake,
Alberta with a small caretaker staff.

14.      19 September 1981 saw the formation of the RCA Battle School in Shilo, Manitoba. This much-needed
school gave The Royal Regiment a steady supply of trained soldiers and more time to train for individual unit tasks.
It would remain active until June 1997, when it was disbanded and replaced by a much smaller artillery detachment
of the Western Area Training Center.

15.      In 1995, the Air Defence Artillery School and 119 AD Battery were moved to CFB Gagetown, and in 1996
the Field and Air Defence Artillery Schools were amalgamated to form the Royal Canadian School of Artillery

16.      As a result of the downsizing of the Canadian Forces in 1992, 3 RCHA was reduced to nil strength.     1
RCHA moved from Germany, on the disbandment of 4 CMBG, to replace 3 RCHA in Shilo. At the same time, the
weapon resources of the three remaining Regular Force Field Units were re-distributed, giving each Regiment a mix
of M109s and 105mm C1 Howitzers. In 1997, the C1 howitzers in the Regular Force units were replaced by a new,
longer range, light 105mm gun, the French LG1.


1.       Members and units of The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery have served in virtually every peacekeep-
ing mission that Canada has been involved in since the early 1950’s. Individual soldier commitments to the
United Nations over the last two decades have been numerous. Gunners have served in the Congo, Egypt, Golan
Heights, Hanoi, Saigon, Laos, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Namibia, South Africa, Central America, Mozambique,
Croatia and Bosnia to name a few. In addition, The RCA has been involved in over twenty years of sending batteries
and regiments in rotation with other Army units to Cyprus. It has also provided both individual and sub-unit
deployments to Bosnia and Haiti for the NATO peace enforcement missions of recent years.

2.         In the summer of 1991, 5 RALC was deployed to Montreal in aide of the civil power as part their parent
brigade’s involvement in the Oka Crisis. Elements of the 4th AD Regiment also participated. In the Spring of 1997,
all artillery regiments were involved in the flood fighting in Manitoba, and in January 1998 provided aid in the
aftermath of the Century’s worst ice storm in Ontario and Quebec.

3.       Since 1962, RCHA Gunners from Shilo have been involved in avalanche control duties at Roger’s Pass,
British Columbia. Under an agreement with the Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources, the
regiment based in Shilo provides a 105mm C1 Howitzer detachment from 1 December to 1 April each year. High
explosive rounds are fired at critical trigger points along 27 miles of highway in Glacier National Park in order to
bring down snow build-up before it can trigger a major avalanche.

4.       In the spring of 2000, 1 RCHA became the first Canadian field artillery unit to deploy its guns into an
operational theatre since the Korean War. With C Battery deployed as an infantry company as part of the 2 PPCLI
Battlegroup on OP PALLADIUM in Bosnia, A Battery followed shorty afterwards with six LG1 105mm howitzers,
replacing a British light gun battery. A Battery would in fact operate as both a gun battery, and provide infantry
patrols as required. A Battery was replaced in October 2000 by B battery, which in turn will be replaced in March
2001 by a battery from 2 RCHA.

1020.    THE GULF WAR - 1991

1.        On 9 August 1990 the 119th Air Defence Battery RCA deployed a 36-member Troop of Javelin VSHORAD
missile systems to provide extra air defence protection for the three Canadian Naval ships as part of Canada’s com-
mitment to UN forces during the Gulf War. Javelin had been procured in a very short span of time for this operation
in order to replace the obsolete Blowpipe missile. Due to the two weapons’ general similarities, detachments were
trained in a matter of two weeks while they were in transit to the Gulf. The Royal School of Artillery, Larkhill,
UK provided an Instructor-in-Gunnery (IG) team, which conducted weapon training while crossing the Atlantic. A
successful live fire practice was held when the ships reached the Azores in early September.

2.        Each ship was provided a section of Javelin, with HMCS Athabaskan and HMCS Protecteur each receiving
four detachments while HMCS Terra Nova received three. The ships arrived in the Central Persian Gulf on 23
September 1990, and commenced UN Patrol duties, including the halting and boarding of ships in day and night as
part of the embargo placed on Iraq. In January 1991 the ships were placed in charge of organizing re-supply for the
Multi-National force. HMCS Protecteur was the only supply ship to remain in theatre for the entire operation.

3.        During their tour, the Javelin troop did not have to fire a shot in anger, as the allies quickly grounded the
Iraqi Air Force. The operation did allow the Troop to hone their aircraft recognition skills and practice command

and control procedures in a highly charged operational setting unlike they had ever been previously trained for. They
returned to Canada with the ships on 13 March 1991.

4.        Three Canadian Gunner officers saw active service as exchange officers with the British Army in the Gulf
war. Major Dave Marshall commanded 127 (Dragon) Field Battery RA, an eight-gun M109 battery that was part
of the composite 2 Field Regiment RA. 2 Field Regiment supported the 4th Armoured Brigade, 1st British Armoured
Division. During the four days of fighting, Major Marshall’s battery fired over 2500 rounds of 155 mm ammunition
at Iraqi second echelon armoured divisions. Major Marshall is the only Canadian to have fired a Fire Mission
Division in anger since Korea. Captain Brian Travis was employed in the Divisional Artillery Headquarters as
a liaison officer to the 7th US Corps Artillery, and Captain Jeff Willis served as a staff officer in the Divisional
Artillery Headquarters.


1.         While there have been numerous bands associated with the RCA, most have been raised by individual
regiments and will not be discussed here. Two artillery bands, however, were units in their own right, and one
is still perpetuated today.

2.        The Royal Canadian Artillery Band traces its roots to Quebec City. In 1879, the B battery Band of the
Royal Canadian Artillery became the first permanent military band in Canada. This band was composed of many
professionally trained musicians from France and England and it was a concert favorite in Quebec. In 1899 this band
became The Royal Canadian Artillery Band of Canada. It was reformed in 1947 and 1968, as well as in 1994 as
a result of the Force Reduction Plan. In 1994-95, the RCA Band joined the “Canada Remembers” program, which
sought to underscore Canada’s contribution in the Second World War. This participation took the band to Asia,
England, Belgium, and Holland, as well as France, where the band represented Canada at the D-Day celebrations.
In 1996 the RCA Band played a central role in the 125th Anniversary celebrations of the Royal Regiment, travelling
across the country, playing at unit ceremonies and giving public concerts. That same year, the band moved from
CFB Montreal to CFB Valcartier. The RCA Band is one of six military bands in the Regular Force. It is a brass and
reed band and has a complement of thirty-five professional musicians. In a ceremony held on 4 December 1997 (St.
Barbara’s Day), the RCA Band marked its move to its present location at Edmonton Garrison.

3.       The RCHA Band was authorized at Kingston in October 1905 with an initial establishment of 25 members
as a vehicle to attract recruits for the RCHA. For the next twenty years, the band flourished under the accomplished
baton of Bandmaster A.L. Light, late of the British Imperial Army. During the First World War, the band’s
contribution to recruiting was considered so valuable that its members were denied the opportunity to serve overseas.
The band was present at the unveiling of the Vimy Memorial in 1936, and in the course of that European tour, it
played at Buckingham Palace before King Edward VIII. After the war it was moved to Winnipeg, and in the last
dozen years of its existence, the RCHA Band traveled extensively in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and the Lakehead
area, performing at military and civic functions and giving numerous public concerts. The Band played its swan
song at the Centennial Tattoo in 1967, and was disbanded on integration of the Canadian Forces the next year.


1.       1996 marked the 125th Anniversary of the formation of the Permanent Force component of The Royal
Regiment of Canadian Artillery and the Canadian Armed Forces through the creation of A and B Batteries in
1871. The Royal Regiment celebrated this historic occasion through activities carried out across the country by
the Regular Force artillery units, the RCAS and The RCA Band. Regional celebrations took place in Brandon,
Manitoba (1 RCHA), Kingston, Ontario (2 RCHA), Quebec City (5 RALC), Moncton, New Brunswick (4 AD Regt)
and Oromocto, New Brunswick (RCAS). The RCA Band provided public concerts at each location, and helped
each unit conduct a Freedom of the City ceremony at their respective locations. C Battery renewed its ties to
Esquimalt with excellent support from the 5th Field Artillery Regiment. Headquarters and Services Battery 1 RCHA
renewed The Royal Regiment’s ties with the NWMP (RCMP) through a visit to Regina and a commemorative march

along General Middleton’s route from Fort Qu’Appelle to Batoche. 2 RCHA formed two gun race teams, which
participated at the Nova Scotia Tattoo to the delight of the crowds. In Moncton, a parade was held to re-activate
the 4th Air Defence Regiment RCA.

2.         The centerpiece events for the Anniversary were the National Ceremonies held in Ottawa, Ontario during
the period 6-7 July 1996, in which all the Regular Force artillery units participated. On 6 July four 100-man guards
representing the four Regular Force artillery units paraded on the grounds of Parliament Hill. The event included
a mounted RCMP detachment honouring our close historical links. The parade concluded with a 125-round feu de
joie fired by 105mm howitzers, followed by a roll-past of artillery equipment from past to present, beginning with
a 9-pounder RML gun circa 187. From Parliament Hill, a portion of the dismounted troops, the RCMP detachment
and an artillery veteran’s contingent proceeded to the National War Memorial for a ceremony of remembrance for
fallen comrades. The remembrance ceremony was followed by an all ranks reception at the Cartier Square Drill
Hall. That evening, the Colonel Commandant, Brigadier-General Robert P. Beaudry, hosted a formal dinner at the
Chateau Laurier, followed the next day by a brunch. During both days, equipment displays and demonstrations
were provided to the public in Festival Plaza. These included a special display of historical and modern artillery
equipment sponsored by the Canadian War Museum. The celebrations were a great success, and were a reminder
to all of the rich history and traditions of The Royal Regiment. To paraphrase the message from the Colonel
Commandant in honour of the Anniversary, we must remember the foundations of our history with pride and go
forth armed with the same dedicated and professional spirit of those who served before. Their memory is well
served by the Gunners of today.


This volume is but a small slice of what The Royal Regiment has accomplished. Colonel Nicholson’s, The Gunners
of Canada, will fill many of the gaps. It will be apparent, however, that the motto “Ubique” is truly well deserved.
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery can be proud of its past and can look to the future with confidence.


This short history was drawn extensively from four publications:

         a.       Canadian Army Publication, 1953 Titled The Royal Canadian Artillery by Edmond Cloutier,
                  C.M.G., O.A., D.S.P., Queen’s Printer and Controller of Stationery;

         b.       Canadian Army Journal, April and July issues, 1955, A Gunner Centennial - A Short History of the
                  Royal Canadian Artillery, 1855-1955";

         c.       The Gunners of Canada, Volumes I & II by Colonel G.W.L. Nicholson, CD, published 1967 by the
                  Royal Canadian Artillery Association; and

         d.       RCHA - Right of the Line by Major G.D. Mitchell, MC, CD, published by the RCHA History
                  Committee, 1987.


                                   RCA UNIT HISTORIES

A short account of the history of each of the serving units of the RCA is contained within this
annex. For a more detailed account the reader is referred to the official history “The Gunners of
Canada” Vols. 1 & 2, by Colonel G.W.L. Nicholson, C.D., and to the RCA Museum archives
and library, the DHH archives as well as the National Archives of Canada.


Appendix 1     - 1 RCHA
Appendix 2     - 2 RCHA
Appendix 3     - 5 RALC
Appendix 4     - 4 AD Regt RCA
Appendix 5     - RCAS
Appendix 6     - 1 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 7     - 2 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 8     - 3 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 9     - 5 (BC) Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 10    - 6 RAC ARC
Appendix 11    - 7 TO Regt RCA
Appendix 12    - 10 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 13    - 11 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 14    - 15 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 15    - 20 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 16    - 26 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 17    - 30 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 18    - 49 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 19    - 56 Fd Regt RCA
Appendix 20    - 62 RAC ARC
Appendix 21    - 84 Indep Fd Bty RCA
Appendix 22    - 116 Indep Fd Bty RCA
Appendix 23    - 1 AD Regt RCA
Appendix 24    - 18 AD Regt RCA
Appendix 25    - The RCA Band


                            1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
                                             Shilo, MB

A and B Batteries are the descendants of the first permanent artillery units formed in Canada in 1871. C Battery
was authorized on 10 August 1883 and incorporated into the Regiment of Canadian Artillery along with A and B
Batteries, but was not organized. It was authorized to organize on 6 October 1887. The battery was redesignated
‘”C” Battery, The Royal Canadian Artillery’ on 11 August 1893 but was disbanded on 24 August 1893 (note -
a separate “C” Battery was raised to fight in the South African War 1899 - 1902, but was disbanded upon its
return to Canada). The battery was again authorized as ‘”C” Battery, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Brigade’ on
15 January 1915. Since their inception, A, B and C Batteries have served in almost every theatre of operations
involving Canadian troops at home and overseas.

In 1885, A and B Batteries took part in operations to defeat the North West Rebellion. All three Batteries formed
the RCHA Brigade which supported the Calvary Brigade in Europe during the First World War.

Between the First and Second World Wars, A, B and C Batteries were employed in training the Canadian Militia
Artillery. 1 RCHA moved to England as part of 1 Canadian Division at the outbreak of the Second World War.
During the war, the regiment served in Sicily, Italy and Northwest Europe.

The peace following the Second World War was broken by the Korean conflict. Once again the regiment went into
action in support of the Canadian Brigade.

Z Battery, the fourth battery, was formed as a light parachute battery in 1949. The battery served with 1 RCHA
during the periods 1949-1952 and 1954-1956. In 1978, Z Battery was reactivated as a small cadre and was brought
to full strength in August 1985. On July 5, 1991 Z Battery was again reduced to nil strength.

In November 1957, 1 RCHA returned to Europe for duty as part of 4 CIBG and took up residence at Fort Prince
of Wales near Hemer, Westphalia. In 1960, the unit was repatriated to Camp Gagetown New Brunswick where
it remained until 1966. In 1967, 1 RCHA once again deployed to Northern Germany as a three battery Regiment
in 4 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group. In 1970, 1 RCHA together with 4 CMBG moved from the British
Army on the Rhine (BAOR) in Northern Germany to operational control of CENTAG in Southwest Germany. The
regiment occupied the former French airfield at Lahr where it resided for the next 25 years. In December 1989,
1 RCHA joined 1 Canadian Division.

1 RCHA was repatriated to the Home Station at Shilo, Manitoba due to Canada’s decision to withdraw the Canadian
Armed Forces from Europe. On 30 July 1992, 3 RCHA was reduced to nil strength and was replaced by 1 RCHA at
the Home Station. In August 1992, 1 RCHA deployed to Cyprus for the unit’s first peacekeeping mission. Upon the
regiment’s return from Cyprus in February 1993, 1 RCHA assumed the mission of providing indirect fire support to
1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group and concurrently, the AMF(L) Artillery Commitment.


                            2nd Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
                                           Petawawa, ON

2 RCHA was formed in Shilo on 7 August 1950 for United Nations Service in Korea. It consisted of D, E and F
Batteries and RHQ, and was equipped with the 25-pounder gun. On 21 November 1950, while en route to the USA
for preparatory training, 17 soldiers were killed and 42 injured in a train collision at Canoe River, near Valemount,
British Columbia. Memorial cairns were erected at Shilo and Valemount in memory of those killed. 2 RCHA
arrived in Korea and fired its first rounds in action on 17 May 1951. During its year of war in Korea, 2 RCHA fired
close to 300,000 rounds as part of 25 CIB and, later as part of Commonwealth Division Artillery. Five soldiers were
killed in Korea and 31 received bravery and meritorious service decorations.

On return to Canada in 1952, the regiment was stationed at Fort Osborne Barracks, Winnipeg. In June 1953,
it provided the Sovereign’s Escort at Queen Elizabeth’s Coronation in London, England. On 17 August 1953,
Y Battery was formed as the regiment’s light battery, equipped with 4.2 inch mortars. In November 1953, the
regiment, less Y Battery, moved to Fort Prince of Wales in Deilinghofen near Hemer, Germany, for NATO services
with 4 CIBG.

2 RCHA returned to Winnipeg in 1955 where it remained until January 1964. In 1956, its 25-pounders were
replaced by the 105mm C1, and Y Batteries 4.2 mortars were replaced with the 155mm M114 towed howitzer.
Z Battery, with the M114, was attached to 2 RCHA from 1957 to 1964. In 1958, T Battery was formed as the
regiment’s locating Battery, and Y Battery was disbanded.

In 1964, 2 RCHA returned to NATO duty to Fort Prince of Wales. The regiment gained an Air OP Tp with three
L-19 aircraft. Because the NATO establishment required only three 105mm Batteries, T and Z Batteries remained in
Canada and soon disbanded. In 1965, F Battery converted to the 115mm M114 towed howitzer.

On completion of its Germany tour in 1967, 2 RCHA moved to Gagetown. The following year, F Battery was
reduced to nil strength as part of a general force reduction; the remaining D and E Batteries converted to the 155mm
SP M109. In July 1970, RHQ and D Battery moved to Petawawa and converted to the 105mm L5. E Battery
remained in Gagetown and finally joined the Regiment at Petawawa in 1975. In 1977, E Battery was redesignated E
Battery (Para), and a Blowpipe AD Troop was added to the regiment. This troop existed until 1987, when low level
air defence units were formed. The regiment received the Freedom of the City of Kingston in 1983, and of Cobourg
in 1987. The regiment served in Cyprus from September 1985 to March 1986.

On 1 October 1987, F Battery was re-formed in cadre strength. Y Battery was re-formed, from 7 July 1991 to 4
October 1992, as an air defence battery equipped with the Blowpipe and Javelin missile systems. The regiment
replaced 1 RCHA in Cyprus in March 1993, becoming the final Canadian unit to serve on the island.


                               5e Régiment d’artillerie légère du Canada
                                            Valcartier, QE

Being the only francophone horse artillery unit on the continent, 5e Régiment d’ artillerie légére du Canada (5
RALC) share French originally, then British, and finally Canadian traditions. 5 RALC contributed notably to
NATO, to United Nations Peacekeeping missions throughout the world, to territory defence, aid to civil power and to
the community in general. Its history takes root from Canadian military history.

The authority to form 5 RALC was granted on 6 May 1968. The original manning was done primarily by members
of 3 RCHA “X” Battery to form the first battery of the same name (three C1 105mm howitzers). “X” Battery fired
its first round on 6 February 1969. During the ceremony for the presentation of the new colors to the regiment, on
13 February 1969, it officially took its place within the Canadian Army. During this spectacular ceremony, the new
mountain howitzer, the 105mm L5, was consecrated at the Grande-Allée Drill Hall, in the presence of the Honorable
Huges Lapointe, Lieutenant-Governor and Lieutenant-General W.A.B. Anderson, OBE, CD, Commander of Mobile
Command. “Q” Battery joined “X” Battery and by August 1969, the regiment was approaching full strength. Its
manning came also partially from RCHA, plus some members from “X” Battery.

Following the kidnapping of Sir James Richard Cross, British Commerce Commissary, and Pierre Laporte, Quebec
labour minister, by a Front de Libération du Québec cell, (a terrorist organization), 5 RALC participated at the
“October Crisis”, in October 1970. The regiment’s task was to protect Quebec City and its vicinity.

On 26 January 1973, 5 RALC received confirmation of its official designation as a Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
unit. In 1976, during the Montreal Olympic Games, 5 RALC supported the security of this international event.

A new battery was formed in 1977: “V” Battery (air defence). Equipped with the “Blowpipe” surface to air
missile, “V” Battery also had several 40mm “Boffins”. This battery became 58th Air Defence Battery, 6 RAC
on 19 September 1992.

On two occasions, 5 RALC deployed in Cyprus, first, October 1980 to March 1981 and September 1987 to March
1988. Also, on three more occasions, we sent a battery to Cyprus with other units.

On 9 July 1983, the regiment celebrated its 15th Anniversary and was granted Freedom of Quebec City. It was
exercised for the first time in 1984. That year saw the regiment’s involvement in several activities such as the
opening of Fort No 1 de la Pointe Lévis, arrival of the Tall Ships, and Corporation Quebec 84. “X” Battery fired the
Gun Salute for his Holiness, the Pope John Paul II. During that year, “R” Battery was created and 5 RALC became
the largest artillery unit within The Royal Regiment.

The replacement of the regiment’s 105mm C1 howitzers by the M109A3 self-propelled howitzers was finalized
during the period 1985-86. From 27 August until 2 September 1986, 5 RALC traveled to Norway for Exercise

1988 was the culmination of 20 years of hard work and the regiment celebrated its 20th anniversary with several
grand ceremonies. In 1989, the regiment took part in the ceremonies celebrating the formation of 1st Canadian

The troubles that brought the “OKA Crisis” in 1990, also saw the involvement of 5 RALC into Operation SALON.
“X” and “R” Batteries were restructured into infantry companies, while “W” Battery, from the Field Artillery School

joined the regiment and deployed with “Q” Battery in Blainville, with 105mm C1 guns.

5 RALC celebrated its 25th anniversary in 1993, and had a 235 page book published about its first 25 years. During
the fall that same year, 5 RALC sent a mortar platoon with GT 12e RBC to the Former Yugoslavia, taking part
in OP CAVALIER for a 6-months.

5 RALC is involved actively within the community of the Greater Quebec City region, for instance, with the Cystic
Fibrosis organization and Maison Partage. We are proud of our roots, French and British, and of our place within
The Royal Regiment.

                                      4th Air Defence Regiment, RCA
                                               Moncton, NB

4th Air Defence Regiment, RCA (4 AD Regt) was first formed on 27 November 1987 at CFBs Lahr and Baden,
FRG with a headquarters, three batteries (127, 128 and 129 Air Defence Batteries) and a second-line maintenance
workshop (4 Air Defence Workshop), and established at 620 all ranks. The regiment’s role was to provide low-level
air defence to designated airfields and a brigade group within Canadian Forces Europe.

To accomplish this task, the regiment’s Boffin anti-aircraft guns and Blowpipe MANPADS missiles were withdrawn
from service, and the regiment was re-equipped during the in 1988-90 period with two new primary weapon
systems : the Oerlikon Aerospace Air Defence Anti-Tank System (ADATS), the Oerlikon-Contraves Skyguard
Radar Fire-Control Unit (FCU), and the Oerlikon Twin 35 mm antiaircraft gun.

After only five years’ service, the regiment was reduced to nil strength with the closure of Canadian Forces Europe
in 1992. Most of the regiment’s personnel and equipment was relocated to 119 Air Defence Battery at CFB
Chatham, New Brunswick.

In 1994, Commander Land Force Command identified a need to provide air defence to elements of the Canadian
Forces deployed in support of the objectives specified in the 1994 Defence White Paper. The regiment was
authorized to reorganize on 15 March 1995, and it stood to again in Moncton, New Brunswick on 21 July 1996.

The newly reorganized regiment was staffed by amalgamating 119 Air Defence Battery (which had been in
Gagetown since the closure of CFB Chatham), 210 Air Defence Workshop and 32 Service Battalion, a unit of
the Primary Reserve. The regiment was established at a total of 224 Regular and 205 Reserve Force personnel,
for a total of 429 all ranks.

The role of the regiment since reorganization has been to provide, on order, a SHORAD battery to defend a brigade
group deployed in support of UN or coalition operations; a SHORAD battery to defend other deployed elements
of the CF; and a Divisional Air Defence Cell / Airspace Coordination Centre as part of a deployed Joint Task
Force Headquarters.

As it was in Germany, the regiment is equipped with 20 ADATS, 16 Twin-35 mm guns, and 8 Skyguard FCU.
The regimental organization currently includes Regimental Headquarters and 119 Air Defence Battery (-) at CFB
Detachment Moncton; 128 Air Defence Battery, 210 Air Defence Workshop, Regimental Support Troop and C
Troop, 119 AD Bty at CFB Gagetown; and 4 AD Regt Training and Liaison Detachment at CFB Cold Lake,

As part of the reactivation plan, the regiment conducted individual training during the 1996-97 period, and collective
training from 1997-98. This intensive training plan was rounded out Ex PERFECT KILL 98, (the tactical combined
live firing of all AD weapon systems), Ex PRAIRIE RAM 98 (exercising the Composite AD Battery in the brigade
manoeuvre role) and Ex MARCOT 1/98 (exercising the Composite AD Battery in a joint and combined amphibious
assault and the installation defence role). Following these exercises, the regiment was declared operationally ready
on 4 September 1998.

Major operations and exercises conducted by the regiment since reactivation include: Ex Perfect Kill 96 (Fort
Bliss, Texas, May-Jun 96); Op Recuperation (Saint John, NB, Jan 98); Ex Perfect Kill and Prairie Ram 98 (CFB


    The Royal Canadian Artillery School                         L’École d’Artillerie royale canadienne

The Artillery School traces its origins to the year 1871     L’origine de l’École d’Artillerie remonte à l’an 1871 quand
when Militia Order No 24 authorized the formation of         l’Ordonnance de la Milice No 24 autorise l’établissement
two batteries of garrison artillery. The order specified     de deux batteries de garnison. L’ordonnance précise que
that the two batteries would serve as “Schools of Gunner     ces deux batteries serviraient de <<Schools of Gunnery
for the Militia. Thus, “A” and “B” Battery Schools           / écoles de tir>> pour la Milice. Ainsi sont établies,
of Gunnery in Kingston and Quebec City respectively          respectivement à Kingston et Québec, les batteries écoles
were formed.                                                 d’artillerie <<A>> et <<B>>.

 By 1880, the two schools had been granted the titles        En 1880, la reine Victoria donne aux deux écoles les titres
“Royal Schools of Gunnery” by Queen Victoria and             <<Royal Schools of Gunnery>>. Sous la surveillance du
could look back on a decade of much progress under           Major-général Thomas Bland Strange, “Père de l’artillerie
the tutelage of Major-General Thomas Bland Strange,          canadienne “, une décennie de bons progrès se passe.
the “Father of Canadian Artillery”. It was he who wrote      Le général Strange conçoit le premier manuel canadien
the first Canadian artillery manual which would be the       sur l’artillerie, manuel qui fournirait les principes de
basis for all Militia training until the end of the 19th     base pour toute instruction milicienne jusqu’à la fin du
Century. 1880 also saw the arrival of “C” Battery in         19e siècle. L’an 1880 voit aussi l’arrivée de la batterie
Victoria, as the young nation turned its attention towards   <<C>> à Victoria au moment où la jeune nation dirige
the Pacific.                                                 son regard vers le Pacifique.

After The Great War, the schools were reorganized. Both       Après la Grande Guerre, les écoles sont réorganisées.
“A” and “B” Batteries were stationed at Kingston, while      Les deux batteries, <<A>> et <<B>>, sont maintenant
“C” Battery was moved to Winnipeg. Artillery training        en garnison à Kingston tandis que la Batterie “C” se
continued throughout the twenties and thirties in spite      retrouve à Winnipeg. Malgré les restrictions financières
of the restraints imposed by the Depression. Regular         imposées par la dépression économique, l’instruction
courses took place in the winter at one of the schools       en artillerie continue pendant les années vingt et trente.
with summer concentration of Militia gunners at camps        Les cours de qualification sont conduits en hiver aux
in Petawawa, Valcartier and Sarcee.                          écoles et les concentrations de la Milice se déroulent
                                                             aux camps de Petawawa, Valcartier et Sarcee durant
1939 saw the British Empire once more at war. During the     la période estivale.
six long years of The Second World War, field artillery
training in Canada took place in several locations, but      L’empire britannique est encore en état de guerre à partir
was largely concentrated at large “Artillery Training        de 1939. Pendant les six années de la Deuxième Guerre
Centres” in Petawawa, Brandon and Shilo. Their work          Mondiale, l’instruction en artillerie de campagne est
was supplemented by that of the Royal School of Artillery    conduit à plusieurs endroits. Les principaux <<Artillery
at Larkhill in Britain, which had now become the focal       Training Centres / centres d’instruction en artillerie>>
point for Canadian gunners serving in the European           se situent à Petawawa, Brandon et Shilo. <<La Royal
theatre. A Canadian School of Gunnery was eventually         School of Artillery>> à Larkhill en Grande Bretagne,
established in Seaford, England, but the association with    fournit aussi l’instruction aux artilleurs canadiens en
the British school has continued to this day.                service actif dans le théâtre d’opérations européen. Une
                                                             école canadienne d’artillerie est établie par la suite à
The Second World War saw Canada’s air defence forces         Seaford en Angleterre, mais, l’excellente coopération
expand dramatically to 11 regiments stationed in Canada      avec l’école britannique continue jusqu’à présent.
and eight regiments stationed overseas. The Royal
Canadian School of Artillery (Anti-Aircraft) was formed       Au cours de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale, la taille des
                                                             forces de défense antiaérienne du Canada s’est accrue

at Picton, Ontario during the same period. The school         de façon spectaculaire ; à ce moment 11 régiments
was later deactivated in 1960 when the Canadian Army          étaient en poste au pays et huit autres régiments étaient
decided to cease Air Defence Training.                        de service outremer. L’École d’artillerie royale du
                                                              Canada (antiaérienne) vit le jour à Picton en Ontario
By 1947, the Artillery Training Centre in Shilo became        pendant cette même période. Cette dernière demeura
the Royal Canadian School of Artillery (Field, Medium         en service jusqu’en 1960 alors qu’il fut décidé par
and Anti-Tank). Then, in 1960, with the close down of         l’armée canadienne de ne plus poursuivre d’entraînement
the Royal Canadian School of Artillery (Anti-Aircraft) in     antiaérien.
Picton, Ontario, the school in Shilo assumed responsibility
for all artillery training.                                   En 1947, le centre d’instruction en artillerie à Shilo
                                                              devient la <<Royal Canadian School of Artillery (Field,
With the unification of the Canadian Forces on 1 February     Medium and Anti-Tank)>> / <<École royale canadienne
1968, the Royal Canadian School of Artillery became           d’artillerie (de campagne, moyenne et antichar)>>. Suite à
the “Canadian Forces School of Artillery”. In 1970, the       la fermeture de la <<Royal Canadian School of Artillery
school was absorbed into the Combat Arms School under         (Anti-Aircraft) / École d’artillerie antiaérienne>> a Picton,
the intriguing title of “Indirect Fire Company” and was       Ontario en 1960, l’école à Shilo accepte la responsabilité
moved to CFB Gagetown. Two further changes were to            pour toute l’instruction en artillerie au Canada.
follow in the seventies: by 1974, the school was known
as the “Artillery Department” and then re-emerged as          Avec l’unification des Forces canadiennes le 1er février
the “Artillery School” when the Combat Arms School            1968, la <<Royal Canadian School of Artillery>> devient
was disbanded in 1979.                                        l’École d’artillerie des Forces canadiennes. À partir de
                                                              1970, l’école fait partie de l’École des armes de combat et
Air Defence training resumed in 1975 with the require-        elle porte le titre curieux de <<Indirect Fire Company>>
ment to provide ground based Air Defence Artillery            (Compagnie de tir indirect). Cette “ compagnie “ se
on Canadian airfields in Germany. The school created          retrouve maintenant à la BFC Gagetown. Durant les
the Air Defence Battery to meet the individual training       années soixante-dix, deux autres changements se suivent:
requirements of the various Air Defence Units located         En 1974, l’école change de nom pour s’appeler la Division
in Canada and Germany.                                        d’artillerie et finalement, en 1979, suite à la dissolution
                                                              de l’École des armes de combat, elle reparaît sous le titre
On 11 September 1985, the Air Defence Artillery               de l’École d’artillerie.
School was officially formed at CFB Chatham. All Air
Defence advanced training was then centralized at CFB         L’entraînement antiaérien recommença en 1975 dû au
Chatham,NB. The AD Artillery School was comprised at          besoin de fournir de l’artillerie antiaérienne terrestre
the time of Gunnery trg Battery, Maintenance Training         aux aérodromes canadiens situés en Allemagne. L’école
Battery, Headquarters Battery, 210 AD Workshop and            créa la batterie antiaérienne afin de rencontrer les
4 AD Bty. Upon the establishment of the Air Defence           besoins d’entraînement individuel des diverses unités
Artillery School at Chatham, New Brunswick, in 1986,          antiaériennes situées au Canada et en Allemagne.
the school assumed its title prior to the amalgamation:
“The Field Artillery School”.                                 L’École d’artillerie de défense antiaérienne fut formée
                                                              le 11 septembre 1985 à la BFC Chatham. Tous les
In 1994/95, The Canadian Armed Forces had to reduce           cours avancés furent dès lors centralisés à Chatham,
operating costs. Therefore, reorganization plans were         NB. L’École d’artillerie antiaérienne comprenait à ce
developed and implemented which included the closure          moment la batterie d’instruction en artillerie, la batterie
of many small bases including CFB Chatham. With the           d’instruction en maintenance, la batterie du quartier-
Air Defence Artillery School moving to CFB Gagetown           général, le 210 ième atelier de maintenance antiaérienne
in 1995 and the requirement for further cost savings,         et la 4ième batterie antiaérienne. Au moment ou l’École
OP MISTRAL directed that the Field Artillery School           d’artillerie antiaérienne fut établie en 1986, à Chatham
and the Air Defence Artillery School amalgamate to            au Nouveau-Brunswick, l’école située à Gagetown
form the Artillery School. This new school now housed         adopta son titre d’avant fusion : l’École d’artillerie de
all instructors wearing the artillery cap badge in CTC.       campagne.
Also part of the amalgamation was the transfer of 210
Air Defence Workshop from the former Air Defence               les forces armées canadiennes se devaient de réduire
Artillery School to 4th Air Defence Regiment. And to          ses coûts d’opérations. En conséquence, des plans de
streamline Artillery School support requirement, 4 Air        restructuration furent crées et implémentés. Ceux-ci

Defence Battery was reduced to nil strength with the       incluaient la fermeture de plusieurs petites bases dont
personnel and equipment transferred to “W” Battery         la BFC Chatham. Avec le déménagement de l’école
in 1994/1995.                                              d’artillerie antiaérienne à la BFC Gagetown an 1995 et
                                                           le besoin de réduire d’avantage les coûts d’opération,
The Artillery School which is currently located in         l’Op MISTRAL dirigea la fusion de l’École d’artillerie
Bulding J-7, CFB Gagetown with the Armour, Tactics         de campagne et de l’École d’artillerie antiaérienne pour
and Infantry Schools consists of four sub-units which      former l’École d’artillerie. Cette nouvelle école est
includes Headquarters Battery, Gunnery Training Battery,   maintenant l’établissement de tous les instructeurs portant
Maintenance Training Battery and W Battery. The            l’insigne d’artillerie au CIC. Faisant part intégral à la
school manning consist of approximately 50 Officers,       fusion fut le transfert du 210ième atelier de maintenance
85 Senior Non-Commissioned Officers, and 150 Junior        antiaérienne au 4ième Régiment antiaérien. Finalement,
Non-commissioned members for a total strength of 285       la 4ième batterie antiaérienne fut réduite à zéro effectif
all ranks including five civilians.                        avec le personnel de même que l’équipement transféré à
                                                           la batterie <<W>> afin d’amaigrir le besoin en support
                                                           de l’École d’artillerie.

                                                           L’École d’artillerie qui est présentement située à l’édifice
                                                           J-7 de la BFC Gagetown avec les écoles blindés, tactiques
                                                           et d’infanterie est constituée de quatre sous-unités dont
                                                           la batterie du quartier-général, la batterie d’instruction
                                                           en maintenance, la batterie d’instruction en artillerie et la
                                                           batterie <<W>>. Les ressources humaines de l’école se
                                                           composent approximativement de 50 officiers, 85 sous-
                                                           officiers et 150 militaires du rang pour un total de 285
                                                           personnes incluant cinq employées civiles.


                       1st (Halifax-Dartmouth) Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                            Halifax, NS

The origin of the Halifax Volunteer Artillery cannot be easily determined. The first non-permanent military force
in Halifax was based on “levi-en-masse”. This required that all male between 16 and 45 serve in defence of the
colony. Within a short time, businessmen saw a social relationship with the military as a means of establishing
business contacts. Entering the military social sphere and forming “militia” units in which they and their associates
could purchase commissions accomplished this.

The Halifax Volunteer Artillery was likely one of these units. The training of volunteers in “specialist” trades
allowed for rapid augmentation of the British regulars, who were too few to man all the guns in the Halifax defences.
As well, it is probable that a field battery was in existence in 1776.

The first official recognition of the unit was recorded in Governor Sir John Wentworth’s report to London in April
1791. Wentworth had been ordered to raise a force of 1000 men to defend the colony and reported that he had
“700 good militia…including a battery of Artillery under Captain Tremaine”. In addition, he had 1000 men in
the Nova Scotia Legion of Militia located in the Bay of Fundy area, which included a company of “horse” and
two batteries of artillery.

The Halifax Battery in Wentworth’s report continued to serve throughout the Napoleonic era. Meanwhile, with the
re-organization of the colony’s defence forces, Halifax now had five regiments, each of five companies. One of
these, the 1st Halifax Regiment of Militia, included the Halifax Volunteer Artillery. Halifax gunners served under
this name until June 14th, 1865, when the “1st Brigade of Halifax Militia Artillery” was formed. Later in 1866,
the Brigade was tasked to man the forts surrounding Halifax. Six batteries were assigned to join British regulars,
and 300 men took their place along side the RA gunners, ensuring that all guns were manned. The remaining
four batteries were designated to form a reserve in the Citadel. On September 10th, 1869, the three militia artillery
brigades in Halifax were amalgamated to form the Halifax Brigade of Garrison Artillery, which, on December 9th,
1870, was designated the “1st Halifax Brigade of Garrison Artillery”. In 1885, two batteries of this unit served
in the northwestern Rebellion. The next few years were to see changes once again, the unit becoming the “1st
Battalion, Garrison Artillery” in April, 1892, and two years later on December 28th, 1893, the “1st Halifax Regiment
of Garrison Artillery”.

The “1st Halifax” was called out for active service at the outbreak of The First World War. The regiment was to
remain on active service throughout the war, and to provide drafts of trained troops to assist in forming the 9th Siege
Battery, and to provide replacements for other siege units in France. One draft helped to form No. 6 Company,
Siege Artillery, which served in St. Lucia.

After the armistice, the Regiment returned to militia status. More name changes were to follow with the unit
becoming the “1st Halifax Regiment, Canadian Garrison Artillery” on Febraury 2nd, 1920, and on July 1st, 1925, the
“1st Halifax Coast Brigade, Canadian Artillery”. It was under this name that the regiment was placed on active
service in 1939. 87 Battery was authorized on 15 August 1939 as the ‘87th Field Battery, RCA’ through the
disbandment and conversion to artillery of elements of ‘The King’s Canadian Hussars (Armoured Car)’ (originated
1 December 1903) and allocated to the 14th Field Brigade, RCA.

During the Second World War, the regiment was called upon to man the Halifax defences once again. As in
World War I, the Regiment was assigned the boring, but necessary task, of home defence. Throughout the war, the
regiment sent troops to other units for service overseas. Another name change followed on May 29th, 1942, when

the regiment became the “1st (Halifax) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA”. With a change from 3.7 inch guns of
British design to 90mm American equipment, the regiment was re-named the “1st (Halifax) Medium Anti-Aircraft
Regiment, RCA” on August 22nd, 1955.

The current designation of the “1st (Halifax-Dartmouth) Field Artillery Regiment, RCA” occurred on November 1st,
1960, when the Regiment was issued 105mm howitzers and was amalgamated with the 36th Medium Anti-Aircraft
Regiment, RCA of Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia. Today, the senior batteries of these two proud units, the 51st Field
Battery, and the 87th Field Battery constitute the regiment, thus perpetuating units whose history includes the original
Halifax Volunteer Artillery and the old King’s Canadian Hussars.


                                    2nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                               Montreal, QE

In early Colonial times an organized Militia was extant in New France. Such, however, did not include Gunners.
A locally-recruited Crown force – known as the Compagnies Franche de la Marine – had on artillery element.
A company of this title was raised in September 1812 as part of the Montreal Incorporated Volunteers. It was
embodied for service 8 November 1813 and disbanded 24 November 1813, 3 days after the Battle of Chrysler’s
Farm. Montreal Gunners may have taken part in that action.

A company of Royal Montreal Artillery was raised in 1828 and was used to patrol the city during the riots of
November 1837. All Corps of this type were privately organized and financed.

3rd Montreal Field Battery, The battery was authorized on 27 September 1855 as the ‘Volunteer Militia Field Battery
of Artillery of Montreal, and exists today as 7th Fd Bty RCA. The battery began with three 6 pdr guns and one 12 pdr
how and fired one of its first salutes for the 39th Regiment of Foot, returning from the Crimea in 1856.

The Battalion of Montreal Artilllery was raised on 27 November 1856 (with 6 Btys) and was re-designated “2nd
(Montreal) Regiment of Garrison Artillery” in 1895. The Garrison Artillery were trained as static fortress Gunners
and their roles would eventually change to manning the Heavy, Siege and Medium batteries of the two world wars.
They are today perpetuated by the 50e Brie de Campagne, ARC.

3rd Montreal Field Battery was called out on 1 June 1866 and on 25 May 1870, but did not see action. Both the
battery on the battalion provided personnel for “E” Battery, RCFA which saw action in South Africa.

21ST (Westmount) Field Battery was formed in 1905 to join the 3rd Montreal Battery in the Montreal-based 6th
Brigade of Field Artillery. At this time the Harrison Artillery was re-designated the Montreal Heavy Brigade,
signifying an end to fortress duties. In 1912 the Montreal Heavy Brigade was re-organized with the 1st and 2nd
Montreal Heavy Batteries equipped with 4.7” guns and 60 pdr B.L.s. The 3rd battery was re-titled 2nd (Montreal)
Siege Company.

39th Field Battery was raised in May 1914 to complete the 6th Brigade to 3 batteries. As was the case across
the country, the Militia and Regular Army organizations were cast aside. The Montreal Gunners joined units as

        1st Cdn Div
                 2nd Bde CFA (LCol JJ Creelman)
                          4th Bty CFA from 3rd Montreal Battery (Maj AGL McNaughton)
                          5th Bty CFA from 21st Westmount Battery
                          1st Cdn Hy Bty from 1st and 2nd Montreal Heavy Batteries.

The batteries of 1st Cdn Div were in action at: NEUVE CHAPELLE, SECOND YPRES, ST.JULIEN, FESTUBERT,
GIVENCHY. All of the Montreal batteries were in action subsequently at MOUNT SORREL, FLERS-

         2nd Cdn Div
                 21st Bty CFA, recruited in Montreal and broken up for reinforcements on arrival in UK.
                 26th Bty CFA and 27th Bty CFA, recruited in Montreal and joined 7th Bde CFA.
                 1st Cdn Siege Bty was raised from the Montreal Depot of 1st Cdn Hy Bty.

With the re-organization to 4-gun batteries, 4th Bty CFA was re-titled 7th Bty CFA, which title survives to this day.

During WW II Montreal was, indeed, a Gunner City; supplying 9 batteries for overseas service and 4 for home
defence. In addition, thousands of Montrealers passed through these and other arty units as the war began to
erode the system of direct regional reinforcement. Further, with the younger men passed into the mobilized CASF,
thousands more enrolled in the non-CASG Militia. Montreal Gunners saw action as follows:

7 Bty/2 Fd Regiment RCA

27 Bty/ 1 ATk Regiment
         ITALY: San Marco, R. Biferno, R. Moro,

5 Bty/2 LAA Regiment RCA
        Ortona, Liri Valley, Monte Cassino, Hitler Line, R. Melfa, Rimini Line, Gothic Line. HOLLAND

5 Bty/5 Fd Regiment RCA
         FRANCE & BELGIUM: Caen, Dunkirk, Albert Canal.
         HOLLAND: The Scheldt. GERMANY: Battle of the Rhineland

66 Bty/14 Fd Regiment RCA
        FRANCE: D-Day (first round at H-1), Caen, Boulogne.
        HOLLAND: Harlingen. GERMANY: Battle of the Rhineland

50 Bty/4 Med Regiment RCA
        FRANCE & BELGIUM: Caen, Tilley-la-Campagne, Caen, Boulogne, Albert Canal.
        HOLLAND & GERMANY: Battle of the Rhineland

7 Bty/5 Med Regiment RCA
        ITALY: Aci Trezza, Ortona, Hitler Line, San Lorenzo, Tiber Valley, San Fortunato, R. Savio, Ravenna.

1 Bty/2 HAA Regiment RCA
        UK: Thames Estuary, Colchester. FRANCE: Boulogne, Dunkirk.
        HOLLAND: Middelkerke. GERMANY: Op PLUNDER

The regiment was amalgamated with its 50th and 83rd Medium Batteries, the 51st Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment,
RCA, and its 79th, 112th and 126th Medium Anti-Aircraft Batteries, and used to form the ‘2nd Medium Regiment,
RCA’, and its 50th and 83rd Medium Batteries, on 15 September 1959.15 It was redesignated ‘2nd Medium Artillery
Regiment, RCA’ on 12 April 1960.16 The regiment was reduced to nil strength, made dormant and transferred to
the Supplementary Order of Battle on 26 February 1965.17 It was reactivated, converted and redesignated ‘2nd
Field Artillery Regiment, RCA’ on 1 June 1966.18 Thus was re-born the traditional “Second” Regiment of Montreal
Gunners, joining one of the original 1855 batteries (successor of the “Field” Gunners) to the battery whose roots
lie with the old Garrison, Heavy Siege and Medium Gunners. Indeed it is fitting to note that for the Gunners of
Montreal the seniority of the “lights” precedes that of the “heavies’ by less than twelve months.


                                     3rd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                   (The Loyal Company) Saint John, NB

On May 4, 1793, The Loyal Company of Artillery, was formed by Captain John Colville, a member of Saint John’s
first Common Council. The Loyal Company of Artillery was formed in response to France’s declaration of war
against Britain on February 1st, 1793.

3rd Field Artillery Regiment was authorized on 28 May 1869 as the ‘New Brunswick Brigade of Garrison Artillery’,
but traces its direct roots to The Loyal Company of Artillery. As the third oldest artillery regiment in the British
Commonwealth, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment RCA (The Loyal Company) follows England’s Royal Regiment of
Artillery and The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of London in length of continuous service.

The original regiment was composed of three companies: Dorchester Company, named after Lord Dorchester
and based in Lower Cove; Carleton Company, based in the Market Building in Saint John; and the Fort Howe

The regiment provided troops during the War of 1812 and the Fenian Raid of 1866. More recently, members of 3rd
Field Artillery Regiment have served in the First and Second World Wars, as well as in Korean and on numerous
United Nations peacekeeping duties.

The regiment has won the Commandants Challenge Cup, presented to the mot outstanding militia artillery regiment
in Canada, on numerous occasions. The unit was the first to win this award in four consecutive years between 1973
and 1977, a record unprecedented in Canadian gunner history.

3rd Field Artillery Regiment RCA was the first military unit in the City of Saint John to receive the Freedom
of the City in 1969.

Unique to an artillery regiment, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment RCA has it’s own regimental colors and Queen’s
colors. The unit colors were presented by the Ladies of the City of Saint John and were laid in the Garrison
Church, St. John’s Stone Church, St. Mark’s Parish, on September 13th, 1925 on the occasion of the Church’s 100th
Anniversary. The colors may be seen in the church today.

The regiment fires a 21-gun salute annually on May 18 (Loyalist Day). This is the only salute authorized other than
the normal general artillery salutes. The unit gained this distinction by using left over powder from previous salutes
until the salute was officially recognized. The occasion of this salute honors Canada’s oldest continuous serving
artillery regiment and its parent city as well as its Loyalist tradition.

Today, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment has two batteries, 115 Battery in Saint John and 89th Battery in Woodstock,
New Brunswick. The Regimental Headquarters and Band are also located in Saint John.


                             5th (British Columbia) Field Artillery Regiment
                                               Victoria, BC

5th (British Columbia) Field Artillery Regiment, RCA was officially formed as a battery when it was authorized on
17 October 1954 as the ‘5th West Coast Harbour Defence Battery, RCA’, through the amalgamation and conversion
of the 5th (British Columbia) Coast Regiment, the 120th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery, the 75th (British Columbia)
Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, the 155th, 156th and 160th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Batteries, and the 8th Anti-Aircraft
Operations Room. However, it traces its gunner roots to a much earlier time.

The possibility of British involvement in the American Civil War in 1861 created concern in Victoria. In response
one hundred and thirty-none men enrolled in the Vancouver Island Volunteer Rifle Corps comprised a Rifle
Company and an Artillery Company. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 created great concern because the harbours
of Victoria and Esquimalt were undefended. Beginning on June 10, 1878, four coast batteries were constructed; the
task was completed on August 30, 1878. To serve these batteries, a Militia Order on July 19, 1878 authorized the
formation of the Victoria Battery of Garrison Artillery. Primary role was the defence of Victoria and Esquimalt from
seaborne attack. This was the beginning of the 5th Regiment’s history.

Volunteers from the 5th Regiment formed part of “A” Company, 2nd (Special Service) Battalion, the Royal Canadian
Regiment in South African from 1899 to 1902. The Paardeberg Memorial inside the Bay Street entrance to
Armoury commemorates the unit’s first casualties. During the Great War (1914-1919), seven hundred and seventy-
seven officers and men of the 5th Regiment served in overseas units of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Most
notable among them was General Sir Arthur W. Currie, who began his career as a gunner in the 5th Regiment and
rose in rank to command the Canadian Army overseas. Several other officers and men of the regiment served the
guns in the British West Indies and with the Siberian Expeditionary Force.

By midnight on August 26, 1939, all the batteries of the Victoria-Esquimalt Fortress were manned by the officers and
men of the 5th (British Columbia) Coast Brigade, RCA. Until the end of the war some 7,000 men passed through
the brigade to serve in units overseas. Meanwhile gunners of the brigade continued their lonely vigil for an enemy
who never arrived. When the call to arms sounded again in 1950 for service overseas during the Korean “police
action”, men from the regiment answered. Men from the regiment have also served with United Nations units in
Egypt, on the Gaza Strip and in Cyprus.

The 5th Regiment has been called upon to perform duties “in aid of the civil power”. They assisted in maintaining
law and order during the coal strikes at Wellington in 1890 and at Nanaimo in 1913. They assisted in recovery
operations following the Point Ellice Bridge disaster of 1896, And in 1948 they helped to build and maintain the
sandbag dikes to control flooding in the Fraser Valley.

The 5th Regiment provides the official saluting battery for Victoria. The unit has fired salutes for visiting Royalty, for
Graduation Parades of the Royal Roads Military College and for the official Opening of the Provincial Legislature,
a custom, which originated on July 29, 1878.

Recognition of more than 100 years of service took place on Sunday, November 4, 1979, when the 5th (British
Columbia) Field Battery, RCA proudly accepted the Freedom of the City of Victoria. On Friday 13th of September
1991, the regiment once again was raised to regimental status and designated the 5th (British Columbia) Field
Artillery Regiment, RCA. The young men and women of the unit proudly wear the Gunner badge in the oldest
continuous serving militia unit west of the Great Lakes.


                              6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne, ARC
                                              Lévis. QE

La tradition d’une unité d’artillerie à Lévis remonte à 1862, alors que les Batteries no3 et no4 d’Artillerie de
garnison (volontaire) de Lévis sont formées. L’année suivante, ces batteries sont modifiées pour devenir des
compagnies d’artillerie à pied de la milice volontaire. Les compagnies de Lévis demeurent indépendantes, alors
que celles de Québec sont unifiées sous un même commandement. En 1864, toutes ses compagnies sont regroupées
et désignées sous le nom de Bataillon provisoire d’artillerie de garnison. Les changements n’arrêtent pas, alors
que les compagnies de Lévis sont retranchées du bataillon provisoire en 1867 pour devenir les 1iere et 2ieme
Batteries de Lévis.

Avec le départ des troupes britanniques en 1871 et la création des premières forces permanentes canadiennes,
plusieurs membres des batteries de Lévis se joignent à ceux des batteries de Québec pour former l’une des premières
unités des Forces canadiennes, la Batterie « B ». Les batteries de Lévis continuent leur entraînement alors qu’elles
sont licenciées en 1878 pour créer la Batterie no1 de Lévis (volontaire). Une autre réorganisation survient en 1893
alors que la Compagnie no2 de Lévis de l’Artillerie de garnison (volontaire) est formée.

Le « 6th Quebec and Levis Regiment Canadian Garrison Artillery » est créé le 1 août 1899 suite à la réorganisation
des batteries indépendantes d’artillerie de garnison de Québec et de Lévis. Le commandement est alors assumé par
le lieutenant-colonel Georges S. Vien. Le Quartier Général est établi à Lévis alors que le Régiment est formé de
quatre sous-unités; les batteries 1, 2, 3 et 4. Ces batteries sont formées à partir d’unités déjà existantes comme
les compagnies No 1 et 2 d’Artillerie de garnison de Lévis qui deviennent respectivement les 1ere et 2e batteries
d’artillerie de garnison (volontaire). Alors que la compagnie de Québec d’artillerie de garnison (volontaire) est
scindée afin de former les 3e et 4e batteries d’Artillerie de garnison (volontaire). Le 6e régiment est donc composé à
ce moment de quatre batteries équipées de canons de 40 livres à chargement par la bouche.

En 1911, le « 6th Quebec and Levis Regiment » est converti en unité de défense côtière. Il est alors renommé le « 6th
(Quebec and Levis) Coast Regiment canadian Artillery ». Trois sous-unités composent alors le régiment soit les
compagnies 1, 2 et 3 de défense côtière de la milice non-permanente, alors que les Quartiers-généraux du régiment
occupent le nouveau manège militaire construit à Lévis.

Au cours de la Première Guerre mondiale, les plans de mobilisation sont totalement restructurés, de nouvelles unités
sont créées afin de participer au conflit en Europe, alors que les unités existantes ne sont pas mobilisées pour le
front. Cependant, le « 6th (Quebec and Levis) Regiment of Canadian Garrison Artillery » est mis en service actif en
septembre 1914 pour défendre le Fleuve Saint-Laurent. Le Régiment s’installe à Beaumont au Fort de la Martinière
où deux batteries de défense côtières ont été aménagées avant le conflit. Un poste d’observation est aussi installé à
Saint-Jean de l’île d’Orléans. Durant l’hiver, les glaces empêchant la circulation navale, le Régiment n’est pas en
service actif et peut effectuer d’autres tâches. Certains artilleurs de Lévis ont aussi la chance de s’enrôler dans la
« no 6 Company Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery » qui est spécialement formée pour défendre Port Castries dans
l’île de Sainte-Lucie. À la fin du conflit, le régiment retourne à la routine d’avant-guerre comme unité de milice
non-permanente pour entraîner des officiers et des artilleurs dans la région.

En 1925, le régiment est équipé de pièces d’artillerie lourdes et est maintenant désigné sous le nom de « 6th (Québec
et Lévis) Coast Brigade Canadian Artillery ». Les Compagnies no 1(Lévis), 2 (Lévis) et 3 (Québec), sont renommées
respectivement les 57e, 58e et 59e Batteries lourdes. De plus, la 3e section d’artillerie antiaérienne est créée et
rattachée à cette brigade. Durant la période 1922 à 1935, la « 6th (Quebec and Levis) Coast Brigade » se distingue
durant les compétitions nationales en remportant plusieurs prix prestigieux.

Une autre réorganisation vient changer la fonction de l’unité en 1936, alors qu’elle devient la « 6th (Quebec
and Levis) Medium (H)Brigade, RCA. » Les sous-unités deviennent des batteries d’artillerie de campagne. La
désignation (H) dans le nom du régiment signifie Howitzer, pour indiquer le type d’armement utilisé, soit des
obusiers de 6 pouces. Les « 57th Medium Battery », « 58th Medium Battery » et « 59th Medium Battery » sont donc
maintenues et adoptent leur nouveau rôle, alors que la 3e section d’artillerie antiaérienne est augmentée pour devenir
la « 3rd Anti aircraft Battery, RCA. »

Lorsque la Seconde Guerre mondiale éclate, la « 6th (Quebec and Levis) Medium Brigade » n’est pas mobilisée en
tant qu’organisation, mais ses sous-unités reçoivent des tâches spécifiques et plusieurs de ses membres se déploient

La « 57th Medium Battery » est mobilisée en novembre 1939 et réorganisée en Batterie antiaérienne. Elle participe
à la défense de l’Angleterre contre les chasseurs et bombardiers allemands. En 1942, elle prend l’appellation de
« 57th Light Anti Aircraft Battery (French speaking) ». Cette sous-unité est dissoute en 1944, alors que ses membres
sont versés au « 4th Medium Regiment » sur le front où plusieurs autres membres de la « 6th (Quebec and Levis)
Medium Brigade » servent.

La « 58th Medium Battery » est mobilisée le 29 juillet 1941 pour servir dans le « 20th Regiment, RCA » avec
la « 50th Battery » de Montréal et la « 72nd Battery » de Coaticook. Le « 20th Regiment » doit être une unité
francophone et s’entraîner à Valcartier, mais en 1942, il est transféré à Petawawa et devient le « 4th Medium
Regiment RCA. » La 258e batterie de cette unité perpétue la tradition de la 58e batterie mobilisée à Lévis en
41. Le « 4th Medium Regiment » tire son premier obus contre l’ennemi le 13 juillet 1944 et participe ensuite aux
batailles de France, de Belgique et de l’Allemagne, en soutien à la 1ere Division blindée polonaise. Le régiment
se distingue durant toutes les campagnes et particulièrement les anciens membres de la « 6th (Quebec and Levis)
Medium Brigade », qui reçoivent plusieurs décorations et promotions.

La « 59th Medium Battery » est réorganisée en 1939 pour devenir la « 59th Heavy Battery. » Cette dernière est
mobilisée dès le 28 août 1939 et reçoit l’ordre de défendre la Ville de Québec contre toute invasion marine de
l’ennemi. A cet effet, la batterie occupe comme au Premier Conflit mondial, le Fort de la Martinière. Des baraques
et de nouvelles batteries permanentes sont aménagées. Durant l’hiver 1940, la batterie quitte Beaumont pour Halifax
et occupe les défenses du Fort McNab. En avril, la batterie est de retour au Fort de la Martinière et élargit ses
effectifs. En effet, la réalisation la plus importante de la 59e batterie durant la guerre fut l’entraînement d’officiers
et d’artilleurs qui se disperseront aux quatre coins du Canada pour la défense côtière, tout en continuant la défense
du Port de Québec.

La « 3rd Aircarft Battery » est mobilisée le 26 août 1939 et est réorganisée en 41 pour devenir la « 17th Air-Defense
Battery » qui défend le complexe industriel et énergétique d’Arvida. En 1942, la « 12th » et « 41st anti-aircraft
Batteries » se joignent à la « 17th Battery » pour former le « 24th Air Defense Regiment » commandé par le
Lieutenant-colonel J.R. Samson, un ancien de la « 6th (Quebec and Levis) Medium Brigade. » En 1943, la « 17th Air
Defense Battery » quitte Arvida pour aller défendre l’aéroport allié de Gander à Terre-Neuve. Il poursuit ce travail
jusqu’à la fin de la guerre, en raison de l’importance stratégique de cet aéroport.

A la fin de la guerre, plusieurs unités sont démobilisées et il faut attendre le 1e avril 1946 pour que l’unité soit
redésignée le « 6th Field Regiment, RCA. » Celle-ci est composée de trois sous-unités; les « 58th », « 59th » et « 80th
Field Batteries. » La « 57th Medium Battery » ayant été dissoute durant la guerre, cette batterie est remplacée au
sein de l’unité par la « 80th Field Battery. » Quant à la « 3rd Air Defense Battery », elle est renommée la 203e
Batterie antiaérienne légère du 63e Régiment antiaérien léger. La routine de temps de paix reprend pour les artilleurs
de l’unité. Le Quartier général régimentaire sera successivement Québec et Lévis.

Le 1er mai 1951, la 58e Batterie est mobilisée pour servir avec le « 79th Field Artillery Regiment. » Ce régiment
est activé afin de supporter la brigade canadienne en Europe, dans le cadre des engagements pour l’Organisation
du traité de l’Atlantique nord (OTAN). Après un an de service actif, la plupart des artilleurs de la région de Lévis
reviennent au pays, mais la batterie demeure avec le « 79th Field Artillery Regiment » qui sera finalement redésigné

le « 3rd Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Regiment » en novembre 1953. Quelques membres originaux de la batterie
de Lévis sont font toujours parti du « 3rd RCHA » lorsque cette unité est déployée en Corée en mai 1954.

Des changements majeurs surviennent en 1954, alors que le 35e Régiment antichar est amalgamé à la « 59th Field
Battery » du « 6th Field Regiment. » De plus, la 132e batterie antichar est quant à elle, amalgamée à la « 80th Field
Battery. » Alors que la 145e Batterie antichar est amalgamée à la « 82nd Field Battery » de Gaspé. Cette dernière est
affectée au « 6th Field Regiment » comme quatrième sous-unité. Dans le même temps, la « 57th Locating Battery »
de Québec est dissoute. Le chiffre de 57 étant de nouveau disponible, la 80e batterie change de nom pour reprendre la
tradition de la 57e Batterie au sein du Régiment.

En 1960, le « 6th Field Regiment » change de nom pour le « 6th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA. » En 1964,
la 59e batterie de campagne déménage dans le Manège militaire de Montmagny anciennement occupé par une
compagnie des Fusiliers du Saint-Laurent. Cependant en 1965, la 82e Batterie de campagne de Gaspé est réduite
à effectif nul.

Le 1er septembre 1970, le « 6th Field Artillery Regiment » est désigné le 6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne (RAC)
avec trois batteries soit : la 57e Batterie, la 58e Batterie et la 59e Batterie. Le Quartier Général régimentaire occupe le
Manège militaire de Lévis. En 1984, à l’occasion de son 85ème anniversaire de fondation, le régiment se voit octroyer
le Droit de Cité de la Ville de Lévis, par son Maire monsieur Vincent Chagnon.

Le 19 septembre 1992, la 58e Batterie change de rôle pour devenir une Batterie d’artillerie anitaérienne. Elle est
alors désignée la 58e Batterie d’artillerie antiaérienne. Elle est aussi déménagée plus tard du Manège militaire de
la Grande-Allée à la Base de Valcartier.

         Plus récemment, suite à l’annonce de la restructuration de la Réserve de l’Armée de terre, ainsi qu’à la
mise en place des Tableaux de dotation de la Force Terrestre (TDFT) en 1996, le Régiment doit à nouveau se
réorganiser. C’est en avril 1997, que les effectifs de la 59e Batterie se joignent à la 57e Batterie qui devient l’élément
de mission du 6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne. Lors de cette réorganisation, le Quartier général de la 57e
Batterie est déménagé à Montmagny afin de mieux desservir les membres de la batterie qui proviennent à la fois
de Lévis et de Montmagny. Lors de cette restructure, le Régiment démontre son professionnalisme en obtenant la
mention de meilleur régiment d’artillerie de campagne, lors des évaluations de 1997 et 1998, au sein du Secteur
du Québec de la Force terrestre.

Le 16 mai 1999, à l’occasion de l’ouverture de ses fêtes régimentaires soulignant son 100ème anniversaire, et afin de
souligner 35 années de présence à Montmagny, le 6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne s’est vue accordé et a exercé
pour la première fois, le Droit de cité dans la ville de Montmagny.

La tâche du 6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne est de fournir une batterie d’artillerie de campagne au besoin,
pour renforcer le 5e Régiment d’Artillerie légère du Canada. Le Régiment doit pour cela former sont personnel sur
les habiletés de base des soldats et de l’artilleur en complétant chaque année, un recyclage des normes individuelles
d’aptitudes au combat et en accomplissant plusieurs exercices de tir réels d’artillerie, généralement sur la Base de
Valcartier. L’élément de mission utilise les obusiers 105mm C3 et conduit annuellement de 4 à 5 exercices de tir réel
annuellement, en plus de conduire un exercice régimentaire avec les autres unités d’artillerie du secteur, de la réserve
et de la composante régulière. En mai 2000, le Régiment a fourni près de 20 membres de tous grades pour servir avec
le 5e RALC lors de l’exercice LION INTRÉPIDE à Gagetown et ce, pour une période de plus d’un mois.

Durant ses 100 ans d’existence, le 6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne a fourni en grand nombre, des artilleurs
pour la force permanente et les Forces canadiennes, qui se distinguèrent sur tous les fronts. Que ce soit en Europe
durant les deux Guerres mondiales, au pays lors d’action d’aide au pouvoir civil comme le déploiement dans
le Nord-Ouest en 1885 ou la récente tempête de verglas de 1998, en passant par différentes missions des Nations-
Unies ou de l’OTAN. Durant les cinq dernières années, le Régiment a déployé plus de 60 soldats et officiers
lors des opérations telles que Danaca (Israël), Récupération (verglas), Alliance (Ex-Yougoslavie)., Stable (Haïti)
et tout dernièrement Palladium (Ex-Yougoslavie). Le 6e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne possède une excellente
réputation au sein de l’artillerie canadienne. Ses soldats et officiers sont reconnus pour leur professionnalisme et

leurs connaissances techniques.

Les armoiries du régiment, qui ont été adoptées le 5 juin 1904, sont composées des armes de la ville de Lévis,
surmontées d’un casque de chevalier reposant sur un canon de garnison, entouré d’un faisceau de drapeaux anglais et
fleurs-de-lisés avec pour devise les paroles prononcées par le Chevalier de Lévis sur l’île Sainte-Hélène en 1760 en
référant à ses canons: LES RENDRE... JAMAIS.


                                         7th Toronto Regiment, RCA
                                                 Toronto, ON

The 7th Toronto Regiment, RCA traces its historical roots to the Volunteer Incorporated Artillery Company formed
in 1813 under the command of Captain Alexander Cameron. On December 5th, 1837 under the command of Major
T. Carfrae the 1st Toronto Artillery Company, as the Volunteer Incorporated Artillery Company had become, put an
end to the Mackenzie Rebellion by firing upon Montgomery’s Tavern. Following the 1855 Militia Act the Company
was redesignated The Toronto Field Bty, which in turn became No. 9 “Toronto” Field Bty in 1894 and the 9th
“Toronto” Field Bty in 1895. On 1st July 1889 the 9th “Toronto” Field Bty CA, along with the 4th “St. Catharines”
Field Bty CA and the 7th “Hamilton” Bty CA formed the 2nd Bde Div of Field Artillery, Canadian Artillery.

In World War I, the 9th Bty equipped with 18 pdrs fought as part of 3rd Fd Bde, 1st Cdn Div until 1917 when it
was transferred to the 3rd Fd Bde, 4th Cdn Div for the remainder of the war with 4.5 in. howitzers. 15th, 30th, and
53rd Btys were formed in 1916, all with 18 pdrs. The 15th were assigned to 4th Fd Bde, 2nd Div, the 30th went to
6th Fd Bde, 3rd Div, while the 53rd went to 13th Fd Bde, 5th Div. Thus the Toronto gunners were represented in all
W.W.I Canadian Divisions. In addition, the 1st Siege Bty equipped with 9.2 in. howitzers fought with 1st Bde, Cdn
Garrison Artillery, Cdn Corps Heavy Artillery.

A formation was authorized on 15 March 1931 as the ‘7th Toronto Regiment, CA’. It was redesignated:
‘7th (Toronto) Regiment, CA’ on 1 October 1933; ‘7th (Toronto) Regiment, RCA’ on 3 June 1935; ‘7th
(Reserve) (Toronto) Regiment, RCA’ on 7 November 1940; and ‘7th (Reserve) (Toronto) Group, RCA (CA)’ on
1 October 1942; converted and redesignated ‘Royal Canadian Artillery, 2nd Division’ on 1 April 1946; and ‘Royal
Canadian Artillery, 2nd Armoured Division’ on 19 June 1947. The formation was disbanded on 1 October 1954.

In W.W.II 9 Bty fired both 25 pdrs and 105mm SP, with 3rd Field Bde, 11th Army Field Regt, 1st Canadian Corps
Artillery, both in Italy, where at one time they were part of the 8th Army, the “Desert Rats”, and later in Northwest
Europe as part of the 1st Canadian Army Artillery. 15 Bty became part of the 7th Anti-Tank Regt and saw action
with 2, 6, and 17 pdrs and the M-10 SP 3 in. 23 Bty served with both 1st and 5th Med Regts firing 6in. how. and
5.5 gun while 25 Bty with similar weapons served with 18th Fd Regt and 2nd Med Regt, 1st AGRA. Both 30 and
53 Btys became LAA btys with 40mm Bofors, one with 6 LAA Regt, 2nd Corps Artillery and the other with 4th Fd
Regt, 3rd LAA Regt, 2 Div and 11th LAA Regt.

Throughout W.W.II a Reserve regiment was maintained in Toronto to recruit and train replacements for the batteries

Following the end of W.W.II, Headquarters RCA, 2nd Div was set up in Toronto with 29th Fd Regt, 32nd Fd Regt,
42nd Med Regt, 49th HAA Regt, and 69th Survey Regt. all located within Toronto. In 1947 reorganization saw
the loss of the 49th HAA, the 69th became an Observation Regt while the designation SP was added to the 29th
and 32nd Regts. In 1950 the 1st Anti-Aircraft Gun Operations Room was established. The next reorganization
in 1954 saw the loss of the 32nd Fd and the 1st AAOR. The 69th became the 1st Locating Regt with 134 Svy &
Rad Bty and 208 Loc Bty.

In May 1951, the 27th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group was raised to become Canada’s contribution to the NATO
forces stationed in Europe. As part of that the 209th Fd Bty was formed from members of 9 Bty and conducting its
initial training in Toronto before joining the 79th Fd Regt, which sailed along with rest of the Bde to Germany in
December of that year. Subsequently, the 79th Fd Regt was renamed the 3rd Regt RCHA and 209th Bty became G
Bty. 3 RCHA served in Korea from May to November 1954.

The 7th Toronto Regiment RCA made its reappearance in 1965 when, as a result of the Suttie Commission the 29th Fd
, 42nd Med and the 1st Loc Regts were transferred to the Supplementary Order of Battle. 9th, 15th and 130th batteries
from 29th Field Regiment were transferred to 7th Toronto Regiment, which moved into its present location in Moss
Park Armoury following the demise of the University Avenue Armoury.


                                    10th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                                Regina, SK

The history of the artillery in Saskatchewan began in 1910 when 18th Field Battery was formed in Regina. Before
World War 1, the unit served as a recruiting depot for overseas.

10th Field Artillery Regiment was authorized on 2 February 1920 as ‘10th Brigade, CFA’, with 18th Field Battery
remaining in Regina and 77 Field Battery at Moose Jaw. In the ensuing years, other batteries around the province
of Saskatchewan were added. It was redesignated: ‘10th Field Brigade, CA’ on 1 July 1925; ‘10th Field Brigade,
RCA’ on 3 June 1935; ‘10th (Reserve) Field Brigade, RCA’ on 7 November 1940; and ‘10th (Reserve) Field
Regiment, RCA’ on 15 March 1943.5

At the outbreak of hostilities in 1939, the regiment’s batteries were utilized in different areas. 18 Battery was
sent to England and retrained as an Anti-Tank Battery and later joined the Canadian Anti-Tank Regiment with
the 2nd Canadian Light Division in 1940. 77 Battery was mobilized with 3 Field Regiment, 113 Battery was
mobilized with 4 Field Regiment and in 1940, 60 Battery joined 76 Battery (Indian Head, SK) as part of 17
Field Regiment.

Post war 1946 saw the formation of 10 Medium Regiment including 18 Battery and 113 Battery. The regiment
continued as such until 1956 when 113 Battery was disbanded and 21 Battery (Saskatoon), 44 Battery (Prince
Albert) and 18 Battery (Regina) comprised the regiment. In 1961, reorganization took its toll of batteries and added
new ones. 65 Battery (Grenfell) joined 18 Battery and 76 Battery was revived.

By 1968, 53rd Field Regiment, with batteries in Melville, Yorkton, Kamsack and Canora was reduced to a single
field battery in Yorkton and was known as 64 Battery. 64 Battery can trace its routes to 64 Heavy Anti-Armour
Battery. 64 Battery was attached to the new 10th Field Regiment with 18 Battery and its regimental headquarters
in Regina. In the same timeframe, 22 Field Regiment along the Number 1 Highway was reduced to nil strength and
some of its batteries in Indian Head, Grenfell and Broadview were annexed to 10 Field Regiment.

The present day 10th Field Artillery Regiment now stands as 18 Battery and its regimental headquarters in Regina
and 64 Battery in Yorkton. The unit maintains a training affiliation with 26 Field Regiment (Brandon/Portage, MB)
and 116 Independent Field Battery (Kenora, ON).


                                     11th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                                 Guelph, ON

The first Guelph Artillery unit was created on July 20, 1866, with the founding of the Guelph Battery of Garrison
Artillery, which was allocated as No. 1 Company of the 30th Wellington Battalion of Rifles. On 7 August 1866,
the Battery commanded by Captain Barclay, met their first drill under the direction of Lieutenant Armstrong of the
Wellington Rifles. In 1871, the Battery detached from the Battalion and became the Wellington Battery of Artillery.
The first reorganization of the Battery occurred in 1880 when it became No. 1 Field Battery of the 1st Provincial
Brigade of Field Artillery. No. 1 Field Battery was later redesignated No. 11 Battery and on February 2, 1920, the
Battery was reorganized and redesignated the 29th Battery CFA. It continues today as the 29th Field Battery.

In 1899 a number of gunners from the Wellington Battery, including Lieutenant John McCrae, together with gunners
from Ottawa, London and Port Hope, joined the newly formed “D” Battery in order to serve in the South African
War. In one skirmish, his right section silenced the Boer guns near Rustenburg. During his service with “D”
Battery, he established a close friendship with Lieutenant (later Major General Sir) E.W.B. Morrison, from Ottawa,
who commanded the left section which saw action at the famous battle of Leliefontein in support of the Royal
Canadian Dragoons. During WWI, the now Lieutenant-Colonel E.W.B. Morrison, in command of the 1st Artillery
Brigade C.F.A, asked McCrae to join him as his medical officer. In the Spring of 1915, during the heaviest fighting
of the second battle of the Ypres Salient in Belgian Flanders, McCrae and his dressing station were within sight
of the Canadian cemetery. As the fighting continued, McCrae had his hands full caring for the wounded, and he
watched with dismay as the little wooden crosses daily grew more numerous. Wild poppies were already beginning
to bloom around the graves. After seventeen exhausting days, and the loss of a close friend, he sat down and wrote
his immortal poem “In Flanders Fields”, which was published by Punch magazine that December. After McCrae’s
death in England in 1918, Morrison gathered his belongings, including one of the original lead printing plates used
by Punch magazine to print his poem. This plate now resides in the Royal Canadian Artillery Museum.

Another field battery still proudly serving is the 16th Battery, which traces its origin to the Ontario Battery of Field
Artillery, organized on 22 March 1878. With the formation of the 1st Provisional Brigade of Field Artillery in
1880, the Ontario Battery became No. 2 Field Battery. No. 2 Field Battery was later redesignated No. 16 Battery,
retaining this number today.

In April 1913, the brigade was redesignated as the 1st (Howitzer) Brigade CFA with the batteries becoming the 11th
and 16th (Howitzer) Batteries CFA.

In the reorganization of 1920, the Brigade was redesignated the 11th Brigade CFA. The 11th (Howitzer) Battery
became the 29th Battery; the 16th (Howitzer) Battery became the 16th Battery; the Ammunition Column was
redesignated the 11th Brigade Ammunition Column CFA; the 43rd and 63rd Batteries were added to the Brigade and
the 13 Siege Battery CA was attached. This was the largest establishment on record for the Regiment.

In July 1925, the brigade was redesignated the 11th Field Brigade CA and in March 1935 the Ammunition Column

At the outbreak of war in 1939, the 29th Field Battery CASF was mobilized and became part of the 3rd Army
Field Brigade commanded by LCol C.D. Crowe, who had been a commander of the 29th Battery. The Brigade
went overseas in 1940 and shortly afterward had its name changed to the 11th Army Field Regiment at the request
of General A.G.L. McNaughton who had commanded the 11th Brigade in the First World War. The 29th Battery

remained with the 11th Army Field Regiment throughout the campaigns in Sicily, Italy and Northwest Europe, where
they claim to have been the first Regiment of the 1st Canadian Corps from Italy to be in action on German soil.

The 16th and 43rd Batteries were mobilized together as the 16/43 Battery in May 1940 under command of Major O.M.
McConkey, a veteran gunner of the First World War. This Battery was allotted to the 12th Canadian Field Regiment
but later separated into the two constituent batteries. The 12th Field Regiment later became part of the 7th Canadian
Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division and took part in the D-Day assault on “Fortress Europe”. On that famous 6th
of June 1944, the 16th Battery was commanded by Major J.D. Ross and the 43rd by Major A.G. Goldie.

The 65th Battery was mobilized in the summer of 1941 under command of Major R. Ozburn. It went overseas during
July 1943 as part of the 19th Field Regiment (SP) and supported the landings on D-Day of the 3rd Infantry Division
using 105mm self-propelled guns, and later was equipped with 25-pounder SPs. As an Army Regiment most of the
work was with the 3rd Division and the 4th Armored Division.

In 1942 and army reorganization, redesignated the 11th Field Brigade as the 11th Field regiment, and on April 12th
1960, the present name of the unit, the 11th Field Artillery Regiment, became the official designation.

1970 was a significant year for the Regiment. Additional army reorganization called for the amalgamation of the
8th Field Artillery Regiment of Hamilton with the 11th Field Artillery Regiment of Guelph. The 8th Field Artillery
Regiment had its own contribution to make to the already fine traditions of Guelph.

Before it was formed in 1855 as the Hamilton Field Battery, it was known as the Hamilton Volunteer Field Artillery
and was then what in the early days was called a “cannon company”, that was an independent Corps with a single
field piece. (It is one of the oldest Militia Units in Ontario.) The Battery went on to become the 11th Field Battery,
senior battery in the Regiment. Before World War I, one of the Lieutenants of the Battery was H.D.G. Crerar, better
known as General Caesar. During World War II, the 11th Field Battery was one of the batteries to land on D-Day
as part of 12 RCA of the Third Division.

Another battery associated with the 8th Field Artillery Regiment was the 40th (Sportman’s) Battery organized during
the early days of World War I, and fought with distinction during that campaign, as it did in World War II in Italy
and Northwest Europe. It received its nickname from the numbers of prominent sports personalities associated with
it, one of whom was “Connie” Smythe of Maple Leaf fame.


                                     15th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                                Vancouver, BC

At a meeting held on December 16, 1919 in the Duke of Connaughts Own Rifles Mess at the Drill Hall on Beatty
Street a plan was made for the organization of a militia artillery unit in Vancouver. Soon after, on February 2,
1920, the formation of the 15th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery was authorized. The first Commanding Officer
was LCol F. T. Cohglan, D. S. O. The Brigade was organized as follows: HQ Vancouver (15 Jul 20), 31st
Battery CFA, Vancouver (15 July 20), 68th Battery CFA, North Vancouver (15 July 20), 85th Battery CFA, New
Westminster (15 July 20), the Ammunition Column, Vancouver (15 July 21), attached, 5th Siege Battery Canadian
Artillery, Vancouver (15 July 20), and 58th Battery CFA, Victoria (22 September 20), detached to 5th (BC) Regiment
Canadian Garrison Artillery.

The first home of the regiment was the Horseshow Building on Georgia Street just east of the entrance to Stanley
Park. After a stay of 12 years in this inadequate facility a new home was built at 2055 West 11th Avenue in
1932-33. The armory architect, LCol R. T. Perry, was also the Commanding Officer. Named after the Earl of
Bessborough, then Governor General of Canada, the armory was formally opened by him on March 27, 1934. The
first annual summer camps were held at Hastings Park (present PNE grounds), Vancouver and Sarcee, Alberta in
1921. The second camp took place at Sarcee, Alberta and saw the Brigade’s 31st Battery win the Governor Generals,
Stradbrooke and Hurdman Trophies. The guns of the brigade were the 18-pounder, 60-pounder, and 4.5” Howitzer.
1932 saw a change of camp location to Camp Hughes (near Shilo) in Manitoba. On June 3, 1935 the brigade
dropped the designation Canadian Artillery and became the 15th Field Brigade, Royal Canadian Artillery. A major
change in role took place in April 7, 1938 when the brigade was converted to coast artillery and became the 15th
Coast Brigade RCA, with “Vancouver” being added to its title on July 15, 1938. Summer camps for 1938 and 1939
were held at Fort Macaulay Esquimalt, British Columbia.

The camp of 1939 was to be the last for several years as war clouds gathered. On August 26, 1939 the brigade was
ordered to man the partially readied coast artillery forts defending Vancouver and the northern approach between
Vancouver Island and the mainland of B.C. These forts were armed with 18-pounders, 12-pounders, 4.7 inch and
6 inch guns. By August 29, 1939 all forts at Point Grey, Ferguson Point, Narrows North, and Yorke Island were
manned and ready for action as best they could be. Following the War the 15th Coast Regiment RCA was formed
on April1, 1946 and continued in this role until February 5, 1948 when the regiment was converted to field artillery,
a role which has continued to the present date. It was equipped with the 25-pounder and for a short time the 85th
Battery was equipped with the 155mm medium howitzer. The present equipment is the 105mm howitzer.

The 43rd Medium Anti-Aircraft Regiment was amalgamated with the 15th Field Regiment on October 15, 1959. This
increased the number of batteries to 5 (31st, 85th, 158th, 209th, 210th). “Artillery” was added to the designation of the
regiment on April 12, 1960 to give its present title 15th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA. 5(BC) Field Battery RCA,
Victoria, was added as a sub-unit from January 31, 1965 to September 1, 1967. The regiment was reduced to its two
present batteries (31st, 68th) on September 1, 1970. Following World War II annual camps have been held at Shilo,
Manitoba, Wainwright, Alberta, Vernon, British Columbia, Fort Lewis, Washington, USA, the Chilcotin, British
Columbia, and the Yakima, Washington. The regiment, commanded by LCol W.T. Wickett, CD, was granted The
Freedom of the City of Vancouver by Mayor J. Volrich and City Council on June 2, 1977.


                                    20th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                               Edmonton, AB

On 2 February 1920, 20th Brigade CFA was formed. It consisted of: 61st Battery CFA, 78th Battery CFA, and
attached was the 20th Hvy Battery CA. It went through several paper shuffles, gained 2 more Batteries and by 03 June
1935 the 20th Field Brigade RCA was formed. It consisted of the 78, 92, 96 Batteries and had attached to it the 20
Medium Battery, RCA. The regiment was disbanded in 1936.

During World War II the batteries saw action, fighting with the 1st, 3rd, 4th Armoured, and 5th Armoured Divisions
in France and Germany. The 92nd Battery was first to cross the Atlantic where it fought through Italy, France and
Germany in the 3rd Field Regiment, a part of the First Canadian Division.

The 95th Battery was next, recruited in 1941. It went overseas in August part of the 15th Field Regiment. It later
joined the 4th Armoured Division in England. The 95th Battery with towed 25 pdrs, landed in France shortly after
D-Day and returned home in January, 1946.

78th Battery was authorized on 2 February 1920 as the ‘78th Battery, CFA’ and allocated to the 20th Brigade,
CFA. It was redesignated: ‘78th Field Battery, CA’ on 1 July 1925; ‘78th Field Battery, RCA’ on 3 June 1935;
and ‘78th (Reserve) Field Battery, RCA’ on 7 November 1940. The 78th Battery, RCA, CASF, mobilized in Red
Deer, and formed part of 13 Field Regiment, RCA, CASF. In England, the regiment drew 25-pdrs and trained with
3rd Canadian Division in Scotland for a year. In September 43, the 13th Field Regiment drew the Priest 105mm
self-propelled guns and trained in Bournemouth to continue assault training. On the 6th of June 1944, D-Day, the
regiment hit the beaches at Courelles-Sur-Mer. It was to support the attack of the 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade
(Royal Regiment of Canada, Royal Winnipeg Rifles, Canadian Scottish Regiment). Many casualties were suffered.
From June to August the 13th Field Regiment took part in various battles including Operation Atlantic and after
55 days of bitter fighting they were withdrawn and were reconverted to 25 pdrs. To make the change from a
self-propelled regiment to a towed regiment took 4 days and on the 8th of August the regiment joined OPERATION
TRACTABLE. On 14th August 1944, the 13th Field Regiment, part of OPERATION TRACTABLE, to effect
a breakthrough to Falaise provided part of a giant smoke screen on the thrust. The regiment continued on in
NW Europe in such places as Boulogne, Calais, The Scheldt, Wortburg, Niemejan, Millimgen, Through Dec 44;
OPERATION VERTITABLE, OPERATION BLOCKBUSTER, OD Aenterwitk, Joune and Bolsward on 16 Apr 45.
The regiment was disbanded on 14 November 1945.

After the war, 78th battery was converted and redesignated: ‘78th Anti-Tank Battery (Self-Propelled), RCA’ and
reallocated to the 41st Anti-Tank Regiment, RCA, on 1 April 1946; ‘78th Medium Battery, RCA’ and reallocated
to the 19th Medium Regiment, RCA, on 1 October 1954; and ‘78th Field Battery, RCA’ and reallocated to the 20th
Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, on 4 December 1964. It currently continues to serve with the Militia as part of the
20th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA.

61st Battery was authorized on 1 May 1936 as the ‘96th Field Battery, RCA’ and allocated to the 20th Field Brigade,
RCA. It was redesignated ‘96th (Reserve) Field Battery, RCA’ on 7 November 1940; and 96 Anti-Tank Battery,
RCA in 1941. The 96 Battery mobilized for active service in October 1941. It together with the 14th, 65th and 3rd
Batteries were to form the 5th Anti-Tank Regiment. On 3 January 42 the 5th AT Regiment sailed in the DUCHESS
OF YORK sailed for England as part of the 5th Armoured Division. By January 1943 all the regiment’s guns
were 6-pdrs and in August 1943, the 96th and 14th Batteries went SP with the new M10’s. The regiment landed
in Normandy in July and suffered many losses from Caen to Calais and from Falaise to the Somme. The 96th
Battery was actively employed in the early stages of the Canal de Ghent (Belgium) crossing. The regiment did

much more fighting and carried out various tasks in addition to their regular AT role. They did infantry and ammo
transportation, armoured recovery, infantry and long range recce partols, field artillery, coastal artillery, engineers
and acted as an anti-airborne group. In garrison they did so many things they redesignated themselves the 5th
“any-task” Regiment. The battery was converted and redesignated ‘96th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery, RCA’ on
1 April 1946. The battery was amalgamated with the 20th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA, and its 61st
and 92nd Heavy Anti-Aircraft Batteries, converted and redesignated ‘96th Independent Medium Battery, RCA’ on
21 September 1954. It was redesignated ‘96th Independent Medium Artillery Battery, RCA’ on 12 April 1960,
converted and redesignated ‘96th Field Battery, RCA’ on 4 December 1964; and ‘61st Field Battery, RCA’ on
1 April 1970.

On 17 October 1961, ‘20th Medium Artillery Regiment, RCA’ was authorized through the reorganization of
the 96th Independent Medium Artillery Battery, RCA into the ‘20th Medium Artillery Regiment, RCA’ and its
95th and 96th Medium Batteries. It was converted and redesignated ‘20th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA’ on
4 December 1964. The regiment currently continues to serve within the Canadian Forces, and consists of the 61st
and 78th Field Batteries.


                                    26th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                               Brandon, MB

The 26th Field Regiment RCA perpetuates a number of units and can be traced to the 99th Manitoba Rangers, which
were organized in April 1908. The Manitoba Rangers, a rifle regiment, consisted of several companies located
throughout communities in Southwestern Manitoba. During the First World War the regiment raised the 45th, 79th
and 181st Battalions of the CEF for overseas duty.

On 2 February 1920, the 37th, 59th, 70th and 71st Batteries CFA were authorized. These batteries were originally to be
located at Portage la Prairie, Fort Williams and Kenora. Following several redesignations and relocations during the
inter-war years, the 37th Field Battery RCA, Portage la Prairie, the 59th and 70th Field Batteries RCA in Brandon and
the 71st Field Battery (How) also in Brandon were “brigaded” to form the 26th Field Brigade RCA on 15 December
1936. Of the four batteries, only the 59th was already organized. The others were organized from personnel from the
Manitoba Rangers, which were disbanded the day before.

During the Second World War all four batteries were mobilized with; the 37th serving in the Italian campaign as a
sub-unit of 17th Field regiment RCA; the 59th serving in a home defence role in Pacific Command as part of 21st
Field Regiment RCA; the 70th converting to light anti-aircraft and serving as part of the 8th LAA Regiment RCA in
North-west Europe; and the 71st serving in the Italian campaign as part of the 8th field Regiment (SP) RCA. On 1
April 1943, the brigade was redesignated 26th (Reserve) Field Regiment RCA. On 1 April 1946, the regiment was
further redesignated 26th Field Regiment (Self-propelled) RCA and organized with the Headquarters, 71st and 159th
Field Batteries (SP) RCA in Brandon and 70th Field Battery (SP) RCA in Fort Francis later relocated in dauphin.
On 1 October 1954, 26th Field Regiment was reorganized with RHQ and 71st Field Battery (SP) RCA in Brandon,
38th Field Battery (SP) RCA in Portage la Prairie (reallocated from 48th Anti-Tank Regiment (SP) RCA) and 70th
Field Battery (SP) RCA in Dauphin.

On 12 April 1960, “Artillery” was added to the unit designation and on 1 November 1964 (SP) was removed from
it. 31 January 1965 saw 26th Field Artillery Regiment expand to five field batteries with the additions of 13th Field
Battery RCA in Virden and 19th Field Battery RCA in Neepawa. Both batteries were relocated to Winnipeg where
they had been part of the 39th Field Regiment RCA, which had been placed on the Supplementary Order of Battle
along with the 12th Manitoba Dragoons in Virden, and Neepawa became the cadre for both batteries. On 31 May
1968, 19 Field Battery RCA was relocated to Brandon. On 1 April 1970, 19th, 38th and 70th Field Batteries RCA
were transferred to the Supplementary Order of Battle. 13th Field Battery RCA was transferred to Portage la Prairie.
26th Field Artillery Regiment RCA currently consists of RHQ and 71 Field Battery RCA in Brandon, and 13th Field
Battery RCA in Portage la Prairie.

26th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA Pipe Band

In the spring of 1947, Captain W. Manson and Captain B. MacKay were appointed by the Commanding Officer,
LCOL S.C. McLennan, to form a band. Captain Manson approached several former members of the Brandon Boys
Pipe Band. The band had since become defunct and many accomplished pipers and drummers readily accepted
Captain Manson’s invitation to form the Regimental Band. Authority was sought and received from King George
VI to officially form the band. On 21 March 1949, 26th Field Regiment (SP) RCA became the first artillery unit in
the British Commonwealth to have an authorized pipe band. The 26th Field Regiment RCA Pipe Band remains in
Brandon and enjoys a solid reputation for the fine quality of music it provides.


                                     30th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                                 Ottawa, ON

The first elements of 30th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, formed as the 2nd Volunteer Militia Field Battery of Ottawa
by the Militia Act on September 27, 1855. It’s nickname, “The Bytown Gunners”, derives from its affiliation with
Ottawa when the city was known as Bytown, in honour of Colonel John By, the builder of the Rideau Canal.
Before the turn of the power by assisting in the collection of taxes from unruly farmers, and the suppressing of
riots and civil disturbances. Members of the unit served during the Fenian Raids of 1860 and 1870, the North-West
(Riel) Rebellion of 1885, and also sent volunteers to serve as part of the Second Canadian Contingent I the South
African War of 1899-1902. Many awards for gallantry and meritorious service were won by unit members during
these conflicts.

The regiment was authorized on 9 May 1905 as ‘8th Brigade of Field Artillery, CA’. It was mobilized in Ottawa
at the beginning of the First World War as the 1st Brigade Canadian Field Artillery (1 CFA), and consisted of the
2nd and 23rd Batteries, and saw service throughout the conflict. The Bytown Gunners were present at many battles.
Among them were; Flanders, Ypres, Festubert, Sanctuary Canal du Nord, and Mons. During the conflict, Ottawa
Gunners won eight Distinguished Service Orders (DSO’s), 13 Distinguished Conduct Medals (DCM’s), 61 Military
Medals (MM’s) as well as 18 foreign decorations. It was while serving with 2nd Battery of 1 CFA as a medical
officer that Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae wrote the famous poem “In Flanders Fields”.

In 1939, at the outbreak of the Second World War, two batteries from Ottawa were mobilized, the 2nd Field Battery,
which fought through Normandy, the Scheldt, the Reichswald, and into Germany, and the 51st Anti-Tank Battery,
which saw action in Sicily, Italy and Holland. In 1941, the 1st Battery was formed as a light anti-aircraft battery and
saw action in NorthWest Europe. Later in the war, the 25th Battery was formed as a training battery and remained
in Canada throughout the war.

In 1946, the unit received its present designation as the “30th Field Regiment, RCA”, incorporating the 1st, 2nd
and 25th Batteries. Since World War II, members of the unit have seen active service in the Korean conflict, and
have served in UN Ops around the world as Reservists with Regular units and most recently fighting the flood
in Manitoba and the ice storm in Eastern Ontario, as well as providing personnel for augmentation of Regular
Force units within Canada.

Today, the regiment consists of Regimental Headquarters (RHQ) Battery, 1st (Training) Battery, and 2nd (Opera-
tional) Battery. In addition to regular training responsibilities, the special occasion such as the Queen’s Official
Birthday, Canada \Day, Remembrance Day, the opening of Parliament, and the arrival and departure of important

The regiment is proud of its tradition of service to Canada and the community of Ottawa, a tradition which has
continued unbroken since its inception 1855.


                                    49th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                            Sault Ste. Marie, ON

In 1802 a detachment of the 49th Regiment of Foot was stationed at Fort St. Joseph. The number designation of
today’s unit is derived from the original Regiment of Foot. In 1862 one rifle company consisting of 3 officers and
81 other ranks was formed under Captain John Davidson in Sault Ste. Marie. At that time, Sault Ste. Marie was
the western end of Upper Canada. In 1865, the first active militia infantry company was formed under Captain
Joseph Wilson. Later, in 1879, this infantry company was divided with 21 men being formed into a half battery
of mountain artillery armed with two 7-pound mountain guns. The remaining 34 men were grouped together into
a half company of infantry.

In 1889, the half company of infantry was raised to company strength becoming No. 6 Company of the 96th District
of Algome Rifles, the RHQ being located in Port Arthur. In 1892, the company of infantry became independent and
at the end of 1892, the half battery of artillery was disbanded.

In 1900, a new Regiment called the 97th Regiment Algonquin Rifles was formed with RHQ in Sault Ste. Marie.
Captain T. H. Elliot was promoted to LCol to command the regiment. The regiment sent volunteers to the South
African War and also furnished aid to the civilian government by quelling a riot in the town of Paper Mill. The
regiment had companies in Thessalon, Sudbury and Sturgeon Falls.

In 1913, the 51st Regiment known as Soo Rifles was formed under LCol S. L. Penhorwood. In October 1914, one
company, 125 all ranks, under Captain J. Johnston preceded to England with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Battalion.
Later in 1915, a second company of 125 men under Captain F. J. Buchanan went overseas with the 19th Battalion
Canadian Expeditionary Forces. This was followed in 1916 by a third detachment from Sault Ste. Marie under
Captain A. G. Tweedie of 150 men joining the 37th Battalion.

Previously, in November 1915, the 119th Battalion was organized under LCol P. T. Rowland. This was followed in
March 1916 by the organization of 227th Battalion organized under LCol C. H. L. Jones. Upon arrival in England,
these battalions were broken up and the men were sent as replacements to other units.

Between the years 1922 and 1936, the Sault Ste. Marie Regiment was formed. In 1936, an alliance was formed with
the Sudbury Regiment to form the Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury Regiment. On the 24th of May 1932, the Sault Ste.
Marie Regiment formed an affiliation with the Royal Hampshire Regiment in England. This affiliation continues to
this day, through the Princess of Wale’s Royal Regiment (Queen’s and Royal Hampshires).

 49th Field Regiment was authorized on 1 April 1946 as ‘58th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment (Sault Ste. Marie and
Sudbury Regiment), RCA’ through the conversion of the 2nd (Reserve) Battalion, The Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury
Regiment. In 1947 the regiment was renumbered as the 49th going through a number of name changes. From 1947
to 1952, it was designated the ‘49th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment (Sault Ste. Marie Regiment), RCA’ and consisted
of three batteries: No’s 30; 148; and 153. The designation was then changed to the 49th (Sault Ste Marie) Medium
Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RCA, then 49th (Sault Ste. Marie) Field Artillery Regiment, RCA in 1962, and redesignated
‘49th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA’ on 22 December 1998.

The regiment was granted the Freedom of the City of Sault Ste. Marie on the 1st of July 1967. On the 1st of April
1970, 153 Battery was transferred to the supplementary order of battle.


                                    56th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA
                                               Brantford, ON

The regiment was formed in Brantford, Ontario on 1 April 1946 as the “56th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment (Dufferin
and Haldimand Rifles), RCA” and consisted of the 54th, 69th, and 169th Light Anti-Aircraft Batteries, the former two
in Brantford and the latter located in Paris, Ontario.

On 1 October 1954 the regiment and its three batteries amalgamated with the 25th Medium Regiment (Norfolk
Regiment), RCA 41st and 42nd Medium Batteries, RCA, to form 56th Field Regiment (Dufferin and Haldimand
Rifles), RCA, with 54th, 69th and 169th Field Batteries, RCA, located in Brantford, Simcoe, and Paris respectively (the
69th having been transferred from Brantford to Simcoe and the 25th Medium Regiment disbanded).

In 1964 the 169th Battery was relocated from Paris to Brantford and then later disbanded in 1970.

On 1 April 1970 the regiment amalgamated with the 57th Field Artillery Regiment (2nd/10th Dragoons), RCA, 10th,
171st and 172nd Field Artillery Batteries, RCA, to form the 56th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, 10th, 54th and 69th
Field Artillery Batteries, RCA, located in St. Catharines, Brantford and Simcoe respectively.

The 10th Battery was formed on 6 December 1861 as the Volunteer Militia Field Battery of Artillery of Port Colborne
and redesignated the 10th (St. Catharines) Battery C. F. A. on 2 February 1920. The 54th Battery was formed as
the 32nd Battery, C. F. A. on 1 April 1912 then later redesignated as the 54th Battery, C. F. A. also on 2 February
1920. On the same date in 1920 the 69th Battery, C. F. A. was authorized but organization was held in abeyance
until 1 December 1937.

The 56th Field Artillery Regiment perpetuates many infantry and cavalry units as well as artillery in the Brant,
Norfolk and Niagara areas of Ontario with colorful histories dating back to the Eighteenth Century with “Captain
Thomas Welsh’s Company of the Regiment of Norfolk Militia”.

In the First World War the 10th Battery was part of the 3rd Brigade of the First Division. The 54th Battery (then
the 32nd Battery) formed the nucleus of the 13th Battery of the 4th Brigade of the Second Division. Both batteries
later became part of the Fourth Division.

In the Second World War the 10th Battery was part of the 2nd Field Regiment in the First Division. The 54th Battery
was first part of 1 RCHA then the 2nd Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment of the First Division. The 69th Battery formed
part of the 4th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment in the Third Division.


                               62e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne, ARC
                                            Shawinigan, QE

Le 62e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne, ARC tire ses origines de la formation en 1920, à Coaticook, de sa
première sous-unité, la 81e Batterie. C’est le 16 décembre 1936, que la 81e Batterie d’Artillerie de Coaticook est
démembrée de son lieu d’origine pour être définitivement implanté dans la ville de Shawinigan avec un effectif
limité à 50 membres.

À l’époque l’entraînement militaire avait lieu au sous-sol du club de curling, près des installations de la Shawinigan
Chemical Co. En 1937, la sous-unité compte déjà 30 hommes, et les cours d’instruction de six semaines débutent
à l’institut de technologie de Shawinigan. Dès l’été 1938, les membres de la 81e Batterie se rendent au camp de
Petawawa pour suivre un entraînement intensif d’une semaine. Les manœuvres et les exercices de tir réel était
exécutés sur des pièces de 18 livres, datant de la première guerre mondiale.

Lorsque la seconde guerre mondiale éclate, la 81e Batterie reçoit comme mission de recruter 134 volontaires de
la région.

Le 19 juillet 1941, la 81e Batterie est intégrée au 14e Régiment d’Artillerie de Petawawa, c’est d’ailleurs avec cette
unité que la 81e Batterie servira pendant tout le reste de la guerre. Le 2 novembre 1945 la 81e Batterie reprend le
chemin de retour mais pendant ce temps, un groupe d’anciens officiers de Shawinigan ayant servis lors de la guerre
au sein de la compagnie «C» du Régiment de Joliette, décident de faire des représentations auprès du député fédéral
M. JA Richard, pour conserver à Shawinigan non plus une sous-unité mais, une unité de la milice canadienne.
Le 1er avril 1946, le département de la Défense Nationale autorise la formation à Shawinigan du : «62th LIGHT

Le nouveau Régiment sera doté de trois batteries anti-avion léger soit : la 81e L.A.A., la 185e L.A.A. et la 186e
L.A.A.; son effectif autorisé dépassera les 200 membres. Le 7 janvier 1963, le régiment revient à son rôle primaire,
celui d’artillerie de campagne. Dorénavant, les artilleurs s’exécuteront sur des obusiers de 105mm C-1. C’est au
cours des années 70 que l’appellation: «62e Régiment d’artillerie de campagne» prend plein pouvoir d’usage. Le
régiment demeure l’une des seules unités d’artillerie à avoir conservé dans son appellation le nom du lieu d’origine
de sa formation.

C’est le 10 mai 1986, après de nombreux pourparlers que le 62e Régiment se voit conférer par la ville de
Shawinigan, le titre et le privilège du Droit de Cité.

Depuis les dix dernières années, le régiment a acquis une renommée très enviable à travers tout le Canada en
remportant en 1991, le prestigieux trophée Shelburst Valley. Ce trophée est remis à l’unité d’artillerie qui s’est
illustré aux compétitions de tir.

En avril 1996, suite à une étude sur la restructuration de la Réserve, notre unité quittait le District numéro 2 du
Québec pour joindre la toute nouvelle formation, le Quartier général du 35e Groupe Brigade du Canada. C’est
d’ailleurs au cours de cette même année que le régiment soulignait son 50e anniversaire.

C’est en septembre 1998, après plusieurs années d’attente, que le Quartier général de la défense nationale annonçait
que le 62e RAC serait doté d’un nouveau manège militaire qui sera situé tous près de l’ancien.


                                    84th Independent Field Battery, RCA
                                               Yarmouth, NS

During the war of 1812-1814, between England and the United Stated, some raiders appeared on the coast near
Yarmouth and on one of the landings one of the inhabitants was killed. For their protection the people of Yarmouth
formed a Company of Militia volunteers, with a headquarters at Bunker Island, in Yarmouth Harbour. This island
was frequently used as a training ground later on.

Yarmouth has the distinction of having formed the first Company of rifle volunteers, in what is now the Dominion
of Canada. They also received the first “Issue of Arms” on July 29, 1857. Captain J. W. H. Rowley, whose
commission bears the date of 1859, then commanded this company.         In the report of the 100th celebration of the
founding of Yarmouth, which took place on 10 June 1861, the Artillery Company firing a salute ushered the day in.
          In celebration of the Coronation of Queen Victoria on June 28, 1838, the Yarmouth Artillery Company
fired a salute from the Blockhouse on Milton Heights and also from Bunker Island. His Excellency the Earl of
Musgrave arrived in Yarmouth aboard the HMS Gladiator on September 7, 1861, for the purpose of inspecting
the Volunteer Rifle Company.

The company was authorized on 4 October 1878 as the Yarmouth Battery of Garrison Artillery. On August 12,
1880, a Guard of Honour was formed by the artillery company upon the arrival of his Excellency the Marquis of
Lorne, at Yarmouth. The Quarterly Militia List of Canada, July 1st, 1899, shows this unit as being No. 8 Company,
Garrison Artillery, 2nd Division, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. This Company of Garrison Artillery formed a Guard of
Honour during the visit to Yarmouth of Lord and Lady Aberdeen August 27th 1894.            A copy of the Service roll
1892 shows the manning to be; 3 officers, 4 senior NCO’s, 2 Cpls, 2 Bombadiers and 27 gunners.

In 1912 Service roll, the unit is listed as 29th Battery, 11th Brigade, C.F.A. This unit was continued as the 29th
Field Battery, C.F.A. until December 1st 1920 at which time it was reorganized as the 84th Field Battery (How)
of the 14th Brigade, C.F.A.

During the war 1914-1918, the personnel of the Yarmouth Battery served overseas with many different units, many
of them with distinction. The mobilization of the 84th Battery was authorized 20 January 1916, as the 49th Battery, C.
F. A. and was recruited in St. Catherines, Ontario. On the 12th of October 1916, the Privy Council Orders changed
the unit designation to 84th Battery, C. F. A. The battery was mobilized in Toronto Militia District, and preceded to
Camp Petawawa for training. After three months of extensive fieldwork the battery was moved to Amherst, Nova
Scotia. On the 11th of September1916, the battery embarked from Halifax on board the “S.S. Cameronia”, and sailed
for England on the 15th of September 1916, arriving at Liverpool on 22nd September 1916. It was organized as
part of the 12th Brigade, C. F. A. until the 6th of October that year when the designation was changed to the 16th
Brigade, C. F. A. Then on the 22nd of January 1917 the battery was split up into drafts, one half being absorbed
into the 82nd Battery and the other half into the 83rd Battery of the 15th Brigade, C. F. A. Both batteries arrived
in France in the 20th of March 1917.

After the war the 84th Howitzer Battery was re-organized with the HQ at Yarmouth. The unit strength at this time
was 7 Officers and 70 other ranks. For the first couple of years training commenced at the Yarmouth Armories
on June 19th 1922. On the 20th of June the unit with 36 all ranks went to Camp Petawawa for annual training.
During the period of 1922-1939 the battery carried out local training as well participation in annual artillery practice
camps at Camp Petawawa. As participants in gunners’ competitions and sport events the battery won numerous

trophies and awards. Also members of the unit participated in many ceremonial parades and inspections. One
of note is one OR was selected to attend the Coronation of King George VI at London England. The selected
soldier was BSM JW Breen.

Then under G. O. 92-1939 the unit was converted to the 6th Anti-Aircraft Battery RCA effective June 1st 1939.
During this re-organization 14th Field Regiment located its HQ at Yarmouth and “87” Battery at Kentville, and
88th Battery at Windsor. On September 1st 1939 orders were received by telegraph to mobilize the 6th AA Battery
to full peace establishment. In Jul 1940 soldiers were recruited and trained for overseas duty with 87th and 88th
Batteries. This unit was equipped with 18-pounders and had numerous personnel from Yarmouth. The 87th and
88th Batteries were re-organized as 88th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery, and equipped with 40mm Bofors. It formed
part of the 1st Canadian Armored Division and was in action in the Battle of Britain and later in the Italian and
Belgium theatres.

In 1942 NDHQ decided it was necessary for the Reserve Army in Nova Scotia to have Artillery support and the 14th
Field Regiment (M) was formed with its HQ at Yarmouth and 52nd Battery at Lockport, 84th Battery at Yarmouth
and the 87th Battery at Dartmouth. The Battery was issued 18-pounders and training commenced. As the opening of
the British Front in Europe had apparently put to an end to any possible attempt of the enemy to land troops in this
country, LCol O.E. Dyke submitted a recommendation to reserve HQ that in interest to the economy the 14th Field
Regiment RCA (M) be disbanded. Effective 21 January 1944 the unit became dormant.

A few points to note during the war years, the West NS Regiment had D Company in Yarmouth to provide a
Home Guard, and in 1940 the Canadian Army (Basic) Training Center was set up in Yarmouth and it is said that
approximately 10 000 troops trained here.

On April 1st 1946 the 14th Field regiment RCA (M) was reformed with the HQ and 84th Battery at Yarmouth, 152nd
Battery at Shelburne and 133rd Battery at Liverpool. The Regiment was equipped with 25-pounders. At this time all
of the officer’s have all had Active service experience, and all three services are represented; Navy, Army, and Air
Force. This proved beneficial in their training as artillery Officers.

On 30 June 1968, the 14th Field regiment was disbanded and 84th Independent Field Battery, RCA was formed.


                                   16th Independent Field Battery, RCA
                                               Kenora, ON

The history of the Canadian military in Northwestern Ontario dates back to just prior to 1885 “Reil Rebellion”,
when No. “3” Company, 96th District of Algoma Rifles, commanded by Captain Angus Carmichael, marched into
Rat Portage (now Kenora, Ontario). This infantry unit was formed with two-fold purpose. First, to provide a
military presence in order to prevent an anticipated native uprising in support of Riel, and to provide some measure
of support to the local law enforcement agencies in a town which had the reputation of being Canada’s “Dodge
City”. On both counts, the unit was successful, its presence dropping the incidence of railway sabotage on the newly
constructed Canadian Pacific Railway to nil upon its arrival, and between 1885 and 1912, being called out a total
of 37 times to quell riots and disturbances in the Kenora, Fort Francis and Rainy River areas, including the 1896
U.S.-Canada and 1908 Ontario-Manitoba boundary disputes.

The unit saw a number of changes in name prior to World War One, being redesignated “3” Company, 96th Lake
Superior Regiment on 3 July 1905, and the Kenora-Rainy River Regiment on 1 April 1908, with headquarters
alternating between Kenora, Fort Francis and Rainy River, Ontario. During World War I, the regiment formed the
recruiting base for two C.E.F. numbered battalions, the 94th and 141st. Neither battalion ever saw combat as a unit,
as both were broken up for replacements upon their arrival in Europe, but both were notable for other reasons. The
94th was the only battalion to be broken up due to the result of a coin-toss between Commanding Officers for the
right to fight as a unit, and the 141st (nicknamed the Bull Moose due to their average size) was composed primarily
of native Canadians and American volunteers.

Following WWI, the series of reorganizations that took place in the Canadian Military saw the formation of the
Kenora Light Infantry on 1 September 1921, with headquarters and “A” Company in Kenora and “D” Company
in Rainy River. This unit lasted until 15 December 1936, when in a sweep of upward mobility, the regiment
was transformed into 16 Battery (Howitzer) RCA, part of the 7 Medium Brigade RCA, equipped with 4.5-inch
Howitzers. In 1939, the local militia unit became a recruiting and training unit and its personnel formed the cadres
of 3 Canadian active service force regiments, the 17th and 24th Field, and the 2nd Medium. The 17th distinguished
itself in Italy and Northern Europe, the 24th was part of 7th Division on west coast defense, and took part in the
Greenlight force landings on Kiska in the Aleutians. The 2nd Medium was employed throughout the Northwestern
Europe Campaign.

116 Battery was authorized on 1 April 1946 as the ‘116th Medium Battery, RCA’ through the amalgamation of
the 16th (Reserve) Medium Battery, RCA, and the 209th (Reserve) Field Battery, RCA’ and allocated to the 40th
Medium Regiment, RCA, with RHQ and 116 Battery in Kenora, “A” Troop in Dryden, and 118 Battery in Port
Arthur. The battery in Fort Francis was attached to 26 Field Regiment as 70 Battery (S.P.). In 1955, yet another
organizational change took place, with 118 Battery being withdrawn on 1 January and the battery in Fort Francis
now redesignated 121 Medium, being added on 25 March of the same year. In 1965, during the massive cuts in
Canadian Military establishments, the Regiment was redesignated 40 Field Regiment, RCA, and the sub-units in Port
Arthur, Fort Francis and Dryden were disbanded. Only political intervention prevented the same from happening to
Kenora. In 1968, a further redesignation occurred, this time to 116th Independent Field Battery, RCA, a title it holds
to this date. Like most of Canada’s militia, the 1960’s and 70’s saw a series of low ebbs for Northwestern Ontario’s
artillery unit, but since 1977 there has been a steady improvement in training standards and numbers, culminating
in capturing the Independent Battery Competition title in 1986-87 and 1987-88. The Battery currently draws people
from as far afield as Sioux Lookout, Dryden, Fort Francis and Rainy River, giving this unit the largest geographical
and yet the smallest population area of any Canadian Militia unit.


                 1st Air Defence Regiment (Lanark and Renfrew Scottish), RCA
                                        Pembroke, ON
The Militia Act of 1855 authorized the formation of a number of volunteer militia companies in Canada. Six such
companies were raised throughout the Lanark and Renfrew counties: Almonte - Dec 5, 1862; Brockville - Dec11,
1862; Perth - Jan 16, 1863; Fitzroy - Jan 16, 1863; Lansdowne - Jun 15, 1866; Smith Falls - Jun 22, 1866. On 5
Oct 1866 these independent companies were concentrated into one unit bearing the title of “42nd Brockville Battalion
of Infantry”. In 1870 the Battalion sent one officer with the Red River Expedition which was sent to Manitoba to
see action in the Northwest Rebellion. The Battalion also supplied 24 officers and 273 NCO’s and men to enlist
“to serve Queen and Country” during the Fenian Raids. From 1871 until 1896 reduced funding severely curbed
the training of militia. Nevertheless the battalion continued to excel at musketry and drill. On 1 Dec 1897 the
battalion’s name was changed to “42nd Lanark and Renfrew Battalion of Infantry” and then on 8 May 1900 was once
again re-designated as the “Lanark and Renfrew Regiment”.

In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, the Lanark and Renfrew Regiment was one of many Canadian Regiments
that hadn’t seen nor felt any wartime service against a foreign enemy. The peacetime officers and men would soon
become part of the CEF. However soon was not good enough for some. Men from both Lanark and Renfrew
counties, some who had served with the peacetime militia, became eager to fight and thus the Lanark and Renfrew
Regiment helped contribute men with peacetime militia experience to the 2nd, the 13th, the 21st, the 38th, the 77th
and the 80th Battalions. CEF LCol J.F. deHertel and 572 other officers and men were the first militia from the two
counties to be mobilized as a unit. LCol deHertel CO of the 130th Lanark and Renfrew Overseas Battalion served in
Northwest Europe until the end of the war. Towards the end of the war a second battalion was formed and sent into
active service. LCol E.J. Watt and 374 officers and men were formed into the 240th Battalion CEF. By the end of
the war the officers and men of the 130th and 240th Battalion had won seven major Battle Honours. The 130th took
part in countless small skirmishes, battles and patrols until the end of the war. Whether in major battles or minor
skirmishes, the officers and men served gallantly.

The regiment suffered a gradual decline along with the rest of the Canadian Army as Ottawa reduced spending
over the years. The Regiment still managed to parade and train despite limited resources. On 15 July 1927, the
regiment was designated as a highland infantry unit and once more renamed. The unit’s official title was now the
“Lanark and Renfrew Scottish Regiment”. With the kilts and tartans came the twinning with its sister Regiment
in the UK - the Black Watch. With a renewed sense of pride, the regiment continued to train until the flames of
war swept over Europe once again.

The 1st Battalion was mobilized for active duty on 5 May 1942 and was employed on home defence until disbanded
on 15 Oct 1943. The Overseas Battalion designated as such on 12 Jul 1944 had been previously designated 1st
LAA Regiment and was organized on 1 Feb 1941. It was composed of the 35th, 89th and 109th Light Anti-Aircraft
Batteries. The regiment arrived in Augusta, Sicily on 8 Nov 1943 and proceeded to Messina where it remained until
Jan 1944. It arrived at Reggin, Italy on 8 Jan 1944 and was re-organized as infantry and was re-designated “The
Lanark and Renfrew Scottish Regiment”. The regiment served at San Guistina, the Rubicone, and Savio Rivers.
The regiment participated in operations at Ortona, crossed the Naviglio Canal and secured the next one, — the
Munio. There they had a stiff encounter with the enemy’s powerful machine guns and artillery, resulting in many
casualties. As a component of the 12th Cdn Inf Bde, it participated in operations at San Guistina, the Ribicone and
Savio Rivers. The regiment landed in France on 5 Mar 1945 and moved to Lozer, Belgium. It was re-designated 1st
LAA Regiment and moved to Ostend, Belgium. In May of 1945 it moved into Holland. On VE Day the regiment
was located in the area of Ede. Members of the regiment were returned to Canada later that summer. Total Battle
Casualties during World War II were 530 of which 139 were fatal.

As a peacetime militia unit the Regiment was again re-designated as a LAA Unit. The 59th LAA Regiment (Lanark
and Renfrew Scottish) continued to serve in its two Home Counties recruiting and training civilians as part-time
soldiers and full time Canadians. During this time the 59th trained at Picton, Petawawa, Ottawa and various locations
within the two counties. The main weapon used by the 59th was the 40mm AA gun. During thirteen years as
Gunners, the 59th varied from RCA tradition by wearing a distinctive shoulder patch of Black Watch tartan in the
shape of the Lanark and Renfrew Scottish Regiment’s old hat badge.

Yet another reorganization of the Militia was planned and implemented in 1959. Throughout the latter months of
1959 many units across Canada received orders which either disbanded Regiments totally, reduced them to zero
strength or reorganized them. On 5 Oct 1966 the Lanark and Renfrew Scottish Regiment celebrated its 100th
birthday. After months of individual company training and several weeks of collective Regimental training 500 all
ranks marched to Centennial Park in Pembroke to receive its new Colours from the Governor-General, the Right
Honorable George P. Vanier. The Centennial Year 1967 was a year for many celebrations throughout the country.
Once again the Regiment started to rebuild and recover from the loss of the old timers. Roles were changing again.
Early in 1968 more cuts were announced that would again drastically hurt and almost kill the Regiment.

 The Regimental Birthday of 1992 also saw the regiment becoming Anti-Aircraft (Air Defence) again. It’s new
name was 1st Air Defence Regiment (Lanark and Renfrew Scottish), RCA. Two batteries were formed under our old
numbers, 89th and 109th. The regiment was equipped with the Javelin SAM system. The unit also became a Total
Force Unit that integrated both Reg F and Res F into the same unit. In the spring of 1994 the unit was detached
from Ottawa District (now 33 CBG) to under command of the SSF (now 2 CMBG) in CFB Petawawa. New modern
equipment is coming at a fast pace requiring extra buildings to store it all. Currently, the Regiment is an integral part
of 2 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group. As part of 2 CMBG, the regiment has had members serve in Bosnia as
well as other UN/NATO operations, such as Rwanda and the Central African Republic. It has also participated in the
Winnipeg flood and the Ontario Ice Storm relief efforts.


World War I 1914 - 1918    World War II 1939 - 1945
SOMME - 1916               CORIANO
ARRAS - 1917               MISANO RIDGE
YPRES - 1917                      CASALE
ARRAS - 1918               NAVIGLIO CANAL
AMIENS                            ITALY - 1944 - 1945


                                        18th Air Defence Regiment, RCA
                                                 Lethbridge, AB

Lethbridge is the birthplace of all of the artillery batteries currently embodied in the 41st Canadian Brigade Group
artillery units. It is also the original home of 33FES (known as 6 Field Park Squadron from May 1941 until 1 Apr
46) and was at one time the home of HQ 8th FER.

On 1 Feb 1908 Militia Orders gave the authority for the formation of 25 Battery, CFA in Lethbridge. The unit
was part of MD No. 13, commanded by Col Sam Steele. At the time it had the unique honour of being known
as the westernmost battery of horse or field artillery in the British Empire. In 1912 it became part of the 5th
Mounted Brigade.

World War One saw four more batteries of artillery raised in Lethbridge, the 20th Overseas (OS) Battery on 7 Nov
14, the 39th OS Battery on 11 Aug 15, the 78 Overseas Depot Battery on 22 Jan 16 and the 61st OS Battery on 26
Feb 16. All of these saw service overseas except for the 78th which remained in Lethbridge to train replacements.
The 20th and 39th Batteries arrived in France in early 1916 and supported the fighting almost continuously thereafter,
most notably in the battles of the Somme 1916, Flers -Courcelette, Vimy 1917, Hill 70, Passchendaele, Amiens, and
Mons. The 61st Battery joined them from Hill 70 on. Of particular note is that 39th Battery had the honour of being
the first field artillery battery to enter Mons.

After the war the batteries returned to Lethbridge in 1919 but shortly thereafter suffered from the first of numerous
reorganizations. This reorganization, which took effect on 2 Feb 20 saw 25th Battery re-designated 20th Battery CEF,
it also saw the formation of 18th Field Artillery Brigade based in Lethbridge with two batteries, the 20th and 39th.
The 61st and 78th Batteries became part of the 20th Field Artillery Brigade (now 20th Field Regiment) headquartered
in Edmonton, with 61st Field Battery in Edmonton and the 78th Field Battery in Red Deer. On 1 Feb 21 93rd Field
Battery was formed in Fort Macleod. 39th Battery moved from Lethbridge to Pincher Creek on 15 Feb 36 and
returned to Lethbridge 15 Sep 38. 1 Jan 37 saw the formation of the 112th Field Battery also in Lethbridge, which
also became part of the 18th Field Artillery Brigade.

Only the 20th and 112th Batteries saw service in the Second World War as formed units. The 20th became an anti-tank
battery as part of 2 AT Regiment, 2 Cdn Div. They landed in France in the Banville area on 7 Jul 44. The 112th
Battery was re-designated light anti-aircraft and fought as part of 6 LAA Regiment. Their first service saw them
deployed to Prince Rupert in June 42, and shortly thereafter to Annette Island, off the Alaska Coast where they
remained until Sep 42. They were shipped overseas on 30 Oct 42 and landed in France on 9 Jul 44 in the area
of Banville. Both batteries saw service until the end of the war, with 112th Battery being disbanded on 24 Jun 45.
39th Battery was mobilized in Sep 41 and served with 21st Field Regiment, 6th Div (HD). The regiment moved
to Westminster BC in Dec 41 and 39th Battery manned coastal defence positions at Otter River and Jordan Point
until May 43. The 21st Regiment was shipped overseas on 26 Aug 43 and disbanded for reinforcements on 11
Oct 43. The 93rd Battery from Fort Macleod was not activated during the war, although a number of their soldiers
joined 17th LAA Battery, 3rd LAA Regiment when it was formed in Calgary on 28 Sep 40 and some likely took
part in the Dieppe raid in 42.

18th Field Artillery Brigade was stood down in Sep 42 and 2/20th Battery was the only remaining artillery unit in
Lethbridge. It fulfilled a role similar to that of the 78th Battery in the previous war, training recruits and officers for
service overseas. The 18th Field Bde re-appeared in Lethbridge in Aug 46 as 18th Field Regiment with the 20th and
39th Batterys in Lethbridge, the 93rd Battery in Fort Macleod and later the 107th Battery in Cranbrook, BC. By the
1950s the 93rd Battery had expanded to include F Tp/93rd Battery in Pincher Creek, with strength of 50-60 soldiers.

In 1958 a Militia inspection parade was held in Lethbridge. Some 500 reserve soldiers from several Lethbridge
based units paraded under the command of CO 8th FER. As a result of the ensuing confusion over roles for the
militia and funding reductions, Lethbridge suffered heavily during the reorganizations which took place between
1964 and 1 Apr 70. So much so that on 1 Apr 70 the only military presence that was left in Lethbridge was 20th
Independent Field Battery, RCA the sole survivor of 18th Field Regiment.

And so it remained until 10 Nov 92, when 20th Independent Field Battery was re-designated 18th AD Regiment,
with two batteries the 20th and 39th, the latter which was not manned due to insufficient resources and funding. The
official re-roling ceremony took place on 15 May 93. The regiment’s role was also unique in Western Area, since
it was given the operational role of providing a VSHORAD Battery to sp 1 CMBG on OP SABRE and that of
providing a Tp, (now Sect) in support of the AMF(L) (now IRF(L)) as well as the task of supporting 1 CMBG’s
training with a VSHORAD Battery. Since then, the regiment has steadily increased in capability and size, and is
working hard to re-establish its ties with the Southern Alberta communities which were its base in the past, as well
as the remaining communities surrounding Lethbridge. Our current recruiting and activity basin is bounded in the
West by the Community of Crowsnest Pass, to the North by Claresholm and Picture Butte, to the East by Taber
and to the South by the Canada-US Border.

Armouries included:                 Maj Stewart’s (First BC) home at 631 8th St S from 1908 - 1910
                                    Mr Roy’s barn behind 1212 4th Ave S from 1910 - 1920
                                    Henderson Garage (corner of 6 Ave S & 6th St S) 1920 - 1946
                                    Kenyon Field 1946 - Present


                                  The Royal Canadian Artillery Band
                                           Edmonton, AB

The band of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery traces its roots to Quebec City. In 1879, the “B” Battery band
of the Royal Canadian Artillery (a permanent force unit), became the first permanent military band based in Canada.
The band was comprised of professionally trained musicians from England and France, and was a concert favourite
of Quebecers. In 1899 this band became the Royal Canadian Artillery Band.

The band has been stationed in several cities in the last century, including Quebec, Montreal, Halifax, and
Edmonton. Active in both world wars and the Korean conflict, the band has seen service in many parts of the
world, as well as all over Canada. The band has been re-formed three times - 1947, 1968, and 1994 in keeping
with rationalizations of the Canadian Forces. In the last seven years, the band has participated in the “Canada
Remembers” program (1994-95), commemorating Canada’s contribution to the Second World War. This took the
band to Asia, England, Holland and Belgium. The band moved briefly from Montreal to Valcartier in 1996, and in
December 1997, was officially welcomed to the Edmonton by then Garrison Commander Col JJ Selbie.

Since arriving in Edmonton, the band has performed extensively in the local area. In addition to normal military
duties, the band performs regularly at schools and concert halls in town, plus in street parades such as Klondike
Days. The band has already made two local television appearances, and taken a musical role in many high-profile
ceremonies in the city. In the past two years, the band has represented LFWA in California, Colorado, Quebec,
Ottawa, and South Korea. The band tours often to bases within LFWA, performing military engagements, and tours
to all parts of Alberta to play school concerts. This 35 piece brass and reed ensemble takes pride in representing
LFWA and the Canadian Forces at home and abroad.


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