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Colonies in the Wilderness


  • pg 1
									Colonies in the
                My Boy Life
   Read My Boy Life on pg 3-8.
   When finished answer questions 2 and 3.
   At the beginning of the 19th Century, Canada looked
    nothing like the country it would become.
   The West was less attractive than the US because of
    the weather, and terrain.
   Upper Canada’s population was growing after the end
    of the War of 1812.
       Mainly immigrant from Europe and the US trying to take
        advantage of the cheap land.
   Lower Canada was also prospering as a result of ties
    with Britain and England.
       Many Natives in the region were dying from the
        introduction of diseases from Europe, and were being
        forced off good farm land by the new settlers.
   It was around this same time that the US was viewed as a
    threat and enemy to Canada.
   Much the same as today, Canada has many interactions with
    the US.
       Many of the early settlers come from the US to Canada.
       Trade was, and has become a important thing.
   As a result of different invasions on Canada in the American
    Revolution, and the War of 1812, Canadian ties with the
    British Empire were strengthened.
   Many of the leaders in communities around Canada were
    members of the loyalist families, pensioned British army
    officers, or other members of the gentry.
   It was the continuous American threat that helped Canada to
    see themselves as being different.
       This helped to foster a Canadian national identity.
   Ruling class of Upper and Lower Canada moved to acquire
    wealth and power, and to try and keep the American style
    government out.
        Britain was trying to copy their society in Canada through the colonies.
             This had gentry with large estates.
        The US immigrants believed more in equal opportunity.
        Immigrants from the British Isles were upset as well because they come
         to Canada hoping to escape the rigid class system of the home land.
   As a result of the differing views, it set the stage for violent
    confrontations between the classes.
        i.e. the French in Lower Canada were upset with the English ruling
        Rebellion eventually broke out in both Upper and Lower Canada.
                Canada: The Land
   Canada is a Northern country which lies primarily
    between 50 and 70 degrees north latitude.
   Many Canadians live in towns and cities that are
    close to the border.
       Most of the population lives within 200 miles of the US
       Most settled here because of the warmer weather and closer
        proximity to the US.
   The land mass of Canada is extremely vast.
   It is the second largest nation on earth with a total
    land area of 9,916,140 square km.
Canada: The Land
Canada: The Land
                  Canada: The Land
   Crossing Canada takes
       It is as far from
        Vancouver to Toronto as
        it is from Vancouver to
        Canada’s north.
       To drive the Trans-
        Canada Highway you
        would see a variety of
        different things.
            Read pg 12-13 of your
             text book.
            The Land of Yesterday
   The geography of Canada has always played a role in
    the making of its history.
   After the War of 1812, settlers poured into Upper
    Canada attracted by rich and relatively inexpensive
   Montreal began to attract Scottish and American
       Montreal was Lower Canada’s trading capital.
   The Maritimes was well settled and stable.
       It was the shipbuilding center for Canada, and traded with
        Britain and New England.
       Newfoundland prospered on a economy based on fish, and
            The Land of Yesterday
   By 1800, about 16,000 people lived along the coast of
    Newfoundland fishing for a living.
   From northern Labrador to the Rocky Mountains, the
    Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) claimed all the land
    that drained by rivers into the Hudson Bay.
       The HBC was in competition with the North West
        Company for control over the southern fur trade, and trade
        beyond the Rockies.
   Russians and Americans, and some Spanish, claimed
    control over the coast of BC.
       The HBC began to set up post wherever it could to help
        gain control.
              The Land of Yesterday
   Most that come to British North America come to farm.
   The soils in Upper Canada were very fertile, and the forest
    produced timber hard woods that were very attractive.
   Most wanted to settle close to the US and along the
       These were most desirable for the reasons of trade.
       This land was all south of present day Barrie, Ontario.
       To the north the Canadian Shield made agriculture hard.
       The woodlands south of Georgian Bay were often rock strewn with a
        climate that did not work with agriculture.
       It took days to travel, and places 50km away were considered to be
            This is why the settlement near the waterways was in high demand. It
             made travel and transport of goods easier.
The Land of Yesterday
           Land for the Fur Trade
   Most accepted the fact that lands west and
    north of the Great Lakes was land reserved for
    the fur trade.
   1820, probably less that a dozen people lived
    west of the Great Lakes that were not Métis,
    Native, or involved in the fur trade.
       Most aboriginal people were involved in the fur
        trade in some way or another.
       Those who did want to settle and farm in the West
        did not because the aboriginals and fur traders
        prevented it.
           Land for the Fur Trade
   Pioneers wanted boundaries, surveys, roads, canals,
    schools, and land of their own.
       This conflicted with the cultures, lifestyles, and economy
        of the westerners.
       Fur traders become the natural allies of the aboriginals
        against settlement.
   Furs had been a precious commodity in Europe and
    Asia ever since the first was brought back in the 16th
   At the beginning of the 19th Century, the two rival fur
    trading companies (HBC and NWC) were in a
    struggle until they merged in 1821.
   There were independent traders, but only the big
    companies with monopolies made money.
             Land for the Fur Trade
   The largest company was the HBC.
       They had a royal charter, and a government
        monopoly which gave them exclusive rights to
        trade furs in the territory.
       They could and did punish anyone trading in the
       At one point the monopoly was threatened by the
        French until the fall of New France in 1763.
            Scots took up the old French networks as the
             “Montrealers”, and then the NWC.
            They tried to break the HBC monopoly.
Land for the Fur Trade
                 Upper Canada
   In the early 19th Century, Upper Canada was the most
    under developed and new colony in British North
   During the War of 1812, it was almost lost to the
    Americans who made up the largest group of settlers.
   Transportation was difficult with few road, most just
    being just tracks through the bush.
   York was the capital, and places that were 30 or 40
    km away were considered to be remote.
   Forest cover was heavy with great giant oak, walnut,
    ash, hickory, and maple trees.
                     Upper Canada
York, Upper Canada
                      Upper Canada
   The natives had occupied the lands prior to
    settlement for thousands of years.
       Even with this being the case the European settlers
        seen Upper Canada as the wilderness.
   For a settler, the first task was clearing the
       Normally it was only one hectare per year that
        could be cleared.
            This meant it would take a family 20 or more years to
             clear a 25 hectare farm. That is only a little bigger than
             a city block.
                       Upper Canada
   To live in Upper Canada in 1820 was quite a bit
    different than now.
       The land was quite.
            Animals, steam powered saw mills, or a black smith working would
             have been considered loud.
       Fiddlers and musical instruments on occasion for
        celebrations and parties was a treat.
       People made it common to help ones neighbours.
       People looked forward to going to church, or being visited
        by a traveling clergy member.
       Some small communities started schools and would hire a
        teacher paying them in food and shelter.
Upper Canada
         Life was difficult and
         It took years to set up
          crops that would
          produce a surplus.
             Most left overs were
              used to pay off the debt
              acquired by the family
              with merchants.
             Many mortgaged there
              crops to get supplies.
    The Importance of Social Class
   Social class and financial means would often
    determine how an immigrant reacted to the
    experience of moving to Upper Canada.
   Even so, Upper Canada had a way of levelling
    the playing field.
       Many aristocrats or pensioned off army officers
        would come to settle, but later found that they
        were the ones doing most of the back breaking
       Servants and cheap labour were hard to come by.
            In Europe the overpopulation and lack of labour laws
             aloud for poor people to work for nothing.
    The Importance of Social Class
   The servants allowed for the upper class to live
    separate from the lower class people, but this was not
    the case in Canada.
   Settlers asked neighbours for help no matter who they
    were, and socialized with all.
   Some still felt connected to their homeland in Britain,
    ad some maintained very close ties with them.
   Educated people were interested in English culture.
       Many seen themselves as English people settled in a new
    The Importance of Social Class
   Read The Family Compact on pg 19.
             The Problem of Land
   Almost everyone who come to Upper Canada had an
    interest in farming.
   Most wanted to have land and be freehold farmers on
   Others were engaged in farm support services like
    black smithing, wagon making
   When many came they soon found out that much of
    the land was already taken up by absentee landowners
    and speculators.
       This was not what was expected as a result of the
        advertising campaigns that were in Europe pleading for
        people to come to get good cheap farm land, with easy
        access to towns and markets.
               The Problem of Land
   The problems associated with the land and the lack of road
    created hardship for many that come over.
       It affected everybody, including those of the privileged class.
   It was the problems with land that led to the dissatisfaction
    with the colonial government, and was a major cause of the
    Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada.
   Many land speculators were members of the Family Compact,
    and as a result they profited immensely.
       They gathered the prime land in the south close to the Great Lakes and
       With the laws of supply and demand, less good land available to buy
        raised the price of the good land that was for sale by the speculators.
       Crown and clergy reserves also raised problems of land availability.
        Clergy and Crown Reserves
   Crown and clergy reserves were blocks of land set
    aside to provide income through sale or rent for the
    government and for the Anglican Church.
   2/7 of all land in Upper Canada was clergy or crown
       i.e. pg 21, Figure 1-13.
   Most of the land laid idle, and was scattered
    throughout the townships.
       As a result, they blocked road development because
        nobody could use the land.
   The reserves also tied up much of the arable land
    available, and because of supply and demand, the
    land was worth a lot of money.
The Role of the British Government
   Problems in Upper Canada were partly a result of the British
    government wanting to recreate the British model of
   In England, it was a land of large estates and they were
    controlled by aristocrats because the government believed they
    were best fit to rule the country.
       For those in Canada, they were believed to be the ones best fit to
        maintain strong ties with the British Empire.
   Others had views that opposed the idea of aristocrat
    ownership, especially the views of farmers coming from the
       They believed that success should come from ones own efforts, and
        that the British way was discriminatory and un-democratic.
       This was true.
The Role of the British Government
                    Britain did not want the new
                     colonists to be able to adopt
                     American attitudes and
                        This was because the 13
                         colonies had rebelled against
                        i.e. primary sources on pg. 21.
                    The plans of the British
                     were first implemented by
                     governor John Graves
                        He was the first governor of
                         Upper Canada.
The Role of the British Government
   It proved difficult to attract many aristocrats to
    the backwoods of Upper Canada, but many
    retired army officers were interested.
       They were members of the gentry.
   English law favoured the first born son of the
       He would receive the bulk of the state when the
        landowner died.
       Younger sons joined the army or church, and many
        would not become major landowners in Britain.
       Canada was different.
The Role of the British Government
   In Canada, thousands of hectares of land were
    available to take up and develop.
   The government allowed land company’s like the
    Canada Company to buy up large amounts of land at
    very low prices.
       The acquired 1 million hectares of land for £295,000
        pounds over 16 years.
       The company was responsible for attracting settlers.
   Many speculators could double their money in ten
   1815, almost 50% of the best farm land in western
    Upper Canada was owned by land speculators.
        The Immigrant Experience
   Nobody could have been prepared for the waves of immigrants
    who arrived at the close of the War of 1812.
       Most settled in Upper Canada.
       Others settled in Lower Canada in the eastern townships between
        Quebec and Montreal.
   The St. Lawrence Corridor was unavailable.
       The seigneurial system that had been around for generations was still in
        play here.
   Some along the Grand River in Upper Canada had to be
    vigilant for their land so it would not be sold by the British.
       This was mainly the Six Nations leaders.
       Other Native leaders signed treaties in attempts to secure territory for
        their people.
   The surveyors always come around before the settlers to
    divide the land into townships, and lay out the routes of future
        The Immigrant Experience
   Most immigrants come from Great Britain or the US.
       Some did come from European countries.
   Most were wooed with the promises of cheap, fertile
    land, close to towns and markets.
   The advertising was embellished with colourful
    posters that exaggerated things.
   For most the rude awakening began with the journey
    across the Atlantic.
   The move to Canada was a costly adventure, as well
    as emotional for those involved.
       Some spent all their money on the trip and a couple of
        years supplies for when they got here.
        The Immigrant Experience
   The new settlers had to be ready for long separations
    from family and friends if they were going to make it.
   It was approx. one month to travel across the Atlantic
    by ship to Canada.
       Many did not survive this journey across.
       Most assumed they would not see their loved ones back in
        Europe or Britain again.
   Many who embarked on the journey of a new life
    were brave and resolute, but also sometime desperate.
       Especially the poor people who came in the coffin ships.
The Immigrant Experience
The Immigrant Experience
                 Deadly Journeys
   The overpopulation in Britain with both the cities and
    countryside brought many new immigrants to
   It was the poor tenant farms from Ireland and
    Scotland that come as a result to have a chance to
    own land ad a farm.
   The ability to escape the old class system attracted
   Many who come over did not have much money to
    their name, so many come over in the steerage of the
       This was extremely dangerous, and many died coming over
                     Deadly Journeys
   Cargo vessels often transported lumber and other
    products from North America to Europe, and on the
    return voyage would fill up with people wanting to
    come over seas cheap.
       The cargo areas were converted with bunks, and pots and
        tubs for bathroom.
       The health risks were high as a result of the poor hygiene.
       The quarters were tight when traveling, and this
        encouraged the spread of infection and disease.
       Cholera and other plagues were common, and many were
        killed by them before reaching shore.
            i.e. 1832, ½ of all immigrants who landed were seriously ill.
Deadly Journeys
     The Multiculturalism of Pioneer
   Most of the daily accounts of things in British
    North America were written by upper English
   Most of those who come to Canada were not
   The Americans did not consider themselves as
    English, nor did the Scots or Irish.
       All brought their own cultural distinctions to
            This includes values and beliefs, church traditions, and
             music. Most music in Canada was Celtic.
     The Multiculturalism of Pioneer
   Most accounts of the histories of Native, Irish,
    and Black immigrants have been ignored in
    Canadian history.
       This allows us to see the euro-centrism in the
        history, and allows us to determine who has
        written it.
       It was believed that it was a European duty to
        “civilize” the world.
                    Black Canadians
   Slavery existed in New France during the late 17th
    and 18th Centuries.
   Many of the Loyalists who come from America
    brought slaves with them during the American
   The slavery in Canada was gone long before
    anywhere else in North America.
       1833, slavery was abolished throughout the entire British
       It was before this that courts in Canada had begun to refuse
        to support slavery.
       A major difference was that Black Canadians were free.
            Many Blacks from the US found refuge in Canada.
                     Black Canadians
   A lots of Blacks were promised land when
    coming to Canada in return for their loyalty.
   1837, the Black Militia fought against the rebels
    of Upper Canada, led by William Lyon
       Many blacks believed that a win would have resulted
        in American influence in Canada and slavery.
       One member of the militia, Josiah Henson, become a
        minister and educator, and a leader in the black
            He eventually established a technical school in Dresden
        The Underground Railroad
   Upper Canada become a refuge for many
    Black Americans trying to escape slavery.
       They traveled through a series of secret trails and
        pathways called the “Underground Railroad”.
            Most of the time they spent in anti-slavery homes,
             usually those of Quakers and Methodist.
       Harriet Tubman helped thousands to escape this
       Josiah Henson come up through the Underground
        Railway with his whole family.
       Henry “Box” Brown shipped himself in a wooden
        box to Philadelphia from Virginia.
        The Underground Railroad
   The risks were numerous, and if caught the
    slaves would be handed back to their owners
    where they would be severely punished.
   Slaves come to Canada to build new lives and
    be free of fear.
   Most settled in large towns and cities, but
    some founded new Black communities.
   Few of the slaves that did arrive in Canada
    actually found acceptance here.
       None found a place in government for another
        hundred years.
        The Underground Railroad
   Many Blacks lived in communities within
    communities, and some become pioneers
    taking on land in more remote areas.
   Every colony in British North America had
    communities with Blacks in it.
       Those who come with the Loyalists settled in the
       In BC we have black communities like Saltspring
   Some of the Blacks escaping slavery simple
    wanted to see their homeland again.
         Women in Upper Canada
   Women in Upper Canada were defined in large
    part by their social class.
   Much like the men, their expectations,
    lifestyle, prejudice, and beliefs depended on
    the class in which they belonged.
       This clearly was a mark of their English heritage.
   Many looked at their success and failures in
    the terms of their fathers or husbands.
       This was a result of them not being able to own
         Women in Upper Canada
   In the pioneer society, those of age were married.
   Spinster were often pitied because they had to rely on
    relatives for support and place to live.
   Good marriage gave a women status in ways it is
    difficult to understand.
       Women wrote of their husbands activities and idolized
       A good marriage prospect was of interest to the entire
        women's family.
       The romantic end of a relationship had less importance than
        the placement of class by marriage.
         Women in Upper Canada
   No women, be it upper class or not, was idle in
   The women helped with the cutting out of new farms,
    and a lot of the time they worked side by side with
    the women of the lower class.
       A lot of the time this was good as it broke down social
        barriers that the two had to over come to work
   It was believed that is was the duty of women and
    men of the upper class to maintain community
   Spousal and child abuse were common in Upper
    Canada, but were shocking when they come to light
    in the public.
         Women in Upper Canada
   Poor immigrant women were accustom to the long
    hours and hard work. This was the norm for them.
   There was a division of labour, but it was one sided.
       Men never looked after the household jobs, but women
        looked after the housework, planting and harvesting.
       Pioneer women worked to preserve the harvest, and the
        made candles and soap.
   Women were expected to have large families because
    of the amount of work.
       As soon as the children were able they were started on
        doing chores.
         Women in Upper Canada
   Childbirth was hazardous for women, and
    because of the lack of medical care, and little
    knowledge, many women died during
       Overcrowding, and poor sanitation in cabin did not
        help the process, and made things more dangerous
        during the birth..
       Upper class hired midwives and servants to help
        with birthing.
    Colonial Government and the Need
               for Reform
   The government of the colonies was neither
    representative or responsible in comparison to today’s
        A representative government is one in which the
         representatives of the government are elected by the people
         to make the laws on their behalf.
        A responsible government is one in which it can be voted
         out if the representatives fail to please the majority f the
        Most democratic governments, like the government of
         Canada today, are both representative and responsible.
   The colonial governments placed the power in the
    hands of a small group of rich influential men.
        This type of government is referred to as a oligarchy.
    Colonial Government and the Need
               for Reform
   The British did appoint a governor to overlook the
    oligarchy, but in reality he ruled according to the
    wishes of the oligarchy.
        The governor had more in common with the upper class
         than he did the with commoners who made up a majority of
         the population.
   The government in Upper Canada was established in
    1791 by the Constitution Act.
        This was the act that divided Upper and Lower Canada, and
         gave the colony an elected law making assembly.
        It also gave the colony an appointed governor and two
         appointed councils.
    Colonial Government and the Need
               for Reform
   The government was a democratic one because all male
    citizens who owned property could vote for members of the
        The problem was that all the power was held by the governor and the
         appointed councils.
             They could veto any laws or regulations proposed by the assembly.
   Lots of the time the assembly wanted to have money spent on
    making things better for the ordinary person, but the councils
    wanted to improve things for the business owners.
        Things like the problems with land speculation, and Crown and clergy
         reserves were never addressed.
   Because of the problems, reform was called for.
        The legislative assemble was constantly frustrated with never being
               A List of Grievances
   Problems with the land were the biggest complaint of
    the settlers.
       Land speculators and absentee landowners tied up land and
        overpriced it, and the Crown and clergy reserves hindered
   It was well know that the Family Compact was to
    blame, and this was publicly known.
   People were fed up with the government and its land
   Robert Gourlay drew up a list of grievances after he
    surveyed Upper Canada farmer and found out how
    much discontent there was.
       He also drew up a petition with the help of the settlers.
       He was arrested and sent out of the country.
            A List of Grievances
   The government had no
    desire to address the
   The arrest of Gourlay
    helped to harden the
    opposition to the Family
   It was William Lyon
    Mackenzie who stepped
    into Gourlay’s place.
A List of Grievances
             Mackenzie had strong political
              convictions, and truly believed
              in the well being of others.
             He took a direct approach to
              attacking the government.
                 He bought The Colonial
                  newspaper and published articles
                  criticizing the government and
                  Family Compact.
             He was in the center of a group
              that wanted radical change in
              Upper Canada, and become the
              leader of the reform movement.
                 Some thing that was more like the
                  American style government, but
                  was loyal to Britain.
         Stirring in Lower Canada
   Lower Canada had serious political problems, much
    like its English speaking neighbour.
       In Lower Canada though, the problems could be looked at
        as being more serious.
       The French had never really adjusted to the British rule.
            They found the British rule without democracy tough to accept.
            The control was in the hand of the oligarchy, and ex army officers,
             all of whom were English speaking.
   The original power structure which was based on the
    seigneurial system was slowly changing.
   The seigneurial families, and the church, had large
    amounts of influence in Lower Canada.
         Stirring in Lower Canada
   Lower Canada never experienced the problems with
    land that Upper Canada had.
       The St. Lawrence River Valley had been settled for
   Lower Canadian grievances come from a different
       The English seemed to have most of the advantages even
        though they were the minority.
            80,000 English in a population of 420,000.
       Many believed the seigneurs had sold out to the English.
            The attempt to join the two colonies in 1822 illustrates.
            They wanted to make English the new official language of the
             single colony.
            It would have made the French a minority in a larger English
             Feelings of Nationalism
   French-Canadians feared the British trying to
    solve the “French problem” by bringing in
    more English speaking immigrants.
       The English government worked to change the old
        seigneurial system into a British freehold land
            They did so by offering land to people from the British
             Isles in the Eastern Townships.
   When ships full of cholera-stricken Irish
    landed in Quebec, the French believed the
    British were trying to kill them off with
         Feelings of Nationalism
   In Lower Canada reformers were frustrated in
    their attempts to change the government and
    take away power from the Chateau Clique.
   The reformers felt discriminated against
    because of their language, culture, and ideas.
   The farmers resented the fact that the British
    government raises land taxes without changing
    the business revenues.
   People began to believe that Britain had no
    interest in solving any of the problems that
    were developing.
           Feelings of Nationalism
   Three main issues become the focus of reform
    in Lower Canada.
       Discrimination against French.
       Unequal taxation.
       Lack of power within the government.
   Louis-Joseph Papineau was the leader of the
    radical reformers..
       He at one time supported British rule, but this later
        changed as he did not believe the assembly should
        have complete control of the government’s budget.
             Feelings of Nationalism
   The Chateau Clique and
    reformers squared off in
    rival newspapers and
   Britain did little to easy the
   1810, anti-French James
    Craig was appointed
    governor by the colonial
        He arrested those who
         criticized the government and
         brought in soldiers to
         intimidate the French
         Feelings of Nationalism
   Craig also closed the Canadien, a reformist
   The proposal of uniting both Upper and Lower
    Canada making the French a minority only
    raised the feelings of discontent.
   The feeling of Lower Canadians were turning
    bitter with the government.
   It was after British soldiers shot protesters in
    Montreal in 1832 the Papineau and other
    reformers submitted the “Ninety-two
    Resolutions” to the governor.
         Feelings of Nationalism
   The resolutions demanded a change in the way
    the colony was governed.
   When Lord John Russell replied with Ten
    Resolutions denying the rights of the
    Assembly, the patriots led by Papineau openly
    rebelled against the government.
              The Rebellions of 1837
   Reformers in British North America stayed in
    touch with each other.
       This allowed them to share their views on the
        government and the economy, and exchange the
        possible solutions to problems.
       The leaders of the reformer groups in both Upper
        and Lower Canada were particularly close despite
        their differing goals.
            Mackenzie wanted to copy the US.
   Everybody realised that change in one colony
    would result in change in others.
            The Rebellions of 1837
   When it become clear that the government
    could not be changed from within, Mackenzie
    and Papineau prepared for armed attacks on
    the government.
       It was realised that it was nearly impossible to
        break the powers and strong hold of the Family
        Compact and Chateau Clique.
   Radical leaders planned revolts in both Upper
    and Lower Canada.
       They did this so Britain would not have enough
        troops to fight everywhere.
          The Rebellions of 1837
   There was a reform movement in the Maritimes led
    by Joseph Howe, but they did not become involved in
    the rebellions in the rest of Canada.
   Even though the plans for revolt were well laid out,
    the coordination of the revolts in Upper and Lower
    Canada were not well coordinated.
   Rebellion first broke out in Lower Canada led by the
    Fils de la Liberté (Sons of Liberty).
   If the Catholic Church would have supported the
    rebels, it is possible the Patriots would have had more
           The Rebellions of 1837
   The church advised its parishioners to stay
    loyal to Britain.
   The rebellion began with the attempted arrest
    of Papineau.
       With the attempt Papineau fled to Montreal.
   There were a series of battles at St. Denis, St.
    Charles, and St. Eustache, and at all of the
    battles the British troops defeated the Patriote
       Many were killed or wounded at St. Eustache.
           The Rebellions of 1837
   By December 1837, most of the rebel leaders
    and supporters had been arrested.
       Papineau escaped to the US.
   The rebellion in Lower Canada ended quickly.
   Resentment to the British has continually
    lingered, even into present day, and as a result
    it still plays a role in Quebec politics.
        Rebellion in Upper Canada
   In Lower Canada they had a nationalistic feeling that
    helped to unite the reforms.
       This was not the case in Upper Canada.
       Mackenzie and others wanted an American style of
        government, and this helped to push the English
        immigrants away as they felt the US was an enemy power.
            Even though this was the case some still wanted better government.
   John Russell's Ten Resolutions had crushed the hopes
    of many moderate reforms hopes at responsible
       Along with this come the appointment of Sir Francis Bond
        Head as governor.
Rebellion in Upper Canada
                Head’s sympathies were
                 with the Family
                It was the dissolving of
                 the House, and the
                 advocating of loyalty to
                 Britain that pushed
                 Mackenzie to call to
                 arms and rebel against
                 the government.
                The plans Mackenzie
                 and others had bordered
                 on treason.
        Rebellion in Upper Canada
   Mackenzie spent a large amount of time organizing
    resistance to the government and actually training of
    rebels to fight.
       Most soldiers had minimal military experience, but some
        had fought in the War of 1812.
       Mackenzie himself had little military experience, and this
        paired with his poor planning would ensure his defeat.
   Mackenzie first decided to strike when Governor
    Head sent troops to help in Lower Canada.
       Mackenzie figured they could take York once the troops
        had left, and this would also allow for Governor Head to be
        taken prisoner.
        Rebellion in Upper Canada
   Mackenzie had planned to set up a new
    independent government if rebel demands
    were not met.
   Mackenzie counted on widespread support
    from others, but this did not happen.
   He first ordered an attack on Montgomery’s
    Tavern on Yonge Street.
       He led the attack himself, mounted upon a white
        Rebellion in Upper Canada
   The rebel forces were
    met by a small group of
    Militia led by Sheriff
    Jarvis while marching
    down Yonge Street.
       It was here that the lack
        of military experience
       The confusion led to a
        retreat back up Yonge
            i.e. firing order.
           Rebellion in Upper Canada
   The Battle at
    Montgomery's Tavern was
    also a defeat for the rebels.
       It was after this that
        Mackenzie escaped to the
        US disguised as a women.
       He tried to continue to lead a
        rebellion from the US but
        this did not work.
   Rebel incidents occurred
    until 1838, but the
    Rebellion of 1837 was a
                Punishing the Rebels
   Those who rebelled and failed expected little mercy.
   The British legal code was still in effect in the
    colonies, and as a result, some thing like insurrection
    against the government warranted the death penalty.
       The British believed that the best way to deter crime was to
        have quick and severe punishment.
            Flogging was a common task.
   After the Rebellions of 1837, many of the rebel
    leaders that were caught were publicly hung.
       Others were transported to Bermuda for 7 years.
            This was punishment enough as they were cramped into locked-up,
             low-ceilinged decks, chained to the walls or deck with no bathroom
             facilities or ventilation.
           Punishing the Rebels
   Because of the suffocating heat of the tropics,
    and the lack of ventilation, many become sick
    and died during transport.
   At the destination the prisoners were used as
    slaves for Britain working in plantations, and
    on government projects, living off of
    starvation rations.
   Most of Australia’s early population was
             Lord Durham’s Report
   After the 1837 Rebellions, Britain realized that
    the old ways of running the colonies was going
    to need to change.
   The British cabinet established a commission
    to investigate the situation and to recommend
       The leader of the commission was John Lambton,
        earl of Durham.
            He was an aristocrat and reformer politician, and was
             appointed as the Governor-in-Chief of Canada.
            It was soon realized that the appointment to the position
             was not so straightforward.
             Lord Durham’s Report
   Durham arrived in the spring of 1838 with the
    support of his wife.
   Durham was seen as an independent representative of
    a powerful empire.
       He traveled to the US and patched things up there.
            This froze the support for the rebels as they had been operating out
             of the northern states.
       He was different in the fact that he did not blend quickly
        into the local power structure of the upper class Clique and
   Even though Durham was a wealth man, he did have
    very progressive ideas.
Lord Durham’s Report
             He appointed colonial
              experts like Charles Buller,
              Thomas Turton, and Gibbon
              Wakefield to help him.
             He pardoned many of the
              captured rebels.
                 Papineau was still advised to
                  remain in exile.
             Durham's power was much
              like a dictators if the
              councils and Assembly
              would not have been there.
             He gained little support in
              the Canadas, and as a result
              he resigned and went home
              to complete his report.
             Lord Durham’s Report
   In Lord Durham's report he recommended that the
    colonies be joined together and that they be given
    responsible government.
       He also recommended that all of British North America be
        united in time.
            This was a forerunner for the idea of confederation.
   The report was not well received by the French in
    Lower Canada.
       Durham had prejudice against the French, and this was well
       His goal through unity of the colonies was to assimilate the
        French into English culture.
                 Union and Beyond
   Durham resigned and died shortly after returning to
       He had made the point that peace would not be achieved in
        Canada without some sort of democracy.
   Durham's proposal for responsible government was
    different than others.
       The elected assembly would hold all power over internal
        affairs that would effect the colonies.
       Britain would control all of the foreign affairs and military.
   Durham did propose that the executive and legislative
    councils change dramatically.
               Union and Beyond
   The executive council would be chosen from
    the elected members of the House of
   The legislative council would no longer have
    the power to make laws, and would evolve into
    what is now the Senate.
   Durham's report become the basis for our
    present day system of government.
       His successors were unable to institute it and as a
        result it was years later before it become a fact of
              Union and Beyond
   Another problem had arisen in Lower Canada
    as it constitution was suspended as a result of
    the Rebellions.
       The consequence was the French-Canadians were
        denied a voice in government till 1843.
   No matter what the case, the reform leaders
    still pressed for responsible government in
    both colonies.
   Durham's proposal for union was accepted by
    the British government and his successor, Lord
Union and Beyond
          Sydenham was a wealthy merchant
           who had a great interest in
           transportation and development.
          Syndenham’s instructions were to
           press for unity, and he did despite
           protest from Lower Canada
          1840, the Act of Union united
           Upper and Lower Canada, and in
           1841 they become United Canada.
              The new capital was Montreal.
              This was all done without the support
               or participation f the French, and it
               has created resentment and problems
               linked to present day.
United Canada 1840

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