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Reception introduction and integration of asylum seekers refugee

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									  Reception, introduction and integration of asylum seekers,
refugee and newly arrived immigrants in Sweeden and Europe


                       National Conference
                Gotemborg October 24th – 26th




            Reception of
    asylum seekers and refugees
            in Turin city




                        dott. Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city



                      Asylum and refugee: national policies and politics
                        the italian legislative framework
                        procedures for asylum application
                        the Questura


                      Turin, a city of migrants
                      Statistics regarding migrants, refugee and asylum seekers


                      Local network and available services
                        Office for Foreigners and Refugee Round Table
                        CPRP: Provincial Coordination on Refugee and asylum
                        The HOPELAND project


                      Social Secretariat Opportunities
                        health policies


                      Usefull links




 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                         – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                - italian legislative framework




    Italian legislative principles on refugee status

  The Italian Constitution (Art. 10 par. 3) recognizes the right to asylum to all those who cannot
  exercise democratic freedoms granted by the Constitution itself.


  The Italian’s treatment of asylum seekers is governed by the UN Convention on Refugees 1951
  – the Geneva Convention - and its related 1967 Protocol.


  The Geneva Convention was implemended in Italy by Law 722/1954 and by Law 95/1970.


  Geneva convention prohibited to sanction irregular journey and stay (Art. 31) and settled the
  principle of non-refoulement (not rejecting asylum-seekers, even if they have entered a
  country illegally): «No Contracting State shall expel or return ('refouler') a refugee in any manner
  whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on
  account of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political
  opinion» (Art. 33)




 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                      – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city        - italian legislative framework



    Before and after 1990 - the Law 39/90

Before 1990, the refugee rights was exclusively granted to those who were coming from european
countries, meaning Eastern europe.

In 1990 the Law 39 “Urgent rules on political asylum, entry and residence of no EU nationals and
legalisation of non EU nationals and stateless people already present in the territory of the State”
recognized no geographical limitations, expending the refugee rights also to those comping from non
european countries.
      - the demand of political asylum had to be presented at the border
      - in order to be evaluated by the Central Commission (elected by a Decree of the Prime Minister)
      - a member of ACNUR was allowed to participate as consultant

The Legislative Decree 286/1998 “Consolidated Law of the provision concerning rules on immigration
and on alien’s status” doesn’t provide any general definition on temporary protection, meaning for those
who come from countries ihterested by specific events. But it specify two interesting conditions:




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                        – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city           - italian legislative framework



    The Legislative Decree 286/1998


       The Legislative Decree 286/1998 “Consolidated Law of the provision concerning rules
       on immigration and on alien’s status” doesn’t provide any general definition on
       temporary protection, meaning for those who come from countries interested by specific
       events.

       It specified two interesting conditions:
       - no espulsions and no entry denials are allowed to a state where the asylum seeker
       might be persecuted (art. 19). In such case, a temporary permit for humanitarian
       reason should be given (art. 28).

       - a Prime Minister Decree might be held to adopt such temporary measures in case of
       war, local conflict, natural disaster and other relevant events (art. 20).

       The applicability has been quite limited, as a result of the application of the EU directive
       2001/55/CE




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                           – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                        - italian legislative framework



     Law 189/2002
 The Law 189/2002, know as “Bossi-Fini” by the names of two Goverment leaders, is the actual
 legislative framework. Recently some amendments and decrees have been licensed.

 There is no specific definition of the refugee status, which is recommended by the Geneva Convention.

 One of its most evident news is the Territorial Commissions for the Recognition of the Refugee
 Status, while the National Commission turns to provide guidelines, trainng, update and collect
 statistical data.

 The Law introduces the amministrative detention, both as a facultative and as an obbliged measure.
 This temporary detention will take place in Centri di Identificazione (Identification Center).

 In case of rejection of the refugee demand, it’s possible to ask a review of the decision, which might
 be presented within five days to the same Territorial Commission plus a member of the National
 one.
 The appeal to the territorial commission’s decision will have to be filled within fifteen days to the area
 Court in a monocratic session (one-judge)
 The appeal doesn’t suspend the order to leave the italian territory.



 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                        – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                     - italian legislative framework



    Law 189/2002: amendments and order in councils


 On the 21st April 2005 the amendment for the Law 189/2002 became operative, introducing relevant
 news:
 - asylum seekers will be called within 3 months to the Territorial Commission for the Recognition
 of the Refugee Status, which is based in Milan
 - the Refugee Status is available within a period of at most 90 days
 - in case the asylum seeker will wait longer, after the sixth month Temporary Residence Permit is said
 to allow the person to work. This fact casts refugees straight into the labour market, and, without
 any legislative framework, it’s up to every local Unemployment Office and Prefettura how to deal
 with the situation
 - while the new amendment is supposed to finally solve the long-term waiting for the obtainance of the
 status, now it becomes necessary to improve the availability of language courses and of
 psychological help to support the integration process
 - this turns to be an urgent need, specifically for refugee who are victims of torture
 - the amendments introduce the “working contract”, which influences both migrants and refugees, and
 it is paradoxically given to the land-lord only if the refugee already has a location contract




 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                     – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                 - procedures for asylum application



    Procedures for asylum application
 Asylum seekers can submit an application for the recognition of refugee status at Border police or
 at Questura. The application must be grounded on well-founded fear of persecution in case of return.

 The border police checkes there are no impediments to entry, like in the following cases:
 - the asylum seeker is already acknowledge as refugee in other EU countries;
 - the asylum seeker have resided into another state party to the Geneva Convention;
 - the asylum seeker has committed war crimes or crimes against humanity
 - the asylum seeker was condemned in Italy, or is considered dangerous for the state (like case of
 belonging to mafia-alike organisation, terrostist groups, organised-crime band.

 If admitted to entry, the person might choose a city to reside and to initiate the procedure at local
 Questura.
 If the person is already in Italy, the application might be lodged in eight days.


 When submitting the application, the asylum seeker must hand-over his/her passport.




 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                       – Brusa Paolo
 Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                  - procedures for asylum application


The Questura:
- completes a form to determine the state responsable for evaluating the application (on Dublin
Convention), sent to Dublin Unit and to Territorial Commission
- completes a report on the asylum seeker statements (his/her data, modalities and places of the
journey, date of entry, financial means for subsistence, political-religious-social organisations of belonging,
address to receive comunications, the reason for the journey out of his/her country
- issues a Temporary Residence Permit (one month) for “Dublin Convention” while checking out Italy
responisbility to evaluate the application
- when the responsibility is accerted, Questura issues a Temporary Residence Permit for “asylum
application”, there are no definition of the duration of the permit, usually is 3 months.
- the asylum seeker can be held at identification Centres for the time strictly necessary to define
residence clearance. This temporary detention takes place in the Identification Centers.
-The Identification centres provide freedom restrictions through a detention without evidence of
crime for people asking for a fundamental right.
-There are different reasons to be held in the Identification Centres, such as needs to verify the asylum
seeker statements or the person has been catched while entering irregularly.
-The “departure” from the center is considered as a renunciation of the application.
-The difference between the ordinary procedures and the simplified one is almost not existent.
- Without a specific legislation, it’s up to the interpretation of every Questura the way to handle the
standard procedures.


  Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                        – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                                     - Turin, a city of migrants



 The history so far…

The City of Turin will soon be known Europe-wide for hosting the 2006 Winter Olympics.
In terms of inhabitants, the city of Turin was more or less stable from its Roman foundation in the
third century B.C., until it major development started during 18th century, when it became the first capital
of the Unitarian state.
During the 20th century, and especially after the 1950s, Turin’s development was directly connected to its
industries, which made it known as the FIAT-city.
During the 1950s, almost 440 000 persons arrived in Turin, and more then 2 out of 3 became
permanent residents.
The massive migration from the south of Italy transformed the city from a big village into a big city of
more then 1.1 million inhabitants, with almost 450.000 people directly employed in economic
activities related to the car industry.
The following data shows the fluxus of population.


             year        1935         1951*          1961*            1971*           1981*        1991*         2003

     population       647.997       719.300       1.025.822        1.177.939       1.117154     962.507       861.644

Data taken from www.cronologia.it/demog.00.htm and www.demo.istat.it * (official census)




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                                       – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                               - Turin, a city of migrants


 …and the last 25 years
From the 80s on, the global industrial recession generated a radical shift to a post-industrial scenario, as
the majority of the economic activities crashed or changed their focus to the tertiary sector.
The impact of such changes greatly influenced the population, both in terms of number and of
composition. The overall population decreased from its former high to 904.616*
The percentage of the new migrants now-resident became considerable, like the following data
clearly shows, with a total number of 71.805 residents. The data shows a +130% growing in five years:
                                            number of migrants now resident
                     80.000
                                                                         71.805
                     70.000

                     60.000

                     50.000

                     40.000
                                               30.000
                     30.000

                     20.000

                     10.000

                            0
                                              year 2000                  year 2005



The cultural level is very high: almost 50% is graduated, while more then 30% has a university degree.

* Data on 29th Feb. 2004, from Municipality of Turin, Statistic Office




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                                 – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                                             - Turin, a city of migrants



 The actual situation.
The most recent available data of migrants presence in Turin are updated at the end of April 2005*.

                     Native region                      person                male                  female
              Africa                                         23.006              13.772                      9.234
              Centre/north America                               894                 331                         563
              South America                                    8.232              3.060                      5.165
              Asia                                             7.037              3.588                      3.449
              Europe (not EU)                                28.709              14.525                    14.184
              European Union                                   3.883              1.629                      2.254
              Oceania                                              36                  15                        21
                                         Total               71.085              36.934                    34.871

The first region is Europe, with a clear majority of people coming from not-EU countries, mostly people
from Rumania (20.676), Albany, Ukraina, Moldavia, Bosnia and Russia.
Between the people coming from Africa, the majority is Marocco and Nigeria.

* Data on 30th April 2005, from Migrants Pastoral Statistical Office – www1.diocesi.torino.it/ curia/migranti/




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                                               – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                - Turin, a city of migrants




 The refugees and asylum seekers in town.

From the confrontation of data by the Office for Foreigners of the City Counsil and the data from the
Provincial Observatory on Migrants, the number of asylum seekers on the Province of Turin counts
634 persons (updated at 31st Dec. 2004).
280 of these persons have been taken in charge only in 2004.
This significant number has to be considered partial, as many people is directly in contact with
Questura, which doesn’t provide clear data.

   Nigeria               342       Dem. Rep. Congo          24       Ex Jugoslavia             10
   Somalia                 82      Liberia                  15       Afghanistan                    7
   Romania                 52      Sudan                    14       Congo                          7
   Sierra Leone            31      ex Urss                  12       Irak and Albany                5

Between the disposable data, these are the more significant origin regions of asylum seekers and
refugees.




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                  – Brusa Paolo
 Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city              - Local Network and available services


           Turin Prefecture                                                      Turin Questura

                                         Turin City Council


 Housing – Accomodation                      Legal and social                          Voluntary groups,
       - casa del mondo                      secretariat office                        material support:
       - coop. Progetto Tenda              -Association La Tenda                      - Association La Tenda
         -Gruppo Abele                     - coop. Progetto Tenda                      - Waldesian Church
            - Sermig                                                                  - Pastorale dei Migranti



  Professional Training
                                       Equal & Long Life learning                   European Social Fund
     -Scuola San Carlo
                                             -Equal Initiatives                                  - CSEA
-Casa di Carità Arti e mestieri
                                                                                   - ENAIP       - IAL   ….




                                                                                        Cultural initiatives,
       Sanitary support                                                                dissemination, raise
                                     Legal support         Psychological help
 -ISI (sanitarian aid for migrant)                                                         awareness
                                        - ASGI              -Ass. Frantz Fanon
    -ASL (local Health dep.)                                                         -Provincial Coordination on
                                                                                    Refugees and Asylum Seekers


  Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                           – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                      - local coordination network



  Office for Foreigners and Refugee Round Table
 The Office for Foreigners of the Turin City Council has been working since years as an open-office
 for all migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. It offers reception, training, social secretariat, various
 actions to promote integration processes. It also promoted a Refugee Round Table.
 The Refugee Round Table is a network who coordinates all the interventions (such as the
 Hopeland project), promotes analysis on the connected with migration and the refugee situation.
 The critical points that has just been declared* are as follow:
 - longness of burocratic time both at Questura and at Central Commission, with a consecuent
 drawing out f accomodation periods and block in distribution of protection and suppor actions
 - available resources are often not sufficent, or not in proportion to the number and needs of users
 - difficulty in giving accomodation to families
 - significant improvement of person with psychological and sanitary correlated problems and of
 pregnant women
 - difficulties in handling people who have been neglected the refugee status after years spent on
 the territory
 - huge difficulties in job-finding and in the location of privat apartments


 * Observatory on migrants in Turin city - 2004 Report - Released on October 2005



 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                      – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                      - local coordination network



  CPRP: Provincial Coordination on Refugees and Asylum seekers
 The Provincial Coordination on Refugees and Asylum Seekers was created in 1999 by a network
 of different agencies, which have all been active in supporting the right of asylum and in providing
 humanitarian, legal and material aids to refugees.

 The CPRP is a network made of:
   Amnesty International                                 Human right support
   ASGI (Association on legal research for migrants)     Legal support
   Association Facciamo Pace! (Make peace!)
   Association Franz Fanon                               Anthropolist, ethnologist, psychological help
   Association La Tenda (the Tent)                       Legal and social secretariat
   Waldesian Church                                      material, logistical and concrete support
   Collettivo Azione Pace (Action Peace Collective)
   Co-operative Progetto Tenda (Tent Project)            Providing housing, resettlement, training
   I.C.S. (Italian Solidarity Consortium)                National network




 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                     – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                      - Asylum and refugee policies


    Asylum and Refugee policies: the HOPELAND project
  The project “HOPELAND” is coordinated by the National Central Secretery in Rome, it’s
  financed directly by the Internal Minister and by ANCI.
  The project regards 65 people per-year, who receive a temporary accomodation and
  professional training.
  Every single person receives monthly:
              - €. 50
              - a monthly bus ticket
              - 6 block of ticket restaurant, covering 2 meal-a-day, equivalent to €. 258
  For the refugees who succesfully complete the whole programme, it’s disposable a
  contribution of approximately €. 800, in order to support their private location.

  The Temporary Residence Permit and the provisional residence give the asylum seekers the
  right to receive financial assistance (€. 34 per day contribution for a maximum of 45 days)
  The request must be submitted to the Police Office which is responsible for the area, then it
  will passed to the local Prefettura, with a statement verifying the fulfilment of the requirement
  for financial assistance.
  If the request is rejected, the asylum seeker may appeal directly to the Minister of Interior
  within 30 days.



Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                          – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                   - Accomodation in Turin



   Asylum and Refugee policies: accomodation in Turin

  1 Housing service for women
  -give accomodation to 10 women and 2 children. It’s open to a-specific social cases such as
  illness, pregnancy, disabilities…
  -Permanence periods depends on the work-in-progress of every individually based programme
  -The service is run by Co-operative Progetto Tenda and funded by Turin City Council




  1 residential accomodation for men
  -give accomodation to 20 men, both asylum seekers and refugees
  -The maximum period of permanence is up to 6 months after the recognition of the refugee
  status
  -The service is run by Co-operative Il Riparo and funded by Turin City Council




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                   – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                     - Accomodation in Turin



   Asylum and Refugee policies: accomodation in Turin
  1 male hostel
  - give accomodation to 115 persons (50 migrants, 50 asylum seekers and 15 minors) with a
  working contract. A monthly rate is asked as a contribution.
  - the permanence period endures one year, plus some months after the status recognition
  - the service is run by a social co-operative and Turin City Council Social Services



  1 apartment for who suffer temporary illness or disabilities
  - give accomodation to 5 asylum seekers with health problem
  - the pemanence period is long term
  - the service is run by a Camillian Religious Community




   All the asylum seekers and refugees who can find an accomodation in these structures
                             are guested in public dormitories




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                     – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                - Social Secretarial Opportunities



   Asylum and Refugee policies: Social secretariat opportunities

  The asylum seekers and refugees receive some Social Secretariat Opportunities:

  - the Office for Foreigners (a pubblic social service run by the Turin City Council) with its
  employes and social workers offers information on various issues and a resettement service to
  help the individuation of specific answers to specific needs
  - a Permanent Territorial Centres offers language courses and the opportunities to get
  different educational degrees
  - an Info-point offers high-lights and information on different issues, such as available training
  courses, bureaucracy and legal steps, working opportunities, housing opportunities
  - a Social Centre “Space to asylum” offers the chance to join different activities, such as
  photograpy, painting and music laboratories, it also offers a free-internet-point, resettlement
  service to museum and cultural events
  - various religious groups and no-profit associations offers language courses
  - various training courses funded by European Funds, Regional and Provincial Funds
  - during the period before the attainance of the Refugee Status, the Turin City Council offers
  stages to learn abilities to enter the labour market.




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                       – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city                      - Sanitary and Health services




   Asylum and Refugee policies: sanitary and health services


  A decree of the Health Minister made it real for asylum seekers to receive free-of-charge
  health services in every italian hospital.

  This is made possible as the asylum seekers status is considered equivalent to the
  unemployment status.

  Turin City Council funds a specific Sanitary and Service for migrants (I.S.I.).

  I.S.I. offers sanitary, prevention and health consults to all those migrants who still doesn’t
  have a National Health Service Certification, which is available only after the first Resident
  Permit.

  For those who receive a Residence permit, the Office for Foreigners offers a resettlement
  service to contact and choose a public doctor.




Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                                       – Brusa Paolo
Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city


                Usefull links

 www.amnesty.it                              www.refugees.org           www.un.org/unrwa/
 www.caritasitaliana.it                      www.regione.piemonte.it    www.undp.org
 www.cestim.org                              www.reliefweb.int          www.unhcr.ch
 www.cir-onlus.org                           www.stranieriinitalia.it   www.uni-konstanz.de
 www.comune.torino.it                        www.theirc.org
 www.cronologia.it/demog.00.htm
 www.dirittoasilo.it
 www.emergeny.it
 www.ecre.org
 www1.diocesi.torino.it/ curia/migranti/
 www.icsitalia.org
 www.iom.it
 www.demo.istat.it
 www.www.mir.it/ics
 www.msf.t
 www.piemonteimmigrazione.it
 www.progettotenda.org
 www.provincia.torino.it


Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                           – Brusa Paolo
Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October                                      – Brusa Paolo




       We all are human
     much before been illegal
                    Thank you


              For contact                  This text has NO COPYRIGHT. Its reproduction,
                                           even a partial one, and its dissemination with what-
           dott. Paolo Brusa               so-ever media is allowed without permission, even
         Tel. +39.333.2223289              for self and didactical use, as long as there are no
                                           bussines and under the condition to reproduce this
    Mail: paolobrus@hotmail.com            recommendation quoting the author.

								
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