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Reception, introduction and integration of asylum seekers, refugee and newly arrived immigrants in Sweeden and Europe National Conference Gotemborg October 24th – 26th Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city dott. Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city Asylum and refugee: national policies and politics the italian legislative framework procedures for asylum application the Questura Turin, a city of migrants Statistics regarding migrants, refugee and asylum seekers Local network and available services Office for Foreigners and Refugee Round Table CPRP: Provincial Coordination on Refugee and asylum The HOPELAND project Social Secretariat Opportunities health policies Usefull links Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - italian legislative framework Italian legislative principles on refugee status The Italian Constitution (Art. 10 par. 3) recognizes the right to asylum to all those who cannot exercise democratic freedoms granted by the Constitution itself. The Italian’s treatment of asylum seekers is governed by the UN Convention on Refugees 1951 – the Geneva Convention - and its related 1967 Protocol. The Geneva Convention was implemended in Italy by Law 722/1954 and by Law 95/1970. Geneva convention prohibited to sanction irregular journey and stay (Art. 31) and settled the principle of non-refoulement (not rejecting asylum-seekers, even if they have entered a country illegally): «No Contracting State shall expel or return ('refouler') a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion» (Art. 33) Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - italian legislative framework Before and after 1990 - the Law 39/90 Before 1990, the refugee rights was exclusively granted to those who were coming from european countries, meaning Eastern europe. In 1990 the Law 39 “Urgent rules on political asylum, entry and residence of no EU nationals and legalisation of non EU nationals and stateless people already present in the territory of the State” recognized no geographical limitations, expending the refugee rights also to those comping from non european countries. - the demand of political asylum had to be presented at the border - in order to be evaluated by the Central Commission (elected by a Decree of the Prime Minister) - a member of ACNUR was allowed to participate as consultant The Legislative Decree 286/1998 “Consolidated Law of the provision concerning rules on immigration and on alien’s status” doesn’t provide any general definition on temporary protection, meaning for those who come from countries ihterested by specific events. But it specify two interesting conditions: Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - italian legislative framework The Legislative Decree 286/1998 The Legislative Decree 286/1998 “Consolidated Law of the provision concerning rules on immigration and on alien’s status” doesn’t provide any general definition on temporary protection, meaning for those who come from countries interested by specific events. It specified two interesting conditions: - no espulsions and no entry denials are allowed to a state where the asylum seeker might be persecuted (art. 19). In such case, a temporary permit for humanitarian reason should be given (art. 28). - a Prime Minister Decree might be held to adopt such temporary measures in case of war, local conflict, natural disaster and other relevant events (art. 20). The applicability has been quite limited, as a result of the application of the EU directive 2001/55/CE Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - italian legislative framework Law 189/2002 The Law 189/2002, know as “Bossi-Fini” by the names of two Goverment leaders, is the actual legislative framework. Recently some amendments and decrees have been licensed. There is no specific definition of the refugee status, which is recommended by the Geneva Convention. One of its most evident news is the Territorial Commissions for the Recognition of the Refugee Status, while the National Commission turns to provide guidelines, trainng, update and collect statistical data. The Law introduces the amministrative detention, both as a facultative and as an obbliged measure. This temporary detention will take place in Centri di Identificazione (Identification Center). In case of rejection of the refugee demand, it’s possible to ask a review of the decision, which might be presented within five days to the same Territorial Commission plus a member of the National one. The appeal to the territorial commission’s decision will have to be filled within fifteen days to the area Court in a monocratic session (one-judge) The appeal doesn’t suspend the order to leave the italian territory. Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - italian legislative framework Law 189/2002: amendments and order in councils On the 21st April 2005 the amendment for the Law 189/2002 became operative, introducing relevant news: - asylum seekers will be called within 3 months to the Territorial Commission for the Recognition of the Refugee Status, which is based in Milan - the Refugee Status is available within a period of at most 90 days - in case the asylum seeker will wait longer, after the sixth month Temporary Residence Permit is said to allow the person to work. This fact casts refugees straight into the labour market, and, without any legislative framework, it’s up to every local Unemployment Office and Prefettura how to deal with the situation - while the new amendment is supposed to finally solve the long-term waiting for the obtainance of the status, now it becomes necessary to improve the availability of language courses and of psychological help to support the integration process - this turns to be an urgent need, specifically for refugee who are victims of torture - the amendments introduce the “working contract”, which influences both migrants and refugees, and it is paradoxically given to the land-lord only if the refugee already has a location contract Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - procedures for asylum application Procedures for asylum application Asylum seekers can submit an application for the recognition of refugee status at Border police or at Questura. The application must be grounded on well-founded fear of persecution in case of return. The border police checkes there are no impediments to entry, like in the following cases: - the asylum seeker is already acknowledge as refugee in other EU countries; - the asylum seeker have resided into another state party to the Geneva Convention; - the asylum seeker has committed war crimes or crimes against humanity - the asylum seeker was condemned in Italy, or is considered dangerous for the state (like case of belonging to mafia-alike organisation, terrostist groups, organised-crime band. If admitted to entry, the person might choose a city to reside and to initiate the procedure at local Questura. If the person is already in Italy, the application might be lodged in eight days. When submitting the application, the asylum seeker must hand-over his/her passport. Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - procedures for asylum application The Questura: - completes a form to determine the state responsable for evaluating the application (on Dublin Convention), sent to Dublin Unit and to Territorial Commission - completes a report on the asylum seeker statements (his/her data, modalities and places of the journey, date of entry, financial means for subsistence, political-religious-social organisations of belonging, address to receive comunications, the reason for the journey out of his/her country - issues a Temporary Residence Permit (one month) for “Dublin Convention” while checking out Italy responisbility to evaluate the application - when the responsibility is accerted, Questura issues a Temporary Residence Permit for “asylum application”, there are no definition of the duration of the permit, usually is 3 months. - the asylum seeker can be held at identification Centres for the time strictly necessary to define residence clearance. This temporary detention takes place in the Identification Centers. -The Identification centres provide freedom restrictions through a detention without evidence of crime for people asking for a fundamental right. -There are different reasons to be held in the Identification Centres, such as needs to verify the asylum seeker statements or the person has been catched while entering irregularly. -The “departure” from the center is considered as a renunciation of the application. -The difference between the ordinary procedures and the simplified one is almost not existent. - Without a specific legislation, it’s up to the interpretation of every Questura the way to handle the standard procedures. Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Turin, a city of migrants The history so far… The City of Turin will soon be known Europe-wide for hosting the 2006 Winter Olympics. In terms of inhabitants, the city of Turin was more or less stable from its Roman foundation in the third century B.C., until it major development started during 18th century, when it became the first capital of the Unitarian state. During the 20th century, and especially after the 1950s, Turin’s development was directly connected to its industries, which made it known as the FIAT-city. During the 1950s, almost 440 000 persons arrived in Turin, and more then 2 out of 3 became permanent residents. The massive migration from the south of Italy transformed the city from a big village into a big city of more then 1.1 million inhabitants, with almost 450.000 people directly employed in economic activities related to the car industry. The following data shows the fluxus of population. year 1935 1951* 1961* 1971* 1981* 1991* 2003 population 647.997 719.300 1.025.822 1.177.939 1.117154 962.507 861.644 Data taken from www.cronologia.it/demog.00.htm and www.demo.istat.it * (official census) Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Turin, a city of migrants …and the last 25 years From the 80s on, the global industrial recession generated a radical shift to a post-industrial scenario, as the majority of the economic activities crashed or changed their focus to the tertiary sector. The impact of such changes greatly influenced the population, both in terms of number and of composition. The overall population decreased from its former high to 904.616* The percentage of the new migrants now-resident became considerable, like the following data clearly shows, with a total number of 71.805 residents. The data shows a +130% growing in five years: number of migrants now resident 80.000 71.805 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 year 2000 year 2005 The cultural level is very high: almost 50% is graduated, while more then 30% has a university degree. * Data on 29th Feb. 2004, from Municipality of Turin, Statistic Office Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Turin, a city of migrants The actual situation. The most recent available data of migrants presence in Turin are updated at the end of April 2005*. Native region person male female Africa 23.006 13.772 9.234 Centre/north America 894 331 563 South America 8.232 3.060 5.165 Asia 7.037 3.588 3.449 Europe (not EU) 28.709 14.525 14.184 European Union 3.883 1.629 2.254 Oceania 36 15 21 Total 71.085 36.934 34.871 The first region is Europe, with a clear majority of people coming from not-EU countries, mostly people from Rumania (20.676), Albany, Ukraina, Moldavia, Bosnia and Russia. Between the people coming from Africa, the majority is Marocco and Nigeria. * Data on 30th April 2005, from Migrants Pastoral Statistical Office – www1.diocesi.torino.it/ curia/migranti/ Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Turin, a city of migrants The refugees and asylum seekers in town. From the confrontation of data by the Office for Foreigners of the City Counsil and the data from the Provincial Observatory on Migrants, the number of asylum seekers on the Province of Turin counts 634 persons (updated at 31st Dec. 2004). 280 of these persons have been taken in charge only in 2004. This significant number has to be considered partial, as many people is directly in contact with Questura, which doesn’t provide clear data. Nigeria 342 Dem. Rep. Congo 24 Ex Jugoslavia 10 Somalia 82 Liberia 15 Afghanistan 7 Romania 52 Sudan 14 Congo 7 Sierra Leone 31 ex Urss 12 Irak and Albany 5 Between the disposable data, these are the more significant origin regions of asylum seekers and refugees. Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Local Network and available services Turin Prefecture Turin Questura Turin City Council Housing – Accomodation Legal and social Voluntary groups, - casa del mondo secretariat office material support: - coop. Progetto Tenda -Association La Tenda - Association La Tenda -Gruppo Abele - coop. Progetto Tenda - Waldesian Church - Sermig - Pastorale dei Migranti Professional Training Equal & Long Life learning European Social Fund -Scuola San Carlo -Equal Initiatives - CSEA -Casa di Carità Arti e mestieri - ENAIP - IAL …. Cultural initiatives, Sanitary support dissemination, raise Legal support Psychological help -ISI (sanitarian aid for migrant) awareness - ASGI -Ass. Frantz Fanon -ASL (local Health dep.) -Provincial Coordination on Refugees and Asylum Seekers Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - local coordination network Office for Foreigners and Refugee Round Table The Office for Foreigners of the Turin City Council has been working since years as an open-office for all migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. It offers reception, training, social secretariat, various actions to promote integration processes. It also promoted a Refugee Round Table. The Refugee Round Table is a network who coordinates all the interventions (such as the Hopeland project), promotes analysis on the connected with migration and the refugee situation. The critical points that has just been declared* are as follow: - longness of burocratic time both at Questura and at Central Commission, with a consecuent drawing out f accomodation periods and block in distribution of protection and suppor actions - available resources are often not sufficent, or not in proportion to the number and needs of users - difficulty in giving accomodation to families - significant improvement of person with psychological and sanitary correlated problems and of pregnant women - difficulties in handling people who have been neglected the refugee status after years spent on the territory - huge difficulties in job-finding and in the location of privat apartments * Observatory on migrants in Turin city - 2004 Report - Released on October 2005 Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - local coordination network CPRP: Provincial Coordination on Refugees and Asylum seekers The Provincial Coordination on Refugees and Asylum Seekers was created in 1999 by a network of different agencies, which have all been active in supporting the right of asylum and in providing humanitarian, legal and material aids to refugees. The CPRP is a network made of: Amnesty International Human right support ASGI (Association on legal research for migrants) Legal support Association Facciamo Pace! (Make peace!) Association Franz Fanon Anthropolist, ethnologist, psychological help Association La Tenda (the Tent) Legal and social secretariat Waldesian Church material, logistical and concrete support Collettivo Azione Pace (Action Peace Collective) Co-operative Progetto Tenda (Tent Project) Providing housing, resettlement, training I.C.S. (Italian Solidarity Consortium) National network Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Asylum and refugee policies Asylum and Refugee policies: the HOPELAND project The project “HOPELAND” is coordinated by the National Central Secretery in Rome, it’s financed directly by the Internal Minister and by ANCI. The project regards 65 people per-year, who receive a temporary accomodation and professional training. Every single person receives monthly: - €. 50 - a monthly bus ticket - 6 block of ticket restaurant, covering 2 meal-a-day, equivalent to €. 258 For the refugees who succesfully complete the whole programme, it’s disposable a contribution of approximately €. 800, in order to support their private location. The Temporary Residence Permit and the provisional residence give the asylum seekers the right to receive financial assistance (€. 34 per day contribution for a maximum of 45 days) The request must be submitted to the Police Office which is responsible for the area, then it will passed to the local Prefettura, with a statement verifying the fulfilment of the requirement for financial assistance. If the request is rejected, the asylum seeker may appeal directly to the Minister of Interior within 30 days. Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Accomodation in Turin Asylum and Refugee policies: accomodation in Turin 1 Housing service for women -give accomodation to 10 women and 2 children. It’s open to a-specific social cases such as illness, pregnancy, disabilities… -Permanence periods depends on the work-in-progress of every individually based programme -The service is run by Co-operative Progetto Tenda and funded by Turin City Council 1 residential accomodation for men -give accomodation to 20 men, both asylum seekers and refugees -The maximum period of permanence is up to 6 months after the recognition of the refugee status -The service is run by Co-operative Il Riparo and funded by Turin City Council Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Accomodation in Turin Asylum and Refugee policies: accomodation in Turin 1 male hostel - give accomodation to 115 persons (50 migrants, 50 asylum seekers and 15 minors) with a working contract. A monthly rate is asked as a contribution. - the permanence period endures one year, plus some months after the status recognition - the service is run by a social co-operative and Turin City Council Social Services 1 apartment for who suffer temporary illness or disabilities - give accomodation to 5 asylum seekers with health problem - the pemanence period is long term - the service is run by a Camillian Religious Community All the asylum seekers and refugees who can find an accomodation in these structures are guested in public dormitories Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Social Secretarial Opportunities Asylum and Refugee policies: Social secretariat opportunities The asylum seekers and refugees receive some Social Secretariat Opportunities: - the Office for Foreigners (a pubblic social service run by the Turin City Council) with its employes and social workers offers information on various issues and a resettement service to help the individuation of specific answers to specific needs - a Permanent Territorial Centres offers language courses and the opportunities to get different educational degrees - an Info-point offers high-lights and information on different issues, such as available training courses, bureaucracy and legal steps, working opportunities, housing opportunities - a Social Centre “Space to asylum” offers the chance to join different activities, such as photograpy, painting and music laboratories, it also offers a free-internet-point, resettlement service to museum and cultural events - various religious groups and no-profit associations offers language courses - various training courses funded by European Funds, Regional and Provincial Funds - during the period before the attainance of the Refugee Status, the Turin City Council offers stages to learn abilities to enter the labour market. Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city - Sanitary and Health services Asylum and Refugee policies: sanitary and health services A decree of the Health Minister made it real for asylum seekers to receive free-of-charge health services in every italian hospital. This is made possible as the asylum seekers status is considered equivalent to the unemployment status. Turin City Council funds a specific Sanitary and Service for migrants (I.S.I.). I.S.I. offers sanitary, prevention and health consults to all those migrants who still doesn’t have a National Health Service Certification, which is available only after the first Resident Permit. For those who receive a Residence permit, the Office for Foreigners offers a resettlement service to contact and choose a public doctor. Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Reception of asylum seekers and refugees in Turin city Usefull links www.amnesty.it www.refugees.org www.un.org/unrwa/ www.caritasitaliana.it www.regione.piemonte.it www.undp.org www.cestim.org www.reliefweb.int www.unhcr.ch www.cir-onlus.org www.stranieriinitalia.it www.uni-konstanz.de www.comune.torino.it www.theirc.org www.cronologia.it/demog.00.htm www.dirittoasilo.it www.emergeny.it www.ecre.org www1.diocesi.torino.it/ curia/migranti/ www.icsitalia.org www.iom.it www.demo.istat.it www.www.mir.it/ics www.msf.t www.piemonteimmigrazione.it www.progettotenda.org www.provincia.torino.it Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo Gotemborg Conference 24th – 26th October – Brusa Paolo We all are human much before been illegal Thank you For contact This text has NO COPYRIGHT. Its reproduction, even a partial one, and its dissemination with what- dott. 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