Presidential Staff and Presidential Style by liaoqinmei


									In the news

1.   Huckabee surges in Iowa

2. David Brooks – the “real
3. “Bunker Hillary” – Clinton
    and the media.
4. Campaigning and
Presidential Staff and Presidential Style

Evolution of the President’s staff
  Burke – the “institutionalized presidency” is a
  relatively recent development. Presidents in
  the 19th century had almost no staff. Now it
  costs about $150 million a year to staff the
  White House.
Brownlow Committee set up by FDR to
  recommend changes. Concluded “the
  president needs help.” Two-pronged approach:
  institutional and personal assistance.
Staff, cont.

Institutional includes the OMB, CEA, NSC, Trade
  Rep, Office of Policy Development, Council on
  Environmental Quality, Office of Science and
  Technology Policy, Office of Administration, and
  the Office of National Drug Control Policy.
Personal includes speech writers,
  communications, media (press secretary),
  legislative, and legal assistants.
Organizing the White House

Approaches to coordination
 Competitive – FDR. Overlapping responsibilities, not
 very organized.
 Formalistic – Truman, Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, and
 Bush I+II (but Karl Rove rather than Andrew Card for
 George W. Bush). Hierarchical, division of labor. Chief
 of staff plays a central role in controlling the flow of
 information to the president. LBJ tried this for about a
 week – discarded it when one memo didn’t get through to
Organizing the White House, cont.

Collegial – Kennedy, Ford, Carter (but switched to
  formalistic), and Clinton. Spokes of the wheel.
General tendencies: centralize, bureaucratize,
  and politicize.
Pros and cons of each approach.
  –   efficiency, loyalty, good information, good staff
  –   Isolation, chaos, redundancy, lack of expertise about
      the workings of government, demands on
      president’s time.
 Presidential Staff and Presidential Style

The President’s staff
  The Chief of Staff – duties and responsibilities vary by
  president, but has been a key player since Eisenhower.
  Plays the role of information broker, lighting rod, and
  personnel manager.
The “Brownlow Creed”
  Anonymity – staff should operate in the background. If
  you make the news, you have failed the president.
  Size of the staff – “small is beautiful,” yet staff grows.
  Coordination vs. management
  The “creed” vs. reality
The Cabinet

   Rudalevige – “the assembled heads of the executive
    departments.” Originally four, now 15 agency heads,
    plus VP, chief of staff, OMB, Trade Rep, EPA, and Drug
   “adult show and tell.” Not a collective decision making
    body. Clearly not “cabinet government.” Body is too
    big, too diverse, divided loyalties, and frequent
   So what purpose? Represent different constituencies,
    lead on specific issues, help implement the president’s
Advising the President

The process of advising the President – how to
  convince the Pres. he is making a wrong decision.
  What leads to policy failures? Keeping information
  from the public.
The politics of advising the President – press loves to
  emphasize internal divisions within the White House,
  internal politics. Competition for space at the Cabinet
  table or office space in the West Wing.
Assessing the advice on advising the President. What
  is the goal of the analysis: explanation or
  prescription? Problems with giving advice – need to
  have a better understanding of what works.
First Floor                                             Second Floor
1.Jared Weinstein, Special Assistant to the President   1.Dan Bartlett, Counselor to the President
and Personal Aide                                       2.Kevin Sullivan, Assistant to the President for
2.Karen Keller, Special Assistant to the President      Communications
and Personal Secretary                                  3.Candi Wolff, Assistant to the President for
3.Tony Snow, Assistant to the President and Press       Legislative Affairs
Secretary                                               4.Deb Fiddelke, Deputy Assistant to the President
4.Dana Perino, Deputy Assistant to the President        for Legislative Affairs
and Deputy Press Secretary                              5.Allan Hubbard, Assistant to the President for
5.Josh Deckard, Assistant Press Secretary               Economic Policy and Director, National Economic
6.J.D. Crouch, Assistant to the President and Deputy    Council
National Security Advisor                               6.Keith Hennessey, Deputy Assistant to the
7.Steve Hadley, Assistant to the President for          President for Economic Policy and Deputy Director,
National Security Affairs                               National Economic Council
8.Dick Cheney, Vice President                           7.Liza Wright, Assistant to the President for
9.Karl Rove, Assistant to the President, Deputy         Presidential Personnel
Chief of Staff and Senior Advisor                       8.Bill Kelley, Deputy Counsel to the President
10.Susan Ralston, Special Assistant to the President    9.Karl Zinsmeister, Assistant to the President for
and Assistant to the Senior Advisor                     Domestic Policy
11.Joe Hagin, Assistant to the President and Deputy     10.Tevi Troy, Deputy Assistant to the President for
Chief of Staff                                          Domestic Policy
12.Joel Kaplan, Assistant to the President and          11.Bill McGurn, Assistant to the President for
Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy                        Speechwriting
13.Josh Bolten, Assistant to the President and Chief    12.Harriet Miers, Counsel to the President
of Staff
Presidential Style

   Charles Jones’ categories of presidential
    –   LBJ: Majority leader.
    –   Nixon: Foreign minister.
    –   Ford: Minority leader
    –   Carter: Layman
    –   Reagan: Plebiscitary president
    –   Bush: combination of Nixon and Reagan
    –   Clinton and Bush II?
The Vice President

   John “Cactus Jack” Nance Garner, gave up being Speaker of the
    House to become Vice President under FDR. He later said it was the
    "worst damn fool mistake I ever made." Office wasn’t worth “a warm
    bucket of spit.” John Adams, the first vice president, described the
    V.P. as "the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man
    contrived or his imagination conceived."
   Traditional duties – president of the Senate, attend state funerals.
    Harry Truman, HHH, and Bush I “out of the loop.”
   Changed with Al Gore, and even more with Dick Cheney. Gore was
    influential in foreign policy, environmental policy, and “reinventing
    government.” Cheney is widely viewed as Bush’s most influential
    advisor on a broad range of issues, esp. foreign policy.
   Stepping stone to the White House. VPs ran for office in 1960, 1968
    (2), 1984, 1988, and 2000. Truman, LBJ, Nixon, Ford, and Bush I all
    served as VPs before becoming president.

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