Chapter 2 Enlarging Vocabulary through Central Ideas

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					          Chapter 2
Enlarging Vocabulary through
        Central Ideas


        Central Ideas 1-5
            Central Ideas:

 Skill
 Poverty
 Wealth
 Fear
 Courage
          Part 1: SKILL

 Adroit
 Ambidextrous
 Apprentice
 Aptitude
 Craftsperson
 Dexterity
 Maladroit
 Versitile
            1. Adroit (adj)

   Expert in using the hands or mind;
    skillful; clever; deft; dexterous

   Our adroit passing enabled us to score
    four touchdowns.
       2. Ambidextrous (adj)

   Able to use both hands equally well

   Ruth is an ambidextrous hitter; she
    can bat right-handed or left-handed.
          3. Apprentice (n)

   Person learning an art or trade under a
    skilled worker; learner; beginning;
    novice; tyro

   Young Ben Franklin learned the printing
    trade by serving as an apprentice to
    his half brother James.
            4. Aptitude (n)

   Natural tendency to learn or
    understand; bent; talent

   Cindy is not clumsy with tools; she has
    mechanical aptitude.
         5. Craftsperson (n)

   Skilled worker; artisan

   To build a house, you need the services
    of carpenters, bricklayers, plumbers,
    and electricians; each one must be a
    skilled craftsperson.
           6. Dexterity (n)

   Skill using the hands or mind; deftness;
    adroitness; expertise

   You can’t expect an apprentice to have
    the same dexterity as a skilled worker.
         7. Maladroit (adj)

   Clumsy; inept; awkward

   A maladroit worker banged his thumb
    with a hammer.
          8. Versatile (adj)

   Capable of doing many things well;
    many-sided; all-around

   Leonardo da Vinci was remarkably
    versatile. He was a painter, sculptor,
    architect, musician, engineer, and
    scientist.
         Part 2: Poverty

 Destitute
 Economize
 Frugal
 Impoverished
 Indigence
           9. Destitute (adj)

   Not possessing the necessities of life,
    such as food, shelter, and clothing;
    needy; indigent

   The severe earthquake killed hundreds
    of persons and left thousands
    destitute.
          10. Economize (v)

   Reduce expences; be frugal

   Consumers can economize by buying
    their milk in gallon containers.
               11. Frugal (adj)

 Barely enough; scanty
 Avoiding waste; economical; sparing; saving;
  thrifty

   The old man had nothing to eat but bread and
    cheese; yet he offered to share his frugal meal
    with his visitor.
   My weekly allowance for lunches and fares isn’t
    much, but I can get by on it if I am frugal.
          12. Impoverish (v)

   Make very poor; reduce to poverty;
    bankrupt; ruin; pauperize

   The increase in dues of only a dollar a
    year will not impoverish anyone.
          13. Indigence (n)

   Poverty; penury

   By hard work, countless thousands of
    Americans have raised themselves from
    indigence to wealth.
          Part 3: Wealth

 Affluent        Hoard
 Avarice         Lavish
 Avaricious      Lucrative
 Covet           Means
 Dowry           Opulence
 Financial       Sumptuous
 Fleece
           14. Affluent (adj)

   Very wealthy; rich; opulent

   The new wing to the hospital is a gift
    from an affluent humanitarian.
             15. Avarice (n)

   Excessive desire for wealth; greediness;
    cupidity

   If manufacturers were to raise prices
    without justification, they could be
    accused of avarice.
         16. Avaricious (adj)

   Greedy; grasping; covetous

   An avaricious person likes to get and
    keep, but not to give or share.
              17. Covet (v)

   Desire; long for; crave, especially
    something belonging to another

   Jorge coveted his neighbor’s farm but
    could not get her to sell it.
             18. Dowry (n)

   Money, property, etc., that a bride
    brings to her husband

   The dowry that his wife brought him
    enabled the Italian engraver Piranesi to
    devote himself completely to art.
          19. Financial (adj)

   Having to do with money matters;
    monetary; pecuniary; fiscal

   People who keep spending more than
    they earn usually get into financial
    difficulties.
                20. Fleece (v)

 (literally, to remove the wool from
  sheep or a similar animal)
 Deprive or strip of money or belongings
  by fraud; charge excessively for goods
  or services; rob; cheat; swindle
       If your sister paid $9000 for that car, she
        was fleeced. The mechanic says it was
        worth $5000.
                21. Hoard (v)

   Save and conceal; accumulate; amass

       Aunt Bonnie had a reputation as a miser
        who hoarded every penny she could get
        her hands on.
               22. Lavish (adj)

 Too free in giving, using, or spending;
  profuse; prodigal
 Given or spent too freely; very
  abundant; extravagant; profuse
       The young heir was warned that he would
        soon have nothing left if he continued to
        be lavish with money.
       Vera’s composition is good, but it doesn’t
        deserve the lavish praise that Linda gave
        it.
             23. Lucrative (adj)

   Profitable; moneymaking

       Because the gift shop did not produce a
        sufficient profit, the owner decided to go
        into a more lucrative business.
             24. Means (n. pl)

   Wealth; property; resources

       To own an expensive home, a yacht, and a
        limousine, you have to be a person of
        means.
              25. Opulence (n)

   Wealth; riches; affluence

       Dickens contrasts the opulence of
        France’s nobility with the indigence of her
        peasants.
           26. Sumptuous (adj)

   Involving large expense; luxurious;
    costly

       The car with the leather upholstery and
        thick rugs is beautiful but a bit
        sumptuous for my simple tastes.
                 Fear

 Apprehensive
 Cower
 Dastardly
 Intimidate
 Poltroon
 Timid
 Trepidation
         27. Apprehensive (adj)

   Expecting something unfavorable;
    afraid; anxious

       Apprehensive parents telephoned the
        school when the class was late getting
        home from the museum.
                28. Cower (v)

   Draw back tremblingly; shrink or crouch
    in fear; cringe; recoil

       If you stand up to your bullying sister
        instead of cowering before her, she may
        back down.
            29. Dastardly (adv)

   Cowardly and mean

       It was dastardly of the captain to desert
        the sinking vessel and leave the
        passengers to fend for themselves.
             30. Intimidate (v)

   Make fearful or timid; frighten; force by
    fear; cow; bully

       The younger children would not have given
        up the playing field so quickly if the older
        ones hadn’t intimidated them.
              31. Poltroon (n)

   Thorough coward; dastard; craven

       Like the poltroon that he was, Tonseten
        hid under the bed when he saw a fight
        coming.
              32. Timid (adj)

   Lacking courage or self-confidence;
    fearful; timorous; shy

       If the other team challenges us, we should
        accept. Let’s not be so timid!
            33. Trepidation (n)

   Nervous agitation; fear, fright;
    trembling

       I thought Carol would be nervous when
        she made her speech, but she delivered it
        without trepidation.
                  Courage

   Audacious
   Audacity
   Dauntless
   Exploit
   Fortitude
   Indomitable
   Plucky
   Rash
            34. Audacious (adj)

 Bold; fearlessly daring
 Too bold; insolent; impudent


       The audacious sea captain set a couse for
        uncharted waters.
       After we had waited for about twenty
        minutes, an audacious latecomer strolled
        up and tried to get in at the head of our
        line.
              35. Audacity (n)

   Nerve; rashness; temerity

       Oliver Twist, nine-year-old poorhouse
        inmate, was put into solitary confinement
        when he had the audacity to ask for a
        second helping of porridge.
            36. Dauntless (adj)

   Fearless; intrepid; very brave; valiant

       The frightened sailors wanted to turn back,
        but their dauntless captain urged them to
        sail on.
               37. Exploit (n)

   Heroic act; daring deed; feat

       Amelia Earhart won worldwide fame for
        her expoits as an aviator.
              38. Fortitude (n)

   Courage in facing danger, hardship or
    pain; endurance; bravery; pluck;
    backbone; valor

       The officer showed remarkable fortitude in
        remaining on duty despite a painful wound.
          39. Indomitable (adj)

   Incapable of being subdued;
    unconquerable; invincible

       The bronco that would not be broken
        threw all its riders. It had an indomitable
        will to be free.
               40. Plucky (adj)

   Courageous; brave; valiant; valorous

       After two days on a life raft, the plucky
        survivors were rescued by a helicopter.
               41. Rash (adj)

   Overhasty; foolhardy; reckless;
    impetuous; taking too much risk

       When you lose your temper, you may say
        or do something rash and regret it
        afterward.

				
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