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Preface                                                                       7

Symposium organization                                                        9


Automatic milking: State of the art in Europe and North America              27
Kees de Koning & Jack Rodenburg

Milk in the news                                                             41
Ulrike Maris & Keith Roe

Socio-economic aspects of automatic milking                                  46
Erik Mathijs

Motivations of Dutch farmers to invest in an automatic milking system or a
conventional milking parlour                                                 56
Henk Hogeveen, Kees Heemskerk & Erik Mathijs

Economic efficiency of automatic milking systems with specific emphasis on
increases in milk production                                                 62
K.M. Wade, M.A.P.M. van Asseldonk, P.B.M. Berentsen, W. Ouweltjes &
H. Hogeveen

The economic implications of automatic milking: a simulation analysis for
Belgium, Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands                                68
Erwin Wauters & Erik Mathijs

Energy consumption on farms with an AM-system                                75
Kees Bos

Evaluation of the AM-system adopting and using farmers - In case study of
Japanese dairy farms -                                                       77
N. Hatakeyama

Expectations of automatic milking and the realized socio-economic effects    78
T. Jensen

Automatic milking – A better understanding                                   11

Farm hygiene and teat cleaning requirements in automatic milking                       83
Karin Knappstein, Nele Roth, Betsie Slaghuis, Reina Ferwerda-van Zonneveld,
Hans-Georg Walte & Joachim Reichmuth

The cleaning of automatic milking systems                                              94
Erik Schuiling

Investigation of different cleaning frequencies in automatic milking systems          101
Christel Benfalk & Mats Gustafsson

Induction of milk ejection during teat cleaning in robotic milking systems            106
Rupert M. Bruckmaier & Heinrich H.D. Meyer

Evaluating cleanliness of udders with an image processing system                      111
D.W. Ordolff

Different locations of instant cooling in the automatic milking system and
the effect on milk quality                                                            116
Mats Gustafsson & Christel Benfalk

Teat cleaning efficiency before milking in DeLaval VMS™ versus conventional
manual cleaning                                                                       117
Martin Melin, Hans Wiktorsson & Anders Christiansson

Cleaning effects of teat cleaning in robotic milking systems by use of poppy
seed as tracer                                                                        118
B.A. Slaghuis, R.T. Ferwerda-van Zonneveld & A. Mooiweer

Cobalt as a tracer for estimation of residues in milk after application of
automatic teat cleaning systems                                                       119
B.A. Slaghuis, R.T. Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, M.C. te Giffel & G. Ellen

Assessment of teats cleaning system efficiency of a milking robot                     121
F.M. Tangorra, V. Bronzo, A. Casula, M. Cattaneo, C. Martinazzi, P. Moroni,
M. Zaninelli & A.G. Cavalchini


Impact of automatic milking on animal health                                          125
J.E. Hillerton, J. Dearing, J. Dale, J.J. Poelarends, F. Neijenhuis, O.C. Sampimon,
J.D.H.M. Miltenburg & C. Fossing

12                                              Automatic milking – A better understanding
Effects of automatic milking on body condition score and fertility of dairy cows 135
J. Dearing, J.E. Hillerton, J.J Poelarends, F. Neijenhuis, O.C. Sampimon &
C. Fossing

Changes in teat condition in Dutch herds converting from conventional to
automated milking                                                                   141
F. Neijenhuis, K. Bos, O.C. Sampimon, J. Poelarends, J.E. Hillerton, C. Fossing &
J. Dearing

Cow factors related to the increase of somatic cell count after introduction of
automatic milking.                                                                  148
J.J. Poelarends, O.C. Sampimon, F. Neijenhuis, J.D.H.M. Miltenburg,
J.E. Hillerton, J. Dearing & C. Fossing

The influence of an automatic milking system on claw health and lameness
of dairy cows                                                                       155
B. Vosika, D. Lexer, Ch. Stanek, J. Troxler & S. Waiblinger

Introduction of AMS in Italian dairy herds: Effects on teat tissues,
intramammary infection risk, and spread of contagious pathogens                     161
A. Zecconi, R. Piccinini, G. Casirani, E. Binda & L. Migliorati

Blind quarters in automatic milking systems - causes and consequences               168
Torben Werner Bennedsgaard, Morten Dam Rasmussen & Martin Bjerring

Changes in cow locomotion in uk herds converting from conventional to
automated milking                                                                   170
J. Dearing & J.E. Hillerton

A study of the effect of lameness on voluntary milking frequency of dairy
cows milked automatically                                                           171
Simon Grove, Torben Werner Bennedsgaard, Morten Dam Rasmussen & Carsten

Influence of an automatic milking system (VMS®) on milk secretory activity
of healthy and diseased udder quarters                                              172
J. Hamann, H. Halm & R. Redetzky

Risk factors for teat end callosity in dairy farms operating with automatic
milking systems (AMS)                                                               174
Ilka C. Klaas, M. Bjerring & C. Enevoldsen

Introduction of AMS in Italian herds: udder symmetry, teat thickness and
health in an automatic milking system                                               175
Luciano Migliorati, Federico Calza, Giacomo Pirlo, Giuseppe Casirani & Alfonso

Automatic milking – A better understanding                                           13
Effects of milking interval on teat condition and milking performance with
whole-udder take off                                                                177
F. Neijenhuis, J.E. Hillerton, K. Bos, O. Sampimon, J. Poelarends, C. Fossing &
J. Dearing

Milk leakage in automatic and conventional milking systems                          179
K. Persson Waller, T. Westermark, T. Ekman & K. Svennersten-Sjaunja

Impact of teat dip composition on teat condition and udder health                   181
M.D. Rasmussen, L. Foldager & T.C. Hemling

Animal health of herds converting to automatic milking system                       182
F. Skjøth, M.D. Rasmussen, L.A.H. Nielsen & K. Krogh

Quarter milk flow patterns in dairy cows: factors involved and repeatability        183
V. Tancin, A.H. Ipema, D. Peskovic
      ˘                     ˘                         ˘                ˘
                                 ˘ová, P.H. Hogewerf, S. Mihina & J. Macuhová

Study on the incidence of ketosis in dairy cows in an automatic milking system
versus a conventional milking system                                           184
Christoph Wenzel & Alexander Nitzschke


Detection and separation of abnormal milk in automatic milking systems              189
Morten Dam Rasmussen

Impact of automatic milking on excretion of antibiotic residues                     198
Karin Knappstein, Gertraud Suhren & Hans-Georg Walte

Selection of cows for treatment of udder infections in AMS herds                    209
Torben Werner Bennedsgaard, Susanne Elvstrøm & Morten Dam Rasmussen

Influence of varying milking intervals on milk composition - a physiological
approach on secretion of “normal milk”                                              215
J. Hamann & H. Halm

Cost of discarding milk with automatic separation of abnormal milk                  221
Diederik Pietersma & Henk Hogeveen

The use of spectral photometry for detection of mastitis milk                       228
Martin Wiedemann & Georg Wendl

An on-line somatic cell count sensor                                                235
D.S. Whyte, R.G. Orchard, P.S. Cross, T. Frietsch, R.W. Claycomb & G.A. Mein

14                                             Automatic milking – A better understanding
Seeing red: automated detection of blood in milk                                 241
D.S. Whyte, R.G. Orchard, P. Cross, A. Wilson, R.W. Claycomb & G.A. Mein

Detection of tissue damages caused by milking machines using conductivity
measurement                                                                      243
Kerstin Barth

Introduction of AMS in Italian dairy herds: The detection of clinical and
subclinical mastitis by AMS systems                                              245
E. Binda, G. Casirani, R. Piccinini & A. Zecconi

Detection of mastitis and poor milk quality in automatic milking                 247
M. Hovinen, A-M. Aisla, P. Anttila & S. Pyörälä

Proteolysis of milk protein from uninfected glands and glands infected with
Streptococcus uberis                                                             249
Lotte B. Larsen, Morten D. Rasmussen, Martin Bjerring & Jacob H. Nielsen

Composition of milk clots                                                        250
Lotte B. Larsen, Morten D. Rasmussen, Martin Bjerring & Jacob H. Nielsen

A method to detect flakes and clots in milk in automatic milking systems         251
B. Maassen-Francke, M. Wiethoff, O. Suhr, C. Clemens & A. Knoll

Making sense of in-line sensing for milk conductivity                            252
G.A. Mein, R.A. Sherlock & R.W. Claycomb

Electrical conductivity of milk as an indicator trait for mastitis               254
Elise Norberg & Inge Riis Korsgaard

The change of milk quality during lactations                                     256
L. Pongrácz & E. Báder

Impedance based sensor for mastitis detection in milk                            258
Sonia Ramírez-García, Valérie Favry, Kim Lau, Gillian McMahon & Dermot Diamond

Detection of abnormal udder tissue and milk by near infra-red spectroscopy
(cow side)                                                                       259
R. Tsenkova, H. Morita, H. Shinzawa & J.E. Hillerton


Automatic milking and grazing                                                    263
Eva Spörndly, Christian Krohn, Hendrik Jan van Dooren & Hans Wiktorsson

Automatic milking – A better understanding                                        15
Integrating Automatic Milking Installations (AMIs) into Grazing Systems -
Lessons from Australia                                                              273
R.K. Greenall, E. Warren & M. Warren

Automatic dairy farming in New Zealand using extensive grazing systems              280
M.W. Woolford, R.W. Claycomb, J. Jago, K. Davis, I. Ohnstad, R. Wieliczko,
P.J.A. Copeman & K. Bright

Two case studies on farms combining automatic milking with grazing - time
budgets, synchronisation of behaviour and visits to the robot                       286
Lene Munksgaard & Mette Søndergaard

The influence of three grazing systems on AMS performance                           292
H.J.C. van Dooren, L.F.M. Heutinck, G. Biewenga & J.L. Zonderland

How pasturing influences the use of AMS - A survey among 15 dairy farms
in The Netherlands                                                                  298
H.J.C. van Dooren, M.E. Haarman, J.H.M. Metz & L.F.M. Heutinck

Seven case studies about automatic milking and grazing in private herds             304
Christian C. Krohn

Combining automatic milking and grazing. Practice in The Netherlands                305
H.J.C. van Dooren, L.F.M. Heutinck & G. Biewenga

Is automatic milking possible with a 100% pasture diet?                             307
J. Jago, A. Jackson, K. Davis, R. Wieliczko, P. Copeman, I. Ohnstad, R. Claycomb
& M. Woolford

An individual cow-calling system to motivate cows to return from the
pasture to the milking unit                                                         308
Ewa Wredle, Lene Munksgaard & Eva Spörndly


Milk quality on farms with an automatic milking system                              311
Kees de Koning, Betsie Slaghuis & Yvonne van der Vorst

Quarter milking - a possibility for detection of udder quarters with
elevated SCC                                                                        321
I. Berglund, G. Pettersson, K. Östensson & K. Svennersten-Sjaunja

Pattern of somatic cell count in milk under automatic milking conditions
(VMS) and interactions with milk constituents                                       329
J. Hamann

16                                             Automatic milking – A better understanding
Introduction of AMS in Italian dairy herds: Effects on cow performances
and milk quality in a herd of the Grana Padano area                            335
G. Pirlo, G. Bertoni & R. Giangiacomo

Robotic milking and free fatty acids                                           341
B.A. Slaghuis, K. Bos, O. de Jong, A.J. Tudos, M.C. te Giffel & K. de Koning

Impact of size distribution of milk fat globules on milk quality affected
by pumping                                                                     348
Lars Wiking, Lennart Björck & Jacob H. Nielsen

Introduction of AMS in Italian dairy herds: Preliminary observations on milk
fat parameters for long ripening cheese production with primiparous dairy cows 357
F. Abeni, L. Degano & F. Calza

Towards specification in-line monitoring primary milk production               359
P.C.F. Borsboom & J. Dommerholt

Comparison of several methods for quantification of free fatty acid in
bovine milk                                                                    361
T.K. Dalsgaard, & J.H. Nielsen

Introduction of AMS in Italian dairy herds: A new system for the evaluation
of milk fat globule size as affected by automatic milking                      362
L. Degano, G. Contarini, O. Formichi, D. Ravera & R. Giangiacomo

Milking with robots: the Swedish experience                                    363
Torkel Ekman, Charlotte Hallén Sandgren, Mats Gyllensvärd, Inger Andersson &
Bengt Everitt

Introduction of AMS in Italian dairy herds: Long ripened cheese production
from robotic milking                                                           364
R. Giangiacomo, T.M.P. Cattaneo, G. Contarini, F. Abeni & G. Colzani

Effects of an automatic milking system (VMS®) on free fatty acids (FFA) in
different milk fractions                                                       365
J. Hamann, F. Reinecke, H. Stahlhut-Klipp & N.Th. Grabowski

Survey of milk quality on United States dairy farms utilizing automatic
milking systems                                                                367
Jason M. Helgren & Douglas J. Reinemann

Milk iodine residues: AMS versus conventional                                  368
M. McKinzie, I. Laquiere, T.C. Hemling & S. DeVliegher

Automatic milking – A better understanding                                      17

Implications of automatic milking on animal welfare                              371
Hans Wiktorsson & Jan Tind Sørensen

A welfare assessment report as a decision support tool in an AMS herd:
Practical experiences                                                            382
Jens Hindhede, Tine Rousing, Ilka Klaas & Jan Tind Sørensen

Relationships between time budgets, cortisol metabolite concentrations
and dominance values of cows milked in a robotic system and a herringbone
parlour                                                                          389
D. Lexer, K. Hagen, R. Palme, J. Troxler & S. Waiblinger

Assessment of welfare of dairy cows milked in different automatic milking
systems (AMS)                                                                    394
I. Neuffer, R. Hauser, L. Gygax, C. Kaufmann & B. Wechsler

Assessment of animal welfare in an AMS herd: Expert evaluation of a decision
support system                                                                   400
Tine Rousing, Jens Hindhede, Ilka Christine Klaas, Marianne Bonde &
Jan Tind Sørensen

Automatic milking and grazing in dairy cattle: effects on behaviour              407
L.F.M. Heutinck, H.J.C. van Dooren & G. Biewenga

Introduction of AMS in Italian dairy herds: Welfare assessment based on
metabolic and endocrine responses in primiparous dairy cows                      414
F. Abeni, L. Calamari, M. Speroni & G. Bertoni

Indicators of stress in Simmental and Brown Swiss cows during milking in
a robotic system compared to a herringbone parlour                               416
K. Hagen, D. Lexer, R. Palme, J. Troxler & S. Waiblinger

Effects on feed intake, milking frequency and milk yield of dairy cows of
semi-forced or free cow traffic in AMS                                           417
D.J. Haverkamp, G. Pettersson & H. Wiktorsson

Behavior of high- and low-ranked dairy cows after redirection in selection
gates in an automatic milking system                                             418
G.G.N. Hermans, M. Melin, G. Pettersson & H. Wiktorsson

Image analysis for monitoring unrest or discomfort of cows during milking        420
A.H. Ipema, L. de Haan, J. Hemming & W.G.P. Schouten

18                                          Automatic milking – A better understanding
Clinical examinations in welfare assessment in herds operating with an
automatic milking system (AMS)                                              422
I.C. Klaas, C. Fossing, M.K. Bonde & J. Hindhede

Measuring welfare in dairy cows - behavioural aspects                       423
Jan Olofsson

Improved animal welfare in AMS?                                             425
Jan Olofsson & Kerstin Svennersten-Sjaunja

Measuring welfare in dairy cows - health aspects                            427
K. Persson Waller & J. Olofsson

Introduction of AMS in Italian herds: effects on animal behaviour           429
Marisanna Speroni, Susanna Lolli & Giacomo Pirlo


Demands and opportunities for operational management support                433
Wijbrand Ouweltjes & Kees de Koning

Udder cistern evaluation to help the decision making process of assigning
the appropriate milking frequency in automatically milked cows              444
M. Ayadi, I. Llach, G. Caja, I. Busto, A. Bach & X. Carré

Effects of milking machine parameters on the mean milk flow rate in a
robotic milking system                                                      450
A.H. Ipema & P.H. Hogewerf

Considerations at establishment of automatic milking systems in existing
herd facilities                                                             457
Troels Kristensen & Egon Noe

Integration of cow activity in individual management systems: Analysis of
individual feeding patterns in automatic milking systems                    463
Martin Melin & Hans Wiktorsson

Illumination or guiding light during night hours in the resting area of
AM-barns                                                                    468
Gunnar Pettersson & Hans Wiktorsson

System capacity of single box AMS and effect on the milk performance        474
Rudolf Artmann

Automatic milking – A better understanding                                   19
Udder stimulation without milking decreases milk production at the
following milking but has no further consequences on milk production              476
A. Bach, I. Busto & X. Carre

The impact of milking interval regularity on milk production                      478
A. Bach, I. Busto & X. Carre

Change of udder conformation traits by lactations in a Holstein Friesian herd     480
E. Báder, I. Györkös, P. Báder, M. Porvay, E. Kertészné Györffy A. Kovács &
L. Pongrácz

Managing the change to automatic milking                                          482
J.R. Baines

Transfer of data from management systems to central databases                     483
M. Bjerring, T. Lind, F. Skjøth & M.D. Rasmussen

Effects of milking frequency and lactation stage on milk yield and milk
composition of test day records in robotic milking                                484
I. Llach, A. Bosch, M. Ayadi, G. Caja, M. Xifra & X. Carré

Introduction of AMS in Italian herds: Integration and performances
in a conventional barn of North Italy                                             486
M. Capelletti, C. Bisaglia & G. Pirlo

Working time studies in farms with conventional and automatic milking             488
Mats Gustafsson

Managing an automatic milking farm: Minimizing the amount of concentrates
in the robot                                                                      489
Ilan Halachmi

Influence of incomplete milkings on milk yield under automatic milking
conditions (VMS®)                                                                 490
J. Hamann, H. Halm, R. Redetzky & N.Th. Grabowski

Influence of cow traffic on milking and animal behaviour in a robotic
milking system                                                                    492
Jan Harms & Georg Wendl

Effect of a simplification in the entrance and exit procedure for a multiple
stall robotic milking system on the cow’s time budget for milking                 494
A.H. Ipema & P.H. Hogewerf

20                                           Automatic milking – A better understanding
The difference between the setting and the actual milking time in an
automatic milking system                                                       496
A. Kageyama, S. Morita, A. Murakami, H. Kawakami, M. Komiya, S. Hoshiba &
M. Tokida

The effects of diet composition and feeding system on cow activity and
voluntary milking in an AMS                                                    497
Arie Klop & Kees Bos

Optimization of feed speed in automatic milking system                         498
Michio Komiya, Shigeru Morita, Katsumi Kawakami & Mamoru Yokoyama

Analysis of teat cup attachment under practical conditions                     500
H. Luther, E. Stamer, W. Junge & E. Kalm

Diurnal changes of oxytocin release during automatic milking                   502
          ˘uhová & Rupert M. Bruckmaier
Juliana Mac

Eating and resting behavior of cows in bedded pack type loose housing with
an automatic milking system                                                    503
S. Morita, A. Kageyama, A. Murakami, H. Kawakami, M. Komiya & S. Hoshiba

Automatic milking systems - System performance and working time                504
Christoph Moriz

Electricity and water consumption by milking                                   506
Jan Brøgger Rasmussen & Jørgen Pedersen

Survey of automatic milking systems management practices in North America      508
Douglas J. Reinemann, Yvonne van der Vorst, Wilco de Jong & Albrecht Finnema

A protocol for training a dairy herd for automatic milking                     509
Jack Rodenburg

Effect of the composition of concentrate fed in the milking box, on milking
frequency and voluntary attendance in automatic milking systems                511
Jack Rodenburg, Erik Focker & Karen Hand

The effect of housing on implementation of automatic milking in Israel         513
Ezra Shoshani & Ephraim Ezra

The effect of milking interval on milk yield and milk composition              515
K. Svennersten-Sjaunja, I. Andersson & H. Wiktorsson

A study of practical use of automatic milking system in Japan                  516
M. Tokida, S. Morita, M. Komiya & T. Kida

Automatic milking – A better understanding                                      21
Strategies to improve the capacity of an automatic milking system               517
H.J.C. van Dooren, C.H. Bos & G. Biewenga

The changeover from conventional to automatic milking in dairy cows with
and without previous experience                                                 518
Daniel Weiss, Erich Möstl & Rupert M. Bruckmaier

AUTHORS INDEX                                                                  523

SPONSORS                                                                       529

22                                         Automatic milking – A better understanding

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