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         Asian Epidemics


The principal modes of HIV transmission:
  HIV is generally concentrated among certain populations.
  Infections appear first among IDUs, SWs and Clients, and MSM, but
  then it spreads to wives and children

The driving forces of Asian epidemics:
  sharing of needles during Injecting Drug Use – kick-starts and
  accelerates the epidemic
  unprotected Commercial sex – gives it range and power
  Sexual networking among Asian men markedly higher than women
            Asian Epidemics
 Large numbers of people at risk of HIV infection in Asia




75 million Men                               50 million
in Asia visit sex                              Women in
   workers                                     Asia
   (between                                    married to
2-20% of adult                                 men who
   men)                                        visit sex
                       Asian Epidemics

                     75 million Men              50 million
                     in Asia visit sex             Women in
                        workers                    Asia
                                                   married to
                             16 million Men
                                                   Men who
                                  who have sex      million
                                                 10visit sex
                                  with men         Women who
                                                   workers
                             4 million Men         sell sex
                                  who
                     inject drugs
                             1 million infants
                                  and
                     children
Source: Commission on AIDS in Asia 2008
          HIV/AIDS is a Workplace Issue

        In Asia, 4.9 million are infected: 9 out 10 are adults in the
          productive age group*




Source: * Report of the Commission on AIDS in ASIA. ** The ILO’s Response to HIV/AIDS: Meeting with Rapporteurs, Da Nang, 02 October 2003
HIV/AIDS is a Workplace Issue

HIVAIDS impacts people and business:




Loss of income and              Loss of skills and
  employment benefits             experience
Stigma and                      Reduced supply of
  discrimination                  labour
Pressure on families            Reduced productivity
Children taken out of           Increased costs
  school                        Workplace conflict
HIV/AIDS is a Workplace Issue

  Employees are valuable company assets and should be
   protected

              We need healthy workers
             If a company does not know how to deal with
                HIV/AIDS, it may face productivity losses:
                - loss of skills
                - rising labour costs
                - workplace conflict
              Corporate Social Responsibility
              Positive public image of enterprises with
                HIV/AIDS workplace programmes
    ILO Response to HIV/AIDS

   HIV/AIDS threatens the primary goal of ILO:
To provide opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and
  productive work in conditions of freedom, equity security and
  human dignity
ILO Response to HIV/AIDS


    ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World
      of Work



    Recommendation Concerning HIV and AIDS and
     the World of Work
 ILO Response to HIV/AIDS

          ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World
            of Work

Establishes international workplace guidelines on HIV/AIDS

Promotes a rights-based approach to HIV/AIDS

Developed in consultation with governments, employers’ and
 workers’ organizations, and received the support of the
 United Nations General Assembly on HIV/AIDS as well as
 corporations, labour organizations and NGOs
    ILO Response to HIV/AIDS

             ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World
               of Work

   Objectives:

Prevent the spread of HIV
Combat stigma and discrimination
Mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS
Provide care and support
Code of Practice vs.
 Recommendation

ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World
  of Work




Recommendation Concerning HIV and AIDS and
 the World of Work
Code of Practice vs.
 Recommendation

ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World
  of Work




Recommendation Concerning HIV and AIDS and
 the World of Work
     New Recommendation
Developed by the representatives of the ILO tripartite partners




All of the key features of the Code of Practice are included in
  the Recommendation
     New Recommendation
Developed by the representatives of the ILO tripartite partners




All of the key features of the Code of Practice are included in
  the Recommendation
      New Recommendation

   The Recommendation covers:


All workers working under all forms or arrangements

All workplaces including:
- persons in any employment or occupation
- those in training, including interns and apprentices
- volunteers
- jobseekers and job applicants
- army and police
        New Recommendation



   An international standard
Developed and adopted by ILO member states
Immediately applicable
Should be introduced to parliaments and assessed in relation to
  existing policies and programs
Reporting requirements based on a global action plan
        New Recommendation
   Why?
Has greater influence on national policies and programs

Need to address fundamental risk drivers (e.g. gender, violence,
  reproductive health)

      Need to focus on most at risk populations and the special
       needs of
      migrant workers

      Need to ensure access to comprehensive treatment and
       equal access to social protection programs
          Key Themes

             Prevention

Eliminate Stigma and Discrimination

Access to treatment, care and support
                    Key Themes
                              Prevention:
Address fundamental risk drivers

              Gender equality and empowerment of women
              Violence and sexual harassment
              Discrimination based on sexual orientation
              Sexual and reproductive health
              TB and other infectious diseases
                      Key Themes
                  Stigma and Discrimination :
Prohibition of mandatory testing or compulsory disclosure

Denial of job opportunities

Confidentiality

Specific reference to migrant workers – non discrimination in sending,
transit and receiving countries

Inclusion of sex workers

Call for dispute resolution mechanisms at the country and international level
    People Living with HIV Stigma Index
PLHIV        Currently    HIV tested    Dismissed   Refused    Employment
             employed        for           from       new          duties
                         employment    employment employment changed due
                                        due to HIV opportunity to HIV status
                                          status   due to HIV
                                                     status
Thailand      79.4%           -          32.2%        26.2%          -

China          64%           1%          22.4%        14.8%        16.8%

Sri Lanka     61.6%         32%          11.1%         4%           4%


Bangladesh    64.7%        26.9%         43.2%        9.27%       20.26%

Myanmar        76%            -           41%          15%           -
          Seydi Ba Gassama –MPH
Youth and HIV/AIDS Prog Officer ILO – Vietnam
                                   bagassama@ilo.org

				
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posted:9/16/2011
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