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877 Report Executive Summary

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					             From Theory to Practice:
 A Proposal for an Internship Program


For the Higher, Adult, and Lifelong Education Masters Program
          Department of Educational Administration
                  Michigan State University




                           Created By:


     Paulo Gordillo                         John Hoffschneider
      Ann Horn                               Eun-Young Kwon
   Jamie McClintock                           Allison Medlin
    Shenila Momin                             D’Andra Mull
    Hong-Yen Pham                             Karen Tkaczyk




                      Under the Direction of:
                       Gloria Kielbaso, PhD
                             Table of Contents

Section                                                                 Page #

Introduction………………………… …………………………………………………….2

Discerning the Context……………………………………………………………………3

Building a Solid Base of Support…………………………………………………………4

Identifying and Prioritizing Program Ideas……………………………………………….5

Developing Objectives……………………………………………………………………9

Devising Transfer of Learning…………………………………………………………...10

Designing Instruction…………………………………………………………………….11

Formulating Evaluations…………………………………………………………………13

Making Recommendations………………………………………………………………15

Format of Internship Program …………………………………………………………....16

Identifying Programming Staff…………………………………………………………..17

Budgets and Marketing…………………………………………………………………..18

Facilities………………………………………………………………………………….20

Appendices:

      Appendix A: Caffarella‘s Interactive Model of Program Planning……………...22

      Appendix B: Needs Assessment…………………………………………………23

      Appendix C: Faculty Survey……………………………………………………..29

      Appendix D: Student Survey…………………………………………………….30

      Appendix E: List of Graduate Programs with Internship Components………….31

      Appendix F: Internship Learning Agreement ……………………………………32

      Appendix G: Possible Internship Sites for HALE Master‘s Program…………...35

      Appendix H: Sample Brochure…………………………………………………..36


                                                                             1
                                       Introduction

              The HALE master's program prepares individuals for entry-level
       leadership positions in postsecondary education, public agencies, and
       business settings. The program provides a broad understanding of
       educational systems from social, historical, cross-national, normative
       perspectives and an understanding of central issues in postsecondary
       teaching and learning, and a theoretical understanding of administration
       and leadership connected to practice. There are opportunities to develop
       and use skills needed in practice through practica and field experiences.
       We expect that graduates are prepared to work in and to cultivate
       educational environments that are receptive to diversity.

       The above is the mission statement for the Higher, Adult, and Lifelong Education

Masters program. The latter part of the mission statement emphasizes that graduates

from the program will be prepared to work in and cultivate educational environments that

are receptive to diversity. Moreover, an essential part of the learning experience and

professional preparation should include practica and field experiences. In practice,

however, does the HALE Masters program encourage students to utilize these

experiential learning opportunities? If not, what changes could be implemented to the

HALE program? One solution is to develop a quality internship program for HALE

students.

       In the Spring of 2003, the EAD 877 Program Planning and Evaluation class was

asked to develop a proposal for an internship program for the HALE Masters program.

The proposal for an internship program, resulting from the collaborative effort of the

members of the class, is presented in this report. The report, like the planning of the

internship program itself, is organized following the steps of the Interactive Model of

Program Planning, as described by Rosemary Caffarella in Planning Programs for Adult

Learners.




                                                                                          2
       The twelve sections of this report correspond to the twelve steps of the Interactive

Model of Program Planning provided by Caffarella (see Appendix A). For each of the

twelve steps, we explain the activities included in that step and how we carried them out

in the process of planning the HALE internship program.. Finally, we conclude this

report with several appendices that include a detailed description of our needs

assessment, faculty and student surveys, an internship learning agreement, and a list of

sites that have already expressed an interest in placing a HALE intern.

                                 Discerning the Context

       Context is defined as the human, organizational, and environmental factors

involved with decision making in regards to program planning and evaluation (Caffarella

2002). The HALE internship program prepares individuals for entry-level leadership

positions in postsecondary education, public agencies, and business settings. The

internship program provides a broad understanding of educational systems from social,

historical, cross-national, normative perspectives and an understanding of administration

and leadership connected to practice.

       This internship program creates opportunities for students to develop and use

skills needed in practice through field experiences. The objective of the HALE internship

program is to provide students with additional or new work experiences in adult

educational settings. This program also provides students with additional experiences

and qualifications to further enhance portfolios.

       The overall goal of the internship program is to provide students with an

opportunity for individual change and growth. The program will also assist the HALE

Masters students in establishing additional contacts within the community, creating




                                                                                            3
possible job opportunities for graduating students and allowing for community outreach.

Finally, an additional goal would be to develop positive relationships between the

University and placement sites in the Lansing area and beyond. The internship program

provides a unique opportunity for students in the HALE masters program to build their

educational experience to better reflect their professional goals and to enhance their

personal and professional portfolio.

                            Building a Solid Base of Support

       Caffarella identifies building a solid base of support as an integral step in

planning a program (2002). Support should come from people and organizations,

including potential and current learners, supervisors of potential participants, mid-and

senior-level management of the sponsoring organization, and other stakeholders who

have a vested interest in the planning or results of the program. The two factors

important to building organizational support include the position of the educational

function within the organization and the culture of the organization.

       Our initial focus was to ascertain and secure the willingness of students, faculty,

and site supervisors to participate in the proposed internship program. We also

considered the learning objectives and goals of student participants in formulating the

program in order to entice them to participate; thus prolonging the life of our program.

       We acquired support for the internship program through a needs assessment (see

Appendix B for details regarding the needs assessment). We surveyed potential learners

(current HALE Master‘s students) and management from the organization (faculty)

regarding their willingness to participate in the proposed program and their goals for the

internship program, not only to help develop the parameters of the program but to assure




                                                                                             4
potential participants that their considerations were taken seriously. We also interviewed

another stakeholder, Dr. Pat Enos, the director of the Student Affairs Administration

practicum program, because the mission of HALE‘s program may overlap with that of

the Student Affairs‘ program, as well as compete for positions in administrative offices.

Finally, we collected a list of potential supervisors in educational programs within and

outside of the university who expressed interest in having a HALE intern.

       The mission of the HALE program, and the Department of Educational

Administration, includes the goal of providing opportunities for students to put theory

and skills into action in practice. Our program‘s goals links their mission to the greater

organization in which the program will operate.

       The culture of the Educational Administration department and the HALE program

are supportive of experiential learning experiences for students. An internship option

already exists within the curriculum; our program is simply a more formal organization

of this option. The proposed internship program will become a stronger symbol of the

culture‘s support of putting theory into practice. The HALE internship program will

accomplish this by being a more formal, consistent program offering that illustrates the

emphasis placed on giving students professional opportunities.

                      Identifying and Prioritizing Program Ideas

       According to Caffarella identifying the relevant ideas and needs for the program

content is one of the most important tasks of the people involved in program planning.

Program ideas may come from such diverse sources as personal observations, people,

responsibilities and tasks of adult life, organizations, and communities and society. They

may be based on hunches or highly structured needs assessment (2002). In our process of




                                                                                             5
planning for this internship, the idea was generated and presented to the group by Dr.

Gloria Kielbaso, our instructor, who assigned the program idea to us. Also, the idea came

from the organization of the Educational Administration department, specifically the

faculty of HALE. They had discussed this idea as a faculty previously, which prompted

Dr. Kielbaso to bring it to us.

       As a group we went through an informal educational need: a gap between what

presently is and what should be. According to Caffarella, in such case, an individual, an

organization, or the community recognizes a gap in knowledge and skills (2002). The

group agreed with Dr. Kielbaso that there needs to be an experiential learning component

to the HALE program so that students gain relevant experience in their field of interest.

This is also in line with the mission on HALE program which states that ―The HALE

master's program prepares individuals for entry-level leadership positions in

postsecondary education, public agencies, and business settings. We expect that

graduates are prepared to work in and to cultivate educational environments that are

receptive to diversity.‖

       An important step in generating ideas is through a needs assessment. In this case

we used a paper and computer survey to obtain feedback from students and a paper

survey to receive feedback from faculty regarding particular program characteristics (see

Appendix B for details regarding the needs assessment). We also considered the ideas

presented in the group session of the faculty meeting. According to Caffarella, one of the

most important outcomes of a highly structured needs assessment may be a commitment

by those involved in the process to ensure that the ideas from the needs assessment are

actually used in the program planning process (2002). This is demonstrated by the




                                                                                            6
group‘s analysis of the survey given out to the faculty and staff and the utilization of this

data when developing the internship program. Caffarella mentions that ensuring the use

of data for planning means making sure at the outset that those who have the authority to

implement the findings of such assessment are willing to listen to the voices of those who

respond, and that they will actually implement programs based on these findings (2002).

In this regard not only did we take into consideration the findings from the student survey

but we also considered the ideas presented in the group session of the faculty meeting.

       Further, Caffarella states that priority ideas are often thought of as ones that are

among the most important and/or the most feasible to address. Depending on the specific

planning situation, however, other factors are considered, such as the number of people

affected and availability of resources (2002). Our internship program might be considered

priority because there is an educational need for one. Our program strives to produce

professional administrators, but does not offer a structured professional experience.

       Three major factors, alone or in combination are, are used to make judgments

about whether an education or training program should be developed or an alternative

intervention chosen: people, organizational and environmental factors and cost (2002).

Our group struggled with whether there are any alternatives to gaining professional

experience as part of the HALE program other than the internship, and we looked at other

options, such as field training through the course EAD 894. It was decided, however,

that the program needs a separate internship component which is highly structured and

has visibility in the offices where potential interns would like to work. In this process, as

Caffarella mentions, we took the advice of several people, including Dr. Kielbaso and




                                                                                                7
Regina Smith as content experts and, through their responses on the student survey,

current HALE students who are potential participants.

       Caffarella also charts ―Two Major Categories of Criteria with Examples and

Descriptions‖ (2002). As mentioned above, the importance and feasibility criteria take

into consideration organizational and environmental factors and cost. Those persons

affected include faculty, students, and internship supervisors. Strong contributions to

individuals‘ knowledge include professional skills and experience. The contribution to

organizational objectives is strong because the internship program better enables the

department to produce professional graduates. We have already collected a list of

potential supervisors in educational programs within and outside of the university who

are willing to have a HALE intern in their office. We will use faculty already in place to

supervise the student reflection. We have made it very easy to respond to the need

because we limited costs and need for new staff and have collected some internship

locations already. We did not complete a formal chart weighing priorities, but discussed

as a committee the importance and feasibility of each suggestion from students and

faculty, as well as examples from other universities.

       Overall, in identifying and selecting ideas we used a systematic approach to

planning which was mostly done through in-class, group discussions. The group is aware,

however, that in implementing program ideas, a well developed ―master plan‖ (2002) is

necessary and we are looking at the internship through multiple lenses, keeping in mind

the context of the target population in which we are working.




                                                                                             8
                                  Developing Objectives

       To begin, it is useful to define the difference between program objectives and

goals. According to Caffarella ―objectives are clear statements of the anticipated results

to be achieved through an educational and training program‖. She further states that

―they serve as the foundation for instructional plans, transfer of learning, and

evaluations‖ (Caffarella, 2002). Goals, on the other hand, ―are typically broad statements

of purpose or intent for the program‖ (Caffarella, 2002).

       Both program objectives and goals are similar in that they are measurable and

non-measurable. They may also result in unanticipated outcomes and must be flexible

enough to change over time. The program objectives and goals written for the HALE

internship program reflect the needs assessment done with HALE faculty and students

earlier this semester, and support the mission statement.

The program objectives for the HALE internship program are:

   1. To provide HALE Masters students with additional or new work experiences in

       adult educational settings.

   2. To provide HALE Masters students with additional opportunities and professional

       qualifications for their portfolio.

The program goals for the HALE internship program are:

   1. To provide HALE Masters students with an opportunity for individual change

       and growth.

   2. To assist the HALE Masters program in establishing community contacts for

       future endeavors, job opportunities for graduating students, and community

       outreach opportunities.




                                                                                             9
   3. To develop additional, positive relationships between the University and the

       educational community locally and beyond.

   It is our belief that a HALE internship program will benefit the HALE faculty and

students, as well as the University and the educational community. The internship can

foster individual, organizational, and community change by offering experiential learning

and outreach.

                              Devising Transfer of Learning

       Transfer of learning has often been neglected. Caffarella states that ―transfer of

learning was believed to magically happen‖ (2002). Now, however, organizations

demand to see results after spending money on training. We believe it is essential to

develop an Internship plan to help participants apply what they have learned. Caffarella

quotes Ottoson who observed, ―application requires multiple kinds of knowledge,

including knowledge of the thing, the context, the practical and the skill to put it all

together‖ (2002). For this reason we believe the program design, framework and

strategies for transfer of learning are paramount. We can look at this in three stages:

before, during and after the program.

Tasks to develop Transfer of Learning before the internship experience could include:

       1. Students will complete a memo of understanding with the internship on-site

           supervisor outlining learning goals and objective for the experience.

       2. Faculty would have input on objective and goals, offering suggestions and

           tasks analysis.

       3. Together with a faculty member, students would assess the appropriateness of

           the placement site based on their individual learning goals for the internship.




                                                                                             10
           In addition, choosing an appropriate site will enhance the student‘s

           opportunities to apply knowledge and skills developed in the curriculum.

Tasks to develop Transfer of Learning during the internship experience could include:

       1. The faculty supervisor or internship coordinator can ensure that students are

           gaining valuable experience and meeting learning objectives by monitoring

           the site.

       2. The internship program should include a written reflection component, such

           as a journal, portfolio, or final reflection paper. Reflection helps the student to

           understand and internalize what has been learned.

Tasks to develop Transfer of Learning after the internship experience could include:

       1. Evaluation will play a key role in transfer of learning, through student and

           supervisor reflections, surveys, and other forms of feedback.

       2. The internship site itself should be evaluated to determine whether interns

           should be placed there in the future.

                              Designing Instructional Plans

       According to Caffarella, preparing instructional plans involves designing the

interaction between learners and instructors and/or learners and resource materials

(2002). The internship experience is aimed at providing onsite learning to the interns and

our group agreed that interaction between the interns and their supervisor (instructor) is

an important part of the experience. Since ‗cultivating educational environments‘ is an

important part of the HALE mission statement, it was agreed that the interns should be

fully empowered to define and lead their own learning such that the learner and the

faculty in charge are co-creators in developing the instructional plan.




                                                                                             11
       Caffarella alludes to the concept of learning objectives, along with the terms

performance objectives or learning targets, as being important in the development of

instructional plan (2002). The learning objectives are described as what participants will

learn as a result of their experience. Since the main focus of the internship is to provide

students with field experience in their areas of interest, the learning objectives should be

aligned with providing the students with ―an understanding of central issues in

postsecondary teaching and learning, and a theoretical understanding of administration

and leadership connected to practice‖ as stated in the HALE mission statement. Thus, the

learning objectives are set in the context of the program objectives that focus on

participant learning, so that there is continuity between the two sets of objectives.

       It is important for students and instructor to define the learning objectives for the

internship because, as part of the HALE program, the internship will augment the HALE

program experience and prepare individuals for entry-level leadership positions in

postsecondary education, public agencies, and business settings. Therefore, these

objectives will be vital in setting the tone and direction for what participants were

expected to do and learn during the internship experience (Caffarella, 2002).

       Our group has some suggestions regarding learning techniques. For example, one

suggestion was to hold one-on-one meetings with the faculty advisor once per month to

discuss issues and learning progress. Other suggestions included maintaining a learning

reflective journal and communicating with the advisor through email, phone, etc. In

addition, another assessment tool - the portfolio – which is used in the assessment of

students‘ learning progress in the HALE program, will also be used by the students to

recount and reflect on their internship experience. These techniques would help the




                                                                                              12
advisor and the faculty members to assess the outcomes of the internship program, help

in evaluating what participants have learned, provide directions for learners to help them

organize their own learning, and make recommendations for improving the program.

                                Formulating Evaluations

       According to Caffarella, ―the heart of program evaluation lies in judging the value

and worth of a program‖ (2002, p. 261). Evaluation data helps program planners answer

questions such as: Was what the participants learned worthwhile? Were the objectives of

the program effectively met? Were the learners able to apply what they learned?

Furthermore, more than any other component of Caffarella‘s Interactive Model,

evaluation ―is where many of the other model components intersect and even overlap‖

(2002, p. 227). More specifically, data gathered when discerning the context,

formulating program ideas, or assessing instruction are often used for program evaluation

purposes. In developing the HALE internship program, for example, we completed

preliminary evaluations with faculty and student surveys (see Appendices B-D), as well

as a review of other internship opportunities in programs similar to HALE (see Appendix

E). Evaluation, then, will be a continual process from the initial development of the

program to its conclusion for each HALE student.

       Program evaluation can be systematic or informal, as well as formative or

summative. Formative evaluation is done to improve or change a program while it is

ongoing. Summative evaluation focuses on the results or outcomes of a program. We

have decided that evaluation of HALE internship experiences should be both formative

and summative. Students will develop written learning objectives for their internship

experience before it begins. During the internship, students will meet with their HALE




                                                                                         13
internship supervisor to discuss informally their internship experience and whether their

learning objectives are being met. At the end of the experience, both the student and their

on-site supervisor will be asked to submit a written evaluation of the internship to the

HALE internship supervisor. The student evaluation will include not only an assessment

of their learning outcomes, but an evaluation of their placement site for future interns.

       It should be noted, however, that there are inherent difficulties in effectively

evaluating an internship program. To begin with, it may be difficult to show that

program outcomes are really tied to what happened in the program, and not something

that happened outside of the program, for instance a class or another job. Second,

developing clear criteria for program objectives that are ambiguous or not quantifiable,

such as a change in beliefs or values, can be challenging. Finally, some students and on-

site supervisors may not want to make honest judgments about their own programs, in an

effort to protect their own interests. These cautions, however, should not dissuade HALE

faculty from evaluating the internship program, but should inform all decision-making

based on program evaluations.

       We have developed an initial learning contract for students and on-site

supervisors (see Appendix E), which can serve as a starting point for program evaluation.

As Caffarella states, ―planning for evaluation should not happen as an afterthought once

the whole program has been planned. Rather, evaluation is a process that occurs

throughout the planning cycle‖ (2002, p. 230). This contract, then, were created in

anticipation of the critical role that evaluation will play in the continual development of

the HALE internship program.




                                                                                              14
                                Making Recommendations

       The purpose of making recommendations is to highlight program successes, to

understand failures, to inspire change in a desired direction, and/or to gain support from

people or organizations (Caffarella, 2002). Recommendations are likely to be based on

the results of formal evaluations as well as the planner‘s experience in the process of

program planning and implementation. Because planners may structure the report

differently depending on the audience, determining the audience of a report is a key

decision in its creation (Caffarella, 2002).

       The preparation of a proposal for an internship program for the HALE Master‘s

program is the first formal report that will be completed regarding the program. We will

present a formal oral report and a formal written report, as well as an executive summary

to the faculty, a key audience because they have the power to request the implementation

of the internship program. We have also invited students to the presentation of the

proposal because they will ultimately be the participants in the program, should it be

implemented. Their input in and response to the program can help to develop the format

of the program to meet their needs.

       Our professor is the only member of the planning team who is also a member of

the faculty and will continue to have direct contact with her peers after we have presented

our proposal. She will follow-up with the faculty to make sure that they continue to

consider our program and to monitor whether they actually implement the program. She

will also serve as a consultant to the faculty if they do decide to implement a program in

the form that we have proposed.




                                                                                             15
       If the program is implemented, reports and recommendations will be developed

based on an evaluation of the program. These reports will also be presented to faculty

because they would have the power to change the program and because they are one of

the groups, in addition to students, who will be most intimately involved with the

program.

                             Format of Internship Program

The following is the format of the proposed internship program:

Time Commitment:

Students will be required to contribute120 total hours over a semester (15 weeks) to the

placement site. Internship participants will be expected to commit at least 8-10 hours a

week to fulfill the total number of hours required by the internship.

Credit Equivalency:

Students will earn 3 credits towards the Master‘s of Arts in Higher Adult Lifelong

Education in the College of Education. The internship can be listed under the course

number EAD 894, replacing the current field experience option.

Financial Compensation:

Financial compensation is not the responsibility of the HALE master‘s program.

Compensation is the choice of the company/organization/entity where the student is

placed during the internship. Students will register for the internship with the expectation

of earning credits for the time invested. Monetary compensation is not required from the

organization.




                                                                                           16
Program Format:

       The learning format of the internship focuses on how education and training

activities are structured and organized (Caffarella, 2002, p. 287). Listed below are

various types of formats that the employers may use with the HALE master‘s student to

allow a diverse experience with the internship. Students, faculty, and the on-site

supervisor will decided on the format(s) of the experience. This decision may be noted in

the internship learning agreement.

Apprenticeship- Formal relationship between employer and an employee (intern) by

which the employee is trained for a craft or skill (program development, etc.) through

practical experience under the supervision of experienced workers.

Coaching- One-on-one learning by demonstration and practice with immediate feedback,

conducted by peers, supervisors, and/or experts in the field.

Mentoring- An intense, caring relationship in which someone with experience works with

a less experienced person to promote both professional growth. Mentors model expected

behavior and values, and provide support and a sounding board for the intern.

One-the-Job Trainsing (OJT)/ Job-Embedded Training) - Instruction is provided by

experienced individuals or groups of workers, either peers or supervisors, to the intern

while both are on the job and engaged in productive work. ―The experienced employer

[or volunteer] demonstrates and discusses new areas of knowledge and skill and then

provides opportunities for practice and feedback.‖ (Caffarella, 2002, p. 288).

                             Identifying Programming Staff

Program Designer and Manager- According to Caffarella, ―this role entails such tasks as

gathering ideas for programs, setting program priorities, developing program objectives,




                                                                                           17
planning transfer-of-learning activities, and preparing budgets and marketing plans

(2002, p. 296). The HALE internship program will be managed by the HALE master‘s

student‘s academic advisor. He/She will be working with the student in regards to

placement, setting of objectives, and completion of the reflection component upon the

internship program. We propose that a graduate assistant be hired to oversee the entire

HALE internship program.

The Instructor/learning facilitator- The facilitator of internship program will be

personnel at the internship placement site, most likely the on-site supervisor. They will

be responsible for designing and delivering instruction through the use of a variety of

learning techniques and devices (Caffarella, 2002).

The Program Evaluator(s)- The value and results of the internship program will be

evaluated by the intern and the on-site supervisor (Caffarella, 2002). Because the

internship program is in its initial stages, feedback from both the intern and the

supervisor is critical to its progression and development.

                                     Budgets and Marketing

       As noted by Caffarella, ―preparing and managing program budgets and marketing

plans is one of the key components of the planning process‖ (2002, p. 329). As it is duly

noted, such is true of the internship program. A key financial component of the program

would be the hiring of a graduate assistant as an Internship Coordinator and the

marketing of the internship opportunity itself, which amounts to an initial, approximate

cost of $20,000. It should be noted, however, that our internship program could be

developed and maintained without the aid of a graduate assistant. Instead, HALE faculty

could shoulder the responsibilities that we have laid out for the graduate assistant.




                                                                                            18
Budgeting

       The cost of hiring a graduate assistant is estimated at approximately $19,000,

which covers the costs associated with hiring a student in a half-time capacity. The costs

break down to cover a number of student expenses: stipend, tuition waiver (including

out-of-state costs), waiver of matriculation fees, health insurance, and a waiver of social

security taxes for the nine-month academic year. We believe that this expense is justified

by the tasks that the assistant would be expected to carry out. In his or her duties, the

graduate assistant would be responsible for the administrative tasks associated with the

internship program, designing and distributing literature (via e-mail, U.S. mail,

brochures, etc.), soliciting new internship placement sites, compiling data received from

student evaluations, and other reasonable duties as deemed necessary by the department.

Further, the graduate assistant would be expected to maintain regular office hours to

assist the internship participants as needs and concerns arise. Ultimately, it is hoped that

the graduate assistant will aid greatly in the further development of the internship

program.

Marketing

       Another important element in planning an internship program is marketing which,

as Caffarella notes, ―tells the story well of the ‗what‘ of the program‖ (2002, p. 329). By

utilizing marketing tools such as a brochure (to be designed by the department and/or the

graduate assistant), the internship program further asserts itself as a credible, important

element of the overall HALE program. Further, marketing showcases the benefits of the

internship experience for students and supervisors alike. At an estimated cost of $1,000,

which includes brochure production, copies, distribution, and other miscellaneous




                                                                                              19
expenses, the potential benefits are many. Ultimately, awareness about the internship

program is heightened, which works in the better interests of all who stand to gain from

the program‘s success.

                                          Facilities

       While Michigan State University personnel cannot regulate the facilities at other

institutions, we offer some guidelines suggested by Rosemary Caffarella that can be used

to ensure a successful and safe internship experience for HALE Masters students. Other

information included in these suggestions was obtained from the General Counsel Office

of MSU. Again, as with other areas of planning a successful program, Caffarella suggests

preparations before, during, and after a program.

Pre-planning work includes considering the:

Location: The location must be safe and secure for MSU students and faculty. Questions

could include: Where are the MSDS sheets? Where should the intern park? What are the

working hours? The General Counsel office recommends that the location and hours be

―reasonable‖ to limit MSU‘s liability (MSU Conference on Experiential Learning, 2003).

Accessibility: The location must be accessible for HALE Masters students who may fall

under the guidelines of the American Disabilities Act. For example: Does the student

need wheelchair accessible entrances, is TDD available, etc.?

Support Services: Will staff or equipment support the intern? Will the student have

access to a computer or phone? This is important if the equipment is essential to perform

their job duties. What will the intern‘s relationship be with support staff? If the intern is

planning a program, will equipment be available, and how will the intern order it?




                                                                                            20
If possible, we suggest that first time internship sites, or off-campus locations be visited

by the internship coordinator or faculty advisor. Also, we suggest an internship

orientation packet be compiled to be completed at the location with the on-site supervisor

and student. A discussion of these day-to-day issues is important for a successful

internship experience.

Planning work during the internship includes:

Contact: It is suggested that the internship coordinator/faculty advisor contact the site

once during the semester to see what is going well or what needs to be changed.

Post-planning work includes:

Follow-up: We encourage follow up with the on-site supervisor to get feedback on the

internship experience and to keep the relationship strong for both the University and the

student. It is suggested that the student intern send a thank you note to the site

supervisor. Also, it is recommended that the internship coordinator/faculty advisor get

additional feedback for the program goals or objectives.




                                                                                               21
Appendix A

                Caffarella’s Interactive Model of Program Planning*



Program Components:

       Discerning the Context

       Building a Solid Base of Support

       Identifying Program Ideas

       Sorting and Prioritizing Program Ideas

       Developing Program Objectives

       Designing Instructional Plans

       Devising Transfer-of-Learning Plans

       Formulating Evaluation Plans

       Making Recommendations and Communicating Results

       Selecting Formats, Schedules, and Staff Needs

       Preparing Budgets and Marketing Plans

       Coordinating Facilities and On-Site Events




* Caffarella, R.S. (2002). Planning Programs for Adult Learners. San Francisco: Jossey-
       Bass.




                                                                                     22
Appendix B
                                       Needs Assessment

Decide to conduct needs assessment

        Our program planning team decided to complete a needs assessment because the

initial idea for the HALE Master‘s Internship Program did not come directly from the

students or faculty in that program. We wanted to determine the perceptions of the target

audience (the students) and of those who would approve and implement our plan (the

faculty).

Identify staff and develop management plan

        All team members participated in the development of techniques and the

determining of the time line for the needs assessment. Specific individuals were

identified to compile the questions into survey instruments used in the assessment. Other

individuals summarized the results of the surveys.

Determine context, purpose, and objectives

        The purpose of our needs assessment was to identify the components of an

internship program from which potential participants in the program may most benefit.

We also wanted to determine to what degree those who would have to approve and

implement the plan would be willing to devote themselves in the form of time,

intellectual energy, and work to the program. The faculty survey also served to unearth

political tensions between the Student Affairs Administration Master‘s practicum

program and a potential internship program in the HALE Master‘s program.

Determine logistics

        Each week in our team meeting we determined which components of the needs

assessment ought to be completed by the following meeting one week later. The needs



                                                                                          23
assessment instrument was developed in approximately three weeks, and survey results

returned between 4 and 6 weeks into the process. Summaries of the results were

completed between 5 and 7 weeks.

Choose respondents

       We chose to assess the needs of all ten faculty involved in the HALE Master‘s

program because the number was very manageable. We gained approval to assess the

needs of all current HALE Master‘s students via the departmental e-mail list. Team

members in classes with HALE students also distributed surveys in person in order to

insure the maximum number of responses.

Select techniques

       We selected an open-ended survey for both faculty and students in order to insure

that we received feedback to specific questions such as the number of credit hours that

students would like to earn in an internship program and whether or not faculty thought

that the program should include a class component. The surveys also allowed for

respondents to offer additional suggestions. In addition, the faculty decided of their own

accord to discuss the idea of an internship during one of their faculty meetings.

Collect data

       We distributed student surveys through the departmental e-mail list as well as in

person during classes. Students either replied to the e-mail or returned the hard copy

survey immediately upon completion in class to the individual who had distributed it.

Hard copy faculty surveys were distributed to drop boxes on the faculty member‘s office

doors and were picked up approximately three days later from the drop boxes. We also




                                                                                           24
received a copy of the minutes of the faculty meeting during which the faculty discussed

a potential internship program.

Analyze data

        We summarized the data collected from the surveys.

Faculty Survey Results

Two faculty members recommended that the program would be optional, and a third said
that it could be either optional or mandatory.

                        Table 1: Making the Program Mandatory or Optional
    Response                                                                         # of people
    Either, but be able to be waived by advisor                                      1
    Mandatory                                                                        1
    Optional                                                                         2

Three faculty members said that interns should meet in a classroom setting biweekly (2

respondents) or occasionally (1 respondent). The fourth faculty member suggested that

interns simply meet with a supervisor.


                           Table 2: Developing a Corresponding Course
    Response                                                                         # of people
    Bi-weekly                                                                        2
    Occasional meetings                                                              1
    None – best to report to supervisor                                              1

Suggestions from faculty regarding the format of the class include basing the syllabus on

what other programs have already developed and combining the internship with a class

for a total of 3 credits.


                                 Table 3: Deciding on Course Format
    Response                                                                         # of people
    Base off other school’s syllabus                                                 1
    Internship + class = 3 credits (topics: between theory +practice, professional   1
    development plan)
    No credits beyond internship                                                     1




                                                                                               25
Faculty suggested that a HALE internship program would be different from the Student

Affairs‘ practicum by focusing on the reflective element more broadly and providing a

wider range of locations.

On learning outcomes from the internship, faculty recommended the following areas:

       -   Connect theory to practice for broader understanding of administration in

           higher education.

       -   Each student should develop their own specific learning outcomes.

       -   Learning how university works and reasons for preserving classroom

           experiences.

   One faculty considered faculty and student time commitment as a reason for not

having a HALE internship program. In addition, one faculty member recommended

placing the HALE and Student Affairs students at separate sites to avoid ―mission creep.‖

Student Survey Results

Eleven out of thirteen students agreed that an internship would enhance their experience

in the HALE Master‘s program. The majority of students think that an internship may

give them diverse experiences and make them more marketable when they apply for full-

time positions.

                  Table 4: Would an Internship Enhance Your Experience?
   Response                                                                 # of people
   Yes                                                                      11
   No                                                                       2

Three out of twelve students responded that an internship program would negatively

impact their experiences in the HALE Master‘s program. Their main concerns were extra

cost and time commitment.




                                                                                        26
              Table 5: Would an Internship Negatively Impact Your Experience?
   Response                                                                # of people
   Yes                                                                     3
   No                                                                      9

Ten out of thirteen students preferred an optional internship experience because of their

other commitments and experiences.

                                Table 6: Required or Optional?
   Response                                                                   # of people
   Optional                                                                   10
   Required                                                                   3

Fifty percent of students think that 8-10 hours per week or 3 credits should be the

required time for the internship.

                             Table 7: How Many Hours Per Week?
   Response                                                                   # of people
   8-10 hours/week or 3 credits                                               6
   5-10 hours/week                                                            2
   Two days/week with 4 hours/day                                             1
   Summer time only                                                           1
   No idea                                                                    2

The majority of respondents would prefer the internship experience to be paid, if

possible. Considering the reality, however, they suggested that earning 3 credits would

be good for the internship experience.

The following are additional comments from HALE students.

       -   The internship is a good idea but it may be hard for some non-traditional

           students to find time for classes and an internship.

       -   When would this program be implemented?

       -   Flexibility is important. Optional waiver.

       -   The internship can be accompanied by a seminar, biweekly, or monthly where

           students can informally talk about their experiences.




                                                                                            27
       -   I see it as a 3 credit, optional program that can be substituted for an elective,

           so that it doesn‘t add more credits to the program course. EAD 894 (Field

           Experience?) could be changed to be used for the internship program.

       -   Advisors should recommend when internships should be done/completed.

       -   I believe it is a good idea and it should go through.

Sort and prioritize needs

       We spent several weeks discussing the responses that we received from the

surveys. We responded to the needs as we made decisions about the structure of the

program. The desires of a majority of students and faculty were incorporated into our

discussion as if the students and faculty were part of our committee, but our team had the

final authority to make decisions.

Communicate Results

       Our team is the only group that received the results of the needs assessment. The

participants in the needs assessment will see the result of their input in the final

presentation of the program.




                                                                                               28
Appendix C

                                     Faculty Survey

Dear HALE Faculty Member:

As a project for EAD 877 Program Planning and Evaluation in Postsecondary Education,
our class is developing an internship program for the HALE Master‘s program. We
would very much appreciate your input into the planning process. We would like to
know what kinds of characteristics you believe would make the program the strongest
and most beneficial to the students and to HALE that it can be.

We would very much appreciate it if you would complete the attached survey and leave it
on your door by 3:00pm on February 5, 2003. A member of the class will come by your
office to pick up the completed survey by 3:00pm. We will consider your ideas regarding
a HALE internship program as we plan and will have a presentation on Wednesday April
30 to introduce you to the program that we ultimately develop.

Thank you again for your help!

EAD 877

1.) If an internship program were instituted in the HALE Master‘s program would you
    recommend that the program be mandatory or optional? Why? Why not?

2.) In what ways if any, should an internship have a corresponding class (weekly,
    biweekly, etc.) in which participants meet with a faculty supervisor? Why/why not?


3.) What should that class be like—how many credits, what work should be done, what
    topics should be addressed?


4.) In what ways if any, should a HALE internship program be different from the Student
    Affairs' practicum?


5.) What learning outcomes would you like HALE students to achieve from an
    internship?


6.) What, if any, reasons can you give for not having a HALE internship program?


7.) If there are any comments or anything you think it would be helpful for us to plan an
    internship program in HALE, please share it with us. Thank you.



                                                                                         29
Appendix D

                                    Student Survey

As a project for EAD 877 Program Planning and Evaluation in Postsecondary Education,
our class is developing an Internship Program for the HALE Master‘s program. This
Internship Program is a project for class and will NOT become a requirement for current
members of the HALE program. We would very much appreciate, however, if you could
put yourself in the place of a HALE Master‘s student who did have an opportunity to
complete an Internship Program. We would like to know what kind of characteristics you
would want included in the Program to make it as beneficial as it could be for you as a
HALE Master‘s students.

We will consider your ideas regarding the HALE internship program as we plan and will
have a presentation on Wednesday April 30th to introduce you to the proposed program
that we ultimately develop.

Thank you again for your input!

EAD 877


1) Would an internship enhance your experience in the HALE Master‘s Program? How
so?

2) Would an internship program negatively impact your experiences in the HALE
Master‘s program in any way? How so?

3) Would you prefer a required or optional internship experience? Why?

4) How many hours per week should an internship require you to work?

5) How would you like to be compensated for internship hours (i.e. pay or credits)?
Why?

6) Please list any additional comments, questions or concerns that you may have
regarding a possible internship in the HALE Master‘s program.


When you have finished please return them to the appropriate person (s) handing them
out. We in the EAD 877 class sincerely appreciate your time, your thoughts and your
comments regarding this survey.




                                                                                       30
Appendix E

             List of Graduate Programs with Internship Components

   1. East Tennessee State University: Educational Leadership

   2. Eastern Washington University: Adult Education

   3. Johns Hopkins University: School Administration and Supervision

   4. Montana State University- Bozeman: Adult and Higher Education

   5. Oklahoma State University: Human Resources and Adult Education

   6. Oregon State University: Organization Development and Training Specialist

   7. San Francisco State University: Adult Education

   8. University of Southern Maine: Adult Education

   9. Southwest Texas State University: Developmental and Adult Education

   10. Appalachian State University: Adult Education

   11. University of Oklahoma: Adult and Continuing Education

   12. University of Rhode Island: Human Development and Family Studies


*Powerpoint summary available upon request.




                                                                                  31
Appendix F


                         INTERNSHIP LEARNING AGREEMENT
                             ( statement of agreement and understanding )
PART I

Intern’s name: ________________________________________________________________

Expected Date of Graduation:__________ __________________________________________


Address during internship:

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________
city                                     state                        zip code


Telephone number: ____________________________FAX number:___________________

E-mail address: _______________________________________

Permanent address:


_____________________________________________________________________________
city                                     state                        zip code

Telephone number: __________________________FAX number :_______________________


INTERNSHIP SITE

Name of the site: ___________________________________________________________

Supervisor’s name: ____________________________________________________________

Supervisor’s position: __________________________________________________________

Address: ____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
city                                     state                        zip code

Telephone number: _______________________________FAX number: __________________

E-mail address: _______________________________________________________________

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY FACULTY LIAISION (sample)

Gloria Kielbaso, PhD.                    E-mail address: kielbaso@msu.edu
411 Erickson Hall                        Telephone: (517) 432-1519 or 432-4080
College of Education
East Lansing, MI 48824




                                                                                    32
           PART II
                      LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES


During my internship I will:

     Learning Objectives                           Activities to Meet the Objectives

     1.



     2.



     3.



     4.



     5.



     6.



     7.



     8.



     9.



     10.




                                                                                       33
PART III
SUPERVISOR REQUIREMENTS:
I understand that the intern should have as many opportunities as possible to learn how our
organization functions. To facilitate this process I will attempt to make a variety of learning
experiences and opportunities for professional networking available to the intern. I also
understand that as an intern, the student should not be responsible for activities within the
organization that he or she is not qualified to complete. I will also meet with the intern to provide
feedback on the progress to date. These meetings will occur every week or until the intern and
the supervisor are confident the intern is performing the duties assigned in a professional
manner.


Supervisor’s signature: ______________________________________________

Date: _____________________________________________________________


INTERN REQUIREMENTS:
I understand that as an intern I have a responsibility to conduct myself in a professional manner
at all times. It is my responsibility to keep the record of my internship hours. Should a situation
arise that would cause me to miss my scheduled hours at the placement site, I will contact the
supervisor immediately and provide documentation as to why the absence occurred. I also
understand that if I perceive an action or process occurred that caused me to be concerned I
must first contact my internship supervisor to discuss the situation in an attempt to seek a solution
or resolution before talking to the faculty liaison.


Student’s signature: ________________________________________________

Date: _____________________________________________________________

FACULTY LIAISON REQUIREMENTS:
I understand that as the faculty liaison for the intern and the placement site I have the
responsibility to attempt to place only students who are qualified to successfully complete an
internship in a particular organization. I also assume responsibility for communicating directly
with the supervisor and the intern should a problem arise during the internship. I accept the
responsibility to ensure that the intern complete a reflective component as part of the internship
process.

Faculty Liaison’s signature: ____________________________________________________

Date: _____________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                  34
Appendix G

               Possible Internship Sites for HALE Master’s Program


Okemos Community Education
4000 N. Okemos Rd.
Okemos, MI. 48864
Attn: Mr. John Zappala
Phone # (517) 349-2209

High School Equivalency Program (HEP)
Michigan State University
E244 Akers Hall
East Lansing, MI. 48824
Attn: Marcelina Trevino-Savala
Phone # (517) 432-9900

Office of Supportive Services (OSS)
209 Bessey Hall
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI. 48824
Attn: Hong-Yen Pham
Phone # (517) 355-5210
FAX # 432-2962

King-Chavez-Parks College Day Program (K-C-P)
S-23 Wonders Hall
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI. 48824
Attn: Paulo Gordillo
Phone # (517) 355-0177

Office of International Students and Scholars (OISS)
103 International Center
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
Attn: Peter Briggs
Phone: 517-353-1720
Fax: 517-355-4657

Michigan Works! Association
The Association of Michigan Works! Agencies
2500 Kerry Street - Lansing, MI 48912
Phone: 517-371-1100
Fax: 517-371-1140



                                                                     35

				
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