From Theory to Practice:
A Proposal for an Internship Program
For the Higher, Adult, and Lifelong Education Masters Program
Department of Educational Administration
Michigan State University
Paulo Gordillo John Hoffschneider
Ann Horn Eun-Young Kwon
Jamie McClintock Allison Medlin
Shenila Momin D’Andra Mull
Hong-Yen Pham Karen Tkaczyk
Under the Direction of:
Gloria Kielbaso, PhD
Table of Contents
Section Page #
Discerning the Context……………………………………………………………………3
Building a Solid Base of Support…………………………………………………………4
Identifying and Prioritizing Program Ideas……………………………………………….5
Devising Transfer of Learning…………………………………………………………...10
Format of Internship Program …………………………………………………………....16
Identifying Programming Staff…………………………………………………………..17
Budgets and Marketing…………………………………………………………………..18
Appendix A: Caffarella‘s Interactive Model of Program Planning……………...22
Appendix B: Needs Assessment…………………………………………………23
Appendix C: Faculty Survey……………………………………………………..29
Appendix D: Student Survey…………………………………………………….30
Appendix E: List of Graduate Programs with Internship Components………….31
Appendix F: Internship Learning Agreement ……………………………………32
Appendix G: Possible Internship Sites for HALE Master‘s Program…………...35
Appendix H: Sample Brochure…………………………………………………..36
The HALE master's program prepares individuals for entry-level
leadership positions in postsecondary education, public agencies, and
business settings. The program provides a broad understanding of
educational systems from social, historical, cross-national, normative
perspectives and an understanding of central issues in postsecondary
teaching and learning, and a theoretical understanding of administration
and leadership connected to practice. There are opportunities to develop
and use skills needed in practice through practica and field experiences.
We expect that graduates are prepared to work in and to cultivate
educational environments that are receptive to diversity.
The above is the mission statement for the Higher, Adult, and Lifelong Education
Masters program. The latter part of the mission statement emphasizes that graduates
from the program will be prepared to work in and cultivate educational environments that
are receptive to diversity. Moreover, an essential part of the learning experience and
professional preparation should include practica and field experiences. In practice,
however, does the HALE Masters program encourage students to utilize these
experiential learning opportunities? If not, what changes could be implemented to the
HALE program? One solution is to develop a quality internship program for HALE
In the Spring of 2003, the EAD 877 Program Planning and Evaluation class was
asked to develop a proposal for an internship program for the HALE Masters program.
The proposal for an internship program, resulting from the collaborative effort of the
members of the class, is presented in this report. The report, like the planning of the
internship program itself, is organized following the steps of the Interactive Model of
Program Planning, as described by Rosemary Caffarella in Planning Programs for Adult
The twelve sections of this report correspond to the twelve steps of the Interactive
Model of Program Planning provided by Caffarella (see Appendix A). For each of the
twelve steps, we explain the activities included in that step and how we carried them out
in the process of planning the HALE internship program.. Finally, we conclude this
report with several appendices that include a detailed description of our needs
assessment, faculty and student surveys, an internship learning agreement, and a list of
sites that have already expressed an interest in placing a HALE intern.
Discerning the Context
Context is defined as the human, organizational, and environmental factors
involved with decision making in regards to program planning and evaluation (Caffarella
2002). The HALE internship program prepares individuals for entry-level leadership
positions in postsecondary education, public agencies, and business settings. The
internship program provides a broad understanding of educational systems from social,
historical, cross-national, normative perspectives and an understanding of administration
and leadership connected to practice.
This internship program creates opportunities for students to develop and use
skills needed in practice through field experiences. The objective of the HALE internship
program is to provide students with additional or new work experiences in adult
educational settings. This program also provides students with additional experiences
and qualifications to further enhance portfolios.
The overall goal of the internship program is to provide students with an
opportunity for individual change and growth. The program will also assist the HALE
Masters students in establishing additional contacts within the community, creating
possible job opportunities for graduating students and allowing for community outreach.
Finally, an additional goal would be to develop positive relationships between the
University and placement sites in the Lansing area and beyond. The internship program
provides a unique opportunity for students in the HALE masters program to build their
educational experience to better reflect their professional goals and to enhance their
personal and professional portfolio.
Building a Solid Base of Support
Caffarella identifies building a solid base of support as an integral step in
planning a program (2002). Support should come from people and organizations,
including potential and current learners, supervisors of potential participants, mid-and
senior-level management of the sponsoring organization, and other stakeholders who
have a vested interest in the planning or results of the program. The two factors
important to building organizational support include the position of the educational
function within the organization and the culture of the organization.
Our initial focus was to ascertain and secure the willingness of students, faculty,
and site supervisors to participate in the proposed internship program. We also
considered the learning objectives and goals of student participants in formulating the
program in order to entice them to participate; thus prolonging the life of our program.
We acquired support for the internship program through a needs assessment (see
Appendix B for details regarding the needs assessment). We surveyed potential learners
(current HALE Master‘s students) and management from the organization (faculty)
regarding their willingness to participate in the proposed program and their goals for the
internship program, not only to help develop the parameters of the program but to assure
potential participants that their considerations were taken seriously. We also interviewed
another stakeholder, Dr. Pat Enos, the director of the Student Affairs Administration
practicum program, because the mission of HALE‘s program may overlap with that of
the Student Affairs‘ program, as well as compete for positions in administrative offices.
Finally, we collected a list of potential supervisors in educational programs within and
outside of the university who expressed interest in having a HALE intern.
The mission of the HALE program, and the Department of Educational
Administration, includes the goal of providing opportunities for students to put theory
and skills into action in practice. Our program‘s goals links their mission to the greater
organization in which the program will operate.
The culture of the Educational Administration department and the HALE program
are supportive of experiential learning experiences for students. An internship option
already exists within the curriculum; our program is simply a more formal organization
of this option. The proposed internship program will become a stronger symbol of the
culture‘s support of putting theory into practice. The HALE internship program will
accomplish this by being a more formal, consistent program offering that illustrates the
emphasis placed on giving students professional opportunities.
Identifying and Prioritizing Program Ideas
According to Caffarella identifying the relevant ideas and needs for the program
content is one of the most important tasks of the people involved in program planning.
Program ideas may come from such diverse sources as personal observations, people,
responsibilities and tasks of adult life, organizations, and communities and society. They
may be based on hunches or highly structured needs assessment (2002). In our process of
planning for this internship, the idea was generated and presented to the group by Dr.
Gloria Kielbaso, our instructor, who assigned the program idea to us. Also, the idea came
from the organization of the Educational Administration department, specifically the
faculty of HALE. They had discussed this idea as a faculty previously, which prompted
Dr. Kielbaso to bring it to us.
As a group we went through an informal educational need: a gap between what
presently is and what should be. According to Caffarella, in such case, an individual, an
organization, or the community recognizes a gap in knowledge and skills (2002). The
group agreed with Dr. Kielbaso that there needs to be an experiential learning component
to the HALE program so that students gain relevant experience in their field of interest.
This is also in line with the mission on HALE program which states that ―The HALE
master's program prepares individuals for entry-level leadership positions in
postsecondary education, public agencies, and business settings. We expect that
graduates are prepared to work in and to cultivate educational environments that are
receptive to diversity.‖
An important step in generating ideas is through a needs assessment. In this case
we used a paper and computer survey to obtain feedback from students and a paper
survey to receive feedback from faculty regarding particular program characteristics (see
Appendix B for details regarding the needs assessment). We also considered the ideas
presented in the group session of the faculty meeting. According to Caffarella, one of the
most important outcomes of a highly structured needs assessment may be a commitment
by those involved in the process to ensure that the ideas from the needs assessment are
actually used in the program planning process (2002). This is demonstrated by the
group‘s analysis of the survey given out to the faculty and staff and the utilization of this
data when developing the internship program. Caffarella mentions that ensuring the use
of data for planning means making sure at the outset that those who have the authority to
implement the findings of such assessment are willing to listen to the voices of those who
respond, and that they will actually implement programs based on these findings (2002).
In this regard not only did we take into consideration the findings from the student survey
but we also considered the ideas presented in the group session of the faculty meeting.
Further, Caffarella states that priority ideas are often thought of as ones that are
among the most important and/or the most feasible to address. Depending on the specific
planning situation, however, other factors are considered, such as the number of people
affected and availability of resources (2002). Our internship program might be considered
priority because there is an educational need for one. Our program strives to produce
professional administrators, but does not offer a structured professional experience.
Three major factors, alone or in combination are, are used to make judgments
about whether an education or training program should be developed or an alternative
intervention chosen: people, organizational and environmental factors and cost (2002).
Our group struggled with whether there are any alternatives to gaining professional
experience as part of the HALE program other than the internship, and we looked at other
options, such as field training through the course EAD 894. It was decided, however,
that the program needs a separate internship component which is highly structured and
has visibility in the offices where potential interns would like to work. In this process, as
Caffarella mentions, we took the advice of several people, including Dr. Kielbaso and
Regina Smith as content experts and, through their responses on the student survey,
current HALE students who are potential participants.
Caffarella also charts ―Two Major Categories of Criteria with Examples and
Descriptions‖ (2002). As mentioned above, the importance and feasibility criteria take
into consideration organizational and environmental factors and cost. Those persons
affected include faculty, students, and internship supervisors. Strong contributions to
individuals‘ knowledge include professional skills and experience. The contribution to
organizational objectives is strong because the internship program better enables the
department to produce professional graduates. We have already collected a list of
potential supervisors in educational programs within and outside of the university who
are willing to have a HALE intern in their office. We will use faculty already in place to
supervise the student reflection. We have made it very easy to respond to the need
because we limited costs and need for new staff and have collected some internship
locations already. We did not complete a formal chart weighing priorities, but discussed
as a committee the importance and feasibility of each suggestion from students and
faculty, as well as examples from other universities.
Overall, in identifying and selecting ideas we used a systematic approach to
planning which was mostly done through in-class, group discussions. The group is aware,
however, that in implementing program ideas, a well developed ―master plan‖ (2002) is
necessary and we are looking at the internship through multiple lenses, keeping in mind
the context of the target population in which we are working.
To begin, it is useful to define the difference between program objectives and
goals. According to Caffarella ―objectives are clear statements of the anticipated results
to be achieved through an educational and training program‖. She further states that
―they serve as the foundation for instructional plans, transfer of learning, and
evaluations‖ (Caffarella, 2002). Goals, on the other hand, ―are typically broad statements
of purpose or intent for the program‖ (Caffarella, 2002).
Both program objectives and goals are similar in that they are measurable and
non-measurable. They may also result in unanticipated outcomes and must be flexible
enough to change over time. The program objectives and goals written for the HALE
internship program reflect the needs assessment done with HALE faculty and students
earlier this semester, and support the mission statement.
The program objectives for the HALE internship program are:
1. To provide HALE Masters students with additional or new work experiences in
adult educational settings.
2. To provide HALE Masters students with additional opportunities and professional
qualifications for their portfolio.
The program goals for the HALE internship program are:
1. To provide HALE Masters students with an opportunity for individual change
2. To assist the HALE Masters program in establishing community contacts for
future endeavors, job opportunities for graduating students, and community
3. To develop additional, positive relationships between the University and the
educational community locally and beyond.
It is our belief that a HALE internship program will benefit the HALE faculty and
students, as well as the University and the educational community. The internship can
foster individual, organizational, and community change by offering experiential learning
Devising Transfer of Learning
Transfer of learning has often been neglected. Caffarella states that ―transfer of
learning was believed to magically happen‖ (2002). Now, however, organizations
demand to see results after spending money on training. We believe it is essential to
develop an Internship plan to help participants apply what they have learned. Caffarella
quotes Ottoson who observed, ―application requires multiple kinds of knowledge,
including knowledge of the thing, the context, the practical and the skill to put it all
together‖ (2002). For this reason we believe the program design, framework and
strategies for transfer of learning are paramount. We can look at this in three stages:
before, during and after the program.
Tasks to develop Transfer of Learning before the internship experience could include:
1. Students will complete a memo of understanding with the internship on-site
supervisor outlining learning goals and objective for the experience.
2. Faculty would have input on objective and goals, offering suggestions and
3. Together with a faculty member, students would assess the appropriateness of
the placement site based on their individual learning goals for the internship.
In addition, choosing an appropriate site will enhance the student‘s
opportunities to apply knowledge and skills developed in the curriculum.
Tasks to develop Transfer of Learning during the internship experience could include:
1. The faculty supervisor or internship coordinator can ensure that students are
gaining valuable experience and meeting learning objectives by monitoring
2. The internship program should include a written reflection component, such
as a journal, portfolio, or final reflection paper. Reflection helps the student to
understand and internalize what has been learned.
Tasks to develop Transfer of Learning after the internship experience could include:
1. Evaluation will play a key role in transfer of learning, through student and
supervisor reflections, surveys, and other forms of feedback.
2. The internship site itself should be evaluated to determine whether interns
should be placed there in the future.
Designing Instructional Plans
According to Caffarella, preparing instructional plans involves designing the
interaction between learners and instructors and/or learners and resource materials
(2002). The internship experience is aimed at providing onsite learning to the interns and
our group agreed that interaction between the interns and their supervisor (instructor) is
an important part of the experience. Since ‗cultivating educational environments‘ is an
important part of the HALE mission statement, it was agreed that the interns should be
fully empowered to define and lead their own learning such that the learner and the
faculty in charge are co-creators in developing the instructional plan.
Caffarella alludes to the concept of learning objectives, along with the terms
performance objectives or learning targets, as being important in the development of
instructional plan (2002). The learning objectives are described as what participants will
learn as a result of their experience. Since the main focus of the internship is to provide
students with field experience in their areas of interest, the learning objectives should be
aligned with providing the students with ―an understanding of central issues in
postsecondary teaching and learning, and a theoretical understanding of administration
and leadership connected to practice‖ as stated in the HALE mission statement. Thus, the
learning objectives are set in the context of the program objectives that focus on
participant learning, so that there is continuity between the two sets of objectives.
It is important for students and instructor to define the learning objectives for the
internship because, as part of the HALE program, the internship will augment the HALE
program experience and prepare individuals for entry-level leadership positions in
postsecondary education, public agencies, and business settings. Therefore, these
objectives will be vital in setting the tone and direction for what participants were
expected to do and learn during the internship experience (Caffarella, 2002).
Our group has some suggestions regarding learning techniques. For example, one
suggestion was to hold one-on-one meetings with the faculty advisor once per month to
discuss issues and learning progress. Other suggestions included maintaining a learning
reflective journal and communicating with the advisor through email, phone, etc. In
addition, another assessment tool - the portfolio – which is used in the assessment of
students‘ learning progress in the HALE program, will also be used by the students to
recount and reflect on their internship experience. These techniques would help the
advisor and the faculty members to assess the outcomes of the internship program, help
in evaluating what participants have learned, provide directions for learners to help them
organize their own learning, and make recommendations for improving the program.
According to Caffarella, ―the heart of program evaluation lies in judging the value
and worth of a program‖ (2002, p. 261). Evaluation data helps program planners answer
questions such as: Was what the participants learned worthwhile? Were the objectives of
the program effectively met? Were the learners able to apply what they learned?
Furthermore, more than any other component of Caffarella‘s Interactive Model,
evaluation ―is where many of the other model components intersect and even overlap‖
(2002, p. 227). More specifically, data gathered when discerning the context,
formulating program ideas, or assessing instruction are often used for program evaluation
purposes. In developing the HALE internship program, for example, we completed
preliminary evaluations with faculty and student surveys (see Appendices B-D), as well
as a review of other internship opportunities in programs similar to HALE (see Appendix
E). Evaluation, then, will be a continual process from the initial development of the
program to its conclusion for each HALE student.
Program evaluation can be systematic or informal, as well as formative or
summative. Formative evaluation is done to improve or change a program while it is
ongoing. Summative evaluation focuses on the results or outcomes of a program. We
have decided that evaluation of HALE internship experiences should be both formative
and summative. Students will develop written learning objectives for their internship
experience before it begins. During the internship, students will meet with their HALE
internship supervisor to discuss informally their internship experience and whether their
learning objectives are being met. At the end of the experience, both the student and their
on-site supervisor will be asked to submit a written evaluation of the internship to the
HALE internship supervisor. The student evaluation will include not only an assessment
of their learning outcomes, but an evaluation of their placement site for future interns.
It should be noted, however, that there are inherent difficulties in effectively
evaluating an internship program. To begin with, it may be difficult to show that
program outcomes are really tied to what happened in the program, and not something
that happened outside of the program, for instance a class or another job. Second,
developing clear criteria for program objectives that are ambiguous or not quantifiable,
such as a change in beliefs or values, can be challenging. Finally, some students and on-
site supervisors may not want to make honest judgments about their own programs, in an
effort to protect their own interests. These cautions, however, should not dissuade HALE
faculty from evaluating the internship program, but should inform all decision-making
based on program evaluations.
We have developed an initial learning contract for students and on-site
supervisors (see Appendix E), which can serve as a starting point for program evaluation.
As Caffarella states, ―planning for evaluation should not happen as an afterthought once
the whole program has been planned. Rather, evaluation is a process that occurs
throughout the planning cycle‖ (2002, p. 230). This contract, then, were created in
anticipation of the critical role that evaluation will play in the continual development of
the HALE internship program.
The purpose of making recommendations is to highlight program successes, to
understand failures, to inspire change in a desired direction, and/or to gain support from
people or organizations (Caffarella, 2002). Recommendations are likely to be based on
the results of formal evaluations as well as the planner‘s experience in the process of
program planning and implementation. Because planners may structure the report
differently depending on the audience, determining the audience of a report is a key
decision in its creation (Caffarella, 2002).
The preparation of a proposal for an internship program for the HALE Master‘s
program is the first formal report that will be completed regarding the program. We will
present a formal oral report and a formal written report, as well as an executive summary
to the faculty, a key audience because they have the power to request the implementation
of the internship program. We have also invited students to the presentation of the
proposal because they will ultimately be the participants in the program, should it be
implemented. Their input in and response to the program can help to develop the format
of the program to meet their needs.
Our professor is the only member of the planning team who is also a member of
the faculty and will continue to have direct contact with her peers after we have presented
our proposal. She will follow-up with the faculty to make sure that they continue to
consider our program and to monitor whether they actually implement the program. She
will also serve as a consultant to the faculty if they do decide to implement a program in
the form that we have proposed.
If the program is implemented, reports and recommendations will be developed
based on an evaluation of the program. These reports will also be presented to faculty
because they would have the power to change the program and because they are one of
the groups, in addition to students, who will be most intimately involved with the
Format of Internship Program
The following is the format of the proposed internship program:
Students will be required to contribute120 total hours over a semester (15 weeks) to the
placement site. Internship participants will be expected to commit at least 8-10 hours a
week to fulfill the total number of hours required by the internship.
Students will earn 3 credits towards the Master‘s of Arts in Higher Adult Lifelong
Education in the College of Education. The internship can be listed under the course
number EAD 894, replacing the current field experience option.
Financial compensation is not the responsibility of the HALE master‘s program.
Compensation is the choice of the company/organization/entity where the student is
placed during the internship. Students will register for the internship with the expectation
of earning credits for the time invested. Monetary compensation is not required from the
The learning format of the internship focuses on how education and training
activities are structured and organized (Caffarella, 2002, p. 287). Listed below are
various types of formats that the employers may use with the HALE master‘s student to
allow a diverse experience with the internship. Students, faculty, and the on-site
supervisor will decided on the format(s) of the experience. This decision may be noted in
the internship learning agreement.
Apprenticeship- Formal relationship between employer and an employee (intern) by
which the employee is trained for a craft or skill (program development, etc.) through
practical experience under the supervision of experienced workers.
Coaching- One-on-one learning by demonstration and practice with immediate feedback,
conducted by peers, supervisors, and/or experts in the field.
Mentoring- An intense, caring relationship in which someone with experience works with
a less experienced person to promote both professional growth. Mentors model expected
behavior and values, and provide support and a sounding board for the intern.
One-the-Job Trainsing (OJT)/ Job-Embedded Training) - Instruction is provided by
experienced individuals or groups of workers, either peers or supervisors, to the intern
while both are on the job and engaged in productive work. ―The experienced employer
[or volunteer] demonstrates and discusses new areas of knowledge and skill and then
provides opportunities for practice and feedback.‖ (Caffarella, 2002, p. 288).
Identifying Programming Staff
Program Designer and Manager- According to Caffarella, ―this role entails such tasks as
gathering ideas for programs, setting program priorities, developing program objectives,
planning transfer-of-learning activities, and preparing budgets and marketing plans
(2002, p. 296). The HALE internship program will be managed by the HALE master‘s
student‘s academic advisor. He/She will be working with the student in regards to
placement, setting of objectives, and completion of the reflection component upon the
internship program. We propose that a graduate assistant be hired to oversee the entire
HALE internship program.
The Instructor/learning facilitator- The facilitator of internship program will be
personnel at the internship placement site, most likely the on-site supervisor. They will
be responsible for designing and delivering instruction through the use of a variety of
learning techniques and devices (Caffarella, 2002).
The Program Evaluator(s)- The value and results of the internship program will be
evaluated by the intern and the on-site supervisor (Caffarella, 2002). Because the
internship program is in its initial stages, feedback from both the intern and the
supervisor is critical to its progression and development.
Budgets and Marketing
As noted by Caffarella, ―preparing and managing program budgets and marketing
plans is one of the key components of the planning process‖ (2002, p. 329). As it is duly
noted, such is true of the internship program. A key financial component of the program
would be the hiring of a graduate assistant as an Internship Coordinator and the
marketing of the internship opportunity itself, which amounts to an initial, approximate
cost of $20,000. It should be noted, however, that our internship program could be
developed and maintained without the aid of a graduate assistant. Instead, HALE faculty
could shoulder the responsibilities that we have laid out for the graduate assistant.
The cost of hiring a graduate assistant is estimated at approximately $19,000,
which covers the costs associated with hiring a student in a half-time capacity. The costs
break down to cover a number of student expenses: stipend, tuition waiver (including
out-of-state costs), waiver of matriculation fees, health insurance, and a waiver of social
security taxes for the nine-month academic year. We believe that this expense is justified
by the tasks that the assistant would be expected to carry out. In his or her duties, the
graduate assistant would be responsible for the administrative tasks associated with the
internship program, designing and distributing literature (via e-mail, U.S. mail,
brochures, etc.), soliciting new internship placement sites, compiling data received from
student evaluations, and other reasonable duties as deemed necessary by the department.
Further, the graduate assistant would be expected to maintain regular office hours to
assist the internship participants as needs and concerns arise. Ultimately, it is hoped that
the graduate assistant will aid greatly in the further development of the internship
Another important element in planning an internship program is marketing which,
as Caffarella notes, ―tells the story well of the ‗what‘ of the program‖ (2002, p. 329). By
utilizing marketing tools such as a brochure (to be designed by the department and/or the
graduate assistant), the internship program further asserts itself as a credible, important
element of the overall HALE program. Further, marketing showcases the benefits of the
internship experience for students and supervisors alike. At an estimated cost of $1,000,
which includes brochure production, copies, distribution, and other miscellaneous
expenses, the potential benefits are many. Ultimately, awareness about the internship
program is heightened, which works in the better interests of all who stand to gain from
the program‘s success.
While Michigan State University personnel cannot regulate the facilities at other
institutions, we offer some guidelines suggested by Rosemary Caffarella that can be used
to ensure a successful and safe internship experience for HALE Masters students. Other
information included in these suggestions was obtained from the General Counsel Office
of MSU. Again, as with other areas of planning a successful program, Caffarella suggests
preparations before, during, and after a program.
Pre-planning work includes considering the:
Location: The location must be safe and secure for MSU students and faculty. Questions
could include: Where are the MSDS sheets? Where should the intern park? What are the
working hours? The General Counsel office recommends that the location and hours be
―reasonable‖ to limit MSU‘s liability (MSU Conference on Experiential Learning, 2003).
Accessibility: The location must be accessible for HALE Masters students who may fall
under the guidelines of the American Disabilities Act. For example: Does the student
need wheelchair accessible entrances, is TDD available, etc.?
Support Services: Will staff or equipment support the intern? Will the student have
access to a computer or phone? This is important if the equipment is essential to perform
their job duties. What will the intern‘s relationship be with support staff? If the intern is
planning a program, will equipment be available, and how will the intern order it?
If possible, we suggest that first time internship sites, or off-campus locations be visited
by the internship coordinator or faculty advisor. Also, we suggest an internship
orientation packet be compiled to be completed at the location with the on-site supervisor
and student. A discussion of these day-to-day issues is important for a successful
Planning work during the internship includes:
Contact: It is suggested that the internship coordinator/faculty advisor contact the site
once during the semester to see what is going well or what needs to be changed.
Post-planning work includes:
Follow-up: We encourage follow up with the on-site supervisor to get feedback on the
internship experience and to keep the relationship strong for both the University and the
student. It is suggested that the student intern send a thank you note to the site
supervisor. Also, it is recommended that the internship coordinator/faculty advisor get
additional feedback for the program goals or objectives.
Caffarella’s Interactive Model of Program Planning*
Discerning the Context
Building a Solid Base of Support
Identifying Program Ideas
Sorting and Prioritizing Program Ideas
Developing Program Objectives
Designing Instructional Plans
Devising Transfer-of-Learning Plans
Formulating Evaluation Plans
Making Recommendations and Communicating Results
Selecting Formats, Schedules, and Staff Needs
Preparing Budgets and Marketing Plans
Coordinating Facilities and On-Site Events
* Caffarella, R.S. (2002). Planning Programs for Adult Learners. San Francisco: Jossey-
Decide to conduct needs assessment
Our program planning team decided to complete a needs assessment because the
initial idea for the HALE Master‘s Internship Program did not come directly from the
students or faculty in that program. We wanted to determine the perceptions of the target
audience (the students) and of those who would approve and implement our plan (the
Identify staff and develop management plan
All team members participated in the development of techniques and the
determining of the time line for the needs assessment. Specific individuals were
identified to compile the questions into survey instruments used in the assessment. Other
individuals summarized the results of the surveys.
Determine context, purpose, and objectives
The purpose of our needs assessment was to identify the components of an
internship program from which potential participants in the program may most benefit.
We also wanted to determine to what degree those who would have to approve and
implement the plan would be willing to devote themselves in the form of time,
intellectual energy, and work to the program. The faculty survey also served to unearth
political tensions between the Student Affairs Administration Master‘s practicum
program and a potential internship program in the HALE Master‘s program.
Each week in our team meeting we determined which components of the needs
assessment ought to be completed by the following meeting one week later. The needs
assessment instrument was developed in approximately three weeks, and survey results
returned between 4 and 6 weeks into the process. Summaries of the results were
completed between 5 and 7 weeks.
We chose to assess the needs of all ten faculty involved in the HALE Master‘s
program because the number was very manageable. We gained approval to assess the
needs of all current HALE Master‘s students via the departmental e-mail list. Team
members in classes with HALE students also distributed surveys in person in order to
insure the maximum number of responses.
We selected an open-ended survey for both faculty and students in order to insure
that we received feedback to specific questions such as the number of credit hours that
students would like to earn in an internship program and whether or not faculty thought
that the program should include a class component. The surveys also allowed for
respondents to offer additional suggestions. In addition, the faculty decided of their own
accord to discuss the idea of an internship during one of their faculty meetings.
We distributed student surveys through the departmental e-mail list as well as in
person during classes. Students either replied to the e-mail or returned the hard copy
survey immediately upon completion in class to the individual who had distributed it.
Hard copy faculty surveys were distributed to drop boxes on the faculty member‘s office
doors and were picked up approximately three days later from the drop boxes. We also
received a copy of the minutes of the faculty meeting during which the faculty discussed
a potential internship program.
We summarized the data collected from the surveys.
Faculty Survey Results
Two faculty members recommended that the program would be optional, and a third said
that it could be either optional or mandatory.
Table 1: Making the Program Mandatory or Optional
Response # of people
Either, but be able to be waived by advisor 1
Three faculty members said that interns should meet in a classroom setting biweekly (2
respondents) or occasionally (1 respondent). The fourth faculty member suggested that
interns simply meet with a supervisor.
Table 2: Developing a Corresponding Course
Response # of people
Occasional meetings 1
None – best to report to supervisor 1
Suggestions from faculty regarding the format of the class include basing the syllabus on
what other programs have already developed and combining the internship with a class
for a total of 3 credits.
Table 3: Deciding on Course Format
Response # of people
Base off other school’s syllabus 1
Internship + class = 3 credits (topics: between theory +practice, professional 1
No credits beyond internship 1
Faculty suggested that a HALE internship program would be different from the Student
Affairs‘ practicum by focusing on the reflective element more broadly and providing a
wider range of locations.
On learning outcomes from the internship, faculty recommended the following areas:
- Connect theory to practice for broader understanding of administration in
- Each student should develop their own specific learning outcomes.
- Learning how university works and reasons for preserving classroom
One faculty considered faculty and student time commitment as a reason for not
having a HALE internship program. In addition, one faculty member recommended
placing the HALE and Student Affairs students at separate sites to avoid ―mission creep.‖
Student Survey Results
Eleven out of thirteen students agreed that an internship would enhance their experience
in the HALE Master‘s program. The majority of students think that an internship may
give them diverse experiences and make them more marketable when they apply for full-
Table 4: Would an Internship Enhance Your Experience?
Response # of people
Three out of twelve students responded that an internship program would negatively
impact their experiences in the HALE Master‘s program. Their main concerns were extra
cost and time commitment.
Table 5: Would an Internship Negatively Impact Your Experience?
Response # of people
Ten out of thirteen students preferred an optional internship experience because of their
other commitments and experiences.
Table 6: Required or Optional?
Response # of people
Fifty percent of students think that 8-10 hours per week or 3 credits should be the
required time for the internship.
Table 7: How Many Hours Per Week?
Response # of people
8-10 hours/week or 3 credits 6
5-10 hours/week 2
Two days/week with 4 hours/day 1
Summer time only 1
No idea 2
The majority of respondents would prefer the internship experience to be paid, if
possible. Considering the reality, however, they suggested that earning 3 credits would
be good for the internship experience.
The following are additional comments from HALE students.
- The internship is a good idea but it may be hard for some non-traditional
students to find time for classes and an internship.
- When would this program be implemented?
- Flexibility is important. Optional waiver.
- The internship can be accompanied by a seminar, biweekly, or monthly where
students can informally talk about their experiences.
- I see it as a 3 credit, optional program that can be substituted for an elective,
so that it doesn‘t add more credits to the program course. EAD 894 (Field
Experience?) could be changed to be used for the internship program.
- Advisors should recommend when internships should be done/completed.
- I believe it is a good idea and it should go through.
Sort and prioritize needs
We spent several weeks discussing the responses that we received from the
surveys. We responded to the needs as we made decisions about the structure of the
program. The desires of a majority of students and faculty were incorporated into our
discussion as if the students and faculty were part of our committee, but our team had the
final authority to make decisions.
Our team is the only group that received the results of the needs assessment. The
participants in the needs assessment will see the result of their input in the final
presentation of the program.
Dear HALE Faculty Member:
As a project for EAD 877 Program Planning and Evaluation in Postsecondary Education,
our class is developing an internship program for the HALE Master‘s program. We
would very much appreciate your input into the planning process. We would like to
know what kinds of characteristics you believe would make the program the strongest
and most beneficial to the students and to HALE that it can be.
We would very much appreciate it if you would complete the attached survey and leave it
on your door by 3:00pm on February 5, 2003. A member of the class will come by your
office to pick up the completed survey by 3:00pm. We will consider your ideas regarding
a HALE internship program as we plan and will have a presentation on Wednesday April
30 to introduce you to the program that we ultimately develop.
Thank you again for your help!
1.) If an internship program were instituted in the HALE Master‘s program would you
recommend that the program be mandatory or optional? Why? Why not?
2.) In what ways if any, should an internship have a corresponding class (weekly,
biweekly, etc.) in which participants meet with a faculty supervisor? Why/why not?
3.) What should that class be like—how many credits, what work should be done, what
topics should be addressed?
4.) In what ways if any, should a HALE internship program be different from the Student
5.) What learning outcomes would you like HALE students to achieve from an
6.) What, if any, reasons can you give for not having a HALE internship program?
7.) If there are any comments or anything you think it would be helpful for us to plan an
internship program in HALE, please share it with us. Thank you.
As a project for EAD 877 Program Planning and Evaluation in Postsecondary Education,
our class is developing an Internship Program for the HALE Master‘s program. This
Internship Program is a project for class and will NOT become a requirement for current
members of the HALE program. We would very much appreciate, however, if you could
put yourself in the place of a HALE Master‘s student who did have an opportunity to
complete an Internship Program. We would like to know what kind of characteristics you
would want included in the Program to make it as beneficial as it could be for you as a
HALE Master‘s students.
We will consider your ideas regarding the HALE internship program as we plan and will
have a presentation on Wednesday April 30th to introduce you to the proposed program
that we ultimately develop.
Thank you again for your input!
1) Would an internship enhance your experience in the HALE Master‘s Program? How
2) Would an internship program negatively impact your experiences in the HALE
Master‘s program in any way? How so?
3) Would you prefer a required or optional internship experience? Why?
4) How many hours per week should an internship require you to work?
5) How would you like to be compensated for internship hours (i.e. pay or credits)?
6) Please list any additional comments, questions or concerns that you may have
regarding a possible internship in the HALE Master‘s program.
When you have finished please return them to the appropriate person (s) handing them
out. We in the EAD 877 class sincerely appreciate your time, your thoughts and your
comments regarding this survey.
List of Graduate Programs with Internship Components
1. East Tennessee State University: Educational Leadership
2. Eastern Washington University: Adult Education
3. Johns Hopkins University: School Administration and Supervision
4. Montana State University- Bozeman: Adult and Higher Education
5. Oklahoma State University: Human Resources and Adult Education
6. Oregon State University: Organization Development and Training Specialist
7. San Francisco State University: Adult Education
8. University of Southern Maine: Adult Education
9. Southwest Texas State University: Developmental and Adult Education
10. Appalachian State University: Adult Education
11. University of Oklahoma: Adult and Continuing Education
12. University of Rhode Island: Human Development and Family Studies
*Powerpoint summary available upon request.
INTERNSHIP LEARNING AGREEMENT
( statement of agreement and understanding )
Intern’s name: ________________________________________________________________
Expected Date of Graduation:__________ __________________________________________
Address during internship:
city state zip code
Telephone number: ____________________________FAX number:___________________
E-mail address: _______________________________________
city state zip code
Telephone number: __________________________FAX number :_______________________
Name of the site: ___________________________________________________________
Supervisor’s name: ____________________________________________________________
Supervisor’s position: __________________________________________________________
city state zip code
Telephone number: _______________________________FAX number: __________________
E-mail address: _______________________________________________________________
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY FACULTY LIAISION (sample)
Gloria Kielbaso, PhD. E-mail address: email@example.com
411 Erickson Hall Telephone: (517) 432-1519 or 432-4080
College of Education
East Lansing, MI 48824
LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES
During my internship I will:
Learning Objectives Activities to Meet the Objectives
I understand that the intern should have as many opportunities as possible to learn how our
organization functions. To facilitate this process I will attempt to make a variety of learning
experiences and opportunities for professional networking available to the intern. I also
understand that as an intern, the student should not be responsible for activities within the
organization that he or she is not qualified to complete. I will also meet with the intern to provide
feedback on the progress to date. These meetings will occur every week or until the intern and
the supervisor are confident the intern is performing the duties assigned in a professional
Supervisor’s signature: ______________________________________________
I understand that as an intern I have a responsibility to conduct myself in a professional manner
at all times. It is my responsibility to keep the record of my internship hours. Should a situation
arise that would cause me to miss my scheduled hours at the placement site, I will contact the
supervisor immediately and provide documentation as to why the absence occurred. I also
understand that if I perceive an action or process occurred that caused me to be concerned I
must first contact my internship supervisor to discuss the situation in an attempt to seek a solution
or resolution before talking to the faculty liaison.
Student’s signature: ________________________________________________
FACULTY LIAISON REQUIREMENTS:
I understand that as the faculty liaison for the intern and the placement site I have the
responsibility to attempt to place only students who are qualified to successfully complete an
internship in a particular organization. I also assume responsibility for communicating directly
with the supervisor and the intern should a problem arise during the internship. I accept the
responsibility to ensure that the intern complete a reflective component as part of the internship
Faculty Liaison’s signature: ____________________________________________________
Possible Internship Sites for HALE Master’s Program
Okemos Community Education
4000 N. Okemos Rd.
Okemos, MI. 48864
Attn: Mr. John Zappala
Phone # (517) 349-2209
High School Equivalency Program (HEP)
Michigan State University
E244 Akers Hall
East Lansing, MI. 48824
Attn: Marcelina Trevino-Savala
Phone # (517) 432-9900
Office of Supportive Services (OSS)
209 Bessey Hall
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI. 48824
Attn: Hong-Yen Pham
Phone # (517) 355-5210
FAX # 432-2962
King-Chavez-Parks College Day Program (K-C-P)
S-23 Wonders Hall
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI. 48824
Attn: Paulo Gordillo
Phone # (517) 355-0177
Office of International Students and Scholars (OISS)
103 International Center
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
Attn: Peter Briggs
Michigan Works! Association
The Association of Michigan Works! Agencies
2500 Kerry Street - Lansing, MI 48912