Chapter 28.1 Lecture Station - Waverly-Shell Rock Community Schools by yaoyufang

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									Exploring American History



     Unit IX- Postwar America

         Chapter 28 – Section 1
The Civil Rights Movement Takes Shape
The Civil Rights Movement Takes
              Shape

                        The Big Idea
Civil rights activists used legal challenges and public protests
                       to confront segregation.

                         Main Ideas
• Civil rights leaders battled school segregation in court.
• The Montgomery bus boycott helped end segregation on
  buses.
• Students organized sit-ins to protest segregation.
                       Main Idea 1:
           Civil rights leaders battled school
                   segregation in court.
   In 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson
    established the ―separate-but-equal‖ doctrine.
       Federal, state, and local governments could allow
        segregation so long as separate facilities were equal.
       States in North and South maintained separate schools
        for white and black students.
   In reality, segregated schools were not equal.
       Schools for black children typically received less funding.
   Early civil rights leaders focused on ending
    segregation in public schools.
       Led by members of National Association for the
        Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
        Brown v. Board of Education
   NAACP worked to show that separate schools did not
    provide equal educational opportunities for black students.
   NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall led courtroom battles
    against segregation.
   Brown v. Board of Education
       ―Brown‖ was a seven-year-old African American girl named
        Linda Brown from Topeka, Kansas.
       Linda’s father and the NAACP sued to allow Linda to attend
        school closer to her home.
   May 17, 1954– Supreme Court issued an unanimous ruling
    that segregation in public schools was illegal.
   The next year, the Court ordered public schools to
    desegregate.
 Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court heard arguments over a two-year
period. The Court also considered research about
segregation’s effects on African American children.



In 1954 Chief Justice Earl Warren issued the Supreme
Court’s decision.


All nine justices agreed that separate schools for African
Americans and whites violated the Constitution’s
guarantee of equal protection of the law.
                     Little Rock Nine
   Most schools in South implemented gradual integration
    plans.
   Little Rock, Arkansas school board decided to start by
    integrating one high school.
       Invited nine outstanding black students, who became known
        as the Little Rock Nine, to attend Central High School
       Arkansas governor Orval Faubus worked to prevent
        desegregation by using National Guard troops to block the nine
        students from school.
   For weeks, Faubus refused to allow them to attend school.
   Finally President Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort
    students into the school.
   Little Rock Nine began attending classes.
       Faced hostility and discrimination from other students
       Eight of the nine remained in school and graduated.
     Battling School Segregation
   Identify – Which Supreme Court case
    made school segregation legal?
   Summarize – Describe the Supreme
    Court action in Brown v. Board of
    Education.
   Develop – Why was it significant that the
    Supreme Court decision in the Brown case
    was unanimous?
  Battling School Segregation
 Recall – How many of the Little
  Rock Nine graduated from Central
  High?
 Analyze – Why do you think
  Hazel Massery and Elizabeth
  Eckford became friends?
                Main Idea 2:
    The Montgomery bus boycott helped end
            segregation on buses.
   Black passengers required to sit at back of city buses and to
    give up seats to white passengers
   On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her
    seat to a white passenger.
       Bus driver called police and she was taken to jail.
   Local leaders organized a Montgomery bus boycott.
       Thousands of African Americans stopped riding buses.
       Bus ridership fell by 70 percent.
       Martin Luther King Jr., a young Baptist minister, helped lead
        the boycott.
       Lasted 381 days
   Finally in November 1956 the Supreme Court ruled that
    segregation on public transportation was illegal.
       Montgomery Bus Boycott
   Explain – Why was the Montgomery
    Improvement Association formed?
   Recall – How long did the bus boycott
    last?
   Elaborate – Why was it significant that
    black and white ministers rode together
    on the first integrated bus in Montgomery?
                     Main Idea 3:
          Students organized sit-ins to protest
                     segregation.
   Many private businesses in the South were segregated.
   On February 1, 1960, four students went into a Woolworth
    in Greensboro, North Carolina, and staged a sit-in—a
    demonstration in which protesters sit down and refuse to
    leave.
       They sat in the ―whites only‖ section of the lunch counter.
       The next day, they returned with dozens more students.
       Soon another sit in began at a nearby store.
       Despite harassment, they refused to respond with violence.
   Over time, some businesses began process of integration.
   Leaders of student protests formed Student Nonviolent
    Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960.
       Trained protesters
       Organized civil rights demonstrations
    Sit-ins and the S.N.C.C.
 Describe  – What protest strategy
  was used in the sit-ins?
 Analyze – Why do you think sit-
  ins were effective?

								
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