FV_UNFCCC_Bangkok v02

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					  Financing technologies and
    adaptation: challenges
      following Montreal


                      Iulian Florin Vladu
                 Technology Sub-programme
              Adaptation, Technology and Science
                         Programme
                          UNFCCC


August 2006          Bangkok, Thailand
                                                   1
               This presentation will cover:

J   Development and transfer of technologies under the
    Convention
       Priority technology needs of non-Annex I Parties
       Financing technology
       Technology - From Montreal to Nairobi


J   Adaptation – from research and impacts assessment to
    concrete actions
       SBSTA 5 years programme of work on impacts, vulnerability
       and adaptation to climate change
       Funding for adaptation




                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   2
                                                                                                                                                       Major milestones
1992              1994                                 1996                1998                                       2000                                2002               2004                  2006                           2008                 2010              2012               2030



                   UNFCCC enters
                                                              Ky oto Protocol                                                                                                     Ky oto Protocol enters
UNCED Rio
 de Janeiro



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               First commitment period               ???


                     into force
                                                                  signed                                                                                                                into force


                                                    COP and subsi diary bodies                                                                                                           MOP 1
UNFCCC proce ss
                                        1                 2         3         4                                5     6 I & II    7      8                             9          10       11         12               13                  14     15       16        17    18
                                      Berlin            Geneva    Ky oto   Buenos                             Bonn The Hague Marrakesh New                           Milan     Buenos   Montreal
                                                                            Aires                                  and Bonn            Delhi                                    Aires

                                                    First period                                          Second period                                Third period                                               Fourth period                                                 Other possible
                                                    Various issues                                        Consultative                                 Implementation of                                          Enhancing the implementation of                               approaches?
          Development                                                                                     process                                      the technology framework                                   the technology framework
          and transfer of
                                                    Projects inventory,                                   Regional                                     Technology needs and needs
          technologies
                                                    financing,             Buenos Aires Plan of Actions   workshops in                                  assessments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Maintain the same themes




                                                                                                                                                                                                           enhancing the implementation
                                                    networks of centres,                                  Asia, Africa, and




                                                                                                                                Technology framework




                                                                                                                                                                                                           EGTT reco mmendations for
                                                    adaptation                                            Latin America and                            Technology information
                                                    technologies                                          the Caribbean
                                   Berlin mandate




                                                                                                                                                       Enabling environments




                                                                                                                                                                                                           of the framework
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Review of EGTT
                                                                                                                                                       Capacity-building

                                                                                                                                                       Mechanisms (EG TT )

                                                                                                                                                                        Innovative financing

                                                                                                                                                                     Technologies for adaptation

                                                                                                                                                                        SBSTA mitigation w orkshops and five-year work programme on adaptation

                                                                                                                                                                                            Dialogue on long- ter m cooperative actions
                                                                                                                          Processe s initiated at COP 11
                                                                                                                                                                                            Ad-Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments under the Kyoto Protocol

CSD

                                                        Programme for further                                       Millennium                         Johannesburg
                                                     implementation of Agenda 21                                    declaration                        Plan of Action
IPCC
                                                                                                                       MTI TT




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Guidelines
                                                                                                                       SR on




                                                                                                                                                                                         SR on




FAR                                                                 SAR                                                                   TAR                                                                        AR4
                                                                                                                                                                                          CCS

                                                                                                                                                                                                       2006




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme                                      3
       What are the priority technology needs?

J   Synthesis of technology needs assessments (TNAs) –
    FCCC/SBSTA/2006/INF.1:
       Highlights priority technology needs to reduce greenhouse
       gas emissions and facilitate adaptation to the adverse impacts
       of climate change based on information contained in 23 TNAs
       and 25 initial national communications submitted by non-
       Annex I Parties

       Draws attention to specific barriers to technology transfer and
       suggests measures to address them, including through
       capacity-building

       Highlights ways used to involve stakeholders in a consultative
       process to conduct TNAs, including the methodologies and
       criteria used to prioritize technology needs

                                             Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   4
                    An overview of the TNA process
Figure 2. Main activities for conducting a TNA                         Table 4. An overview of the TNA process




                                                                                                                                                  Identify capacity-building
          for mitigation technologies




                                                                                                    Prioritize technologies
                                                                                                    Conduct initial review




                                                                                                                                                                               Describe stakeholder

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Identify next steps
                                                                                                      Select key sectors



                                                                                                                              Identify measures
                                                                               Select target area




                                                                                                                                                                                                       Project proposal
                                                                                                       Identify barriers




                                                                                                                                                                                  participation
                                                                                                           Set criteria




                                                                                                                                                            needs
                                                                   Country




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Per cent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Totala
                                                                   Albania                                                                                                                                                    8    80
                                                                   Azerbaijan                                                                                                                                                 9    90
                                                                   Bolivia                                                                                                                                                    9    90
                                                                   Burundi                                                                                                                                                    8    80
                                                                   Chile                                                                                                                                                      7    70
                                                                   China                                                                                                                                                      9    90
                                                                   Congo DR                                                                                                                                                   7    70
                                                                   Dominican                                                                                                                                                  6    60
                                                                   Republic
                                                                   Ecuador                                                                                                                                                    8 80
                                                                   Georgia                                                                                                                                                    6 60
                                                                   Ghana                                                                                                                                                     10 100
                                                                   Haiti                                                                                                                                                      8 80
                                                                   Indonesia                                                                                                                                                 10 100
                                                                   Kenya                                                                                                                                                     10 100
                                                                   Lesotho                                                                                                                                                    9 90
                                                                   Malawi                                                                                                                                                     9 90
                                                                   Mauritius                                                                                                                                                  9 90
                                                                   Moldova                                                                                                                                                    4 40
                                                                   Niue                                                                                                                                                       9 90
                                                                   Paraguay                                                                                                                                                   8 80
                                                                   Tajikistan                                                                                                                                                 9 90
ote: Similar activities are carried out for a TNA of adaptation,   Viet Nam                                                                                                                                                   8 80
                                                                   Zimbabwe                                                                                                                                                   7 70
ut the tasks differ.
                                                                            Total 23 23 19 23 20 21 18                                                              12                       16 11 12
ource: TNA handbook.                                                           % 100 100 83 100 87 91 78                                                            52                       70 48 52

                                                                                                              Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme                                                                             5
Commonly used criteria for prioritizing
        technology needs
                                                                       Development benefits                                                                                                                                                                                                              Climate                                                                           Market                                                                         Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         change                                                                                                                                                             protection




                                                                                                                                    Improvement in health and quality of life




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Minimum impact on the environment
                                                                                                Rational utilization of resources




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Potential for reuse and recycle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Recovery of water resources
                                                               Utilization of local resources




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Environmental sustainability


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Socio-economic importance




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Possibilities for replication
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GHG reduction potential
                     Employment generation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Potential for adaptation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pollution reduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Life time of the inv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Maintenance costs




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Social acceptance
                                                                                                                                                                                                Capacity-building




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Investment costs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Gender equality
                                             Wealth creation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Preserve sinks
                                                                                                                                                                                Food security
Country




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Per cent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Total
Albania                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12              54.5
Azerbaijan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6              27.3
Bolivia                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1               4.5
Burundi                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   7              31.8
Chile                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2               9.1
China                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9              40.9
Congo DR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 13              59.1
Dominican Republic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6              27.3
Ecuador                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1               4.5
Georgia                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   3              15.8
Ghana                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     8              42.1
Haiti                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3              15.8
Indonesia                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 7              36.8
Kenya                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5              26.3
Lesotho                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   6              31.6
Malawi                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7              36.8
Mauritius                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5              26.3
Moldova                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4              21.1
Niue                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4              21.1
Paraguay                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2              10.5
Tajikistan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6              31.6
Viet Nam                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6              31.6
Zimbabwe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5              26.3
              Total   8 2 14 14 1 0 1 1 1 16 21 1 1 16 1 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 9 13 2 0 0
                 % 34.8 8.7 60.9 60.9 4.3 0.0 4.3 4.3 4.3 69.6 91.3 4.3 4.3 69.6 4.3 13.0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13.0 39.1 56.5 8.7 0.0 0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme                                                                                                                                                    6
                                                                                                           Per cent of Parties [%]




                                                                                      0
                                                                                          10
                                                                                               20
                                                                                                    30
                                                                                                            40
                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                                               60
                                                                                                                                          70
                                                                                                                                                  80
                                                                                                                                                          90
                                                                                                                                                                                           100
                                                                              RET

                                                              CHP (cogeneration)

                                                                             DSM

                                                                            GTCC

                                                     Unspecified power generation

                                                                               CT                                                       Generation - 91.7%

                                                                              Coal

                                                            Legacy improvements

                                                             Advanced fossil fuel

                                                                             Other
                                                                                                                                                               Energy - 91.7% of Parties




                                                       Energy efficient appliances

                                                Green buildings materials & design

                                                                             Other                                     Buildings & residential - 87.5%

                                                                   District heating

                                                                    Miscellaneous                                                       Transmission - 25%
                                                       Industrial energy efficiency

                                                                           Boilers

                                                         Miscellaneous industries

                                                              Cement Production
                                                            High efficiency motors

                                                                    Steel industry

                                                                         Furnaces

                                                            Bread making industry
                                                                                                                                                               Industry - 79.2%




                                                                           Others

                                                                           Mining

                                                                   Fuel switching

                                                              Aluminium industry

                                                                          Vehicles

                                                Management & policy improvements

                                                                         Facilities

                                                      Unspecified public transport
                                                                                                                                                               Transport - 50%




                                                                           Freight

                                                                          Forestry

                                                                Crop management                                                      Agriculture & forestry - 33.3%

                                                                             Other
                                                                                                                                                                                                  and technologies considered by Parties in TNAs




                                                                    Miscellaneous                                                       Waste management - 29.2%
Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme




                                                                    Miscellaneous                                                                      Other - 4.2%
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Commonly identified mitigation sectors, subsectors




                                                                                      0
                                                                                          10
                                                                                               20
                                                                                                    30
                                                                                                            40
                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                                               60
                                                                                                                                          70
                                                                                                                                                  80
                                                                                                                                                          90
                                                                                                                                                                                           100




                                                                                                         # of technologies identified
7
                                                                                    # of technologies identified




                                                                        0
                                                                            2
                                                                                4
                                                                                      6
                                                                                             8
                                                                                                   10
                                                                                                          12
                                                                                                                   14
                                                                                                                        16
                                                                                                                                              18
                                                 Solar PV (grid, off-
                                                        grid)




                                                           Biomass




                                                Mini- and/or micro-
                                                       hydro



                                                Wind (installations
                                                and/or assessments)
                                                                                                                             Africa




                                                                Hydro
                                                                                                                             Asia
                                                                                                                             Europe




                                                      Solar thermal




                                                        Geothermal
                                                                                                                             Latin am erica




                                                   Unspecified RET



                                                   MSW (generation
                                                   and treatment of
                                                        MSW)
Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme




                                                Unspecified hybrids
                                                                                                                                                   Commonly selected renewable energy technology needs




8
                                                                                             # of technologies identified




                                                                                     0
                                                                                         2
                                                                                               4
                                                                                                    6
                                                                                                          8
                                                                                                                10
                                                                                                                     12
                                                                                                                            14
                                                                                                                                                  16
                                                                           Lights



                                                               Solar water heaters



                                                                    Stoves/ovens



                                                                      Solar driers



                                                                    Solar cookers
                                                                                                                                 Africa
                                                                                                                                 Asia




                                                                          Heaters
                                                                                                                                 Europe




                                                                 Air conditioning



                                                Unspecified appliances & techniques
                                                                                                                                 Latin am erica




                                                              Solar home system
                                                                                                                                                              in buildings and residential sector




                                                                     Refrigerators



                                                               Solar water pumps
Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme




                                                             Wind water pumping
                                                                                                                                                       Commonly selected energy efficient technology needs




9
                                                                                                                 Per cent of Paries [%]




                                                                                         0
                                                                                             10
                                                                                                       20
                                                                                                                   30
                                                                                                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                  50
                                                                                                                                                                 60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  70
                                                                    Crop management

                                                                            Irrigation

                                                                   Land management

                                                                            Livestock

                                                                             Forestry

                                                                   Improved drainage

                                                                    Pest management

                                                                     Food processing

                                                                          Other (soft)
                                                                                                                                                                       Agriculture & fishery - 62.5% of Parties




                                                                              Fishery

                                                                                Other

                                                                   Improved drainage
                                                                                                                                       Accomodate - 37.5%
                                                                 Emergency planning

                                                                Rise land and houses

                                                               Hard structural options

                                                                  Indigenous options
                                                                                                                                               Protect - 20.8%
                                                                                                                                                                       Coastal zone - 41.7%




                                                                                Other

                                                               Soft structural options

                                                                       Various retreat                                                         Retreat - 16.7%

                                                     Water recycling and conservation

                                                                      Water transfers

                                                                                Other
                                                                                                                                                                       Water - 37.5%




                                                                     Water harvesting

                                                           Water/food-borne diseases

                                                               Vector-borne diseases

                                                                                Other
                                                                                                                                                                       Health - 25%




                                                                  High water extremes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and technologies by Parties in TNAs




                                                Systematic observation and monitoring

                                                                     Natural disasters

                                                                              Tourism

                                                                    Capacity building
                                                                                         0
                                                                                             5
                                                                                                  10
                                                                                                            15
                                                                                                                          20
                                                                                                                                          25
                                                                                                                                                       30
                                                                                                                                                                  35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40




Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme




                                                                                                            # of technologies identified
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Commonly identified adaptation sectors, sub-sectors




10
                                                                                                                          Per cent of coastal zone
                                                                                                                        technologies identified [%




                                                                                                            0
                                                                                                                1
                                                                                                                    2
                                                                                                                        3
                                                                                                                               4
                                                                                                                                     5
                                                                                                                                            6
                                                                                                                                                     7
                                                                                                                                                         8
                                                                                                                                                               9
                                                                                                                                                                            10
                                                                  Dikes, levees, floodways, floodwalls


                                                                     Bulkheads, seawalls, revertments


                                                                                                Groynes


                                                                                                Gabions


                                                                             Creation of embankments                                           Hard - 27.5%

                                                                                  Storm surge barriers


                                                                            Flooding and storm drains


                                                                          Periodic beach nourishment
                                                                                                                                                               Protect




                                                                      Building-with-nature techniques                                           Soft - 12.5%

                                                Stimulate growth of coral reefs naturally or artificially


                                                              Hand-placed rock sea walls (stone walls)

                                                                                                                                      Indigeneous - 7.5%
                                                                                  Mangrove plantations


                                                                                                   Other

                                                                                                                                                Other - 7.5%
                                                                               Coastal zone laboratory


                                                                                    Improved drainage


                                                                                 Early-warning systems


                                                                              Raised houses and land


                                                                                    Desalination plants
                                                                                                                                                               Accomodate




                                                                              Coastal zone monitoring


                                                                                                   Other


                                                                               Replacement Casements


                                                                                                   Other
                                                                                                                                                                                 Needs for technologies to address sea-level rise




Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme
                                                                                                                                                               Retreat




                                                          Preventing development in areas near coast


                                                                 Conditional phased-out development
11
                                                                                                        Haiti




                                                                                                        Niue
                                                                                                        Chile
                                                                                                        China




                                                                                                        Kenya
                                                                                                        Ghana
                                                                                                        Bolivia




                                                                                                        Malawi
                                                                                                        Albania




                                                                                                        Georgia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Country




                                                                                                        Burundi




                                                                                                        Lesotho
                                                                                                        Ecuador




                                                                                                        Moldova
                                                                                                        Republic




                                                                                                        Viet Nam
                                                                                                        Mauritius


                                                                                                        Paraguay
                                                                                                        Tajikistan
                                                                                                        Indonesia




                                                                                                        Zimbabwe
                                                                                                        Congo DR
                                                                                                        Azerbaijan




                                                                                                        Dominican
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Economic / market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Information /




                                                                                 Per cent 83 78
                                                                                    Total 19 18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             awareness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Regulatory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  country




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Institutional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Human
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Technical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Others




                                                                                 74 65 65 70 74 30 43
                                                                                 17 15 15 16 17 7 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Total




                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                                                                                    0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Per cent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Table 9. Type of barriers identified by




                                                                                                        7 78
                                                                                                        8 89
                                                                                                        7 78
                                                                                                        1 11
                                                                                                        2 22
                                                                                                            0
                                                                                                        9 100
                                                                                                        8 89
                                                                                                        4 44
                                                                                                        6 67
                                                                                                        9 100
                                                                                                                                                         9 100
                                                                                                                                                         9 100
                                                                                                                                                         5 56
                                                                                                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                                                                                    8 89
                                                                                                                                                                                    8 89
                                                                                                                                                                                    2 22
                                                                                                                                                                                    5 56
                                                                                                                                                                                    8 89
                                                                                                                                                                                    6 67
                                                                                                                                                                                    9 100




                                                                                                            # of barriers                                                                                      Per cent of Parties [%




                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                        2
                                                                                                            4
                                                                                                                 6
                                                                                                                        8
                                                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                                 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                     10
                                                                                                                                                                                                          20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  90




                                                           Lack of financial resources
                                                                                                                                                                                 Economic /
                                                                High investment costs                                                                                              market

                                                Incompatible prices, subsidies, tariffs                                                                                         Information /
                                                                    Lack of incentives
                                                                                                                                                                                 awareness

                                                              Consumers low income                                                                                                    Policy

                                                                      Lack of markets
                                                                                                                                                                                   Technical
                                                                  H igh u pfront costs

                                                              Lack of access to credit
                                                                                                                                                                                     Human
                                                                  L ack of co mpetition

                                                                       Weak curren cy                                                                                             Regulatory
                                                  H igh costs co mpared to traditional
                                                               technolog y
                                                                                                                                                                                 Institutional
                                                                 High borrowing cost

                                                               High transaction costs
                                                                                                                                                                                      Others
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Figure 11. Type of barriers identified




                                                  In terests of large energy producers
                                                                                                                                      Figure 12. Economic and market barriers




                                                                dominate
                                                                            IPR issues                                                                                             Infrasture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Type of barriers identified by country




Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme
12
Measures identified to address barriers
Table 10. Type of measures identified                                                        Figure 13. Common measures identified to
             by country                                                                                  address barriers




                 Information / awareness
                                                                                        90




                    Economic / market
                                                                                        80




                      Infrastructure
                       Institutional
                        Regulatory



                        Technical
                          Human



                          Others
                          Policy
                                                                                        70
Country
                                                                                        60




                                                              Per cen t of Parties[%]
                                                   Per cent
                                                                                        50




                Total
                                                                                        40
Albania                                        5       56
                                                                                        30
Azerbaijan                                     5       56
Bolivia                                        7       78                               20
Burundi                                        6       67
                                                                                        10
Chile                                          1       11
China                                          8       89                               0
Congo DR                                       7       78




                                                                                                                                                  T ech nical




                                                                                                                                                                                                  Infrastructure
                                                                                              Regulatory



                                                                                                           Policy




                                                                                                                                                                                        Oth ers
                                                                                                                                                                Institutional
                                                                                                                    Information /



                                                                                                                                    Econ omic /




                                                                                                                                                                                Human
                                                                                                                      awareness
Dominican                                      0        0




                                                                                                                                      market
Republic
Ecuador                                        5 56
Georgia                                        8 89
Ghana                                          0   0
Haiti                                          4 44
Indonesia                                      6 67
Kenya                                          6 67
Lesotho                                        4 44
Malawi                                         9 100
Mauritius                                      5 56
Moldova                                        6 67
Niue                                           2 22
Paraguay                                       0   0
Tajikistan                                     7 78
Viet Nam                                       8 89
Zimbabwe                                       7 78
            Total 16 16 16 18 13 11 13 6 7
          Percent 70 70 70 78 57 48 57 26 30
                                                                                                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme                                           13
                          Capacity-building needs
 Table 11. Type of capacity-building                                                   Figure 14. Common capacity-building needs
     needs identified by country                                           70




                  Information / awareness
                     Policy / programme
                     Economic / market




                       organizational



                       Infrastructure
                                                                           60




                        Institutional /
                         Regulatory




                          Technical
                           Human



                           Others
Country
                                                                           50




                 Per cent
                 Total



                                                          Per cent of Parties [%
                                                                           40
Albania                                          0    0
Azerbaijan                                       6   67
Bolivia                                          4   44                    30
Burundi                                          3   33
Chile                                            1   11
China                                            0    0
                                                                           20
Congo DR                                         3   33
Dominican
Republic                                         2   22
Ecuador                                          4   44                    10
Georgia                                          0    0
Ghana                                            8   89
Haiti                                            2   22                            0




                                                                                                                                                                               Economic / market
                                                                                                                                              Policy / programme


                                                                                                                                                                   Technical
Indonesia                                        2   22




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Regulatory




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Others
                                                                                        Human




                                                                                                                                                                                                                Infrastructu re
                                                                                                Information / awareness


                                                                                                                          Institutional /
                                                                                                                          org aniztional
Kenya                                            6   67
Lesotho                                          3   33
Malawi                                           7   78
Mauritius                                        3   33
Moldova                                          0    0
Niue                                             1   11
Paraguay                                         1   11
Tajikistan                                       8   89
Viet Nam                                         8   89
Zimbabwe                                         5   56
            Total 7 14 9 7      10 16 8 3 3
          Percent 30 61 39 30   43 70 35 13 13
                                                                                                                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme                                                  14
                    TNAs | key findings

J   The TNA is an effective tool for decision makers and
    international institutions that may be involved in the
    facilitation of the technology transfer process. The
    TNA process not only helps identify specific
    technology needs, but also points out the direction in
    which future policies and regulations will need to
    progress

J   The main beneficiary of the TNAs are the Parties that
    conducted them, as these reports provide a good basis
    for follow-up activities to further enhance the transfer
    of climate friendly technologies.


                                       Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   15
Financing technology and adaptation


                                        CDM/JI



                     Adaptation Fund
                     Adaptation Fund
                                                        BILATERAL
The GEF                                                 • ODA (OECD/DAC)
• Trust Fund                                            • Seed financing
• SCCF                                                  • Green Financing
• LDCF



                                       UNFCCC                        PPPs
                                                                     Export Credit Agencies



      MULTILATERAL                                         PRIVATE SECTOR
                                                         • Commercial Banks
      • World Bank Carbon Finance,
                                                         • Micro financing
        CEFV, CESF
                                                         • Insurances
      • UNEP
      • EU COMMISSION
      • UNDP
      • IFC
      • EBRD
      • UNCTAD




                                                 Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   16
                       Information provided by Annex II Parties in
                           their third National Communications
               3000
                                                                                                                                                              2,617.3
               2500                1,894.3
                                   1,850.2

                                                                             1997      1998            1999
               2000
                         1,069.6
USD millions




               1500




                                                                                                                                                       880.4
                                                                                                                                                       856.0
                                                       703.1
                                                       657.3




                                                                                                                                                                               602.8
               1000




                                                                                                                                                                             514.1
                                                                                                                                          500.6
                                                                       395.7




                                                                                                                                         395.8
                                                                       373.1
                                                                      314.3




                                                                                        183.4




                                                                                                                                                                          174.3
                                                                                       150.4




                                                                                                                     143.7




                                                                                                                                                                                             149.6
                                                                                       131.9




                                                                                                                                                                                             127.3
                500




                                                                                                                    98.2




                                                                                                                                  90.8




                                                                                                                                                                                             89.0
                                                                                                                    76.5
                                                57.4




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                                                                                                                     4000                                                                   3,675.4                             3,567.4
                                                                                                                     3500
                                                                                                                     3000                                                                                                      3,220.4
                                                                                                U S D m illio n s




                                                                                                                     2500                      1,843.6
                                                                                                                     2000
                                                                                                                     1500                                                                         1,182.0
                                                                                                                     1000                          1,608.4
                                                                                                                      500                                                                                    Mitigation        Adaptation
                                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                                                   1997                                               1998                   1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Year

                                                                                                                                                                                       Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme        17
                    Innovative financing

J   Innovative financing:
       2 workshops – brought together Parties, project developers
       and international financial community

       Prepare and disseminate a Practitioner's guide to support
       projects developers to prepare project proposals that meet the
       standards of financial community

       Technical paper on Innovative financing
       (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/TP1)




                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   18
     Transferring technologies for adaptation to
     climate change | Is it different from mitigation?
J   Technical paper on Application of technologies for
    adaptation to climate change (FCCC/TP/2006/2)

       A framework for assessing technologies for adaptation to
       climate change

       The process of technology development and transfer as
       relevant to adaptation to climate change

       Examples of important technologies for adaptation in five
       sectors (coastal zones, water resources, agriculture, public
       health, and infrastructure), together with three case studies
       for each sector

       Synthesis of findings that have implications for climate policy
                                              Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   19
        Technology - from Montreal to Nairobi
J   Enhance the technology framework – EGTT
    recommendations:
       Retain structure, five key themes, definitions and purposes of
       the current technology transfer framework
       Work becomes more practical and results oriented at regional
       and sectoral level
       Time frame for implementation is for medium term covering
       2007 – 2012
       Under the theme on mechanisms 3 new sub-themes:
       » Innovative financing
       » Enhance cooperation on technology transfer with other MEAs and
         Intergovernmental Processes
       » Joint R&D on technology transfer and collaborative research
J   Submissions of Parties on EGTT
J   Informal consultations, 10-11 September, Geneva
J   High-level round table discussion on technology
    cooperation in Nairobi
                                                Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   20
    SBSTA 5 year programme of work on impacts,
    vulnerability and adaptation to climate change
J   Objective
        to assist all Parties… to improve their understanding and
        assessment of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and to make
        informed decisions on practical adaptation actions
J   Expected outcomes
        Enhanced capacity, cooperation and integration at the “international,
        regional, national, sectoral and local levels”, targeting “Parties,
        relevant organizations, business, civil society, and decision makers”
        Improved information and advice to Conference of Parties
J   Scope
        2 themes: impacts and vulnerability, adaptation planning measures
        and actions; 10 action oriented sub-themes

J   List of modalities, process for implementation

J   9 initial activities up to 2008 -to be adopted in Nairobi-, including
    on technology transfer, methods and tools, adaptation planning
    and practices
                                                  Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   21
          SBSTA 5 year programme of work |
        Importance and linkage with implementation
J   Explicit recognition of the importance and need for
    actions to enhance the technical and methodological
    basis for adaptation, and for fostering cooperation
    between Parties and a broad range of stakeholders and
    organisations and joint work on these issues.
J   Enhanced technical information would help:
       Identifying and justifying adaptation activities
       Ensure that internal and external resources targeted to
       adaptation to climate change are used efficiently
       Facilitate the articulation of needs and associated proposals
       of developing countries to obtain adaptation funding
       Facilitate, complement and strengthen the implementation of
       actions enumerated in decision 1/CP.10 on implementation of
       adaptation

                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   22
                   Funding for adaptation
J   GEF:
      Enabling activities: adaptation in the context of national
      communication
      Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA) funding as part of the
      GEF trust fund (follow the principle that projects shall have
      global benefit)

J   Special Funds under the Convention:
       SCCF
       LDCF

J   Adaptation Fund under the KP




                                             Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   23
                  GEF Trust Fund – SPA
J   Funding
      Original allocation USD 50m. Of this amount, USD 23m
      remains to be programmed under GEF-4
      This amount is being taken out of the funds set aside from the
      RAF (regional/global allocation) so that the mitigation-based
      RAF will not apply. Will also be used to finance Small Grants
      Programme (SGP) projects (community based)


J   Status
      14 projects (8 approved)
      Focus on small vulnerable countries (though exemptions…
      one project in Hungary)
      Projects mainly on “planning and integration of adaptation
      measures in policy” (stage II like)


                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   24
                               SCCF

J   Funding
       Total funding for adaptation: USD 40m
       USD 2.5m available for technology transfer
       Programming paper (adopted in 2004) introduces sliding scale
       and does not apply GEF global environment benefit criteria


J   Status
       One project approved (Tanzania), other (6) projects in pipeline
       – approvals on “interim period” before next GEF Council
       meeting possible (will account for up to USD 25m when/if
       approved)
       Focus on all regions – not only on “most vulnerable
       countries”
       Ongoing (stuck) negotiations on 7/CP.7 paragraphs (c) and (d)
       may block further guidance by the COP…
                                             Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   25
                               LDCF

J   Funding and status
      Total funds available cumulatively for LDCF is USD 101m of
      which project for 44 NAPAs with a total funding of USD 11.8 m

      Pipeline and programming for SCCF and LDCF remain open as
      they do fall under the GEF Trust Fund Replenishment cycle

      Programming paper adopted by the Council: includes sliding
      scale, possibility to calculate additional costs (but no method)
      and higher caps for “medium” projects (USD 2 m)




                                             Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   26
     Comparison of SPA, LDCF and SCCF


SPA                 LDCF                   SCCF
(GEF Trust Fund)    Urgent and             Priority areas of
small vulnerable    immediate (NAPAs)      intervention - all
countries                                  regions

Incremental cost    Additional cost        Additional cost
(global benefits)   (of adaptation         (of adaptation
                    measures)              measures)


Project includes    Project include        Project include
incremental         sliding scale          sliding scale
reasoning



                                        Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   27
           GEF Funds | Issues to consider

J   How will monitoring and evaluation work?
    (mandate for LDCF next year, possible renewal of
    SPA)
J   Special funds possible change in governance
J   “Consistency” amongst funds – example of the
    application of concept of additional costs
J   Complementarities amongst the funds - how to
    ensure equitable distribution of resources




                                   Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   28
                      Adaptation Fund

J   Mandates:
      28/CMP.1 & 10/CP.7: Establishment of the Adaptation Fund
      and initial guidance -> COP/MOP 2 to adopt further guidance
      on management, policies, programme priorities and eligibility
      criteria for the operation of the Adaptation Fund
      Article 12.8 of KP, 3/CMP.1 & 17/CP.7: Share of proceeds
      (SOP) of CERs to assist adaptation (2%)
      5/CP.7, para. 8: Eligible activities
J   Funding
      Art. 12.8 and decision 28/CMP.1: SOP of CDM and other
      voluntary funding
      SOP estimation over the period through 2012 of
      EUR 325 million (a range of EUR 125–750 million and a price of
      10 EURO per CER)
      From already issued CERs about 220,705 CERs for Adaptation
      SOP

                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   29
                        Adaptation Fund

J   Eligible countries
       SOP is to be used to assist developing country Parties
       (Parties to the Protocol) that are particularly vulnerable to the
       adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of
       adaptation (Article 12.8 of KP). Countries particularly
       vulnerable are: “low-lying and other small island countries,
       countries with low-lying coastal, arid and semi-arid areas or
       areas liable to floods, drought and desertification, and
       developing countries with fragile mountainous ecosystems”


J   Agreed eligible activities (Decision 28/CMP.1)
       Concrete adaptation projects and programmes
       Activities identified in decision 5/CP.7, paragraph 8.



                                               Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   30
                            Adaptation Fund

J   Status of negotiations
        28/CMP.1: invited Parties/IGOs to submit their views (docs
        FCCC/SBI/2006/MISC.5 and FCCC/SBI/2006/MISC 7 and Add. 1)
        Workshop to promote an exchange of views on further
        guidance for the operation of the Adaptation Fund (Edmonton,
        Canada, from 3–5 May 2006)
        http://unfccc.int/meetings/workshops/other_meetings/items/3672.php
        http://unfccc.int/meetings/workshops/other_meetings/items/3672.php


        SBI 24
         » Compilation document containing possible elements for a draft
           decision on the Adaptation Fund (doc. FCCC/SBI/2006/11, Annex II),
           to be used as a basis for SBI 25 deliberations (without prejudice to
           further input by Parties)
         » Invitation to relevant international institutions to make submissions in
           response to issues contained in the compilation document (3
           submission received reflected – from GEF, MLF, UNDP, doc
           FCCC/SBI/2006/MISC.16)
         » The G77 proposed some questions to the different entities considered
           to operate the fund (FCCC/SBI/2006/MISC.11)

                                                              Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   31
                    Adaptation Fund

J   Main issues under negotiation
      Governance (membership of decision making body,
      relationship with COP/MOP, institutions to govern the
      fund)
      Modalities (flexibility of operations and
      disbursements/financing)
      Eligibility criteria (priorities)
      Types of activities eligible under the fund
      SOP and other funding (management of different
      sources, monetization of CERs)




                                           Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   32
                  Issues for consideration

J   Development and transfer of technologies
       How to broaden technology transfer framework to serve the
       technology needs of a regime that can tackle the climate
       change?
       How to broaden the mandate of the EGTT (e.g., multilateral
       finding, IPR, focused sectoral programmes and interaction
       with climate technology initiatives)
       How this work could feed into the discussions on the role of
       technology development and transfer in the long-term
J   Adaptation
       What are the best means of securing adequate and predictable
       funding for adaptation
       How to pave the way for the Adaptation fund to start
       operation?


                                            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   33
THANK YOU




            Iulian Florin VLADU - Technology Subprogramme   34

				
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