The Confederacy Looks Like Its Winning
Time for Desperate Measures in the North
• North has not won any major battles
• Union military leadership has changed. No
man appears up to the challenge.
• Lincoln issues General War Order 1
• South will begin fighting offensive war
• Europe will be brought in
• Battle of Hampton Roads (Battle of the Monitor and
Merrimack; first ever naval battle between iron-sided ships)
• Homestead Act
• Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act
• Robert E. Lee placed in command of the Army of Northern
• Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Battle of Manassas)
• Battle of Antietam (Battle of Sharpsburg)
• Dakota War of 1862 begins
• Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation
The Cotton Factor?
Of the 1,390,938,752 lb of raw cotton 1,115,890,608 lb came from America.
East Indies 204,141,168
West Indies 1,630,784
But, The Confederacy did not realize that by 1861, England
had plenty of cotton in storage.
England relied far more on grain imports from the US than
Europe and the Civil War
• Monarchies were naturally fearful of rebellion
• Yet, the ruling classes of England and France sympathized with the Confederacy
– England was building ships for the South
• Lingering resentment over Northern tariff policies; South seemed like an
• Until 1862, slavery was not the primary issue of war. Europe found slavery
repugnant, but no moral issue was initially involved (from the Euro perspective)
• War between England and the Union nearly broke out in 1861: The Trent Affair
– Southern emissaries to England were forcefully taken from a British ship near Havana.
The men were imprisoned in the North, the captain hailed as a national hero
– England could not tolerate this (even though they used this policy during Napoloeonic
– Lincoln: only one war at a time. Put down war fever and released prisoners.
England’s and the South
• On October 7 the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William E.
Gladstone, made a notable speech at Newcastle in which he
remarked that no matter what one's opinion of slavery might
be, facts had to be faced: "There is no doubt that Jefferson
Davis and other leaders of the South have made an army; they
are making, it appears, a navy; and they have made what is
more than either-they have made a nation." He added, "We
may anticipate with certainty the success of the Southern
States so far as regards their separation from the North."
• But, support for the Confederacy was limited to upper classes
• Even with the cotton shortage creating textiles
unemployment, workers remained opposed to the South
because of slavery
Europe and the Civil War
• Long-standing bitterness between the North and England
made war desirable for many
• But, both England and the North had diplomats who relied on
diplomacy, not emotion
• However, by 1862 it looked as if the South would win
– Failed Northern attempt to capture Richmond
– No invading army in Virginia
– Confederacy fighting OFFENSIVE war, East and West
– Northern diplomats feared England would step in to negotiate a peace
that would favor the South
– If the North refused, England would instead recognize the Confederacy
– Decided to wait until Lee launched invasion of the North
Europe and the Emancipation
• When Lincoln makes the war a moral cause –
anti-slavery – England must support the North
• After Antietam, Lincoln had the victory –
which gave the North the momentum – to
continue fighting to end slavery.
• Daniel Webster's famous "Liberty and Union,
now and forever, one and inseparable“
• For Europe, this was no longer just a rebellion.
It was a war to preserve human FREEDOM
The Role of Napoleon III
• Actively supported England, France, Russia working
to end the war; support for Confederacy
• In the end, however, Britain would not support the
Confederacy and France needed England more.
• Importance of Mexico
– French puppet state
– Violation of Monroe Doctrine
– Would hope to negotiate borders with Confederacy from
that of an Ally, not enemy
Russia and the Civil War
• Friendly to the North
• Distrust of England and France; support for
the North shows willingness to oppose the
European Super Powers
• Unrelated, yet important: Russia wintered
ships in American ports where they could be
available to counter English naval support
Union Blockade leads to Sea Battles
• The Confederacy needed to break the Union blockade, which had cut off Virginia's
largest cities, Norfolk and Richmond from international trade.
• Union blockade highly effective
– Reduced cotton exports and munitions imports
• Confederacy: use of small, fast high-speed “blockade runners”
with small cargo or carrying capacity.
• Supported and operated by sympathetic forces from Britain.
• Royal Navy officers could take a leave of absence, and many
assisted the Confederacy.
• Illicit cargo runs in violation of the Union blockade from
Nassau, The Bahamas, and Bermuda, where the British had
set up Confederate resupply bases.
• 80% success rate in bypassing the 500-ship strong Union navy
Merrimack (Virginia) vs. Monitor
• Ironclad warships
• Rumors, misinformation
• Monitor: more
• Battle finally occurs on
March 8–9, 1862, when
the Virginia attempted to
sail up Elizabeth River
• After destroying wooden
ships, Virginia is no
match for Monitor
• Clear victory for new
Homestead Act: Why?
• Settle western lands with those of pro-Union
• Keep brisk pace of immigration to
• Gain? 160 acres of undeveloped
federal land west of the
• Three steps: file an application,
improve the land, and file for
deed of title.
• Anyone who had never taken up May 1862
arms against the U.S.
government, including freed
slaves, could file an application
– Requirements: 21 or older
and had to live on the land for
– Option: After six months of
residency, homesteaders also
had the option of purchasing
the land from the
government for $1.25 per
• Encouraged Western migration
• 80 million acres of public land by
Connection to Civil War
• Distributing public lands had been an issue since the Revo
• 1785: Land Ordinance Act
– 6-mile square = township
– 36 sections, each measuring 1 square mile or 640 acres
– Sale of public land generated revenue for the Government,
but later seen as a way to “fill up” empty areas
– Originally, $1 per acre for 640 acres. Expensive for farmers,
immigrants. Land remained “unimproved”
Homestead Act: Why? How?
• Evolving economy and demographics, rising prices for corn,
wheat, and cotton enabled large, financially stable farmers, to
force out smaller ventures.
• Displaced farmers looked westward for “fair” land policy
• Large number of immigrants also dreamt of land
• New canals and roadways made movement easier
• But, homesteading laws faced opposition on multiple fronts.
– Northern factories owners feared a mass departure of
their cheap labor force
– Southern states worried that rapid settlement of western
territories would give rise to new states populated by small
farmers opposed to slavery.
Homestead Act: Results for the North
• Way to ensure territories are firmly attached
• Surplus population. Not everyone is
necessary for war effort
• Fewer workers = better wages
• “Empty Quarter” will fill rapidly, benefit from
later improvements (1867) like the
Robert E. Lee
• Background: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGxKXKgPd0c
• Strategic Goal: Remove Union threat from Richmond
• Post War
– Lee devoted the rest of his life to setting an example of conduct for
other thousands of ex-Confederates. He refused a number of offers
which would have secured substantial means for his family. Instead, he
assumed the presidency of Washington College
– His prestige, both in the North and South, and the devotion inspired
by his unconscious symbolism of the "Lost Cause" made his a
• His application for restoration of citizenship was mislaid, and
it was not until the 1970's that it was found and granted.
• "With all my devotion to the Union, and the feeling of loyalty
and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make
up my mind to raise my hand against my relative, my children,
my home. I have, therefore, resigned my commission in the
Army..." -- Robert E. Lee to his sister, Anne Marshall April 20,
• Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more, you should
never wish to do less
• I cannot trust a man to control others who cannot control
• Whiskey - I like it, I always did, and that is the reason I never
• My chief concern is to try to be an humble, earnest Christian.
• Obedience to lawful authority is the foundation of manly
• It is well that war is so terrible -- lest we should grow too fond
Other Confederate Generals
• What does the book
– Stonewall Jackson
– James Longstreet
– Braxton Bragg
– Border Strategy (Anaconda
– Secure Border States
– Invade South; foster rebellion
– Demonstrate superior forces;
Second Battle of Bull Run
• August 28–30, 1862
• Culmination of an offensive campaign waged by Confederacy
• Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Pope's Army of
• "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at
Manassas Junction, threatening Pope's line of
communications with Washington
• Jackson took up defensive positions and on August 28, 1862,
• On that same day, the wing of Lee's army commanded by
Longstreet broke through light Union resistance
• Confederate victory
• Union did not retreat in chaos this time
• McClellan is again in charge; Pope re-assigned
The Dakota War of 1862
(Sioux Uprising -- Minnesota)
• Armed conflict with several bands of the eastern Dakota
people. A few incidents of white settlers being harassed,
– Stifled trade
– Increased desire to completely remove Sioux
• Background: Treaty violations by the United States and
inconsistent payments by Indian agents caused increasing
hunger and hardship among the Dakota.
• In 1862, Minnesota was still a frontier with more than one
million Indians. Lots of Hunger.
• Rebellion: Many Dakota did not join in, choosing to aid and
protect settlers instead. State government hunted down 38
Dakota men; mass hanging.
• Result: Most of the remaining Dakota forced to leave
Minnesota. For white Minnesotans, their experience of blood
and terror negated all promises they had made to the Dakota.
• Personal stories of soldiers
• Quotes, photos
• Opening scene from Glory
• Women’s story:
Federal Federal Confederate Confederate
Troops Engaged Casualties Troops Engaged Casualties
Cornfield 17,000 4,350 11,800 4,200
West Woods 5,400 2,200 9,000 1,850
Sunken Road 9,700 2,900 6,500 2,600
Burnside Bridge 4,270 500 500 120
Final Attack 9,550 1,850 5,500 1,000
Totals* 56,000 12,400 37,400 10,300
* The total numbers for the battle do not reflect the sum of all three phases due to
rounding and approximation
Lee 52,000 13,724
McClellan 75,000 12,410
Antietam marked the first incursion of General Lee, the southern commander, into
the north; and the huge number of war casualties made it possible for President
Abraham Lincoln to rethink the opportunities for peace and instead issue the
Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves from the entire United States.
Antietam Battle Statistics
At the end of the day September 17,1862, over 25,000 Americans had been killed,
wounded or were missing in action. There were more soldiers killed and wounded
at Antietam than in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Mexican War, and
Spanish-American War combined.
• Executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln under his war powers.
• Proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million
slaves, and immediately freed 50,000, with the rest freed as Union
• On September 22, 1862, Lincoln announced that he would issue a
formal emancipation of all slaves in any state of the Confederate
States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1,
• Lincoln issued the Executive Order by his authority as "Commander
in Chief of the Army and Navy" under Article II, section 2 of the
• Absolutely changed the purpose of the war
– Lincoln also began to discuss an amendment specifically prohibiting
• Black men now accepted into the army and navy – eventually
The Emancipation Proclamation:
• The proclamation did not cover the 800,000 slaves in the
slave-holding border states. Slaves there were freed by
separate state and federal actions.
• Tennessee had already mostly returned to Union control, so it
also was not named and was exempted.
• Virginia was named, but exemptions were specified for the 48
counties that were in the process of forming West Virginia
• Also specifically exempted were New Orleans and 13 named
parishes of Louisiana, all of which were also already mostly
under Federal control at the time of the Proclamation.
• The Emancipation Proclamation was ridiculed for freeing only
the slaves over which the Union had no power.
• Proclamation went into immediate effect in Union-occupied
areas and at least 20,000 slaves were freed at once on January
• Additionally, the Proclamation provided the legal framework
for the emancipation of nearly all four million slaves as the
Union armies advanced, and committed the Union to ending
slavery. Controversial decision even in the North.
• Slaves escaped to Union lines as the Army units moved South.
– Thousands of slaves were freed each day until nearly all
were freed by July 1865.
• Abolitionists: while the Proclamation had freed most slaves as
a war measure, it had not made slavery illegal.
• By 1865, several former slave states had already passed
legislation prohibiting slavery
“Lincoln’s Last Card”