Texas Afterschool Centers on Education Lesson: Benefits of Space Exploration 1) Description Summary Describe in a sentence the objective for this lesson. This will show up in the Lesson at a Glance in the Activity/Unit Plan. This lesson focuses the role of space exploration on humankind on Earth. *This lesson was adapted from the "Why We Explore Space" lesson plan by Matthew Dicks located at: http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceExploreSpace45.htm. Lesson Description: Give a description about the lesson. What is the big picture and purpose? What are the lesson goals and objectives? Students will: examine the vital role of effective communication, teamwork and problem solving in space exploration; understand the benefits space exploration has made for the world; and share and discuss ideas using effective communication and collaboration among their groups. Lesson Duration (Hours/Sessions): 2 hours Instructor: (Select who is delivering this activity by right-clicking on the appropriate box below and selecting Properties and select Checked) Certified Teacher College Student Volunteer Para-professional Other: Focused Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS): Focused TEKS: Science (Grade 6-8) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards plan and implement comparative and descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology; design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology; collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers; construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher Math (Grade 6-8) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. represent multiplication and division situations involving fractions and decimals with models, including concrete objects, pictures, words, and numbers; determine the reasonableness of a solution to a problem Patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking estimate and find solutions to application problems involving proportional relationships such as similarity, scaling, unit costs, and related measurement units Measurement estimate measurements and solve application problems involving length (including perimeter and circumference) and area of polygons and other shapes; Reading (Grade 6-8) Reading comprehension represent multiplication and division situations involving fractions and decimals with models, including concrete objects, pictures, words, and numbers; identify the importance of using appropriate nonverbal communication identify the kinds of listening and analyze skills related to each type ELA/Reading (Grades 6-8): Reading Read grade level-text with fluency & comprehension Analyze, make inferences, and draw conclusions from informational text Interpret messages in various forms of media Evaluate various ways media influences and informs audiences Writing Use elements of the writing process to compose text Write about their own experiences, focusing on communicating the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences Write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues Oral & Written Conventions: Understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing Research Use open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them Determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources Evaluate and synthesize collected information Organize and present ideas and information according to the purpose and their audience Listening & Speaking Use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others Speak clearly and to the point Work productively with others in teams Technology as a tool: 1A, 2A, 7H, 6B, 8A, 8B Note: The TEKS are woven into the thematic unit of space exploration. Students apply these skills in order to complete the activity. LANGUAGE & TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS: ELPS (English Language Proficiency Standards): Follow the link for an ELPS guide - (If applicable) ELL Learning Strategies: Listening: Reading: Speaking: Writing: Technology: If applicable; use short descriptive statements. Foundations: covers a number of TEKS in the simulation Information Acquisition: ----------- Solving Problems: uses interactive virtual environments and online collaboration Communication: ----------- Key Vocabulary Terms/Academic Language What are key words and terms that students should use as part of their discussions, written work, and in showing understanding in this lesson? Galileo, space exploration, astronauts, astronomer, aircraft development, NASA 2) Supplies & Setup Lesson Materials: 1/2 sheets of paper Markers One large, yellow box with large question mark written on the front One Tupperware container of dried fruit One computer with the picture of an airplane on the screen (saved as wallpaper (background), cardboard facsimile if necessary) Television Lesson Resources: These can include people, web sites, references, etc. NASA PlanetQuest Historic Timeline http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/PQTimeline/ The Challenger Learning Center (CLC) of San Antonio · Lunar Planetary Institute http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_13/overview/ Room Preparation/Materials Set-Up: How should the room and materials be arranged? Place the television, computer, and plastic container with dried fruit in the room where all students can see them. Grouping of Students/Parents/Family: Select those that apply How will you group students/parents/families for each section of the lesson to structure peer-to-peer interaction? How will you get them into these groups (e.g., counting off, common ) Whole Group Pairs Triads Groups of Other: Grouping Strategy How will you get them into their groups? Counting Off Common Interests Self-chosen Common Tasks Other: 3) Lesson Outline Engage - (written in easy to follow steps): How can you elicit their previous knowledge? What do they already know about this topic? How does this topic connect to their world? Service Learning: How will you guide them in identifying a service learning project? How will you guide them in learning about their selection and assessing needs? Step 1) As students walk into the classroom, glance at the yellow box, drawing student curiosity. If any students ask what is in the box, kindly reply that you do not know either and were told not to open it until later. Step 2) When all students are in the class, ask students to brainstorm why space exploration is important to human beings on Earth. Students can collect their ideas on 1/2 sheets of paper (one idea per sheet, written big with a maximum of 8 words/sheet). Ask groups to select their top 3 responses. Ask groups to share them by using a "adding to the conversation" approach where each group reports out their top 3 responses; if another group says something similar or the same, the groups who have not gone yet will select another response from their collection; They do not repeat it but simply "add to the conversation" by chosing another idea from their list. This process helps eliminate repeats and gets a wide variety of ideas from students. Post ideas/reasons in the front of the room. Step 3) Get students into teams and ask them to select a Reporter. Ask students to estimate when space exploration began and to name some of these famous explorers. (Students can mention Galileo, Greeks, Romans, Sputnik and the Russians, etc.) Students will go to the NASA PlanetQuest Historic Timeline (http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/PQTimeline/) and identify two explorers they think are "cool" and to write down: what they were known for discovering and the impact they think is a result these discoveries had on today's world. They should also share some of the effects these discoveries had on their the explorers' own lives (for example, Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) was burned at the stake for saying that other stars and solar systems existed). Ask each Reporter to present their "cool" explorer to the class. Explore - (written in easy to follow steps): What hands-on/exploration activities will they do? How will they be working – groups, individually? Service Learning: How will they explore key components and possibilities around the community issue? What are some causes behind the issues? What is the academic connection? Step 1) Point out to the students that you have put together three items for their observation today. As you describe each item, point to it: a plastic container with dried fruit, a television, and a computer. Tell students that each of these have been improved becasue of the U.S. Space Prorgram. Step 2) Ask the Reporter for each team to write down these 3 items on a sheet of paper, leaving room between each item for brainstorming. *You can also use a free, interactive brainstorming tool such as MindMeister (www.mindmeister.com). Step 3) Tell students to brainstorm improvements that may have from the study and exploration of space. Give students five minutes to examine each item carefully. Use your imagination. Step 4) Give groups 15 minutes to write down all their guesses (one idea per 1/2 sheet of paper), focusing on improvements that have been made as a result of space exploration. Step 5) Allow students to tape their top 3 ideas on the wall. Step 6) Ask students to do a Gallery Walk where they will move around the room to read other team ideas and to mark (either using a star or checkmark) those ideas they found to be very creative and/or interesting. If you used MindMeister, ask students to explore other team mindmaps (use the same account login for all maps) and to leave a comment for those they found creative and interesting. Explain - (written in easy to follow steps): How will they show understanding, observations, and hypotheses of the topics/concepts in their own words? Introduce students to models, laws, theories and ask them to connect knowledge from the Explore phase using the new terms/vocabulary. How will they explain their thoughts/ideas (to a partner, small group, whole class)? Service Learning: What is a possible design or model that explains the issue? Step 1) Ask the reporter to select a presenter from their team to present their ideas that they posted on the wall. Facilitate a Q&A discussion, encouraging students to probe their peers' thinking. Step 2) Name the improvements that are represented by each object: hardened plastic, dehydrated fruit, and satellites. Ask students to use a T-chart (one side for benefits for space exploration and another side for their own lives) and to brainstorm how each of these 3 items has impacted space exploration and their own lives. Step 3) Ask groups to share. Step 4) Share some of the unidentified impacts of these items after all groups have had a chance to share. They include: plastic containers are made from hardened plastic that was used during the Apollo missions to the Moon. NASA improved on the product, making it harder and less flexible for storing food. NASA invented dehydrated food that would last longer, be lighter, and take up less space than their hydrated equivalent. Televisions are made up of plastic components that were also developed by NASA. (Tune the television into CNN.) Explain how CNN uses satellites in order to transmit information as soon as it happens from anywhere around the world. Computers were much larger in the 1950s and 1960s, so big that they took up complete rooms. As a result of the U.S. Space Program computers were re-designed to be more effecient, powerful, smaller, and resilient. Show the image of the airplane by projecting it on a screen. NASA researched fuel, thus resulting in better fuel for airplaines.Also the steel that airplanes are made out of is also a result of NASA research and progress. It is stronger and weighs less than before. See Elaborate & Create - (written in easy to follow steps): They should be able to process what they learned and share what they learned in a variety of ways (verbally, visually, kinesthetically, etc.). How will they extend their learning and transfer their knowledge to new situations/applications? What will they create? Service Learning: How will they design, plan and implement the service? Step 1) Ask the teams what they think inside the box and what is it about the box that they find appealing. List student responses on the board and thank them for their input. Stress the fact that it is the curiosity of the unknown and the natural "explorer" that is built within all of us. Ask students if they think that the billions of dollars that is spent on space exploration is worth it and to justify their thinking. Use the NASA Budget reference as a guide at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA_Budget. Students should also know that Russia, China, Japan, Europe, and India also have space exploration budgets. Step 2) Divide the teams into two separate groups. Tell the teams that they will build a case for or against spending money on space exploration. Allow students to plan their argument and to research information on the Internet. Give teams ample time to research and also write questions for the opposing side. Group # 1 will define humans' seemingly inherent "need to know" about the potential that outer space holds for those daring enough to explore it, and why this alone is a good reason for exploring outerspace. They can also discuss the advances in technology and the effects on their own lives. Group #2 will discuss the importance of spending the monies on much needed things here on Earth, without spending it on Space Exploration. Step 3) Students will present their ideas to the class. Students can choose how they want to present their group information. Examples are: picture, song, rap, or oral essay. Give them about 30 minutes to work their teams to create a final product. Evaluate - (written in easy to follow steps): How will they demonstrate their understanding throughout each of the above phases? How will you assess knowledge at the end of the lesson? Service Learning: How will they know if the service had an impact on the community? Step 1) As a class, students will discuss their answers to the guiding questions. Step 2) Each student pair/team will answer the questions in the Closing Activity/Reflection. Guiding Questions: Questions you want them to be able to answer and think about, using the New Bloom's Taxonomy. Engage: 1. When did space exploration begin? 2. What has space exploration done to benefit human kind? 3. What relation do these items have with space exploration? Explore: 1. What improvements in our lives have resulted from space exploration? 2. How have hardened plastic, dehydrated food or satellites aided in space exploration? How have the improvements made your own life better? 3. What kind of material was use in the Apollo missions to the Moon? 4. How did the food in the space flights keep fresh for a long period of time? 5. What would you tell your peers and families about space exploration, what ideas have you learned through this lesson? Explain: 1. How has the study of science and space exploration helpe improve our lives? Elaborate: 1. Why is it important to communicate and express our knowledge with our peers? What role does effective communication play? 2. What if we just want to keep all new information to ourselves? 3. What would happen to science discoveries if there were no cooperation among scientists? How have countries benefitted from each other's explorations? How have they partnered? Evaluate: 1. What would you tell a friend about the importance of science and math learning? 2. How are communication and teamwork important in problem solving? 4) Closing/Reflection Closing Activity & Participant Reflection: This should be a focused activity where students/parents/families reflect on their learning. It can include such strategies as Accountable Talk, 3-2-1 (3 things you liked, 2 things you learned, and 1 comment or question you have), or another type of strategy that brings forward their opinions and ideas about what they learned and how to enhance the lesson. P --- What was the problem posed in this activity? R --- What was the result? O --- To do this over, what could you do differently? B --- What was the best part of this experience? E --- Did you excel during the simulation? Why or why not?