Business_writing_ppt by yaoyufang

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 101

									Business Writing: Resume Writing,
 Cover Letters, Memos, E-mails,
             Letters
First Objective


       To capture your skills and
accomplishments for the creation of a high
     quality resume and cover letter.
What is a resume?


 A resume is a summary of your employment
  history, skills and accomplishments.

 A resume is your marketing piece.

 A resume is usually the first impression you will
  make, so make it a good one!
Identification of Strengths



                          Personal
Accomplishments
                          Professional
Skills
                              Community
Interests
                              Hobbies
Self Assessment
                   Ask yourself:

                   What do I like to do?
                   What motivates me?
                   What are my interests?
                   What skills and abilities do I
                    want to develop?
The 5 P’s of Resume Writing
         Packaging

         Positioning

         Personality

         Punch or Power

         Professionalism
The 5 P’s of Resume Writing

 Packaging
 •It’s in the details!
         Paper
         Font
         Graphic
         Layout

 •“Stand out” by making a great first impression!
The 5 P’s of Resume Writing

 Positioning of information

 •Organize content to make key information
 available.

 •Make it easy for the reader to grasp the most
 significant information about you.
The 5 P’s of Resume Writing
Personality

•Your resume is an extension of your personality.

•Choose words that express the best you!

•Accentuate your accomplishments.

•Capture their attention & impress them with
your skills!
The 5 P’s of Resume Writing
Punch or Power information

•PUNCH is what your prospective employer will
want to know about.

•POWER INFORMATION matches your skills,
abilities and qualifications to the prospective
employer’s needs.

•Demonstrate that you meet the hiring criteria.
The 5 P’s of Resume Writing

Professionalism

•Will you represent the hiring company in a
professional manner?

•Make your resume & cover letter positive and
professional.

•Leave a positive and lasting impression!
Components of a Resume
Introduction

  • Name, Address, contact telephone numbers
  • Objective /summary (optional)

Employment
  •     Name of organization
  •     City, State
  •     Dates of employment
  •     Titles/positions held
Components of a Resume
Education – College Names
   • Type Degree's
   • GPA (optional)
   • Internships / Research Projects
   • Relevant Coursework
   • Career-related Jobs / Activities
Components of a Resume
Miscellaneous
• Accomplishments
• Military Service
• Community Service, Special Project,
  Volunteer Work
• Professional Affiliations
• Awards, Honors
• Licenses, Accreditations, Certifications
• Languages
Uploading Resume to Web

  Use a Word or a PDF format.


  Optimal font size is 9 to 12 points.


  Use simple fonts. Some examples are:
      Times New Roman      Arial
      Book Antiqua         Verdana
      Tahoma               Courier
Areas to Avoid




       Job History > 10 years
        Personal Information
       Misleading Information
       Unrelated Information
Components of a Cover Letter
•   Date/Heading
•   Individual’s Name/Title
•   Company/Address
•   Salutation
•   1st Paragraph – Power Opening
•   2nd Paragraph – Purpose of Letter
•   3rd Paragraph – Your Potential Contribution
•   4th Paragraph – Wrap-up
•   Closing
Final Review of
Resume & Cover Letter

      Style


      Grammar


      Spelling
Networking
Networking is getting out and meeting and talking with people
for a purpose. Competency-based networking, either by
telephone or in person, helps you find out information about
the position you are interested in and the competencies
required to be successful on the job.
       1. Network with a purpose/position in mind
       2. Be persistent – but don’t be too aggressive
       3. Remember that your network of people is
          much larger than you think.
       4. Don’t hesitate to discuss your job search
Business Communication: E-
mail, IM, Complaint Letters,
Memos, Business Letter
    Business Writing
   Three genres you will encounter most often in
    the workplace
       Reflects image of you and your company

   Often act as the ―wrapper‖ to larger technical
    documents
       Résumés
       Proposals
       Reports
When you encounter a new genre, remember
the two most important elements to technical
communication:


  1. Audience

  2. Purpose
E-mail Conventions
 Least formal of the three genres


 Replacing memos because of its
  technological advantages

 Always professional and free of errors
Memo Conventions
 Less formal and shorter than letters


 Used most often for communication within
  one organization
  Letter Conventions
 Oldest, most formal of the three genres


 Addressed to someone in another organization


 Always concluded with a signature in ink
Types of Letters and Memos
 Inquiry
 Response
 Transmittal
 Claim
 Adjustment
 Refusal
writing strategies
1: Pay Attention to Tone
 Always consider audience and purpose
     E-mail to an expert = respectful, friendly and
      professional
     Complaint letter = firm, formal, demanding, but
      not threatening
The word “YOU” really effects your tone.
   Congratulate and thank with ―you‖
        ―Your company always provides the best
         service.‖

   Do NOT use ―you‖ when giving bad or
    negative information
        ―Your shoddy work produced a bad toaster.‖

        ―My toaster no longer works.‖
                           Vs.
Not Good.



You must have
dropped the
engine. The
housing is
badly cracked.
Better
The badly cracked housing suggests that your
  engine must have fallen onto a hard surface
  from some height.
 2: Brief, purposeful Introduction
  The first line should clarify topic & purpose


  No more than four or five lines



Avoid diving into details too early or
before the purpose of the
communication is mentioned.
            3: Review the context
             We’re forgetful and busy people
             Your reader may not be familiar with the
                situation




Image from: http:// www.mchenrycountyblog.com/uploaded_images/T-Shirt-Not%20Now,%20I'm%20Busy-705334.jpg
            4: Follow a good-news first strategy




Image from: http://blog.1800dessert.com/2006/05/oreo_powered_rocket.html
            5. Use a reader-centered strategy




Image from: http://www2.fileplanet.com/images/170000/170715ss_sm2.jpg
            6: Organize your paragraphs logically
             State the subject and purpose.
             Explain the problem in detail.
             Describe how the problem inconvenienced
              you.
             State what you would like the reader to do.
             Thank the reader for his or her response.
             Provide contact information.




Claim Letters and Memos: from Johnson-Sheehan, Technical communication Today, 2nd ed., p. 482
7: Keep your paragraphs short!




        No more information than necessary!
8: Use headings, lists, and tables

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    id quam.
            9: Have an active conclusion
             Tell your reader what you want


             Give your contact information




Image from: http://www.masshist.org/cabinet/november2002/hancocksignaturelg.jpg
    Overview part I
 Pay attention to tone
 Have a brief ―state-your-purpose‖ introduction
 Review the context
      If writing a response to some other communication, repeat the
      details of the context
 Follow a good-news-first, bad-news-last strategy
 Use a reader-centered strategy
    Reader and writer usually have a mutual goal – they both want
      something!! Both parties needs to feel they have gained
      something.
       Organize paragraphs logically
       Intro, Narration, Petition and Justification
Overview part II
 Keep your paragraphs short
    Fewer than 8 lines, and use11-point, readable font
 Use headings, lists, and tables where appropriate
    Headings indicate sections, bulleted lists for key points,
     numbered lists of sequential items, and tables to enable
     comparison information
 Have an active conclusion
    Make clear what you expect the recipient to do, avoid weak
     endings like ―hoping to hear from you soon,‖ and give your
     contact information!
Image from: http://icanhascheezburger.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/hay-be-nice-emokitteh-is-sensitive.jpg
Objective: Email
Why is email etiquette important?
 We all interact with the printed word as
  though it has a personality and that
  personality makes positive and negative
  impressions upon us.
 Without immediate feedback your document
  can easily be misinterpreted by your reader,
  so it is crucial that you follow the basic rules
  of etiquette to construct an appropriate tone.
Emails
 Minutes a day - average worker?
 49 minutes
 Hours a day - top managers?
 4 hours
 Formats are still evolving
 What % felt misunderstood (2000)?
 51% (tone)
Subject
 Be specific, concise, and catchy.
      28 characters
     Will Attend 3 pm Meeting EOM
     Travel Plans for Sales Meeting
     Your Funding Request Approved
     ASAP, BTW, FYI, IMHO, TMOT
     Smileys 
Mailing Lists
 Your boss could be reading!
 Posts are archived.
 Avoid using company email address.
 Avoid conversations (one liners).
 Do not rush to lists.
Netiquette
 Never flame.
 Use FULL CAPS only to emphasize a word or
  two.
 Send messages on a need basis.
 Recipient’s work practice (one long or several
  short messages)
 Quote briefly (B/A) while replying.
 Attachments
Smart E-Mail Practices
Reading and Replying to E-Mail
 Scan all messages before replying to any
 Print only when necessary
 Acknowledge receipt
 Don’t automatically return the sender’s
  message
 Revise the subject line if the topic changes
 Provide a clear, complete first sentence
 Never respond when you’re angry
 Check response before hitting ―Send‖
 Assume that all emails are monitored
The elements of email etiquette
 General format            Flaming
 Writing long messages     Delivering information
 Attachments               Delivering bad news
 The curse of surprises    Electronic Mailing Lists
Big Brother IS Watching!
 25% have terminated employees for e-mail
    misuse
   55% retain and review messages
   86% let the employees know their email is
    being monitored
   84% have email policies
   20% had email subpoenaed
   13% had workplace lawsuits triggered by
    employee email
                      AMA/ePolicy Institute Research
                      http://www.amanet.org/research/pdfs/EMS_summary05.pdf
General Format: The Basics
 Write a salutation for      Use caps when
  each new subject email.      appropriate.
 Try to keep the email       Format your email for
  brief (one screen            plain text rather than
  length).
                               HTML.
 Return emails within the
  same time you would a       Use a font that has a
  phone call.                  professional or neutral
 Check for punctuation,       look.
  spelling, and
  grammatical errors
General Format: Character
Spacing
 Try to keep your line length at 80 characters
  or less.
 If your message is likely to be forwarded,
  keep it to 60 characters or less.
 Set your email preferences to automatically
  wrap outgoing plain text messages.
General Format: Lists and Bullets
When you are writing         For example,
 directions or want to       1) Place the paper in
 emphasize important            drawer A.
 points, number your         2) Click the green ―start‖
 directions or bullet your      button.
 main points.                Another example,
                             • Improve customer
                                satisfaction.
                             • Empower employees.
General Format: Tone
                             • Use smiles , winks ;),
                                and other graphical
• Write in a positive tone      symbols only when
  ―When you complete the        appropriate.
  report.‖ instead of ―If you • Use contractions to add
  complete the report.‖         a friendly tone.
• Avoid negative words          (don’t, won’t, can’t).
  that begin with ―un, non,
  ex‖ or that end with
  ―less‖ (useless, non-
  existent, ex-employee,
  undecided).
General Format: Addresses
                 Avoid sending emails to
                  more than four
                  addresses at once.
                 Instead, create a
                  mailing list so that
                  readers do not have to
                  scroll too much before
                  getting to the actual
                  message.
                To: maillist4@cs.com
Attachments
               When you are sending
                an attachment tell your
                respondent what the
                name of the file is, what
                program it is saved in,
                and the version of the
                program.
               ―This file is in MSWord
                2000 under the name
                ―LabFile.‖
General Tips for Electronic
Mailing Lists
 Avoid discussing private concerns and
  issues.
 It is okay to address someone directly on the
  list. Ex, ―Hi Leslie, regarding your question‖
 Change the subject heading to match the
  content of your message.
 When conflict arises on the list speak in
  person with the one with whom you are in
  conflict.
When your message is long
 Create an ―elevator‖ summary.
 Provide a table of contents on the first screen
  of your email.
 If you require a response from the reader
  then be sure to request that response in the
  first paragraph of your email.
 Create headings for each major section.
  Elevator Summary and Table of
             Contents
 An elevator summary         Table of contents
  should have all the        ―This email contains
  main components of the
  email.                     A. Budget projections for
―Our profit margin for the      the last quarter
  last quarter went down     B. Actual performance for
  5%. As a result I am          the last quarter
  proposing budget           C. Adjustment proposal
  adjustment for the
  following areas…‖          D. Projected profitability‖
Delivering Information About
Meetings, Orientations, Processes
                   Include an elevator
                    summary and table of
                    contents with headings.
                   Provide as much
                    information as possible.
                   Offer the reader an
                    opportunity to receive
                    the information via mail
                    if the email is too
                    confusing.
Do not take your reader by surprise
or press them to the wall
                  • Do not wait until the end
                    of the day to introduce a
                    problem or concern via
                    memo or email.
                  • Avoid writing a litany of
                    concerns that you have
                    been harboring for a
                    long period of time.
Flaming in emails
•   Flaming is a virtual     • Flame fights are the
    term for venting or        equivalent of food fights
    sending inflammatory       and tend to affect
    messages in email.         observers in a very
•   Avoid flaming because      negative way.
    it tends to create a     • What you say cannot be
    great deal of conflict     taken back; it is in black
    that spirals out of        and white.
    control.
Keep flaming under control
• Before you send an           Read your message
  email message, ask            twice before you send it
  yourself, ―would I say        and assume that you
  this to this person’s         may be misinterpreted
  face?‖
                                when proofreading.
• Calm down before
  responding to a
  message that offends
  you. Once you send
  the message it is gone.
When you need to flame

 There are times when
  you may need to blow       Here’s a way to flame:
  off some steam.            Flame On
 Remember your
                             Your message
  audience and your
  situation before sending   Flame Off
  the email.
Responding to a flame
 Empathize with the             Avoid getting bogged
  sender’s frustration and        down by details and
  tell them they are right if     minor arguments
  that is true                   If you are aware that
 If you feel you are right,      the situation is in the
  thank them for bringing         process of being
  the matter to your              resolved let the reader
  attention                       know at the top of the
 Explain what led to the         response
  problem in question            Apologize if necessary
When Email Won’t Work
                There are times when you
                 need to take your discussion
                 out of the virtual world and
                 make a phone call.
                If things become very
                 heated, a lot of
                 misunderstanding occurs, or
                 when you are delivering very
                 delicate news then the best
                 way is still face-to face.
Objective: Complaint Letters
Clear
Complete
Correct
Save reader’s time
Build good will
Complaint Letters
 Nursery – Plants worth $572
 Dry and wilted. One came out by the roots
  when I took it out of the box.
 Please send me a replacement shipment
  immediately
Response 1
 After ruling out problems in transit, I discovered that your
 order was packed by a new worker who didn’t understand the
 need to water plants thoroughly before they are shipped. We
 have fired the worker, so you can be assured that this will not
 happen again.

 Although it will cost our company several hundred dollars, we
 will send you a replacement shipment.

 Let me know if the new shipment arrives safely. We trust that
 you will not complain again.
Response 2
  Sorry we screwed up that order. Sending plants across country is
  a risky business. Some of them just can’t take the strain. (Some
  days I can’t take the strain myself!) We’ll credit your account for
  $572.
Response 3
  …it isn’t our fault. The box clearly says ―Open and water
  immediately.‖ …If you pull by the leaves, you will pull the roots
  out. Always lift by the stem. Since you don’t know how to handle
  plants, I’m sending you a copy of our brochure, ―How to Care for
  Your Plants.‖ Please read it carefully… …to avoid
  disappointments in the future.

  We look forward to your future orders.
Response 4
  Your letter of the 5th has come to the attention of the
  undersigned.

  According to your letter, your invoice #47420 arrived in
  unsatisfactory condition. Please be advised that it is our policy to
  make adjustments as per the Terms and Conditions…

  ―…make an exception on your order receipt…furnish us detailed
  written information as to any damage.‖
  … you must comply with our terms and see that the necessary
  documents reach the undersigned by the close of the business
  day on the 20th of the month.
Response 5
  You’ll get a replacement shipment of the perennials you ordered next
  week.

  Your plants are watered carefully before shipment and packed in
  specially designed cardboard containers. But if the weather is
  unusually warm, or if the truck is delayed, small roots may dry out.
  Perhaps, this happened with your plants.

  The violas, digitalis, aquilegias and hostas you ordered are long-
  blooming perennials that will get even prettier each year. Enjoy your
  garden.
PAIBOC
Purpose
Audiences
Information
Benefits
Objections
Context
Audiences
 Writer
 Initial audience
 Gatekeeper
 Primary audience
 Secondary audience
 Watchdog audience
Communicate across Cultures
 Gender
 Race and ethnicity
 Regional and national origin
 Social class
 Religion
 Age
 Sexual orientation
 Physical ability
Objective: Meeting Agenda
 Time and place
 Whether each item is presented for
  information, for discussion, or for a decision
Minutes of the Meeting
 Decisions Reached
 Action Items
 Open Issues
Objective: Memos
Characteristics of Successful Memos
 Headings: Date, To, From, Subject
 Single topic
 Conversational tone
 Conciseness
 Graphic highlighting
Organization of Memos
 Subject line

     Budget Meeting June 3, 10 a m

 Opening                      This is to inform you that we
                               must complete the annual
                               operating budgets shortly. Over
     Indirect (ineffective)   the past two months many
                               supervisors have met to discuss
     Direct (effective)       their departmental needs.
                               All supervisors and coordinators
 Body                         will meet June 3 at 10 a.m. to
                               work out the annual operating
                               budgets for their departments.
 Closing
Formatting Hard-Copy Memos
DATE:        Current                            1 25” side
                                                margins
TO:          Rob Montaine
                                                Jagged
FROM:        Heidi Chan                         right edge

SUBJECT: STATIONERY FOR MEMOS
                     2 blank lines here



Welcome to Multimedia, Rob! I’m pleased to be able to
answer your questions about stationery for memos in
the organization
Please examine the enclosed samples and call me if
you have additional questions
Enclosures
Sincerely
Memo Example
    DATE:           Current
    TO:     Kim Johnson, Corporate
    Communications
    FROM:           Tim Rudolph, CEO
    SUBJECT: DEVELOPING STAFF E-MAIL
    POLICY
    Please draft a policy outlining appropriate e-mail use for
    employees.
    Our company needs such a policy because I have received
    reports of misuse including offensive statements, pornography
    downloads, and even gambling. Here are a few points that the
    policy should cover:

       E-mail is for business only and E-mail messages may be monitored.
 No pictures or other attachments should be sent
  without valid reason.
 E-mail should not be used to discuss personnel
  matters.
        Please submit a draft to me by October 1 so a policy can
        be completed by November 1. Call me at 836-3155 if you
        have questions.
Objective: IM

 Google blends instant messaging with e-mail

 IM not just for teenagers and college students

 Biggest benefit to project work teams

 "Instant messaging could well be the dial tone
  of the future — albeit a silent one."
 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11206305/
 http://www.microsoft.com/smallbusiness/resources/technology/communications/10_tips_for_using_i
 nstant_messaging_for_business.mspx
 http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/0,4621,324452,00.html
 Instant Messaging in Business
    Pro: Saves time and effort
       DO: Keep messages concise and simple


    Pro: Improves customer service
       DO: Create separate work/social buddy lists
       DO: Use an identifiable username
       DO: Update your status throughout the day
       Pro: Enables persistent connection


    Con: Security risks
       DO: Be aware of virus and related security risks
       DON’T: Share personal data or information via IM



http://www.microsoft.com/smallbusiness/resources/technology/communications/10_tips_for_using_i
nstant_messaging_for_business.mspx
http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/0,4621,324452,00.html
IM in Business
        Con: Creates new legal risks
           DO: Adopt a user policy for instant messaging
           DON'T: Use instant messaging to communicate confidential or
            sensitive information.
           DO: Be aware that instant messages can be saved.
           DON'T: Compromise your company's liability, or your own
            reputation.

        Con: Decreased productivity
           DON'T: Allow excessive personal messaging at work.

        Con: Limited interoperability between IM systems
Objective:
The Business Letter


 Acceptable
 Format of the
 Business Letter
Types of Letters
 Letters that Request Information
 Letters that Request Action
 Letters that Convey Information
 Good News Letters
 Bad News Letters
 Transmittal Letters
 Confirmation Letter
Kinds of Actions
Continued
 Meet with sales representatives.
 Try a sample.
 Persuade a potential customer.
 Comply with a previous request.
 Comply with a contract.
 Terminate an arrangement.
In General It Should:

 Show an Attractive Letterhead

 Be Symmetrical and Balanced

   Contain:
     Proper   Grammar
     Correct Spelling
     Logically Correct Sentences
 The Letterhead
 Should Contain Your:
      Name
      Address
      Phone Number
      E-mail
      Fax Number
And
 Have a Bottom Border
  (which is no more than 2
  inches below the margin)
The Letter
The letter has six (6) parts:

      1. The Dateline
      2. The Inside Address
      3. The Salutation
      4. The Message (body of the letter)
      5. The Complimentary Close

      6. The Signature Block
The Dateline
The Date
   Month written out, e.g.,

    August 12, 2002



   2 to 6 lines below the border of the
    Letterhead (This allows the writer to
    adjust for balance)
     The Inside Address
 The Inside Address should be basically what
   will appear on the envelope (outside address)
                                                   e.g.
 3 to 8 lines below the Dateline (allows for
   balance adjustment)                             Mrs. June Smith
                                                   President
 It should include:                               June’s Bakery
       Courtesy Title and Full Name               14 Egg Road
       Business Affiliation                       Sweetness, NJ 15437
       Full Geographical Location
The Salutation
 Say Hello to the person:
    Dear Mrs. Smith,
    Dear Mr. Jones,


 (exactly) 2lines below
  the inside address
Message (body of the Letter)
 2 lines below the Salutation


  Single Spaced


  Blank Line Between Paragraphs


  Say what you have to say!
Complimentary Close
 (exactly) 2 lines below the last line of the
    message


   For Example:
        Sincerely,
     Yours Truly,


   Say Goodbye
 The Signature Block
Leave at least 3 blank lines (for the actual signature)

Key Your Name (as you will sign it)

If You Like, Key Your Title Under Your Name




                      Finished
The End

								
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