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POULTRY SECTOR COMMERCIALIZATION OF CHICKEN

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					                  RLDC




POULTRY SECTOR



COMMERCIALIZATION     OF                 CHICKEN
PRODUCTION   AND  MARKETING              IN  THE
CENTRAL CORRIDOR




Team Leader: Ibrahim Kisungwe
Advisor:      Dr Ralph Engelmann
Team Members:Braison Salisali and Ajuaye Sigalla




      SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                                                             RLDC

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................................................................3
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS..............................................................................................................4
1.0 INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................................5
2.0 PRODUCTION AND MARKET ANALYSIS .............................................................................................6
    2.1 NATIONAL DEMAND AND SUPPLY .....................................................................................................................6
    2.2 POULTRY VALUE CHAIN ...................................................................................................................................8
    2.3 MARKET SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................................... 10
    2.4 SLC IN CENTRAL CORRIDOR .......................................................................................................................... 11
3.0 CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES .............................................................................................. 12
    3.1 PRODUCTION AND MARKET CONSTRAINTS...................................................................................................... 12
       3.1.1 Production Constraints .................................................................................................................... 13
       3.1.2 Market Constraints ........................................................................................................................... 14
    3.2 OPPORTUNITIES ............................................................................................................................................ 15
4.0 BARIADI MODEL OF CHICKEN REARING ........................................................................................ 16
    4.1          DESCRIPTION OF THE ORIGINAL MODEL .................................................................................................. 16
    4.2          LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION IN BARIADI...................................................................... 17
    4.3          IMPROVEMENTS TO THE BARIADI MODEL ................................................................................................ 19
    4.4          EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF THE IMPROVED BARIADI MODEL ....................................................................... 21
5.0 PROPOSED STRATEGY FOR CHICKEN SECTOR DEVELOPMENT .............................................. 22
    5.1 VISION FOR SECTOR DEVELOPMENT............................................................................................................... 22
    5.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................... 23
       5.2.1 Productivity Improvement............................................................................................................... 23
       5.2.2 Market Development and Advocacy .............................................................................................. 24
    5.3 PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS ........................................................................................................................... 24
       5.3.1 Productivity Improvement............................................................................................................... 24
       5.3.2 Market Development and Advocacy .............................................................................................. 30
6.0 RISK ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................................ 31
7.0          IMPLEMENTATION PARTNERS ..................................................................................................... 32
    7.1          CO-FACILITATOR AND TRAINING PROVIDERS .......................................................................................... 32
    7.2          DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS ...................................................................................................................... 32
8.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................................... 34
9.0 ANNEXES .......................................................................................................................................................1
    9.1          PROJECT BUDGET ....................................................................................................................................1
    9.2          IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE ...................................................................................................................3
    9.3          CAUSAL MODEL .......................................................................................................................................5

List of Tables
Table     1:   Comparison of meat prices………………………………………………………………….                                                                                                6
Table     2:   Percentage and number of households raising chicken…………………………….                                                                                   11
Table     3:   Estimated chicken sale and consumption in 2008……………………………………                                                                                      11
Table     4:   Regional focus of strategy………………………………………………………………….                                                                                              22
Table     5:   Diseases and drugs availability……………………………………………………………                                                                                            26

List of Figures
Figure     I: Poultry Value Chain………………………………………………………………………...                                                                                                   7
Figure     II: Poultry Market System…………………………………………………………………..                                                                                                   9
Figure     III: Factors affecting Chicken Rearing………………………………………..………….                                                                                          13
Figure     IV: Chicken Productivity and Sales Cycle………………………………………………..                                                                                          14


                                                       SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                         RLDC


Executive Summary

In its first phase, RLDC supported a project on Improved Production and Marketing
of Poultry Products in Bupandagila and Mbiti villages in Bariadi District. The project
served as a testing and demonstration by adapting the famous Bangladesh model
into Tanzanian settings. After successful adaptations the model has now been
modified into the current Bariadi model. The sector strategy proposed here is to
some extent a replication strategy of the positive results of the Bariadi Model.

Based on lessons learnt from Bariadi model as well as further local poultry sector
assessment, RLDC wants to now replicate the model into a wider area in the central
corridor. Through this project, RLDC is envisioning at both improving local poultry
products consumption as well as commercializing of the local poultry industry in the
next five years. While consumption levels are already higher in the rural areas than in
urban centre, RLDC anticipates that urban consumption will increase by at least 10%
per annum if prices of local chicken will be closer to those of exotic breeds.

To achieve the above, the project at hand is planning to work into two different
levels, the productivity improvement and market development and advocacy levels.
Within the productivity improvement level, the following two replication interventions
will be devised,
    1. creation of awareness to improved commercial chicken rearing as well as
        raising the interest of traders and communities for replication and,
    2. After awareness has been created there will be actual introduction of
        improved commercial local chicken rearing with a view to attain high
        sustainability by providing basic training on improved commercial local chicken
        rearing for communities.
In regard with the market development and advocacy, the project is intending to
carry out the following three interventions,
    1. organizing workshops for traders from regional and urban traders associations
    2. organizing topical workshops for traders of interested regional and urban
        traders associations on technical issues like improved transport, slaughtering
        and marketing of chickens
    3. promoting establishment of a national chicken producers and traders
        association

The project is expected to reach a total of 8,100 households in about 135
villages in 9 districts of 6 regions in the central corridor and spend a total of
Tshs 346.8 millions in the next 18 months.

Poultry keepers in all 135 villages will benefit from interventions during the project
period, however most of the outcomes will only be realised in 2011. Based on the
achievements of 2010 there might be an additional funding request for extension
services and market linkage at the end of the project.




                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                  RLDC


Abbreviations and Acronyms

BMO         Business Member Organisation
CRDB        Cooperative and Rural Development Bank
CVL         Central Veterinary Laboratory
DANIDA      Danish International Development Agency
DOC         Day Old chick
EC          Executive Committee
FAO         Food and Agricultural Organisation
FDG         Focused Group Discussion
GDP         Gross Domestic Product
KIPOCOSO    Kisutu Poultry Cooperative Society
LGA         Local Government Authority
LITI        Livestock Training Institute
MITM        Ministry of Industry Trade and Marketing
MLD         Ministry of Livestock Development
MoU         Memorandum Of Understanding
NMB         National Microfinance Bank
RFA         Radio Free Africa
SACCOS      Savings and Credit Cooperative Society
SLC         Scavenging Local Chicken
SUA         Sokoine University of Agriculture
TVA         Tanzania Veterinary Association
TOT         Training of Trainers
VETA        Vocational Education Training Authority
VIC         Veterinary Investigation Centres
VSL         Village Saving and Lending




                      SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                         RLDC


1.0 Introduction

It is estimated that Tanzania had about 36.2 million chickens by 2008, out of which
almost 95% are local chickens and the rest are exotic breeds and most of these local
chickens are reared by rural households. In the central corridor it is estimated that
there is about 9.2 million chickens kept by 60% of the rural households (or about
1.17 million households) of which the vast majority (98%) is local breeds. Most of
these rural households keep local chicken for subsistence and income
generation. In particular, relatively poor rural households and women keep chicken
as chicken rearing does not require much resources and investment and in fact the
local scavenging chickens (SLC) almost take care of themselves and still provide food
and limited income for the family.

Because of its character as subsistence activity, keeping SLC faces a number of
problems and challenges. In particular the high mortality of local chickens makes
chicken rearing a risky venture that most rural households mitigate by only
maintaining a relatively small stock of chicken.

Based on the lessons learnt from a successful Bariadi model, which was tested in
Mbiti and Bupandagila villages in Bariadi district, this paper proposes to use the
experience gained to solve the above problems and challenges and replicate the
strategy to the wider region of the central corridor. Bariadi model has proved to be a
useful tool in modernising traditional way of keeping local chickens as well as
increasing income levels of village households and hence potential for the reduction
of rampant poverty in the central corridor.

In this paper, RLDC takes a different view and looks at the production and marketing
of local chicken (kuku wa kienyeji) from a business perspective. In the first part,
supply and demand of SLC is analysed as well as the current market system with its
constraints and opportunities. In the second part of this document, the experiences
of RLDC in Bariadi are reflected with a view to use an improved version of the so
called Bariadi model for replication to about 8,100 households in the Central Corridor.
The last part describes the project objectives and activities in detail. The annexes to
this document include a detailed project budget and implementation schedule. The
draft causal model for monitoring forms the third annex.




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                                                    RLDC



2.0 Production and Market Analysis
2.1 National Demand and Supply
According to the Economic Survey 20071, livestock contributes about 4.7% to the
GDP, a contribution which is higher than the 3.5% from the mining and quarrying
sector. About 70% of the livestock GDP contribution originates from cattle and about
16% relates to poultry rearing, which corresponds to about 0.75% of the total
GDP.

The national chicken population has been estimated to be about 36.2 million
chickens in 20082, out of which almost 95% are local chicken and the rest are
exotic breeds. Most of the local chickens are reared by rural households, although
local chicken are also kept by urban households.

Many households keep chicken mainly for subsistence and limited income
generation. They slaughter the chicken for special occasions and consume most of
the eggs within the household. Only the surplus chicken and eggs are sold in the
market. Based on FGDs carried out by RLDC3, we estimate that a chicken rearing
household consumes about 5 to 10 chickens per year. A recent study shows in
respect of the Central Corridor that about 52% of total production is sold in an
informal way to neighbours and another 42% is sold in local stores or
markets4. However in the same study it was revealed that only 40% of the
households that keep chicken actually sold them in the year 20085. Based on our
findings we differentiate three market levels:

    •   Informal Markets6: chicken and eggs are sold to neighbours or local
        markets within the same village or villages nearby. These sales are directly
        done by the households. Middlemen or traders from regional and urban
        markets often buy chickens on the local markets. There are numerous open
        village markets in each region. For example, there are about 19 weekly
        markets in Singida Rural District only

    •   Regional Markets: includes markets in district and regional centres. Chicken
        and to a lesser degree also eggs are ferried to the district or regional centres
        and sold there. The sales are done by traders and/or middlemen. The market
        volume is relatively in regional markets. For example, RLDC information
        indicates that the market volume in Singida is only about 90,000 chickens per
        year7, out of which some of the chickens will be consumed locally whereas

1
  Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, The Economic Survey, 2008, page 10
2
  Estimated figure in 2008 based on FAO, Livestock Sector Brief, 2005
3
  RLDC Report of Focus Group Discussions with poultry groups, 2009
4
  Steadman Group : Crop & Livestock Management Central Corridor of Tanzania, Baseline survey Draft Report,
2009
5
  Steadman Group, Crop & Livestock Management Central Corridor of Tanzania, Baseline survey Draft Report,
2009
6
  Although there is some degree of formality in village markets, they can be called informal because sellers and
buyers are not formally registered
7
  RLDC workshop report with traders associations, 2008
                                      SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                                   RLDC

         others will be bought by urban traders. However, there are no reliable official
         data on the market volumes in the regions

    •    Urban Markets: includes big cities Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Mwanza, Mbeya,
         and Morogoro. Chickens that reach the urban markets are mainly sold by
         traders who buy them from the regional markets and, in a few cases, from the
         informal open village markets. There are about five major chicken markets in
         Dar es Salaam (Kisutu, Manzese, Kinondoni, Tandika, Buguruni and
         Magomeni) that are operated by chicken traders associations. For example,
         KIPOCOSO (Kisutu Poultry Co-operative Society) has constructed facilities for
         slaughtering and dressing which is charged separately to customers. The
         market volume in urban markets is difficult to establish as there are no reliable
         official records. From interviews of individual traders, the market volume in
         Kisutu, the biggest market in Dar es Salaam, can be estimated to about
         400,000 to 500,000 chickens only per year8.

According to FAO the average consumption of chicken is about 0.7 kg per capita
per year9 (and 13 eggs) in Tanzania which is relatively low in comparison to other
African countries and the rest of the world which consumes about 6.8 kg per capita
per year (and 108 eggs). Assuming an average weight of about 1.2 kg per chicken,
the total consumption was about 22 million chickens in 2008, whereby the per capita
consumption of chicken is relatively higher in the rural areas than in the urban
centres, particularly in chicken rearing households where the research of RLDC
indicates an average per capita consumption of about 1.6 kg per year.

The latent demand for local chicken in urban centres is high as most people in
Tanzania prefer the taste of local chicken over the taste of exotic breeds that are
perceived as rather tasteless due to their rearing method. However local chicken is
the most expensive meat available in urban centres. Although meat prices vary
with location and seasons a comparison of prices per kg shows the following
picture10:

Table 1: Comparison of meat prices
Location               Local chicken               Beef                  Pork                Goats
                             Per piece             Per kg                Per kg               Per kg
Dar es Salaam          7,000               4,000                 5,000                 4,000
Mwanza                 5,400               3,500                 3,000                 Not available
Arusha                 6,700               4,000                 4,000                 3,500
Dodoma                 6,800               3,600                 4,000                 3,500
Source: Assessment data compiled by RLDC


In summary, there is a mismatch between demand and supply in the formal
markets in urban centres and other urban areas in respect of price and quantity but
also regarding reliability of delivery. One of the causes for the mismatch is the
relatively low production and formal market sales.



8
  Tuguni, B. D.Mlay, Local chicken sub sector study in Singida and Dodoma regions, 2006)
9
  FAO & AGAL,2005 ; see also higher figures reported in The Guardian of 24 January 2009, page 3
10
   Based on various statistics (Newspapers, MITM, 2009)
                                      SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                                RLDC


2.2 Poultry Value Chain

The current value chain of the poultry sector indicates that the exotic breeds of
chicken are marketed through agents and shops to household consumers,
institutions, high profile and local hotels and restaurants. The exotic breeds are
mainly sold in the urban centres.

On the other hand, the local chickens go through a long chain of village markets,
middlemen, ands regional markets until they reach the urban markets. Cost of
transport, middlemen, and traders makes the local chicken relatively expensive in the
urban market as mentioned above.

Figure I: Poultry Value Chain


                         High Profile                Local Hotels                 HH consumers
Consuming                  Hotels                  and Restaurants                 Institutions




                                                               Urban Shops
 Retailing




                          Agents                        Urban Market Traders


Processing
Wholesale                                                             Regional Market Traders



                                                                     Local Transport

 Transport

                                                            Middlemen


                                                                               Open Village Markets
 Production



                   Commercial Producers
                                                            SLC Producers in villages
                     of exotic Breeds


   Inputs
                                                                 Veterinary             Extension
                 Day Old Chicks         Animal Feeds
                                                                  Service                Service
Source: RLDC

While Commercial Producers of exotic breeds use various inputs, the producers of
scavenging local chickens receive only very limited veterinary and extension services.
The SLC producers do normally also not use hatching and animal feeds services like
their commercial counterparts.

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                                                    RLDC

Commercial production of exotic breeds amounts to only about 5% of chicken
population but to a much higher percentage of production and sales as exotic breeds
are normally ready for sale after 7 to 10 weeks whereas SLC take up to one year
before being sold.

The common means of transport from the village markets to the regional or
urban markets is pick ups or Lorries that either originate from within the regions or
are on transit when returning to Dar es Salaam, Arusha, or other urban centres.
Chicken are carried in local cages, known as “tengas” that have an average carrying
capacity of 100 chickens per cage. Sometimes regional traders hire a seven tons
truck to ferry chicken to urban centres but more often they collude with the drivers
of trucks that return empty to the centres. Generally, transporters have not
recognized the transportation of chicken as a business11. Many chickens do not
survive the transport and it is estimated that about 5% of them die. Transport
charges to regional or urban centres are quite high, ranging from Tshs 1,500 Tshs to
25,000 per tenga, depending on the distance to be covered Which partly explains
that local chicken are quite expensive in urban markets.

The consumer market of chicken can be segmented into:

       •   High Profile Hotels: normally prefer exotic breeds as their supply is more
           reliable and less costly, however some of their customers demand local
           chicken
       •   Local Hotels and Restaurants (including bars and pubs and “nyama ya
           kuchoma” places): buy exotic and local chicken depending on their clientele,
           however they lament about the supply reliability and high costs of local
           chicken
       •   Households and institutions: buy exotic and local breeds of chicken
           depending on their location. In the more rural areas, they prefer the local
           chicken whereas in urban centres they buy both types of chicken. Exotic
           breeds are normally well-dressed and packaged and sold in urban super
           markets. Local chicken are mainly bought in urban markets and not in
           supermarkets.




11
     Tuguni B, D.Mlay, Local chicken sub sector study in Singida and Dodoma regions, 2006
                                      SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                                    RLDC



2.3 Market System

The main actors in the market system are illustrated in figure II below

Figure II: Poultry Market System




Source: Adopted from Springfield doughnut


Important services of the poultry market system include:

     •    SUA and LITI are public institutions that provide research and training to
          the poultry sector but hardly directly to the poultry keepers and rather
          indirectly through other organisations and extension workers

     •    The Central Veterinary Laboratory is the sole manufacturer and supplier
          of Newcastle Disease vaccination, commonly known as Temeke 1-2
          Thermostable. The vaccine is widely available and distributed through
          wholesale shops like the Farmers Centre and the District Veterinary
          Investigation Centres

     •    There are Vetshops in almost every district. While the supply through
          wholesale shops is sufficient to combat any poultry disease (see page 25),
          the local vetshops do not always stock adequate quantities due to low
          demand by poultry keepers



                                        SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                                 RLDC

     •   There are several manufacturers and suppliers of varies equipments
         for the chicken sector, i.e. feed mixers, incubators, etc. RLDC maintains a list
         of qualified producers

     •   The public extension services are provided to all livestock keepers in a
         given area through the public veterinary services. As most poultry
         diseases can be prevented by vaccinations and other preventive measures,
         like proper housing and feeding, these services would be most effective for
         the poultry sector if they would carry out vaccinations and train the poultry
         keepers in preventive measures. Unfortunately this is often not the case
         which renders the services as rather ineffective for the small poultry keeper in
         the rural areas. The main contributing factor is here that the actual number of
         public extension workers still falls very short of the planned and required
         number. Another possible reason for the limited service is the fact that
         poultry keeping is largely regarded as a subsistence activity.

In respect of rules and regulations that constitute the business environment of the
poultry sector, there is a notable lack of support by public and private
organisations.

     •   There is no specific policy or strategy for the development of the poultry
         sector. Neither MLD nor MITM seems to regard the poultry sector as very
         important for rural development

     •   Although there are regional traders associations in every region and
         urban traders associations in all urban centres, they do not cooperate but
         rather perceive themselves as advocacy groups for local government or
         municipalities in their location. There is no umbrella organisation for the entire
         sector that focuses on the development of the sector

     •   The Tanzania Veterinary Association is a member organisation of all vets
         in the country. For the time being little has been done by this association for
         the SLC producers


2.4 SLC in Central Corridor

According to a recent study by the Steadman Group about 60% of the rural
households (or about 1.17 million households) in the Central Corridor keep
chicken of which the vast majority (98%) is local breeds12. It has been estimated
that there are about 9.2 million chickens in the Central Corridor13

Comparatively many households in Morogoro and Shinyanga keep chicken whereas
only fewer households in Dodoma and Singida14. Based on the average stock of 7.9
chickens per household the chicken population per region is given in table 2 below15.


12
   Steadman Group: Crop and Livestock Management in the Central Corridor, 2009
13
   NBS: Livestock Summary 2004
14
   Steadman Group, 2009, as above
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                                                       RLDC

Table 2: Percentage and number of households raising chicken
Region           DOM       MOR         SHY          SIN                   TAB         MAN           Total
Chicken          37%       81%         70%          46%                   63%         59%           60%
Households       140,000   312,000     312,000      100,000               184,000     118,000       1,166,000
Chicken no.      1,104,600 2,461,680 2,461,680 789,000                    1,451,740   931,300       9,200,000
 Source: RLDC extrapolation from Steadman group report and NBS data


If one takes these figures as a kind of opening stock of the chicken population in a
year, hatched chicks will increase the chicken population on the average to about 50
to 6016. However it has been conservatively estimated that about 60% of the
chickens die, so that the households have effectively about 12 to 16 chickens for
consumption and sales if the closing stock of the year corresponds to the opening
stock, i.e. no annual growth in chicken population. Furthermore RLDC also found out
in the same FGDs that households consume about 5 to 8 chickens per year, or about
1.2 kg to 2.0 kg per capita which is far much higher than the national average
consumption of about 0.7 kg. This practically leaves only about 4 to 11 chickens for
sale or about 7 chickens on average.

Most of the chickens are directly sold by the households to neighbours17 and on the
local markets from where chickens are bought by local consumers or are taken to the
regional and urban markets. Table 3 below indicates that indeed the formal SLC
market is relatively small. Based on information from urban traders associations
in Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Mwanza, Morogoro and Mbeya we estimate that the formal
market of SLC does currently not exceed 3.5 million chickens
Table 3: Estimated chicken sales and consumption in 2008
Region           DOM         MOR         SHY         SIN                  TAB          MAN          Total

Households     sold   25%         63%            44%            25%       41%          33%          40%
chicken
Chicken consumed      840,000     1,872,000      1,872,000      600,000   1,104,000    708,000      6,996,000
in households
Chicken sold          245,000     1,375,000      961,000        175,000   528,000      272,500      3,556,500

Chicken sold to       60%         68%            45%            21%       44%          54%          52%
neighbours
Chicken sold on       40%         30%            45%            79%       44%          31%          42%
local markets
Source: RLDC extrapolation from Steadman group report and NBS data




3.0 Constraints and Opportunities
3.1 Production and Market Constraints




15
   See also OXFAM, Local chicken for local Market, where Shinyanga was even quoted as the region with the
highest chicken population in Tanzania. However we prefer to base our analysis on the more recent research of
the Steadman Group
16
   Refer to RLDC report on Focus Group Discussions with chicken producers, 2009
17
   Steadman Group, 2009, as before
                                     SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                         RLDC

3.1.1 Production Constraints

Traditional chicken rearing faces several production constraints

  i.   The single most important constraint of local chicken rearing is their high
       mortality as result of poor health control, poor housing, and
       inadequate feeding. Most chicken diseases can be controlled by vaccination
       (e.g. Newcastle disease) or timely administration of drugs. While vaccines and
       drugs are sufficiently available in the country (see below), the bottleneck is
       their distribution to the rural areas and professional administration in good
       time. Especially the survival rate of chicks is rather low, only 10% to 20%,
       however also 20% to 30% of the mature chickens do not survive and
       sometimes the entire flock is wiped out when disease strikes. Poor housing
       makes chicken and more so the small chicks vulnerable to predators on the
       ground and from the air. Traditionally SLC roam freely to find their own food;
       studies have shown that this practice results in many cases in poorly
       nourished chickens, slow weight increase, and may even cause death,
       Particularly mineral deficiencies, the third highest rated cause of death, is the
       result of poor feeding

 ii.   Although local breeds are well adapted to the harsh living conditions of SLC, in
       many villages not the most optimal chicken breed is being used. Having
       better suited breeds the survival rate, the weight gains, the number of eggs,
       and the fertility of the chicken stock can be improved.

iii.   Because of the high risks associated with chicken rearing, most rural people
       do not regard chicken rearing as a serious business. Consequently
       chicken keepers do not invest in better chicken housing, improved breeds,
       vaccinations or drugs, and chicken feeds. This vicious cycle can be illustrated
       in the causal loop diagram below




                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
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                                                                    RLDC

            Figure III: Factors affecting chicken rearing
                                                                  Chicken Breed



                                                                  Average Period of
              Sales of Eggs                                                                              Feeding
                                                                   chicken rearing



                                     Eggs laid                        Growth                                       Sales of Chicken
              Eggs for Sale                           Chicken
            and Reproduction
                                 +               +   Population      -           +    Chicken for Sale
                                 Eggs hatched
                                                                                                                   Consumption of Chicken
                                                                         Death



           Consumption of Eggs                        Chicken Housing            Animal Health


                                                                   Investment



                                                            Perception of Business
                                                                 Opportunity

Explanations of causal loop diagram
The causal loop diagram summarizes how factors of chicken rearing influence each other in a systemic
manner.
The chicken population per household is in the centre of the causal loop diagram; the average rural
households have a chicken population of about 6 to 10 chickens.
Depending on the chicken breed, each hen lays about 15 to 25 eggs per month; most of the eggs are
sold within the village and hens are allowed to hatch only about 3 to 4 times which produces about 25
chicks per year and hen; the additional chicken population is therefore in total about 200 chicks; the
sales from eggs amount to about Tshs 20,000. The rest is assumed to be consumed by the household.
Chick mortality is quite high and various diseases affect the chicken population so that only about
10% to 20% reach maturity age when they can be sold or consumed; with normally now little
additional chicken feeding it can take more than 12 months until chicken have reached that stage.
About 5 to 8 chickens are consumed by the household, leaving in many cases only about 6 to 10
chickens for sale; based on an average sales price of Tshs 5,000 total sales amount to Tshs 30,000 to
Tshs 50,000. The sales from eggs and chickens is less than Tshs 60,000 and does therefore not
perceive chicken rearing as a profitable business for rural households and thus results in relatively low
investment in chicken rearing (better breeds, chicken housing, vaccination and treatment).



3.1.2 Market Constraints

On the market side the main constraints are

     i.     There is a mismatch between supply and demand which results in
            relatively high prices as mentioned above. The rising demand in urban centres
            has not been met by increasing production which has resulted in a rising price
            trend over the past six years18. In addition, supply is sometimes not reliable
            that is a specific concern for hotels and institutions whose plans are based on
            regular supply.

     ii.    There is a lack of concern for health and animal welfare. The chicken
            transport from the rural areas to urban centres does often lack concern for the
            health of the chicken and about 5% of the chicken die while on transport.

18
     Refer to SLC prices data from MITM, 2009
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                                                        RLDC



 iii.    While there are adequate slaughtering and dressing facilities in some
         urban markets, similar facilities are lacking in regional markets which results in
         poor hygiene and sanitation.

 iv.     The SLC are basically marketed as a commodity: packaging is poor, there
         is no branding and product diversification (i.e. selling SLC chicken wings or
         legs), and there is hardly any market segmentation.

 v.      The traders associations do not cooperate with each other to optimize
         the supply and bring down transaction costs, there is not even information
         sharing on supply opportunities. The lack of cooperation results in unreliable
         supply to urban markets.

 vi.     There is no umbrella organisation that oversees the development of the
         sector, supports cooperation between different market actors and provides
         relevant information to various actors

In summary the current sets of production and market constraints are reinforcing
each other which is illustrated in the causal loop diagram below

Figure IV: Chicken Productivity and Sales Cycle
                       Productivity



                                        Production
                                         Volume

   Investment
                                                               Sales Volume in
                                                               Informal Markets


Profit in Production                  Sales Volume in
   and Trading                        Formal Markets


                                                                 Demand in
                                        Sales Price
                                                               Formal Markets


                          Sales

The low productivity causes low production volumes which, once the local rural
demand in informal markets is satisfied, leave only small sales volumes for the formal
markets. The low sales volumes and the high demand result in relatively high prices
but only moderate sales which in turn cause low profits and investments.


3.2 Opportunities

The causal loop diagram in figure III can be also used to highlight the opportunities
of the sector. The main opportunities are:


                                       SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                     15
                                         RLDC

  i.    Consumers prefer SLC because they “taste better” and are free from
        hormones. The toughness can be addressed by a longer preparation period.
        Moreover, reduced time to reach slaughter weight results in younger and less
        tough SLC.

 ii.    Chicken rearing requires relatively low investment in comparison to other
        livestock. Developing the chicken sector therefore benefits relatively poor
        households in the rural areas.

 iii.   There is relatively high number of women engaged in chicken
        production and to a lesser degree in chicken trading. It can therefore be
        expected that the development of the chicken sector will benefit and empower
        a large number of women.

 iv.    The chicken feed is locally available in abundance and at low cost. Even if
        chicken keepers provide feed in addition to what the SLC find by themselves
        the costs are still quite low.

 v.     In comparison to other livestock, chicken can be raised in a relatively
        short period which allows the households to better plan production.

 vi.    If productivity could be increased, it would create a win-win situation      for
        chicken keepers and traders because the higher sales volumes                 will
        increase the total sales of traders even if the price would be lower than    the
        current price. At the same time the higher production volume will increase   the
        income for chicken keepers even if the traders will pay a lower price than   the
        current price (see figure III).

vii.    General availability of drugs and vaccines is an opportunity to reduce
        substantially the mortality rate of chicken if drugs and vaccines distribution
        and administration can be improved



4.0 Bariadi Model of Chicken Rearing
4.1     Description of the original model

In its first phase, RLDC supported a project on Improved Production and Marketing
of Poultry Products. Although the project was conceived as a market linkage project
it already had features of the broader sector market development approach of the
second phase. In particular, the project served as a testing and demonstration case
in the context of the here proposed SLC Sector Market Development Strategy. The
sector strategy proposed here is to some extent a replication strategy of the positive
results of the Bariadi Model. The project was implemented in Bupandagila and Mbiti
in Bariadi district in Shinyanga region.



                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                           16
                                         RLDC

The so-called Bariadi Model goes back to a community based model of poultry
rearing that DANIDA introduced in Bangladesh. DANIDA realised that in poultry
keeping ‘everyone does everything’ which resulted in relatively low productivity.
As the challenges and opportunities of chicken rearing are very similar in Tanzania
compared with Bangladesh in this respect, RLDC introduced the Bangladesh
approach and adapted it to the local situation. In terms of organisational set up,
RLDC intended to establish in the two villages a large village group and as well
economic subgroups whereby the members of each subgroup had their specific roles
to play in the context of the larger group:
   i. Breeders: have a special parent breeding stock of the most suitable local
       breed. They sell fertilized eggs.
  ii.  Hatchers: organise the hatching of fertilized eggs and they sell the day-old-
       chicks (DOCs). They may use an incubator or traditional hatching methods.
 iii.  Chick Rearer: keep the DOCs until the chicks are about eight weeks old,
       provide safe housing, and get the chicks vaccinated.
 iv.   Poultry Workers: are trained to do vaccinations and give advice in case of
       diseases
  v.   Feed Mixers: grind and mix the chicken feed from locally available feed
       materials. They invest in a simple grinder and mixer.
 vi. Key (Chicken) Rearer: keep chicken from eight weeks until the chickens are
       sold after 8 to 10 months. They house the chicken and provide supplement
       feeding to the chicken. Chicken Rearers sell the chicken either directly to
       traders from town or in the local or regional markets.

4.2   Lessons learnt from the implementation in Bariadi

The Bariadi model combined working in a village group with the input of subgroups
that specialise on certain tasks of chicken rearing. However the originally
intended subgroups were only partly established. The proposed first three groups
were combined in one subgroup in which group members did breeding, hatching,
and rearing of chicks as hatching with incubators was not used and it was found that
traditional methods of breeding, hatching and rearing chicks are quite effective if
better housing and animal health care are also considered. The other subgroups
were implemented as originally planned, however it was also realised that other
subgroups for marketing and financial services might have been very useful. Through
the subgroups a higher degree of skills and investment was achieved from which the
entire group benefited in terms of higher productivity and higher income. The most
important aspect of the Bariadi model was therefore the introduction of division of
labour within the community.

The Bariadi model increases substantially income levels of village households
(see below) and has therefore a huge potential for poverty reduction. As about
60% of the group members in both villages were women the Bariadi model has also
the potential to create income opportunities for women. The impact on the
overall market could not yet be seen as the application in Bariadi was insignificant for
the entire market of local chicken.



                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                           17
                                         RLDC

Within the short period of one year, both groups in Bupandagila and Mbiti were able
to record remarkable production improvements.

  i.   Group Formation and Training

Two community groups of 71 member households each had been formed in the two
villages. In addition to the general training of the entire community group, subgroups
had been trained for breeding / hatching, chick keeping, administering vaccinations
and drugs (poultry workers), and feed mixing. Membership was relatively stable but
decreased to about 50 members in each group.

 ii.   Growth of Chicken Stock

All group members increased their chicken stock tremendously. Some members
increased from 40 to 300 birds, while others have increased from their stock from 3
to 150 birds. On the average, the groups increased their stock from about 600 to
about 2,700 chickens which is an average increase of about 460%

iii.   Chicken Mortality

Due to disease control and improved housing the mortality rate of mature chicken is
now only 13.1% which is far much lower than previously experienced when the
entire flock had been wiped out (almost 100%). Until the end of the project, only 79
mature chickens died in both villages. The mortality rate of chicks was 45% in
Bupandagila and about 40% in Mbiti, which is still high, but sufficient for the large
increase of chicken population. The mortality of chicks resulted from Ecto- and
Endoparasites that were not diagnosed by veterinary services in good time

iv.    Disease Control

Vaccinations were done by Poultry Workers against Newcastle Disease and Fowl Pox.
After advice by the veterinary officers also other diseases (i.e. ecto-parasites,
collibacilosis) could be controlled with appropriate measures although not in good
time.

 v.    Chicken Housing

Most chicken rearers have considerably improved the housing and the compound
protection of their chicken. The necessary investment has not been supported by the
previous RLDC project but was totally made by the chicken keepers after the basic
training course and the construction of a demonstration unit.

vi.    Hatching

The original plan of using incubators failed as the electricity supply in both villages
did not allow proper operation of incubators and kerosene operated incubators were
not available in good time. Breeders therefore used traditional methods which had
been introduced in the basic training. It was also found that incubators would
increase production so much that other factors would become limiting, i.e. housing.


                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                           18
                                                         RLDC

Incubators should be therefore only used in a second stage of developing
productivity whereby the available energy is a restraining factor.

vii.       Chicken Feeding

After the training, the two feed mixer subgroups produced chicken feed from locally
available material by using feed mixers. Unfortunately they could not access grinders
as the owners of existing grain mills did not want to use it for the production of
chicken feed. Manual grinders are currently not available in Tanzania.

viii.      Market Linkage

Although some linkage between traders and the groups were established, no
business had been concluded before the end of the project at the end of 2008. The
co-facilitator was however optimistic that most chickens would be sold in the open air
village market. The now proposed project will follow up this matter and establish a
better approach of linking producers to traders.

 ix.       Household Income

As mentioned before, there were only relatively few sales (about 100 chickens)
before December 2008 so only little income has been realised. However the much
higher chicken stock in both villages has the income potential of about Tshs 12.15
million for each village (at a price of Tshs 4,50019) which is about 243,000 per
member on the average. The sale of eggs per member is estimated to be about Tshs
20,000 per year. However some of the members will be able to realise up Tshs 1
million income from the sales of chickens.

     x.    Gender

Relatively many women are involved in chicken rearing. This is can be attributed to
the fact that chicken rearing is considered a household matter and that chicken
rearing can be done with only a relatively low investment in comparison to other
livestock. In the case of the Bariadi project, about 60% of the group members were
women.

Finally, another lesson learnt related to the performance of the co-facilitator who
did not satisfactorily perform in several aspects. While RLDC will still use at least one
co-facilitator for this project, precise TOR and work plans will be introduced to
monitor the performance of the co-facilitator.

4.3        Improvements to the Bariadi model

Building on the lessons learnt and the positive outcomes of the Bariadi model, RLDC
envisages to further improve the model particularly in group organisation. Based on
the approach of the award winning model of Commercial Village in Kenya, RLDC
would like to structure the community group and the subgroups as follows:


19
     Please note that this is a much lower than the current price of Tshs 6,000.
                                         SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                            19
                                             RLDC

      i.   The community group is constituted by chicken keepers in a village. Each
           member must rear chicken from the age of one month until they are ready to
           be sold. Traders, chicken feed producers, para vets, and any other person are
           not allowed to become members of the community group unless they also
           keep chicken. In this respect the community group is a producer group.

     ii.   Each member of the community group must be also a member in any of
           the six subgroups which means that each member has at least two roles to
           perform in the group. The subgroups focus on the following tasks:
              ► Breeding and hatching
              ► Rearing day-old-chicks (DOCs)
              ► Animal health workers
              ► Chicken feed producers
              ► Marketing and promotion
              ► Saving and lending
           The first two subgroups might also be combined into one group depending on
           the situation in the village. This will be discussed in the initial training on
           group formation.

 iii.      The breeding and hatching subgroup maintains the parent stock of a
           suitable local breed and they are also responsible for any cross breeding if
           required. Members of this subgroup apply traditional hatching techniques,
           however if at a later stage market demand requires a higher growth pf
           chicken population, the group may decide to invest into incubators. RLDC
           continues to collect information on locally available incubators and will make
           this information available to these subgroups on request.

iv.        The rearing of DOCs from one day to the age of about 5 weeks is done by
           members of the second subgroup20. During the first five weeks of their lives,
           DOCs are normally vaccinated against common chicken diseases. The
           members of the subgroup invest into DOCs vaccination and health care
           and special chicken houses that protect the delicate DOCs from predators,
           weather, and disease. After five weeks, some of the DOCs are then given to
           any other member of the community group who will raise the chicken until
           they are ready for sale. During that time chicken keepers require the services
           of two other subgroups, the animal health workers and the chicken feed
           producers

v.         The animal health workers have been trained to administer vaccinations
           and other drugs. They work in close collaboration with the local veterinary
           services and the vet shops. The members of this subgroup invest into drugs
           and cooling equipment (for certain drugs)

vi.        The chicken feed producers process locally available feed stuffs by ways of
           grinding and mixing them. The complementary feeding of chicken reduces the
           time until they have reached the target weight for sale. The members of this
           subgroup invest into manual grinding and mixing machines

20
     See explanations above
                                 SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                               20
                                         RLDC



vii.    The marketing and promotion subgroup links the entire community group
        to traders and organizes local chicken markets in the village. While each
        member will be making his or her own sales of chicken and eggs, the
        members of this subgroup have a coordinating function only. They mainly
        invest by meeting expenses for travelling and local markets

viii.   The saving and lending subgroup takes the lead in organising and
        administering saving and lending in the entire community group. RLDC intends
        here to adopt the tested VSL model of Care International and introduce it
        by ways of training. RLDC will not lend on any money to the saving and
        lending subgroup. It will be proposed to apply compulsory saving from every
        external sale of eggs and chicken but it is up to each community group to
        agree with the proposal and set the rate of compulsory saving. On proposal of
        the S&L subgroup, detailed regulations for lending will be worked out and
        approved by the entire community group. The members of the S&L subgroup
        will then be charged with administering the saving and lending regulations.

 ix.    Each subgroup will elect a chairperson and a deputy chairperson from
        among its members. The entire community group will elect as well a
        chairperson and a deputy chairperson who should not hold office in any of the
        subgroups at the same time. All chairpersons and deputy chairpersons form
        the Executive Committee (EC) that meets regularly, whenever required.
        The EC receives reports and proposals from the subgroups and has overall
        decision making power in the community group. In particular, based on
        proposals by the subgroups, the EC will decide on all transport prices within
        the community group, such as
                       ► the price of day old chicks
                       ► the price of five week old chicks
                       ► the price for drugs and vaccinations
                       ► the price for chicken feeds
                       ► the fees for participating in joint marketing and promotion
                       ► the regulations and interest rates for loans
        The decision on the pricing should be mainly based on costs (including
        amortization of investments) and the subgroups therefore should attach cost
        details with their price proposal

Members of the entire community group and each subgroup will be trained for their
various membership roles in respect of technical and management skills. There will
also be written reference material available for the various roles.

4.4 Expected outcomes of the improved Bariadi model

RLDC expects that the introduction of the improved Bariadi model will enable rural
households to shift from traditional subsistence chicken rearing to a more business
like approach that produces higher income for the producers.



                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                           21
                                                   RLDC

Based on the pilot test in Bariadi, RLDC expects that a community group of about 60
households will be able to achieve at least the following results:
  i.  Increase of chicken stock to about 3,600 chicken (from about 60021
      chicken) mainly as a result of reducing mortality and using improved breeds
  ii  Increase annual sales of chicken to about 3,000 chicken (from about 600
      chickens) corresponding to a total sales turnover of about Tshs 13,500,000 at
      a price of Tshs 4,50022 per chicken. This is about Tshs 225,000 per household
      on the average. In addition there will be income from the sales of eggs of
      about Tshs 20,000, so that total income will be about Tshs 245,000 per
      household on the average which is about four times more than the previous
      average income per household

Another important expected outcome of the Bariadi model is the creation of income
opportunities for women. While the traditional chicken rearing offers only limited
income opportunities, the Bariadi model offers particularly income opportunities for
women, because of
   i the relatively low investment required in chicken rearing in general and in any
       subgroup in particular
   ii the establishment of S&L operations from which women are expected to
       benefit considerably as they normally have a smaller asset and investment
       base than their male colleagues.
We therefore expect that at least 60% of all group members are women. We
shall specifically promote the participation of women who are the heads of
households.




5.0 Proposed Strategy for Chicken Sector Development

5.1 Vision for Sector Development

Our vision for the SLC sector has two main aspects:

     i.   Although most Tanzanian like to eat local chicken, the actual consumption is
          only about 0.7 kg poultry meat per capita and therefore very low compared to
          the world average consumption of 6.8 kg of poultry meat23. Similarly the
          consumption of 13 eggs per capita is much lower than the world average of
          108 eggs. However it has been demonstrated in this paper that the
          consumption of chickens and eggs in the rural areas is already much higher.
          Based on the country actual consumption of 0.7kg of poultry meat per capita
          per annum, the current urban consumption in Tanzania is estimated at 3.4
          million chickens per annum24. Our vision foresees that the urban
21
   Figures based on the Bariadi experience
22
   Price based on the Bariadi experience
23
   FAO & AGAL, 2005
24
   According to UNDP 2008, Tanzania urban population is 24.2% of the country total population (40 mill), and
according to Kitalyi and Mayer 1998, the average disposable weight for local chicken is 2kg.
                                      SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                     22
                                                  RLDC

              consumption will increase by at least 10% per annum if the prices of
              local chicken will be closer to the prices of exotic broiler chicken (currently at
              about Tshs 4,000 retail price).

     ii.      Production of local chicken is currently to a large extent quasi-commercial and
              our vision is that the sector will become much more commercialised in the
              next five years. In particular, we anticipate that producers of local chicken
              regard chicken keeping much more as a substantial business and not
              so much as side-business or even subsistence activity. This will result in much
              higher productivity which will enable the chicken keepers to sell their chicken
              at a lower price per unit and still make a much higher income from chicken
              rearing.

We believe that the two aspects of our vision are reconcilable, in fact, even
complementary. However we also want to point out that some producers who will
not commercialise will find it probably difficult to compete in future and may even go
out of market.




5.2 Project Objectives

The project will work at two different levels, the level of productivity
improvement and the level of market development and advocacy which will
support each other as described in figure 3:


5.2.1 Productivity Improvement

           Within the Central Corridor, RLDC aims at an outreach of 8,100 households in
           about 135 villages in 9 districts of 6 regions. The proposed distribution of
           households will be as follows


Table 4: Regional focus of strategy
           Region                                District                   Villages             HH
           Singida                     •    Singida Rural                      15                900
                                       •    Manyoni                            15                900

           Tabora                      •    Nzega                               15               900
                                       •    Igunga                              15               900

           Shinyanga25                 •    Shinyanga Rural                     15               900
                                       •    Bariadi                             15               900

           Dodoma                      •    Chamwino                            15               900

25
   As OXFAM also wants to introduce a SLC project in Shinyanga, RLDC will coordinate the selection of
villages with OXFAM in order to avoid having two projects in the same village
                                    SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                    23
                                        RLDC

    Morogoro                   •   Mvomero                     15           900
    Manyara                    •   Babati                      15           900

    Total                                   9                 135          8,100

   The final distribution of households will depend on the response on the
   promotion.

   As described above in table 4, we anticipate that the 8,100 households will be
   able to improve their productivity of chicken rearing and increase their chicken
   stock to about 50 chickens per household and increase their sales
   volume (quantity sold in informal and formal markets) to 40 chickens per
   household on the average.

   RLDC will also aim at an overall percentage of at least 60% women
   participation in the project. It is also expected that this proportion is also
   reflected in the management of groups and subgroups.

5.2.2 Market Development and Advocacy

   The current market volume of the formal market is relatively small. RLDC
   therefore aims at increasing the market volume by at least 360,000
   chickens. This will be achieved through establishment of active national chicken
   producers and traders association, awareness creation to traders, especially on
   the issues related to transport, slaughtering, packaging, and marketing of
   chickens, as well as forging a strong relationship and cooperation between RLDC,
   producers and traders association and other development partners who works in
   the subsector.

   Furthermore RDLC intend to improve cooperation between trader
   associations and producer groups and between regional and urban
   trader associations which is expected to result in more reliable supply of SLC.
   Lastly RLDC aims at establishing, in cooperation with other partners, a national
   chicken producers and traders association with a view to oversee
   development in the sector and act as an umbrella organisation for advocacy.

   The proposed interventions aim at commercialization of chicken production
   and marketing in the Central Corridor. The higher productivity and improved
   standards of chicken rearing will result in a more reliable supply of high quality
   local chicken to the various markets.


5.3 Proposed Interventions

5.3.1 Productivity Improvement

The aspect of productivity improvement has the characteristics of a replication
project of the Bariadi model to other villages and communities.

                            SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                          24
                                          RLDC



The replication is planned to be accomplished in two phases which are described
below:

5.3.1.1 First Phase

The first phase of replicating the (improved) Bariadi model aims at creating
awareness of improved commercial chicken rearing and raising the interest
of traders and communities for replication. Main activities of this phase include

  i.    Identification of a qualified co-facilitator who can also maintain a (at least
        part time) presence in all six regions. The role of the co-facilitator will be to
        plan and coordinate the information campaign and later oversee training and
        support interventions and also monitor the progress in each participating
        village. The co-facilitator shall hold at least one meeting each month
        with RLDC for updates and planning.

 ii.    Experience capitalisation and additional testing of the model in Bariadi.
        At the end of the initial project in Bariadi, documentation of our experiences
        needs to be updated and completed to establish a sufficient information basis
        for replication. This includes an updated project report for publication but also
        training and operational manuals and a video. The recent preparation of a
        case study of the Bariadi project has been a first step in this direction. In
        addition, RLDC would like the views of Bariadi chicken keepers on the
        improvements of the Bariadi model.

 iii.   Preparation of two publications (in English and Swahili) on the improved
        commercial local chicken rearing based on the lessons learnt of the
        Bariadi model. The publications should also contain good photographs and
        graphics. The publications will be short versions of a manual for the different
        tasks of chicken rearing.

 iv.    Preparation of promotion material that can be used in a promotion
        campaign for communities, including presentations, information leaflets, video,
        etc.

 v.     Planning of a district-by-district promotion campaign that explains the
        improved commercial local chicken rearing and the support offered
        by RLDC to communities and traders. In each district, RLDC through the
        co-facilitator shall plan for a one-day workshop with the support of relevant
        district officers (Livestock Officer, Veterinary Officer) for selected village
        representatives, owners of vet shops, representatives of traders groups and
        associations, and extension workers. It is planned to start the campaign for
        only one region at first and plan the campaign for the other five regions for
        about four months later.

 vi.    Implementation of the district-by-district promotion campaign that aims
        at creating awareness and raising interest of various parties. The campaign

                              SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                            25
                                          RLDC

        shall be organised in such a way that the radio program of RFA shall support
        the campaign by also focusing at least one radio program on improved
        commercial local chicken rearing and reporting in subsequent programs where
        the campaign has reached. As mentioned above under v. the information
        campaign will be carried out in one region at first and in the other four regions
        four months later.

vii.    Follow up of the promotion campaign with a view to identify the villages
        and communities where RLDC support measures are likely to be introduced.
        The identification will be based on the clear expression of interest by the
        communities to participate in the replication, the expressed willingness to
        contribute in kind and in cash to the required investments and expenses that
        are not covered by RLDC. Another important selection criterion will be the
        proposed participation of women in the community groups and subgroups.

5.3.1.2 Second Phase

The second phase of this replication project focuses on the intervention on the
actual introduction of improved commercial local chicken rearing with a
view to attain high sustainability in respect of key aspects.

The second phase begins with organising the basic training on improved
commercial local chicken rearing for communities. Due to the high number of
communities, the cost effective organisation of the training will be done in three
steps:

  i.    Identification of at least one suitable training provider in each of the six
        regions. They are expected to have some knowledge in livestock or chicken
        rearing and some experience in working with village groups. The training
        providers should ideally come from the private sector

 ii.    A qualified training organisation (SUA, LITI) will train the training providers in
        a five days TOT course. The TOT will cover formation of economic groups,
        aspects of improved commercial local chicken rearing (assuming that the
        participants have already basic knowledge) and development of trainer skills
        (i.e. appropriate methods and techniques). A training manual and other
        support material will be given to each trained training provider for facilitation
        of later application
        A specialized training provider shall train the trainers in the
        establishment and operation of Saving and Lending within the
        community group which will be based on the successfully tested model of Care
        Tanzania.

 iii.   Training providers train the selected communities on site of the village in
        a basic course of three days. The training content shall address
           ¬ Formation of community group
           ¬ Role and formation of subgroups (except S&L subgroup)
           ¬ Basic introduction of chicken rearing

                              SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                            26
                                                 RLDC

                ¬   Improved chicken husbandry methods incl. housing
                ¬   Selection of appropriate chicken breed
                ¬   Breeding and hatching
                ¬   Disease control and vaccination
                ¬   Chicken feeding

            The basic community course will at first be carried out in one region only.
            After about four months basic courses will be conducted in the remaining
            four regions simultaneously.
            The training will also be attended by extension workers who are expected to
            later carry out regular follow up and supervision visits to the
            communities. Information material will be made available to the villagers by
            RLDC through the co-facilitator and the training providers

 iv.    In addition training providers train members of subgroups in specialized
        technical areas in short courses of one day each. These training courses may
        be on site but also combine subgroups of different community groups for
        higher training efficiency. These training courses will be conducted within a
        period of about three weeks after the basic community course. The training
        content shall include
           ¬ Traditional hatching methods
           ¬ Construction of chicken houses
           ¬ Administration of vaccines
           ¬ Symptoms of various chicken diseases
           ¬ Preparation of chicken feed
           ¬ Marketing of chicken
           ¬ Saving and lending operations

5.3.1.3 Specialized Interventions

In addition to the training, specialized interventions will focus on:

  i.    Reducing chicken mortality through vaccination and better vet
        services

The high chicken mortality as result of uncontrolled diseases is the biggest constraint
to commercial production and therefore RLDC puts highest priority on improved
disease control. Diseases of chicken can be largely controlled though vaccination and
treatment with the following drugs:

Table 5: Table 5: Diseases and drugs availability
Disease             Drug            Suppliers        Channel          Availability   Resources
Newcastle           Temeke 1-2      CVL              Vet shops        available      Extension
disease             thermostable    VICs                                             Officers and Vet
                                                                                     shop technicians
Endoparasites       Piperaxine      Farmers Centre   Vet shops        available      Extension
                    Albendazol                                                       Officers and Vet
                                                                                     shop technicians
Ectoparasites       Akheri powder   Farmers Centre   Vet shops        available      Extension
                    Sevin dust                                                       Officers and Vet

                                    SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                  27
                                                          RLDC

                                                                                          shop technicians
Mineral               Vitalyte               Farmers Centre   Vet shops       available   Extension
deficiency            Neoxyvital                                                          Officers and Vet
                      Vitastress                                                          shop technicians
                      OTC plus
                      Stress Vita
Fowl Typhoid          Trisumycine            Farmers Centre   Vet shops       available   Extension
                                                                                          Officers and Vet
                                                                                          shop technicians
Fowl Cholera          Endofloxacin           Farmers Centre   Vet shops       available   Extension
Bursa disease         Ampiclox                                                            Officers and Vet
                      OTC plus                                                            shop technicians
                      Gumbole
                      vaccine
Cocdiosis             Amprolium              Farmers Centre   Vet shops       available   Extension
                      Tyrophoprium                                                        Officers and Vet
                                                                                          shop technicians
Salmonellosis         Doxycol                Farmers Centre   Vet shops       available   Extension
                      Oxytetracycline                                                     Officers and Vet
                                                                                          shop technicians
Fowl Pox              Fowl           Pox     Farmers Centre   Vet shops       available   Extension
                      vaccine                                                             Officers and Vet
                                                                                          shop technicians
Source: RLDC assessment collection from vet shops


The access to required drugs must be accompanied by increased capacity for drug
application. Following the successful approach of the Bariadi Model, RLDC intends to
address capacity building on two levels:

          ►    As part of the above-described TOT, emphasis will be on disease
               control and vaccination and the members of the subgroup ‘Health
               Workers’ will be trained to identify various chicken diseases and administer
               the relevant drugs or vaccinations. They will also be instructed to
               immediately seek the advice of vets in case of unknown health problems

          ►    At least one selected vet shop owner in each district will be
               sensitised on the importance of stocking more drugs specific for chicken
               diseases and the importance of providing advisory services to chicken
               keepers on the best application of the drugs. The training will ideally be
               conducted in cooperation with drug suppliers and the Tanzania Veterinary
               Association. The Training should also be attended by Veterinary Officers
               who want to upgrade their knowledge

  ii.     Improving market linkage between village groups and traders

RLDC through the co-facilitator shall facilitate market development with the following
activities:

          ►    Organize workshops / meetings between the regional and city trader
               associations (Dar es Salaam, Mwanza, Arusha, Mbeya, etc.) and
               representatives of the chicken producer community groups with a view to
               discuss market linkage cooperation between them. The different
               cooperation options may range from direct contract to participation in local

                                            SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                          28
                                         RLDC

           markets. In any case, it is important to achieve a better information
           flow between the community groups and the trader associations. While
           the importance of transport is recognized, we do not anticipate that the
           project could have any influence on the transport costs. However in the
           workshops / meetings the safer transport of chickens shall be discussed.

       ►   Collect and provide information on chicken production and sales to
           the media. Most of the information will be regularly collected by the co-
           facilitator as part of monitoring. In particular, it is hoped that RFA will
           regularly broadcast these information. However the information will also be
           made available to other media if they make good use of the information.
           The information will also be made available to MITM

       ►   Training the chicken keepers in costing and pricing (Bulk selling) with a
           view to make them aware that a small price reduction per chicken may still
           result in a higher income per chicken keeper

iii.   Reducing losses of chicken through better housing and protection

Chicken losses are also due to predators on the ground and from the air. Better
chicken housing and protection in fenced compounds with wire mesh protection from
air attacks reduce such losses greatly, particularly losses of small chicken. The
importance of better housing and protection will be addressed in the basic training
course of each community group. In addition, RLDC through the co-facilitator will
facilitate the communities in

       ►   Setting up demonstration chicken house and compound protection
           in each village. The construction of the chicken house shall be overseen by
           the extension worker. RLDC shall facilitate only parts of the building
           materials while chicken keeper(s) contribute the rest, including labour

iv.    Improving weight of chicken through supplementary feeding

If chicken are only freely scavenging, they gain weight at a rather low pace. In order
to be able to sell the local chicken after about 8 to 10 months, it is therefore
necessary that chicken keepers provide supplement feed. This is also an opportunity
to provide the chicken with additional minerals and other supplements if required.
The training on feeding has already been part of the basic training. Additional
activities related to this intervention include
        ► Additional advice on optimal feed mix, provided by co-facilitator
        ► Providing contact information on suppliers of chicken feed
        ► Providing contact information on manufacturers / suppliers of feed grinding
            machines (manual and motor driven) and of feed mixers
In case, local manufacturers do not make suitable grinding and mixing machines,
RLDC may organise a training course for the local manufacturers with a view to
introduce appropriate machines.



                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                           29
                                         RLDC

 v.    Increasing productivity through the use of incubators

Traditional hatching techniques are quite adequate during the introduction of
improved commercial local chicken rearing, however if demand justifies it might be
necessary to introduce the use of incubators that can hatch 400 to 1,500 eggs in 21
days. Incubators are available in Tanzania from various suppliers using different
forms of energy (electricity, kerosene, solar). The activities related to this
intervention are
       ► Providing contact information of suppliers of incubators


vi.    Improving quality of chicken by introducing more preferred local
       breeds

There are several breeds of local chicken that have different characteristics and
attributes. Important factors in selecting the best local breed are the pace of gaining
weight, the number of eggs produced, and the vulnerability to diseases and other
conditions. During the basic training, communities will be briefed on the different
breeds and they will then make a decision on what breed they prefer. In case, some
communities later want to change to another breed, RLDC through the co-facilitator
will facilitate an initial parent stock.


5.3.2 Market Development and Advocacy

In respect of market development, RLDC intends to carry out the following
interventions:

  i.   As mentioned above already, RLDC shall organise workshops for traders
       from regional and urban trader associations, where options for better
       cooperation between them will be introduced and discussed. The options may
       range from contracting to sharing of information

 ii.   Organising topical workshops for traders of interested regional and urban
       traders associations on technical issues like

          ¬ Improvement of transport facilities and arrangements
          ¬ Slaughtering, dressing, and packaging of chickens
          ¬ Marketing of chickens

 iii. Promoting the establishment of a national chicken producers and traders
        association that will oversee the promotion of local chicken production and
        marketing in Tanzania. Among other tasks the association is expected to:
        ► Become the main advocacy group that addresses for example issues of
           drugs distribution, slaughter facilities, veterinary services, etc.
        ► Link chicken producers and traders by giving relevant market
           information on prices, quantities, and quality
        ► Establish an information centre for chicken rearers, traders, consumers,
           and other interested parties. The centre is envisaged as a lean organisation

                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                           30
                                          RLDC

           that coordinates the collection of relevant information and makes it
           available to information seekers for free or for a small fee
       ►   Providing market statistics that enable market actors and government
           to better plan for taking future market opportunities and developing the
           market

The establishment of a national chicken producers and traders association will be
done in cooperation with other development partners (i.e. OXFAM, FIDE, SNV)
who have already expressed interest in collaboration with RLDC in respect of the
development of the chicken sector. In addition to their activities in Shinyanga,
OXFAM have showed interest in collaborating in establishing an information centre
for chicken rearers, traders, consumers and other interested parties. They also intend
to carry out a study on marketing (including transportation) of chicken. FIDE will be
involved in both establishment of national chicken producers and traders association
and information sharing as they have been doing the same thing RLDC is doing in
Manyara region. SNV will be involved in sharing information such as lessons leant
from Bariadi model and study reports as well as discussing the possibilities of
partnering in other interventions like establishment of information centre and
national chicken producers and traders association.

The collaboration will also include:

   •   Organize a workshop with development partners with a view to start
       sharing information and agree on a general development strategy for the
       sector including required support

   •   Sharing of information, such as lessons learnt and study reports among
       development partners which is expected to contribute to a better general
       understanding and effectiveness as well as efficiency of the various programs
       of the development partners

It is anticipated that RLDC will enter into MOU’s with development partners that will
also address the cost-sharing of joint activities, such as the establishment of the
national association.


6.0 Risk Analysis

There are several risks that might jeopardize the achievements of the project
objectives:

   •   The replication of the Bariadi model bears the risk of scale as relatively many
       communities or relatively few communities may respond positively to the
       information campaign. In both cases the implementation strategy has to be
       adapted to the situation. In case of high response additional selection criteria
       have to be introduced and in case of low response additional promotion
       measures may have to be considered


                              SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                            31
                                         RLDC

   •   The replication to a large number of communities bears the risk that some
       communities might fail (i.e. outbreak of uncontrolled disease) affecting the
       confidence of the other communities. This risk of decreasing confidence
       may be mitigated through close monitoring and control of the implementation
       in the villages so that potential failures can be detected early and corrective
       measures can be taken in time

   •   The increase of market volumes bears the risk that some regional or urban
       markets do not have the facilities to cope with the larger volumes. RLDC shall
       monitor the situation in the markets and identify additional measures to
       mitigate against this risk of volumes. A similar risk might develop in respect
       of transport facilities.

   •   The project is expected to be implemented within 18 months that is a
       relatively short period considering that it involves a change of attitude of
       producers and traders. This risk of speed shall be mitigated by close
       monitoring and corrective measures if necessary.




7.0 Implementation Partners

In implementing the project RLDC intends to work with several implementing
partners:



7.1    Co-facilitator and Training Providers

RLDC will tender out the position of one or two qualified co-facilitators. In any
case the co-facilitator is supposed to maintain a presence in the respective regions

In collaboration with the co-facilitator(s) RLDC shall seek regional training
providers through open tender or on invitation tender. Ideally RDLC wants to have
at least one training provider per region.

For the positions of co-facilitator and training provider detailed TOR will be worked
out. Training will be conducted on the basis of manuals produced in the initial TOT
course conducted by SUA / LITI and a specialised training provider for the
introduction of saving and lending.


7.2    Development Partners

As mentioned above, RLDC has indications that FIDE is interested in replicating the
Bariadi model. In further discussions we shall establish the exact modus of
replication.

                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                           32
                                                      RLDC



OXFAM seems to favour an individual model of poultry keeping and does not intend
to use a group approach26. They argue that there are some bad experiences in
Shinyanga with group projects. To our knowledge these projects did not use at all
best practice of group projects and we strongly believe that the improved Bariadi
model that combines best international practice is a more powerful model to uplift
local chicken rearing to a business like level.

SNV has been working on the livestock sector in the central corridor for some time
now. They have shown interest in bringing different actors in the sector to work
together. We are optimistic that the information centre idea will also be of interest to
them. RLDC is planning to invite SNV in the partners’ forum.




26
     However they also acknowledge the need for creating a selling power by grouping poultry keepers
                                      SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                       33
                                       RLDC



8.0 Bibliography

Buza J.J and Mwamuhehe H.A, (2001) Country Report Tanzania, Characteristics and
    features of different breeds of chicken in Tanzania

FAO & AGAL (2005) Livestock Sector Brief: United Republic of Tanzania, FAO, Rome.

Kitalyi J.A and Mayer. A (1998) Village chicken production systems in rural Africa
      household food security and gender issues, FAO Animal Production and Health
      Paper 142.

Minga U.M, Mtambo M.M, Katule A.M, Mutayoba S.K, Mwalusanya N.A, Lawrence P,
    Ndegele R.H and Olsen J.E, (1989) Improving the health and Productivity of the
    Rural Chicken in Africa, Research and Development Efforts in Tanzania.

MITM (2009), Livestock products prices for 2002-2009, Marketing Department,
    MITM, Dar es Salaam.

NBS (2004), Livestock summary 2003/04, NBS, Dar es Salaam.

NBS (2008), The Economic Survey 2007, The Ministry of Finance and Economic
Affairs, Dar es salaam, Tanzania 2008

Oxfam (2008), Local Chicken for Local Market Subsector and Value Chain Analysis
Final Report, Shinyanga, Tanzania

Pedersen.G, Permin.A, and Minga.U.M (2000) Possibilities for Smallholder Poultry
    Projects In Eastern and Southern Africa, Workshop Proceedings, Morogoro
    Tanzania
RLDC (2009), Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) Report: FGDs carried out by the RLDC
    livestock sector team in Chamwino and Bahi, Dodoma Tanzania, March 2009.

RLDC (2008), Workshop report with local chicken traders, Rural Livelihood
    Development Company, Dodoma October2008

Steadman Group (2009) Crop & Livestock Management Central Corridor of Tanzania,
     Baseline Survey Draft Report, March 2009.

The Guardian (2009) The Tanzanian Daily News paper

Tibamanya Y.E.K (1994), The alternative approach to improve the productivity of
    indigenous chicken, Proceedings of the refresher course on appropriate
    Technology on small livestock husbandry

Tuguni B and Mlay D (2006) Local Chicken subsector Study in Singida and Dodoma
    regions, Dodoma, Tanzania.

                           SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                         34
                                      RLDC

UNDP (2008), Human Development Report 2007/2008: Population, Urban (% of total
    population):        Accessed           on       18/06/2009           from
    www.hdrstats.undp.org/en/indicators/42.html.




                          SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                        35
                                                                                                              RLDC

           9.0 Annexes
           9.1        Project Budget
                                                             Amounts in 1,000 Tshs               July to December 2009                        January to December 2010                    Total
                           Activity                          Price          Unit         Qty       Qty     Costs         RLDC      Partner     Qty     Costs      RLDC         Partner     RLDC      Partner
Co-facilitator

  Fees                                                          200       mandays        400       180       36,000       36,000               220       44,000     44,000                  80,000             0

  Per Diem                                                       50       mandays        400       180        9,000        9,000               220       11,000     11,000                  20,000             0

  Other costs, i.e. transport                                        2       km         21,000    12,000     24,000       24,000              9,000      18,000     18,000                  42,000             0

Subtotal                                                                                  0                  69,000       69,000         0               73,000     73,000           0     142,000             0

I. Creating awareness and raising interest

  Capitalization of Bariadi Model                                20      publications   1,000      800       16,000       16,000               200        4,000      4,000                  20,000             0

  Preparation of Promotion Materials                             0.4       leaflets     12,000    10,000      4,000        4,000              2,000        800           800                 4,800             0

  Planning of information Campaign                             1,000      lumpsum         1         1         1,000        1,000              2000        2000       2,000                   3,000             0

  Implementation of Information Campaign                        2500       districts      9         1         2,500        2,500                8        20,000     20,000                  22,500             0
  Identification of the villages/communities ready to work
with                                                            200        districts      9         1          200          200                 8         1,600      1,600                   1,800             0

  Subtotal                                                                                                   23,700       23,700                         28,400     28,400                  52,100             0

  II. Productivity improvement

  TOT course for training providers                           10,000       course         1         1        10,000       10,000                                                            10,000             0

  Basic Community courses for communities                       1000       course        135        1          1000         500        500     134      134,000     67,000       67,000     67,500       67,500

  Continuous Extension Service                                   20       mandays       1,500      300        6,000        4,000      2,000   1,200      24,000     14,000       10,000     18,000       12,000

  Training of Vet Shop owners                                  5,000       course         1                                                     1         5,000      2,000        3,000      2,000        3,000

  Technical Training of Subgroups                               200        course        68         1          200          100        100     67        13,400      8,100        5,300      8,200        5,400

  Workshops with Traders                                       1,500     workshops       10         5         7,500        7,500                5         7,500      7,500                  15,000             0

  Demonstration chicken houses / compounds                      200        houses        135        1          200          100        100     134       26,800     13,400       13,400      13500       13,500

  Feeding and incubator support (information measures)         1,000      lumpsum         1                                                     1         1,000      1,000                   1,000             0

  Subtotal                                                                                                   24,900       22,200      2,700             211,700    113,000       98,700    135,200      101,400

  III. Market development and advocacy

  Topical workshop for interested traders                      3,000      lumpsum         1                                                   3,000       3,000      1,500        1,500      1,500        1,500
  Establishment of national producers and traders
associations                                                  30,000      lumpsum         1         1        30,000       10,000     20,000                                                 10,000       20,000

  Operations of association                                   15,000      lumpsum         1                                                     1        15,000      5,000       10,000      5,000       10,000

                                                                                                 SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                                                                                1
                                                                   RLDC
 Development partners workshop   2,000   lumpsum   1     1          2,000     1,000   1,000                                   1,000      1,000

Subtotal                                                           32,000    11,000   21,000    18,000     6,500    11,500    17,500    32,500



Grand Total                                                       149,600   125,900   23,700   331,100   220,900   110,200   346,800   133,900




                                                       SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                                      2
                                                                           RLDC

9.2    Implementation Schedule

                                                                          2009                                     2010
                     Project Activities                        7   8    9 10 11       12    1    2   3   4   5   6   7    8   9   10   11   12
Tender and contract of core facilitator
I. Creating awareness, raising interest for replication
Documentation and publication of the Bariadi model
Preparation of the publications
Preparation of promotional materials
Planning district by district information campaign
Implementation of the information campaign
Identifying villages and communities ready to work with
II. Productivity Improvement
Identification of suitable training providers
TOT for training providers
Basic training course for communities
Technical trainings for poultry sub groups
Training vet shop owners
Workshops with traders
Demonstration chicken houses and compounds
Feeding and incubator support (information)
III. Market Development and advocacy
Topical workshop for interested traders
Establishment of national producers and traders associations
Operations of Association
Development partners workshop
Monitoring
IV. Evaluations
Evaluation after facilitation in pilot region
Evaluation after facilitation to all regions


                                                               SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                                              3
                                                                                      RLDC
NB: The whole exercise will be rolled out in one region as a pilot then the following regions will
follow




                                                                        SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                                                       4
                                                                                        RLDC

       9.3     Causal Model

Activities                      Outputs                                                     MARKET SYSTEM OUTCOMES                                       Impact
                                                                  Intermediate                    Enterprises outcome Sector outcome
                                                                  outcomes
 ⇒ Tendering and contracting    •   One co-facilitator            Number farmers                                              Number of sub groups       Increased income
   of co-facilitator                contracted by October         (men/women) interested in       Increased availability of   functioning according to   for rural farmers
                                    09                            adopting Bariadi model in       vet drugs to farmers.       their technical roles      from poultry
 ⇒ Identification of the
   training providers           •   At least six training         districts/village in the 6                                  Decreased SLC prices in    activities.
                                    providers identified by       regions.                        Increase business
 ⇒ Creating awareness and                                                                         volume to vet shop          Urban centres.
                                    July 09                        •     Meeting and events
   raising interest for                                                                           owners.                                                Improve HH
   replication.                 •   Bariadi model document               report.                                                                         welfare in 150
                                    and 2 publication of the                                                                  Increase sales of SLC in
   •   Documentation and                                           •     Co- Facilitator report   More producers and          urban centres.             villages through
                                    model (Swahili and                                            traders engaged in                                     poultry activities
       publication of the           English),by Oct,09            Increased usage of              formal marketing and
       Bariadi Model.
                                •   Promotional materials         veterinary service by           sells                       Increased SLC
   •   Preparation and              (12,000 leaflets,1            farmers in the villages                                     consumption in urban
       publication of               presentation document)                                                                    centre by 10% per
       promotional materials.                                                                     Increased chicken
                                    by Oct.09                                                                                 annum.
                                                                  Reduced age for chicken         population to average 50
   •   Planning information         Information campaign
                                •                                 slaughter from 12months to      chickens per HH.
       campaign.                    plan by Oct.09 and Feb        8months.                        Increased sales of SLC      Traders and farmers
   •   Implementation of            10.                                                                                       association formed.
       information campaign.                                                                      Increased sales of eggs
                                •   Information campaign          Number of farmer groups                                     Increased sales of SLC
   •   Identification of            conducted in 1 district by                                    Increases sales of drugs
                                                                  formed in villages to                                       in local markets
       villages and                 Sept, 09. and 8 district                                      and vaccines
                                                                  participate in improved                                     Increased level of
       communities to work          by May 10                                                     Increase value of savings
                                                                  chicken rearing.                                            chicken consumption
       with.                        15 villages identified in 1                                   at VSLs
                                •                                                                                             among rural HH
                                    district by Sept 09 and
                                                                  Number farmers                                              Increase level of eggs
                                    120 villages by June 10                                       Number of loans and


                                                                           SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                                                          5
                                                                                    RLDC
⇒ Productivity improvement.    • One (1) TOT conducted        (men/women) adopting             value of loans at VSLs   consumption among
                                                              improved commercial              Increased number of      rural HH
  •   Sourcing of training        by Oct 09 and 5 by April
                                                              chicken rearing in villages in   birds per HH
      service providers.          10.                         six regions.
      Conduct TOT for                                                                                                   Increased sales of
  •                            • 15 basic trainings to
      training service                                                                                                  improved local breeds
                                  communities by Dec 09       Number of improved chicken
      providers.                                                                                                        Number of
                                  and 120 by Nov 10           house and compounds in
  •   Conduct basic training                                                                                            functioning/sustainable
                               • 7 technical trainings to     villages.                                                 community groups
      course for
      communities.                poultry sub groups by       Interests shown by traders                                Increased number of HH
                                  Jan 10 and 60 July, 10.     association to form linkages                              selling SLC
  •   Conduct technical                                       with producer groups.
      training for poultry     • One (1) vet shop owners                                                                Increased sales of SLC
      subgroups.                  training by April, 10.                                                                in a groceries, markets,
  •   Conduct training to vet • 5 traders workshops by        Number farmers using                                      restaurants, hostels,
      shop owners in                                          improved feed materials and                               e.t.c
                                 Dec. 09 and 5 by Oct 10      incubator in the villages.
      district.
  •   Conduct 10 workshops • 15 demonstration chicken
      with traders.              houses in villages by Jan,   Number of Linkages formed
  •   Constructing chicken       10 and 120 by Nov 10         by traders and farmers
      houses and               • Number of farmers
      compounds in each           showing interest to use     Information on production,
      village.                    improved feed materials     markets available and used
  •   Provide information on      and incubators.
      feed material and
                               • Information on feed          Decreased transport cost
      incubator to
      community groups.           material and incubator
⇒ Market Development              disseminated to             Decreased chicken mortality
  Advocacy                        community groups by         during transport
  •   Conduct topical             Dec. 10.
      workshop for             • One topical trader’s         Increased number of
      interested traders.         workshop by Jan.10. and     chicken raised in better
  •   Establish a national        one by Oct 10               hygienic conditions
      chicken producers and
                                                                       SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                                                      6
                                                                         RLDC
    traders association  • One partners workshop
•   Conduct one workshop    by Dec 09               Increased number of
    with development     • Trader and producer      chicken raised in housing
    partners
                            groups association by
•   Establishment of        Dec 10                  Decreased mortality among
    Information centre                              chicks and mature chicken
                         • Information centre
                            formed by Dec 10
                                                    Increased number of
                                                    chicken transported under
                                                    agreement with transporters
                                                    Increase use of high quality
                                                    food
                                                    Number of community
                                                    groups formed and the
                                                    number of people
                                                    participating




                                                             SLC Sector Development Strategy
                                                                            7

				
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