THE UNITED NATIONS by liaoqinmei

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 32

									THE UNITED NATIONS
        PRECURSORS TO THE UN
1899- INTERNATIONAL PEACE CONFERENCE
  held in The Hague to create “instruments for
  settling crises peacefully, preventing wars,
  and codifying rules of warfare.”

1919- LEAGUE OF NATIONS: organization conceived
  during WWI by Woodrow Wilson and based on his 14
  POINTS.
       *est. under the Treaty of Versailles “to promote
  international cooperation and to achieve peace and
  security.”
       *ceased to exist after failing to prevent WWI.
                               BEGINNINGS
In 1945, representatives from 50 nations met in
  San Francisco at the United Nations
  Conference on International Organization to
  draw up the UN Charter based on proposals
  proposed by China, Russia, Great Britain, and
  the United States.
      *name “United Nations” coined by Franklin
  Roosevelt in the Declaration of United Nations when
  reps from 26 nations pledged to fight against the Axis
  Powers.
              BEGINNINGS CONT’D
June 26, 1945: the Charter was signed by the
  51 original member states.

October 24, 1945: UN officially came into
  existence when 5 original members (US, GB,
  USSR, France, China) ratified Charter.
      *Today, nearly every nation on Earth
  belongs to the UN: 191 nations in all.
1.) HOW THE UN WORKS
                                  THE CHARTER
When states become members of the UN, they
 must accept the obligations of the UN
 Charter.
     * it is an international treaty that sets out the basic
     principles of international relations.

     “The only true basis of enduring peace is the willing
     cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of
     the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and
     social security; it is our intention to work together, and
     with other free peoples, both in war and peace, to this
     end.”
           4 PRINCIPLES OF UN
1.) MAINTAIN INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND
  SECURITY
2.) DEVELOP FRIENDLY RELATIONS AMONG
  NATIONS
3.) TO COOPERATE IN SOLVING
  INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS AND IN
  PROMOTING RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
4.) BE A CENTER FOR HARMONIZING THE
  ACTIONS OF NATIONS
                              THE BASICS
-UN is not a world govt., it does not make laws.

-Provides the means to help resolve
  international conflicts and formulate policies
  on matters

-All member states regardless of size, prestige,
  population, political views, and social systems
  have a voice and vote in the process.
       6 BRANCHES OF UN

These bodies carry out the work of the
UN and are made up of delegates from
     member nations. Each performs
       different and specific functions.
BRANCHES (in no particular order)
1.)   General Assembly
2.)   Security Council
3.)   Economic & Social Council
4.)   Trusteeship Council
5.)   Secretariat
6.)   International Court of Justice
        *all but the ICJ are based in NY City and
        the court is located in The Hague,
        Netherlands
UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY
          1.) GENERAL ASSEMBLY
All member nations (191) are represented:
   “Parliament of Nations”--considers the world’s
   most pressing problems.

     *each nation has one vote

     *issues like: international peace and
  security, admitting new members, and the
  budget are decided by 2/3 majority.
1.) GENERAL ASSEMBLY                   cont’d


GA is currently considering more than 180
 different topics, for example: *globalization,
 AIDS, conflict in Africa, protection of
 environment, consolidation of new
 democracies
GA cannot force action by any state; but its
 recommendations are an indication of world
 opinion and represents the moral authority of
 the world.
  1.) GENERAL ASSEMBLY cont’d
GA is in session from Sept.-Dec. ; it may
 extend its sessions or hold special
 sessions on subjects of importance.

Its work is carried out by the 6 main
  committees, subsidiary bodies, and the
  UN Secretariat
          2.) SECURITY COUNCIL
The UN Charter gives the Sec. Coun. Primary
  responsibility for maintaining peace and
  security.

  -Council may convene at any time when,
  peace is threatened.

ALL member states are obligated to carry out
  the council’s decisions.
        SECURITY COUNCIL                 cont’d


  15 Council positions, 5 members are
  permanent:
           1.   United States
           2.   United Kingdom
           3.   France
           4.   China
           5.   Russian Federation
Other 10 are elected by the General Assembly
  and serve 2 year terms.
        SECURITY COUNCIL cont’d
Decisions of the council require 9 “yes”
 votes-EXCEPT- when a veto or no-vote
 is declared by a permanent member.

 When considering a threat the council
 first tries to seek out a peaceful solution
 and may suggest principles for
 settlement or mediation.
        SECURITY COUNCIL cont’d
In the event of fighting:
 1.) Council will try to secure a ceasefire
 2.) May send a peace mission to maintain
 truce or separate opposing forces.
 3.) Can take measures to enforce its
 decisions: economic sanctions, order an arms
 embargo, collective military action.
     3.) THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
                        COUNCIL
Coordinates the economic and social work
 of the UN.
 -central forum for discussing intl. econ.
 And social issues
 -consults w/ non-governmental
 organizations (NGOs): Red Cross
       ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL

The Council has 54 members, elected by
 the General Assembly for 3 year terms.

Members meet throughout the year, with
 a special session in July where they
 discuss major economic, social, and
 humanitarian issues.
        ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL

Council’s subsidiary bodies meet regularly
 and report back to it:
FOR EXAMPLE: Commission on Human Rights
  monitors human rights around the world and
  other bodies focus on things like social
  development, women’s rights, crime, drugs,
  and environmental protection.
5 regional commissions promote economic
  development and cooperation in their
  regions.
    4.) TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
-Est. to provide international supervision
  for the 11 Trust Territories administered
  by member states and to ensure that
  the territories were being prepared for
  self-government or Independence
-Council consists of the 5 permanent
  members of the Security Council.
-Meets only when it is required.
           5.) THE SECRETARIAT
-Headed by the Secretary-General (Kofi
  Annan), carries out the substantive and
  administrative work of UN as directed
  by the GA.
-Consists of departments and offices with
  a staff of 7,500 drawn from 170
  nations.
JOHN BOLTON, GEORGE BUSH, AND KOFI ANNAN
KOFI ANNAN-SECRETARY GENERAL
SECURITY COUNCIL
   INTERNATIONAL COURT OF
                  JUSTICE
-known as the World Court and located in
  The Hague, Netherlands

-It is the main judicial organ of the UN

-Decides disputes between nations and
  provides advisory opinions to the GA
  and Sec. Council
    INTERNATIONAL COURT OF
                   JUSTICE
  Court consists of 15 judges elected by the GA and
  Security Council.


Participation by states is voluntary, but if a
  state agrees to participate, it is obligated to
  comply with the Court’s decision.
THE UN SYSTEM
                                 UN SYSTEM
-Specialized agencies such as: International
  Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Health
  Organization, International Labor
  Organization, Universal Postal Union
Linked to the UN through cooperative
  agreements, are autonomous and have wide
  intl. responsibilities in health, social, cultural,
  educational fields.
                            UN SYSTEM
ALL of the above org. have their own governing
  bodies, budgets, and secretariats.

Work to improve economic and social conditions
 all over the world.

Together with the UN form the UN System

								
To top