INSTRUCTOR: Erica Keen
UNIT TOPIC: Beef Cattle Management
LESSON TITLE: Beef Cattle Nutrition
CLASS: Agriscience I DATE BEST TAUGHT 1/27/11
Students will be able to identify essential elements needed for beef cattle nutrition from the
given resources with 100% accuracy.
Students will be able to formulate a feed ration for beef cattle based on the given scenario
with 90% accuracy.
Students will be able to compare beef cattle feed ingredients based on their nutritional value
with 90% accuracy.
Students will be able to distinguish between the different feed rations based on the use and
stage of the cattle with 90% accuracy.
Related Oklahoma PASS:
Core Curriculum: Science & Math
PASS Skills Sub-Core: Biology & Algebra
Standard: C-3:19 Determine proper nutrient and water requirements for livestock in various stages of
C-3:21 Calculate balanced rations for livestock on a hypothetical farm.
C-3:7 Define the categories of feed.
TEACHING MATERIALS AND RESOURCES
Case Studies: Case Study 1, Case Study 2, and Case Study 3
HO: Beef cattle nutritional requirements
HO: Value of feed components
HO: Pearson Square
Preparation (including overview, link, and motivation)
Key Points Methods
District Livestock Show Feb. PPT 1: Beef Cattle Nutrition
Before we get started today, I want to review some of the things we
discussed yesterday about beef cattle management. Q-A-D
What is one way we can identify our cattle? (Branding, ear
tags, tattoos, ear marks, or neck chains)
Why is it important to have identification information of
your cattle? (For records, to prove ownership, for
Why is it important to dehorn cattle before they reach 2-3
months of age? (To reduce stress, bleeding, and
complications. It is also important to dehorn the cattle before
the horn bud begins to attach to the skull.) PPT 2: What is important
Motivation: about this picture
What is so important about this diagram? (It shows all the Q-A-D
foods people need to eat.)
What do people need to eat to get protein? (Meat) PPT 3: Objectives
What else does this diagram tell us? (How much of each
category to eat.)
So, people have certain things they need to eat to get protein, fat, and T-L-D
energy? That is right. We need certain things to fit our nutritional plan.
Today, we are going to be talking about the different things that cattle T-L-D
need to complete their diet. By the end of the lesson we will be able to:
•Identify essential elements needed for beef cattle nutrition.
•Formulate a feed ration for beef.
•Compare the nutritional value of feed components.
•Distinguish between the different feed rations based on the use and
stage of the cattle.
Key Points Methods and Media
PPT 4: What is nutrition?
Does anyone know what the term nutrition means? (What Q-A-D
our body needs to function.)
Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines nutrition as: the sum of T-L-D
the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and utilizes
Someone explain what that means. (Nutrition is the what we Q-A-D
get after the food has been processed.)
If that is the definition of nutrition, what is the definition PPT 5: What is a nutrient?
of a nutrient? (What our bodies need)
In the CIMC curriculum, it defines a nutrient as class of food that aids T-L-D
in the support of life and becomes part of the body cells. So, a nutrient
is something that is essential to the functioning of the body.
There are 6 essential nutrients that the body needs whether it is a cow, a
llama or a human. Q-A-D
Can anyone tell me what the 6 essential nutrients are? PPT 6: 6 Essential Nutrients
(Water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins.)
Why is water an essential nutrient? (Because we have to PPT 7: Water
have it to live)
Water is important because it promotes the body’s chemical reactions,
regulates body temperature, and forms the basis of the body’s
lubricants. Water should be clean, fresh, and available at all times.
PPT 8: Protein
Next is protein. Protein is important because it provides the amino
acids necessary to build body tissues. There are two primary sources of
protein, plants and animals.
What are some examples of plant protein? (soybean meal,
cottonseed meal, linseed meal, peanut meal, and sunflower-
What about animal proteins? (meat scraps, fish meal, and
PPT 9: Carbohydrates
Lets move on to carbohydrates. T-L-D
Carbohydrates provide energy for muscle movement and produce body
heat to help maintain body temperature.
PPT 10: Fats
Fats provide energy and fat-soluble vitamins
PPT 11: Minerals
Minerals provide material for growth of bones, teeth, and tissues; and
regulate the body’s vital chemical processes. Q-A-D
What might happen if we do not provide enough minerals
to the cattle? (Their bones and tissues will not be able to
grow to their full potential.) T-L-D
There are 2 types of required minerals: macro and micro minerals.
Macro mineral are required in larger amounts and micro minerals are
generally required in smaller amounts.
Macro minerals include: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium,
chloride, and sulfur.
Micro minerals include: cobalt, copper, iodine, manganese, zinc, and
PPT 12: Vitamins
Lastly, we need vitamins. Vitamins help in tooth and bone formation. T-L-D
They also help prevent infections and are essential for normal body
functions such as digestion, cell metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
The important vitamins are: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin
K, biotin, folacin, riboflavin (B-2), thiamin (B-1), vitamin B-6, vitamin
B-12, vitamin C, and niacin.
PPT 13: Components of Feed
Now, we are going to transition into feeds. There are 4 components to a Rations
feed ration. They are roughages, concentrates, supplements, and
PPT 14: Roughages
Roughages are feeds that are high in cellulose or fiber. They are usually
low in digestible nutrients. Q-A-D
Can someone give me an example of a roughage? (Alfalfa,
bermudagrass) PPT 15: Concentrates
Concentrates are feeds that are low in fiber, but they are relatively high
in digestible nutrients.
PPT 16: Supplements
Supplements are extra material that might be added to the diet like salts
or mineral blocks that supply a specific nutrient.
PPT 17: Additives
Additives are compounds that are added to the feed to preserve it or to
alter the animals’ metabolism.
Roughages and concentrates vary on their nutritional components
depending on what type of roughage or concentrate you are using.
Wheat grass is a roughage that is extremely high in protein. It is an
extremely good forage to graze. Bermudagrass on the other hand have
a very low protein content. It is still good forage to use, but
supplementation with concentrates may be needed.
Concentrates can come from many different plants or animals. Soybean
meal is a very common product used in concentrates. It is extremely
high in protein where corn is a lot lower. A decision must be made on
what products to use for a concentrate because the cost of the soybean
mill is significantly higher than the price of corn. PPT 18: Nutritional
Before we begin to develop any feed rations, lets take a look at the
nutritional requirements of a cow.
There are many things that are required for cattle nutrition. I want to
focus on crude protein and dry matter consumption. When you get into T-L-D
more in depth classes, we will cover the rest of this material.
Crude protein is the percent of available protein in the feed.
Dry matter is the amount of feed after the moisture has been removed.
Hence the name “dry” matter. PPT 19: Nutritional Values
Let’s take a look at some of the CP values in some feed materials. The
CP percentage of Soybean meal varies depending on where the
soybeans where gown and the soil nutrients. On this chart it has the CP
at 49.5%. Cotton seed meal is 40.9%.
There is more to feed rations that just being able to identify the CP PPT 20: Pearson Square
levels in feed stuffs. There is a method we can use to determine how
much of each component that we want to put into the mixture. This is
done by using a Pearson Square.
First we need to know what are two components for our mixture is
going to be. We know that we are going to use soybean meal and corn
for this example. Then, on both of the corners on the left side of the
box you need to place the components and their CP percentages. You
need to write the desired CP percent in the center of the box. Then, we
are going to cross subtract. Take the 45% soybean meal and subtract
14%. This will give you 31% on the bottom right hand corner. Now, do
the same thing with the corn. This should give you 4% on the top right
Next, we need to add 31 and 4, which gives us 35. To find the
percentage of Corn in the mixture, we take 31 divide it by 35 and then
multiply it by 100. This equals 88.57%. Do the same with the soybean
ration. This should equals 11.43%. If we want to mix up 2000 pounds
of feed, we take each percentage and convert it back to a decimal. Then
multiple the decimal by 2000. You should get 228.6 pounds of soybean
meal and 1,771.4 pounds of corn. PPT 21: Now it is your turn!
Now, I want everyone to work out this problem on a piece of paper.
Key Points Methods and Media
Today, we are going to be doing a case study. I am going to divide you T-L-D
up into three groups. I will select your groups for you. Once HO: Case Studies
you are in your groups, each group will be given a scenario.
Each groups’ scenario will be different. This is because each
group is going to develop a presentation to represent your
findings. Then, you will present your findings to the class. It is
going to be important to pay attention to each groups project
because this material will end up on an exam.
I am going to give you some materials to use a resource, but your group
is going to have to read the material and do some research to
solve the case study. If you have questions, I can help you, but
I am not going to give you the answers. I want you to be able
to analyze data and formulate an answer.
Once you have divided up into your groups, I want you to assign every
person a part. I am going to come by each group and ask you
about what each group member is responsible for. Everyone
needs to have an equal part in this assignment.
For the presentation, I want you to construct a PowerPoint presentation.
There is no requirement for how many slides; it just needs to
cover all the topics I gave you on the handout.
Assessment & Evaluation
Key Points Methods and Media
Lesson Closure: T-L-D
Over the last several days we have spent researching and discussing the
nutrition of beef cattle. We have talked about nutritional
requirements of cattle and nutritional values of feeds.
Can anyone tell me what the CP% of soybean meal is? Q-A-D
(Anywhere from 40-50%)
What are the 6 essential nutrients that beef cattle require?
(water, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins)
The presentations will be graded based on the rubric
developed for this project.
Students will also be evaluated over this material on the unit
REFERENCES & SOURCES (include at least two)
CIMC. 2007. Animal science second edition. Instructor’s Manual: Unit 12