Baking is a process by which the food is cooked in hot air in
a close oven. The action of dry heat is modified by the stream by the
stream which arises from the food during cooking. Bread, cakes, pastry,
pudding, vegetable and potatoes may during this method. Whether baked
in primitive or modern ways wheat is to be first ground to flour. In
baking for each purpose flour of a particular quality is required for bread
making hard wheat flour containing a high level of protein is required.
For biscuits wheat flour with a low protein content is desirable .
According to modern specifications the flour should also contain levels of
nutrient such as vitamin and minerals or other ingredients.
Home baking is one of the easiest ways of cooking and
nothing is more rewarding than delicious home made cakes or cookies.
The virtues of baked products are many . They are easy to make and are
economical too. They pose no problem while packing as they are light
and could be easily carried. They are nutritious and are easily digestible.
The retention of nutrient is better in baked products than that in fried
products. Baked foods are suitable for any occasion and they suit the
palate of the old and young alike. Incorporation of baked products in our
daily diet is a must, not only for nutritional improvement but also for
enhancing the palatability and relieving the monotony of any food or diet.
Bakery industry in India is one of the most important
processed food industry and also the fastest growing one. Every year
nearly 0.35 million tones of cookies are produced and sold in Indian
market. Baked products are popularly consumed as snacks by people of
all classes and of all age groups. As such these products may be
considered as ideal carriers for the supply of nutrient to vulnerable
groups like growing children, pregnant mother and convalescents. Baked
products even play a vital role in popularizing wheat in traditionally non
wheat consuming regions of the world.
Successful bakery production is connected with efficient use
of bakery machinery. Machine can work more efficiently, speedily and at
a cheaper rate ( depending on the labour cost) hence in large scale
bakery unit machines are preferred for most of the work. Therefore
mechanical as well as technical knowledge is essential for the baker.
The machines used in bakery units can be divided into four
Ingredient handling equipments: It includes
Sifter conveyer system etc.
Ingredient conveying system
Dump bin and Blender
Dough processing machines :
Double Arm/ Reciprocating arm mixer
Liquid ferment equipment
After moulding and panning the dough loaves are carried to a
steam box, which is just like a steam room. The accurate control system
for temperature and is established as it may change the quality of
products. The final proover are made up of
1. Stainless steel..
4. Tray proover
5. Rack proofer
1. Reel oven
2. Traveling tray oven
3. Tunnel oven
4. Conveyerized oven
5. Rack oven
Product handling machine
1. Bread cooler
2. Continuous belt cooler
3. Tray cooler
4. Rack cooler
5. Vacuum cooler
7. Packing machine
Depending upon the nature of the baked products, different types of
flours are milled.
The types of flour made for baking are the following:
Bread flour should form good gluten when mixed with water and for
bread with a good volume when baked. Thus bread flours should have a
high protein content. They are milled from blends of hard winter and
spring wheat and then moisture content, protein content, ash content,
starch quality protein quality and particle size are all controlled.
Self rising flour.
This flour is used domestically for making pudding, cakes, pastries
etc. This is made from milling weak wheat of low protein content . Hard
wheat up to 20 % can be used. The moisture content of the flour should
not exceed 13.5% to prevent premature reaction between the chemicals
present in the flour. Sodium bicarbonate and acid calcium phosphate or
some other acid ingredients are the chemicals used in the ratio of 1.16 %
bicarbonate and 1.61 % acid calcium phosphate on flour weight. A slight
excess of bicarbonate gives to an unpleasant odour and a brownish
All purpose flour is made from hard wheat or a blend of hard
and soft wheat and has a moderate protein content. It does not contain
self raising agents. It is suitable for use in yeast and quick breads ,
biscuits, pastries and cakes. A variation of this flour is instant flour – an
instant blending flour. This is made by a special agglomerating procedure
where by a number of individual flour particles are combined.
This flour is made from weak wheat of low protein content.
Depending on the type of biscuit, special types of flour are made. The
flour should make a dough having more extensibility but less spring than
bread dough. Dough pieces should retain their size and shape after being
stamped out. The extensibility of biscuit flour dough may be increased by
treatment with a proteolytic enzyme or with the reducing agent sulphur
dioxide or by the addition of sodium meta bi sulphite to the dough.
Cake flour is a medium strength flour ground from soft low protein
wheat of low a – amylase activity and is very fine in structure. The
purpose of flour in cakes is to allow an aerated structure to be retained
after the cake has been made. The stability of the final cake depends
largely on the presence of uniformly swollen starch granules. Hence the
starch granules should be undamaged during milling free from adherent
protein and attached by amylolytic enzyme.
Pastry flours similar to cake flour are made of soft wheat and are
fairly low protein. They are finely ground and they can be used for all
baked products other than breads.
Water makes possible the formation of gluten. Gluten as such does
not exist in flour. Only when flour proteins are hydrated gluten is
formed. Water assist in the control of dough temperature. Water also
makes possible enzyme activity.
A leavening agent aerates the mixture and there by lightens it.
Leavening action may be produced by physical, chemical or biological
means. The common leavening agents are air , steam and carbon di oxide
Air is incorporated into flour mixtures by beating eggs, folding and
rolling dough, creaming fat and sugar together sifting the dry ingredients
and beating batters.
A team is probably produced in all flour mixtures to a certain
degree since all flour mixtures contain water and are usually heated to
the vapouration temperature of water. Although the steam produced
during baking causes the mixture to expand steam alone cannot leaven a
mixture . Its action must be combined with that of air or CO2.
Carbon di oxide
The principle means of leavening flour mixture is by the formation of
carbon di oxide generated by the action of chemical leaveners or
produced from sugar by the action of yeast , microorganisms , chemical
leaveners include baking powder, baking soda and ammonium
It is defined as the leaving agent produced by mixing of an acid
reacting material and sodium bicarbonate with or without the addition of
starch or flour. Baking powders are classified according to their action
rates. Fast acting ones give off most of their gas volume during the first
few minutes of contact with liquid. When such powders are added to a
mixture the mixture must be handled quickly to avoid loss of carbon di
oxide and volume . Slow acting powders gives up very little of their gas
volume at low temperature they require the heat of the oven to react
completely. Double acting baking powders begin to act at low
temperatures and give viscosity and smoothness to the batter but they
do not go into complete reaction until they are exposed too high
The reaction of baking soda is similar to the baking powder as
a leavening agent. Carbon di oxide is released when the baking soda
comes into contact with the liquid in the dough . The amount of baking
soda must be only one fourth of the amount used for baking powder in
Yeast helps in fermenting the dough carbon di oxide is produced
as a result and thus it helps in leavening. Yeast a microscopic unicellular
plant reproduces rapidly under suitable conditions of food warmth and
The finest bread improver is a good craftman. Flour is always of
variable quality depending on the grade. Bread improver may be divided
into three main classes
Those of a mineral nature mainly used by main classes.
Those of an organic nature mainly enriching agents.
Those which while coming under categories 1 & 2 are also valuable
yeast foods , helping the yeast to work more vigorously.
Bread industry in India is growing rapidly to meet the increasing
demand of bread which has gained popularly in the Indian diet because
of its availability at reasonable cheaper rate . A good bread can be
preparaed from four basic essential ingredients i.e wheat flour, yeast ,
salt and water. Maida quality plays an important role in the production
of bread. Many additives are used during mixing the dough which within
limit corrects dough strength by conferring stability to the gluten to form
a fine network and quality of bread.
The common procedures for bread making is
Process of sponge bread making
50% flour + yeast water
The batter is kept aside sponge stage for 3 -4 hr Sponge stage
Add remaining 50% flour , salt , sugar and fat
Sponge like appearance
Kneading and fermenting dough stage for short period Dough stage
Proofing and baking
The common method of preparation of bread using various
Ingredient Normal straight No time dough Tin bread
Maida 300g 300g 200g
Fat 8g 10g 6.6g
Salt 5g 5g 3.3g
Sugar 10g 15g 10g
Fresh dry 6g 6g 8g
Water 180ml 180ml 180ml
Mix yeast in lukewarm water and keepside . Add a teaspoon of
Dissolve salt and sugar in remaining water and strain
Sieve the flour . Mix water in which salt and sugar have been
dissolved with the flour roughly.
Add yeast mixture to the flour and knead to a smooth and soft
dough add more water if necessary
Cream the fat and knead it to form the dough
Keep the dough in the dry prover at 27 7 C for 1 hr 30 min . to 2
Pun ch the dough and again keep in dry proof for 55 min . at 27 7
Divide and scale the dough into bvalls
Keep these balls under a dry cloth at room tenmperature for about
15 – 20 min.
Roll the mold either by machine or by hand
Pour in greased bread tin
Keep tin wet prover at 35 C or under a wet cloth about 1 hr or till it
fills the tin
Spray water on the bread surface before putting into the oven.
Injectg sream into the oven or put a pan with hot water inside.
Bake bread at 204 .4 C for 30 - 35 min.
Remove and brush over with oil.
Types of bread:-
Whole meal bread (brown bread ); wheat germ bread; gluten
bread high protein bread; high fiber bread ; Granary bread ; banaqna
bread ; bread rolls ; short bread ; white bread ; dinner rolls;
Baking process involves heat transfer and it is by conduction,
convection and radiation. Various source of energy are direct fire ,
indirect fire and steam.
Common defects in bread:-
The defects could be in external appearance or internal load
The external defects are
General insufficient or excessive loaf volume,
Light or dark crust color
Blisters on excessive crust thickness and
Absence of break and shed.
The internal defects are :
Gray crumb colour ,
Streaky crumb, cores (dense spots in the crumb ),
Holes in crumb ,
Poor flavor andrapid staling and
Poor keeping quality.
The biscuit industry has made rapid progress in recent years in
India and several other developing countries. Successful attempts have
been made to enrich biscuits with proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Various formulations are given
Ingredient Salt Sweet Fruit Coconut
Flour 260 170 115 200
Fat 100 85 100 100
Sugar 50 85 30 100
Egg 50 - 20 50
Ammoniumbicarbonate 4 - - -
Baking powder 3 2 3 3
Milk - 70-100ml - -
Essence - Few drops Few Few drops
Water 25ml - - -
Coconut - - - 50
Tuity fruity - - 30 -
Cashew nuts - - 25 -
Sift flour with baking powder thrice
Cream butter and sugar till light and fluffy adding essence
Add flour to make playable dough
Roll out into 0.31 cm thickness and cut with a biscuit cutter
Separate the biscuits Bake at 195 C for 15 min.
Important points to remember in making different types of biscuits.
Salt biscuits : Add baking powder, salt and ammonium
bicarbonate to the creamed mixture. Coat with egg before baking.
Fruit Biscuits : Add desiccated coconut to the flour and some at the
time of rolling.
Masala biscuits : Add 10g Masala powder in the flour sieve twice.
Tricolor biscuits : Sandwich a plain a plain biscuit with one hole using
a thin layer of jam. Sprinkle with icing sugar and fill each
hole different colored jam in each hole.