Using the Negative Attitude Towards Robots Scale with by ghkgkyyt

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									         Using the “Negative Attitude Towards Robots Scale”
                     with Telepresence Robots
             Munjal Desai, Katherine                                 Henriette Cramer                      Nicander Kemper
              Tsui, and Holly Yanco                             SICS & Mobile Life Centre                University of Amsterdam
                       UMass Lowell                           henriette@mobilelifecentre.org              nicander@gmail.com
                       {mdesai, ktsui,
                     holly}@cs.uml.edu



1.    INTRODUCTION                                                                  on the shoulder and gave her a “high five.” In the condition
   As robots become more commonplace in society, it is im-                          without the physical contact, the woman and Robosapien
portant to understand how people feel about these robots,                           only conversed. The style of the Robosapien helping the
including how they look, how they behave, and their pur-                            woman was also manipulated; the robot either helped when
pose. In 2004, Nomura et al. developed a psychological tool                         asked (reactive) or offered advice (proactive).
to measure people’s anxiety towards robots which evolved                               The participants then answered questions relating to how
into the “Negative Attitude Towards Robots Scale” (NARS)                            familiar they were with the robot in the video, to what ex-
[6]; the researchers have conducted several user studies re-                        tent they thought the person in the video should follow the
fining NARS and its subscales (e.g., [1, 5, 6]). NARS has                            robot’s advice, and to what extent they would follow the
three subscales: S1 measures “situations of interaction with                        robot’s advice if they were the person in the video. The
robots,” S2 measures “social influence of robots,” and S3                            participants also were asked in what relationship they would
measures “emotions in interaction with robots” [7].                                 view the robot to have in the video if they were the person
   NARS’s frequency of use within the human-robot interac-                          in the video (e.g., friend, assistant, co-worker, pet, acquain-
tion community has been increasing; a sampling of studies                           tance, toy, family).
is shown in Table 1. In the full paper, we will include the re-                        At the end of the survey, participants were asked a subset
maining studies omitted for length and describe each of these                       of the NARS S1 subscale questions with the original word-
studies in more detail. In all of the studies, the participants                     ing from [7] and modified S3 subscale questions in which all
perceived the robots to be autonomous. In this paper, we                            of the questions were altered from their original wording.
examine if NARS can also be used for robots which clearly                           The participants rated each statement on a modified Likert
have a human involved in the operation of the robot. For                            scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) with
example, telepresence robots can be thought of as mobile                            4 as “neither agree nor disagree.” For analysis of the survey,
embodied video conferencing systems with live video and                             participants were divided into those having a positive atti-
                                                                                                                                  ¯
                                                                                    tude towards robots (NARS score below X=3.4, SD=1.0)
audio communication. In a sense, the person operating the
                                                                                    and those with negative attitudes (NARS score above X).    ¯
telepresence robot is using it as a physical robot avatar. In
the state of the art telepresence robots, an operator must                             We examined the internal consistency of the NARS ques-
log into a robot and manually drive the robot around.                               tions’ responses by computing the Chronbach alpha value [4]
                                                                                    for each of the subscales. Given the participants’ responses
                                                                                    to this survey, we computed the Cronbach alpha to be 0.85
2.    NARS IN A ONLINE VIDEO SURVEY                                                 for the S1 subscale and 0.75 for the modified S3 subscale.
   In 2009, Cramer et al. conducted an experiment in which                          This result shows that the English adaptation of the NARS
they examined how people perceived a robot when physical                            S1 subscale can be used with people who speak English.
contact and help style were factors [3]. In the between sub-                        Further, people are able to provide consistent ratings for the
jects online survey, participants were asked to watch one for                       NARS scale for interactions with robots shown in videos, as
four videos featuring a Robosapien helping a woman using a                          opposed to in person.
word processing application on a computer. The woman has
a computer problem, and the robot gives advice as to what
she should to to recover her work. In the condition with
                                                                                    3.   CASE STUDY: TELEPRESENCE ROBOTS
physical contact, the woman tapped the Robosapien to get                               The Robosapien actor in the videos was intended to be
its attention for help; the Robosapien touched the woman                            perceived as an autonomous, independent agent. Our goal
                                                                                    is to determine if NARS can also be used when the robot
                                                                                    is known to be controlled by a human. Using Amazon’s
                                                                                    Mechanical Turk, we conducted an online video survey of
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for           five telepresence robots in a between subjects experiment
personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are           with 80 participants.
not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies              We used a slightly modified version of the NARS scale
bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to      presented in English in [7]. For our questions, we inserted
republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific   one duplicate question in the S2 subscale. The duplicate
permission and/or a fee.
PerMIS ’10, September 28-30, 2010, Baltimore, MD, USA                               question rephrased “I feel that in the future society will be
Copyright 20XX ACM X-XXXXX-XX-X/XX/XX ...$10.00.                                    dominated by robots” to “I feel that in the future, robots
                       Table 1: A sampling of studies using NARS as a performance measure
 Study                 Year   n     Language       Robot         Study Description
 Nomura et al. [6]     2004   240   Japanese       Robovie       Investigated the use of psychological scales for use in HRI
 Nomura et al. [5]     2006    53   Japanese       Robovie       Investigated the relationship between peoples’ negative
                                                                 attitudes and their interaction with robots
 Woods et al. [9]      2006   159    English    robot images     Examines robots from children’s perspective
 Bartneck et al. [2]   2007   467    English        Aibo         Investigated effects of cultural differences and prior robot experience
 Nomura et al. [7]     2007    17   Japanese     Robovie-M       Investigated relationship between peoples’ attitudes
                                                                 towards and the distance maintained during interaction
 Riek et al. [8]       2010   16     English       BERTI         Examine videos of humanoid gesture (beckon, give, and handshake)


                                                                     positively to our question modification. In the baseline NARS
Table 2: Chronbach alpha values of NARS subscales                    rating, “commonplace” averaged 3.96 (SD=0.76) and “dom-
               Base- After Robo- After telepresence
                                                                     inate” averaged 2.73 (SD=1.25) (p<0.01, t(69)=7.45). Af-
                line sapien video   robots videos
                                                                     ter seeing the Robosapien video, “commonplace” averaged
      S1       0.76      0.84           0.87                         3.87 (SD=0.87) and “dominate” averaged 2.85 (SD=1.35)
 S2 (original) 0.76      0.81           0.87                         (p<0.01, t(69)=5.42). After seeing the telepresence robot
 S2 (modified)  0.69      0.74           0.86                         videos, “commonplace” averaged 3.93 (SD=0.99) and “dom-
      S3       0.69      0.74           0.83                         inate” averaged 2.87 (SD=1.35) (p<0.01, t(139)=7.63).
                                                                        Current Work. We found that overall, NARS can be
will be commonplace in society.” As per the original Likert          used as a performance measure for videos of robots, which
scale from [7], participants were asked to rate the NARS             is consistent with prior works (e.g., [3, 8]). Further, we have
statements on a scale from 1 (I strongly disagree) to 5 (I           shown that NARS can be used with videos of robots which
strongly agree) with 3 as “undecided.”                               are known to be operated by people. We are currently run-
   Experimental Design. In the survey, participants were             ning an experiment to validate NARS with people operating
asked to provide their demographic information, including            telepresence robots in person. The results of this experiment
age, gender, occupation, country of citizenship, and pet own-        will be included in the full paper.
ership. They then completed a baseline NARS rating. We
also solicited information about their prior robot experience        4.   REFERENCES
and their video game usage in the last 12 months.                    [1] C. Bartneck, T. Nomura, T. Kanda, T. Suzuki, and
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ticipants saw one of four of the Robosapien videos (chosen at        [2] C. Bartneck, T. Suzuki, T. Kanda, and T. Nomura. The
random) used in Cramer et al.’s study [3]. The second video              Influence of People’s Culture and Prior Experiences with
was of the Anybots’ QB robot. The remaining video showed                 Aibo on Their Attitude Towards Robots. AI & Society,
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   We found that participants responded significantly more                2006.

								
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