An Example of Changing Urban Economy Shenzhen - Hong Kong

Document Sample
An Example of Changing Urban Economy Shenzhen - Hong Kong Powered By Docstoc
					An Example of Changing Urban Economy:
       Shenzhen - Hong Kong
Hong Kong – Shenzhen Area

   Purple Areas are urbanized (built up)
                Hong Kong
• Hong Kong grew rapidly after 1950 as it
  developed as a major industrial and financial
  centre for east Asia; the population today is
  7.1 million.
• As wages rose, manufacturing was
  increasingly replaced by the more lucrative
  trade and financial businesses.
• Until about 1980, the mainland Chinese
  hinterland was effectively closed to Hong
The Financial District of Hong Kong
…with little room to grow
• Shenzhen, China, was a rural agricultural
  area north of Hong Kong.

• Hong Kong, nearby, was not part of China.

• China was largely rural —
  under-urbanized— a sort of ―urbanization
            1979 - 2003
• In 1979 Shenzhen was opened for business
  development as a Special Economic
  Zone—i.e., businesses could be started
  there with very few of the controls that were
  in place elsewhere in China.

• In this ―urbanization vacuum‖, the city of
  Shenzhen appeared immediately in 1979
  and grew extremely rapidly—the population
  today is 2.5 million in the core city, and
  some 4 million in the metro area.
         Shenzhen‘s Economy
• The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the
  Shenzhen region grew from $8 billion in 1980
  to $89 billion in the year 2000.

• During that period, the rate of GDP growth
  exceeded 16 % per year (Canada‘s growth
  rate was about 2.5 %).
• Shenzhen is to a large extent a
  manufacturing zone for Hong Kong.

• While the economy today is based largely
  on manufacturing, the financial and
  service sectors are growing in
  importance—i.e. Shenzhen is undergoing
  a typical transition from a manufacturing to
  a service economy.
      The Shenzhen - Hong Kong
• Rail and road connections between the two
  cities are being upgraded as the economy of
  the region becomes more integrated.

• The population of the Hong Kong – Shenzhen
  urban region is 12 million.

• The two cities and others in the region are
  beginning to function as a single extended
  metropolitan area….
As a consequence, planning is now being
       done on a regional basis:
The Costs of Growth in Shenzhen

• Working conditions in the manufacturing
  plants are frequently prison-like.

• Sex tourism is a problem

• Air and water pollution from construction,
  factories, and traffic, is severe.
Air Pollution in Shenzhen:
                      Trade (retail)

George Street

                Duckworth Street

Trade (wholesale)

  Burton Upon Trent, UK
         Trade (commodities)
• rural primary production makes up most of the
  export production of many countries but is
  distributed through cities, linking rural
  communities with world markets and reinforcing
  core-periphery relationships

Health and Education
            Primary Sectors
Only a small percentage of labour force in:

• Mining
• Fishing
• Farming
          ―Urban Footprints‖
• increasing urban spillovers that blur the
  distinction between rural and urban
  economies and communities
• ‗urbanization‘ trend is accompanied by
  growing rural-urban interdependence,
  nearby rural populations maintaining a
  rural residence while commuting into the
  urban area for employment
• commuting distances have on average
  increased in all developed countries
                     Source: Ali et al (2007)
                          at least 50% of the
                          employed labour
  St.                     force living in the
John’s                    CSD works in the
                          delineation urban
 CMA:                     core

Bay to    Census metropolitan area: urban
          must have a population of at
Pouch     least 100,000
 Cove     Census agglomeration: urban cor
          must have a population of at least
1. Strong MIZ: more than 30% of the municipality's
   residents commute to work in any CMA or CA.

   2. Moderate MIZ: from 5% to 30% of the
 municipality's residents commute to work in any
                   CMA or CA.

3. Weak MIZ: from 0% to 5% of the municipality's
 residents commute to work in any CMA or CA.

    4. No MIZ: fewer than 40 or none of the
 municipality's residents commute to work in any
                    CMA or CA.

    - applied to CSDs outside CMAs and CAs

Shared By: