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“The Bulletin” January, 2002 My Money is Worthless? The next meeting of the North York Coin Club will be held on Tuesday, January 22, 2002, at the Edithvale Community Centre, 7 Edithvale Drive. We start gathering about 7:30pm with meeting start scheduled for 8:00. President’s Message Our guest will be Mr. Martin Hoffmann speaking on The Inflationary Currency of Germany. He will cover the period from 1900 through 1949, illustrated with notes It is a pleasant turn of events that I am from his own collection. Since some of these pieces are rather common, members are able to extend a very Happy New Year to encouraged to bring along examples from their own collection. all members and their families as one of my first duties as incoming President. This is the Annual Meeting so financial reports will be presented. We have a listed You can be sure that I will be learning auction this month but you are encouraged to bring additional auction material for quite a bit as I go along during my first this meeting. few months, but I am truly looking forward serving as the President of the Torex, Feb. 23-24 at the Pearson Ball- North York Coin Club. Coming Events room, Primrose Hotel, 111 Carlton St. Show and Auction. Sat. 10am-5pm; Sun. Your 2001 membership renewal is now CAND Show, Jan. 26-27, Ramada 10am-3pm Daily admission $5. Coins, due. Please bring your renewal to Len Plaza Hotel, 150 King St. Hamilton. paper money, cards, books, supplies, Kuenzig at the next meeting or send it in Sat. 10am-5pm; Sun. 10am-3pm. Large pens, watches, militaria. Contact Brian by mail. Those who have paid receive bourse, draws. Admission: adults $3, Smith, (416) 861-9523, e-mail new membership cards with this mailing. others $2. Contact Terry (905) 318- email@example.com. Web site: http://www. 1638, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org torex.net. Two members who were very quick to re- new were Tom Wilson and Frank Zarah, South Western Ontario Numismatics Ontario Numismatic Association An- each of whom included a donation to the Coin and Collectibles Show, Feb. 3, nual Convention, Bourse floor April 13- Club along with their dues. We thank 9am-4:30pm Convention Centre, Paris 14 at the London Four Points Sheraton these very supportive members and want Fairgrounds, 139 Silver St. Admission Hotel, 1150 Wellington Rd. South. Ad- everyone to know the money was imme- $2. More than 50 tables of tokens coins, mission $3. Hosted by the Ingersoll Coin diately put to good use in subsidizing our paper money, sports cards, jewellery, Club. annual Christmas Party. militaria, postcards, and artifacts. Con- tact Ted Bailey, (519) 442-3474. This information is courtesy of Cana- If you are now on the Internet, please dian Coin News and its web site. send an e-mail to the editor at “p. Oshawa and District Coin Club Coin- email@example.com”. This will allow us A-Rama 2002, Feb. 16 10am-5:30pm to send you any last-minute emergency Five Points Mall (Ritson Rd. and Taun- announcements. You may contact the ton Rd). Free admission. Coins, paper President, Bob Wilson, at 905-677-3765 money, medals, and tokens Contact Next Meeting: or the Editor, Paul Petch at 416-303- Earl or Sharon MacLean, 905-728- 4417. 1352, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. January 22 Page 2 North York Coin Club Bulletin, January 2002 Meeting News from the November 27 Meeting The 468th meeting of the North York The President, as a long-standing good Coin Club was held on Tuesday Novem- friend of Roger Fox, eloquently intro- ber 27, 2001 at the Edithvale Community duced him as guest speaker for the eve- Centre, 7 Edithvale Drive, Willowdale. ning. Roger’s presentation focused on The President, Paul Petch, opened the the Canadian Tire display in Ottawa meeting at 8:05 p.m. and welcomed 22 which, to date, has increased attendance members. at the National Currency Museum. A video, taped by Barry McIntyre, showed Unfortunately, Del Murchison was not what an exciting event the opening was. present for the On Time Attendance Congratulations and well-deserved ku- Draw so the pot goes to $4 for December. dos came from the Canadian Tire repre- sentatives and others. Possibly the high- Again, the Chair obliged the Secretary by light was the comment made by an offi- reading and then accepting the minutes of cial of the Bank of Canada who noted Oct. 23. "Canadian Tire Money could probably be considered as Canada’s second offi- cial currency"! The red tape was cut and The Lucky Draw winners were: Norm Paul Johnson, as Nominating Chairman, Belsten, Paul Petch(2), Norman G. was called to the floor to present nomina- Roger presented brochures and an over- printed Canadian Tire coupon to the Gordon(4), Jim Heifetz(4), Bob Porter, tions for the following offices: Len Kuenzig, Roger Fox(2) and Avner President: Bob Wilson who accepted. No young people present. These were also given out to the members present. Bar-Moshe. The draw run by Roger Fox further nominations were with Albert Kasman selling tickets made. Rather than discuss his huge display, Roger offered to answer any questions brought proceeds amounting to $29.00. 1st Vice: No nominations were pre- Many thanks to Rick Craig, Len Kuenzig sented or offered from the while the refreshments he had prepared were being enjoyed. The members were and Albert Kasman for their donations. floor. 2nd Vice: Albert Kasman who accepted. justifiably proud of Roger’s efforts and it was with great pleasure that Paul pre- An Application for Membership has been No further nominations were received from Avner Bar-Moshe of North made. sented him with a Certificate of Appre- ciation. York. If accepted his number will be 515. Secretary: Lucille Colson who accepted. No further nominations were There being no further business the meet- made. The auction ably run by Bob Porter earned $12.50 in commission and dona- ing closed at 9:45 p.m. Treasurer: Len Kuenzig who accepted. No further nominations were tions. made. Directors: Roger Fox, Rick Craig and Vince Chiappino all of whom accepted. The Slate of Officers will be formalized at the next meeting. The Chair thanked Paul and Norm Belsten for their hard work. At the recent Executive meeting the Xmas Party was planned and Len is ready to take reservations. The yearly donation of $50.00 was made to the J. Douglas Ferguson Foundation but the NESA do- nation was raised to $100.00 in honour of Harvey Farrow. The Chair listed the recent shows. He, Bob Wilson, Brian See and Roger Fox attended various ones. North York Coin Club Bulletin, January 2002 Page 3 Meeting News from the December 11 Meeting The 469th meeting of the North York the refreshments and Jean Orr, May O’Brien, Vince Chiappino, Mark Lane, Coin Club was held on Tuesday, De- Bunnett, Doris Wilson, Marg. Fox, Ellie Heifetz, Mark Argentino(2), Len cember 11, 2001 at the Edithvale Com- Sandy Craig, Ellie Heifetz, Norman G. Kuenzig and Jean Orr. The draw, run munity Centre, 7 Edithvale Dr., Wil- Gordon, Lyan See, Marco Farronato, by Roger Fox with Albert Kasman sell- lowdale, Ont. Paul Petch and Lucille Colson for their ing the tickets, brought proceeds donations to the buffet amounting to $36.00. Many thanks go Last minute eye problems prevented the to Albert Kasman for his $10.00 phone President, Paul Petch, from attending Len Kuenzig suggested the club send a card donation. this meeting. This led to considerable plant to Paul with all best wishes for a consternation and confusion. However, speedy recovery. Carried. (Editor’s The meeting was turned over to Bob eventually, calm prevailed and Past note: It was received and was a much- Wilson to run The AHA! Christmas President Ron Zelk was able to open appreciated surprise.) Trivia Quiz provided by Paul Petch. No the meeting at 7:30 p.m. one faired very well but everyone had a May Bunnett very generously donated great time and had many laughs with The On Time Attendance Draw for thirty-five bundles of numismatic book, the answers. $4.00 was won by Lucille Colson journals etc. for the festivities. Mem- bers were allowed to select one when In Paul’s stead, Ron wished everyone a The Swiss Chalet food had arrived and their Gift Exchange and Lucky Draw Merry Christmas and a Happy New the buffet table was all set up with sal- numbers were drawn. Ron Zelk ran the Year and welcomed Bob Wilson as in- ads, pickles, sweets, coffee, pop and Gift Exchange. coming President. The Executive were juices so everyone dug in for a great reminded of the January 8, 2002 meet- feast. We wish to thank the following: Lucky Draw winners were: Marco Far- ing There being no further business the Ron Zelk for picking up and delivering ronato(3), Marg. Fox, Doris Wilson(2), meeting closed at 9:25 p.m. the hot food, Roger Fox for setting up Ron Zelk(2), David Giannone, Terry Question of the Month The January Question of the Month challenges you to describe what a coin or medal of the “vis-à-vis type” is. We tried something a bit different for our Question of the Month at the November meeting. The piece pictured at right showing “The ancient art of coin striking” was donated to the Club by Bill McDonald who could not recall where it came from or what its background might be. The person who was able to suggest the best identi- fying information would win it for their collection! Rick Craig correctly identified it as one of a series of different themes originated by Kenneth Reynolds and made by Orleans Medalarts, USA. It is a part of a series produced over a number of years. A medal in the same series for Albert Einstein was produced in 1980. Rick won the piece, but he promptly donated it as a draw prize. Your editor got lucky and is now giving it a good home! Page 4 North York Coin Club Bulletin, January 2002 Banknotes Only A Eurocrat Could Love by David Olive It was three years ago in the January, more than 300 million Europeans 1999 issue of the North York Coin can embrace with enthusiasm. Club Bulletin that an article on the The designer scanned famous coming Euro currency first appeared. landmarks into his computer, then Coins and folding money are the With the passing of New Year’s eve, blended them stuff of everyday life and a far the coins and paper notes described in more powerful expression of that article have entered circulation, Faceless and placeless euro Europe’s experiment with unifica- displacing some very old European tion than any thousand policy pa- currencies. This article takes a critical notes are designed to offend no- pers, directives and edicts from view of the designs that have been se- body the European Union’s bureau- lected for the new series of notes. cratic brain trust in Brussels. Jacques Rueff, a former deputy Take a look at the new euro banknotes governor of the Bank of France, introduced last week and you under- understood that back in 1950 stand why the Brits, Swedes and Danes when he said that “Europe will be are holdouts to the biggest currency united by its money or it will conversion in history. never be made.” The notes are faceless and placeless. By now, there’s a certain inevita- While the new euro coins, also bility to a pan-European currency launched last week, display familiar accepted as legal tender from scenes, symbols and historical figures Cork to Moscow — a lesson for unique to France, Germany, Italy, Spain Canadians who might someday and the other eight members of the new have to contemplate life without “euro area,” the banknotes bear no trace the loonie. The past few days of national origin — a requirement have seen a surprising ump in made of the designer by a Eurocracy support for the euro in Britain, that’s scared stiff of irking one nation where people are beginning to by appearing to give prominence to an- grasp that clinging to sterling is other. The result is a first in the realm tantamount to surrendering Lon- of stamps, coins and paper money — a don’s status as a financial capital culturally neutered currency. And it’s to Frankfurt. God-awful. Then again, most Brits have yet Make no mistake, a single currency that to clap eyes on a euro banknote, helps bind countries to one another is a an experience sure to dismay any good thing for a continent whose Intra- lover of European culture. mural disputes produced two world wars in the past century. And the sooner Bland uniformity guides every that central and Eastern European na- aspect of EU practice and the tions get swept into the 12-member new currency is no exception. zone where local currencies were re- Participants in the design compe- placed by the euro on Jan. 1, the better. tition for the euro were prohibited from using any recognizable Half a century in the making, European buildings, monuments, natural unity is a project whose first great wonders or heroes on the new champion, Jean Monnet, worked in money. No Black Forest or Lake Western Canada in his youth and was Como. No Eiffel Tower or inspired by the cooperative governing Bridge of Sighs. No Rembrandt arrangements among Ottawa and the self-portrait or Madame Curie in provinces. But true harmonization of her lab. European trade, defence and cultural policies is still a work in progress, “The idea was to create a feeling partly for lack of unifying symbols that (Continued on page 5) North York Coin Club Bulletin, January 2002 Page 5 (Continued from page 4) It’s no wonder that French people this global icons. Do Californians object of commonality, of belonging,” said week are erecting metal-sculpture that the Lincoln Memorial on the U.S. Robert Kalina, the engraver at the Aus- shrines to the discontinued franc, and $5 bill pays tribute to a son of Kentucky trian National Bank who won the de- Italians have filled more than one town who practised law in Illinois? The tulips sign competition. I worked hard so that square with papier-mâché statues that blossom each spring in Ottawa are either an Italian or a Frenchman could crafted from lire. Their new currency is a perennial reminder of our affection look at the Gothic windows on the lifeless, depicting no people, animals or for Holland. But the guilder and its flo- 20-euro note and say, ‘That could be plants. The window images are no bet- ral motifs, often said to have been the here in France,’ or, ‘That could be here ter than the bridges, giving the eerie prettiest currency in circulation, are in Italy.’ “ impression of deserted buildings. now history; and tulips and other flora and fauna representative of specific na- Kalina limited himself to win- tions are verboten on Europe’s new cur- dows, bridges and a splotchy rency. map of Europe to suggest the euro as “a link to the future.” But The depressed value of the Canadian Kalina’s windows and bridges do dollar has prompted some business not exist in real life. He scanned leaders and economists to muse about a images of the Pont Neuf in Paris, similar inevitability of a common North the Rialto bridge in Venice and American currency — a dreaded hundreds of other European “amero.” For now, Canada’s $ 10 bill is bridges into his Apple Macin- instructive about our shared experience tosh. From those images, he in this part of the world. It depicts Scot- fashioned a series of “European” tish émigré John A. Macdonald as the bridges for the seven-euro notes, leader of a nation of immigrants. Be- obscuring the images that he had hind him, the Gothic elegance of the drawn upon, to the point of re- Parliamentary library is symbolic of our moving each real-life element architectural evolution. And soldiers pixel by pixel. “Hopefully,” said standing guard at a memorial arch are a Kalina, “no one will recognize reminder of national sacrifice and com- the old places” that went into the mitment to international peacekeeping. final pastiche. Currency is among the most familiar The maps that appear on each and certainly the most tactile, expres- banknote have won the new cur- sions of a community’s values. The rency some fans. “Europeans Eurocrats might well have imposed a will be able to point to their prohibition on aggressors Charlemagne hometown to anybody who and Napoleon. But what a lively debate asks,” says a contributor to Be- they have foreclosed in denying Italians yond the Polder, a Web site for the opportunity to decide whether Dutch travellers. “Americans can Michelangelo, or Leonardo da Vinci quickly be told, ‘No, Amsterdam would be the first to represent Italy to is not the capital of the Alps, Europe. see?’ She adds, however, that, “The 50-euro bill looks drab with its hesitant By opting for sterility, the EC currency As in Europe, a currency union on these am-I-orange-brown-or-not? attitude. czars have engaged in a sort of nihilistic shores would have its merits. Indeed, And the 5 euro bill looks like a lottery rejection of the Western world’s great- it’s not difficult to envision a global ticket.” est storehouse of symbolic treasures. It currency (the “worldo”?) But let’s hope seems not to have occurred to Brussels we shun the Eurocrats’ example of Kalina has succeeded all too well in that undue prominence for any one mounting the largest exercise in politi- developing images that will seem country could be avoided with a system cal correctness ever perpetrated on peo- vaguely, but only vaguely, familiar to of rotating images. Why not Goethe on ple whose very definition is their in- Belgians and Spaniards - and to com- the 50-euro note for three years, then comparably rich cultural heritage. muters on the Don Valley Parkway Antoni Guadi’s Church of the Holy who, when passing under the Bloor St. Family, then a Brittany village scene? This article appeared in the Wednes- viaduct, are looking up at a bridge not day, January 9, 2002 issue of the Busi- dissimilar from the one that appears on Neither do they understand that Racine, ness section of the Toronto Star. the new 100-euro note. Gutenberg, Notre Dame cathedral and Lake Geneva are pan-European, indeed, Page 6 North York Coin Club Bulletin, January 2002 Numismatics And Insects changes included the development of medals and tokens]. However, insects by Dr. Kirby Brown, never regained the prominence they San Joaquin County Agricultural Communications Office achieved in classical Greek coinage and art. Their appearance on true coins is a While Aristotle was studying the living insects are small, incongruous elements rare event until the present day. Fewer world, including insects, other Greeks of of coin designs and are thought to be than 100 different coin types in the last the ancient world were probably collect- symbols of families or local rulers re- five centuries have pictured insects. Only ing coins of their ancestors. The study of sponsible for the minting of the coins. in the last few years with the developing insects and of coins are probably equally There are somewhat over 300 types of craze for topical coins have several coun- ancient. The direct link between the two ancient Greek coins picturing insects tries issued coins picturing insects. These seemingly unrelated fields is even more and arachnids. are related to wildlife conservation ancient. themes. Similarly, insects are recent ele- Among the The decline ments of some paper money. very first of the true coins, G r e e k While true coins have been a rather infre- little lumps power and quent medium for entomological themes, of electrum the rise of medals and tokens have been varied and (a natural the Roman rich. These objects are not subject to the mix of gold Republic bureaucratic restraints of coins and are and silver) and Empire often highly original and artistic. They issued in the saw a de- often have a propaganda purpose. By far late seventh cline in the the most frequent theme has been a bee- century B.C., are ones picturing beetles, place of insects on coins. No Roman hive and honeybees. Even after the inven- bees, and scorpions. coin has an insect as a principle design tion of the modern wood beehive, the old element; however, insects are frequent straw skep continues to be depicted on Numismatics is the study of coins, cur- as small symbols on coins of the Ro- medals and tokens. The message is usu- rency, medals and tokens. In recent years, man Republic before 44.B.C. About ally “industry has its sure rewards” as collecting by “topic,” has become popu- 200 types of Roman Republican coins appears on an 18th Century British trade lar. Collectors specialize in animals, picture insects. The token The beehive is ships, famous persons, etc. It is only natu- coming of the Roman part of the coat-of-arms ral that a few devoted individuals have Empire after Julius of Utah and often ap- pursued an entomological bent. Using the Caesar represents the pears on medals and broader concept of entomology, arach- almost total disappear- tokens of that State. nids may be included. ance of entomological Since ancient times, the subjects on coins. A butterfly has been a The ancient Greeks produced the most few of the Roman symbol of death and artistically beautiful coins ever seen. colonies in former resurrection. It appears These miniature masterpieces pictured Greek areas pictured on medals relating to gods and goddesses, mythological scenes, scorpions, an occa- the death of kings and portraits and animals including insects. In sional coin from Ephe- other famous people. some cases the insect was a principle part sus still pictured a bee, Grasshoppers are shown of the design. Entomological subjects in- and some zodiac coins on several German medals relation to clude bees, beetles, butterflies, cicadas, from Egyptian Alexandria included a plagues of locusts at different times. Ants ants, grasshoppers, and preying mantises. scorpion. After about 200 A.D. the en- appear on bank tokens as a symbol of fru- tomological eclipse was almost total. gality. There is an incredibly large variety In some cases the reason for depiction of For 140 years until the 16th Century, of insect and arachnid depictions on med- an insect is easy to discern. For example, the blackout continued. Only some ob- als and tokens. To date over 2000 differ- the honeybee was a sacred symbol of Ar- scure lead pilgrim’s tokens from the ent medals and tokens may be counted in temis whose centre of worship was Ephe- 12th Century found in Turkey, Break this category. With increasing interest in sus. The honeybee appeared as the main this pattern. They are probably from the environment, entomological themes design element on Ephesian coins for al- Ephesus and picture a crude bee. in numismatics are bound to increase in most six centuries. In other cases the in- numbers, variety and artistic quality. sect may have a mythological connota- The Renaissance that started in the 15th tion. For example, a grasshopper on the Century had a profound effect on coin- Reprinted from the Cultural Entomology back of a lion being strangled by Hercu- age. After over a millennium of relega- Digest, June 1993 les may be a double reference to Hercu- tion to a utilitarian medium of ex- les’ battle with a lion and to his freeing change, coins once again became out- Mt. Oeta of locusts. Other depictions of lets of creative expression. Other North York Coin Club Bulletin, January 2002 Page 7 Numismatic Clippings from Journal of Commerce, Montreal Contributed by R. J. Graham Volume 37 of the Transactions of the NEW COIN NEW ONE CENT COIN - 1876 Canadian Numismatic Research Society for the year 2001 have just been pub- “A new silver coin has just made its lished. Scanning the document, your appearance which is likely to cause editor sees many articles of interest to some inconvenience owing to its ap- the token collector and history enthusi- proximation in size to two current Ca- ast, but very little to interest the collec- nadian coins, viz., the twenty-five and tor of Canadian decimals. One happy twenty cent pieces. It is an American exception to this statement are a set of twenty-cent piece not quite as large as three clippings taken from the Journal our twenty-cent coin and not as heavy. of Commerce of Montreal during the Another difference between it and our later half of the 1870’s. These clippings twenty-cent piece in general appearance provide interesting insight to the circu- is that it is not milled. By the exercise lating coinage of the day. of about the same amount of vigilance that is now necessary to distinguish be- BASE COPPER COIN tween our twenty-five and twenty cent coins any one may easily avoid taking it “We observe that the Quebec Chamber for the latter. Of course like all other of Commerce has been representing to American silver coins it is subject to The Government has caused to he the Minister of Inland Revenue that the discount in this country.” struck for circulation in the Dominion a Dominion Government should take 20 August 1875, p 17 new bronze cent. The effigy of the steps to remove from circulation the Queen, with the words “Victoria Dei base copper coin, the circulation of (Note: The Journal was not quite cor- Gratia Regina, Canada” is on the ob- which is unquestionably a nuisance. It rect—the American 20¢ piece, while verse, and on the reverse the words is very questionable, however, whether slightly smaller in diameter than its Ca- “One Cent” with the date 1876, within a it is in the power of the Dominion Gov- nadian counterpart, was heavier and beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath ernment to afford any relief under the contained almost a fifth of a gram more of maple leaves. These coins are legal circumstances. This is a very different pure silver.) tender to the amount of twenty-five case from the American silver, which cents in any one payment. was not only a Government coinage but 22 Dec. 1876, p 519 also a legal tender in the United States, and which obtained general circulation in Canada under very exceptional cir- cumstances. As to the base copper in Quebec the remedy is simple: The pub- lic have only to refuse to take it. It may be that all that is desired is to procure a supply of good copper coins, which would be a very easy task, and one that any of the banks would probably under- take. We cannot help thinking that Que- bec would like to be relieved of its base coin at the cost of the Treasury, which would be a very dangerous precedent to establish.” 21 June 1878, p 549. (Note: this article is undoubtedly mak- ing reference to the many copper tokens which continued to circulate because of the shortage of Canadian large cents. Page 8 North York Coin Club Bulletin, January 2002 January Meeting Auction List Starts at 1) A nearly complete set of Canadian Numismatic Association Journals from 1956 to 1993, property of C.N.A. Past President Dr. John Wilkinson. Approximately a dozen issues are missing. A donation auction lot for the club from Alice Wilkinson. .................$200.00 2) A section of the above lot if it is unsold. If no bid for the entire lot of Journals is made, then the years 1956 through 1962 inclusive are offered. The total estimate for these years is $100.00 .........................................................................................................$25.00 3) Two-volume set of Canada's First Bank, a history of the Bank of Montreal. Printed in 1966, over 900 pages hardbound in slipcases. Condition excellent. Estimate $80.00 Donation to the club by Ted Boxall. ...................................................................................$25.00 4) Newton, Iowa scrip notes issued in 1957 for the town Centennial. $1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 dollar denominations. Donation to the club by Ted Boxall. ............................................ $2.00 5) Catalogue of Sudbury Numismatics by Jeff Fournier. 81 pages illust. Estimate $10.00 Donation to the club by Ted Boxall. .................................................................................... $2.00 6) Lot of 4 silver coins: Mexico 1906 50 centavos VG/F, Netherlands 1959 2 1/2 G. VF, Australia 1 Florin 1951 VF, Italy 1863 1 Lira VG. Donation to the club by Ted Boxall. .... $5.00 7) Coins Tokens and Medals Of the Dominion Of Canada by Alfred Sandham, 1869. 72 pages, reprint of 1962 by Regency Coin. VF. Estimate $20.00 ........................................... $5.00 8) Complete two volume set, hardbound: Humphrey's Coin Collector's Manual from the Bohn's Reference Library Series (England) on various subjects. Fine condition; cov- ers worn but spine intact. Published in 1880. Must be viewed to be appreciated. Esti- mate $30.00 ........................................................................................................................$15.00 9) Money of the World by Richard G. Doty —240 pages, richly illustrated in colour and black and white. Hardcover with dust jacket in very good condition. This is a survey of coins and paper money from their invention up to the present day. Originally pub- lished at $30US. Estimate $20.00........................................................................................$10.00 Listed Auctions Bring any material you would like to sell by listed auction in February to the November meeting and give it to Rick Craig. The items should be presented for consideration in person in an ordinary envelope showing your name, phone number and your estimated value (i.e., reserve bid). Rick is assisting us by assuring consistent descriptions of quality and by pegging fair starting amounts for the listing in the bulletin.
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