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Christine Prins and Covey Potter

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					Building Phytotechnologies
 Building an Urban Ecosystem within the
             Concrete Jungle
Christine Prins and Covey Potter
Why build green?
Using biological properties to address
 concerns in urban ecosystems
  –   Indoor air quality
  –   Thermoregulation
  –   Roof runoff
  –   Parking lot pollutants/climate
  –   Grey water
  We are confronted with these pollutants most
  every day. How can we use our knowledge of
  the natural environment to combat these?
How do we integrate nature
into our building?   Green Plot Ratio
• Used by urban planners to organize amount of
  greenspace necessary for increased human health and
  well-being
• Attempting to quantify benefits of plants in an urban
  area
   – Recreation
   – Aesthetics
   – Emotional well-being
• Based on Leaf area index
• Allows for development in conjunction with greenspace
• Open for interpretation on how to implement
                                                 (Ong 2003)
                                       Indoor Air
                               • Humans indoors almost
                               90% of the time “Sick
                               building syndrome” (De
                               Kempener et al. 2004)


• Pollutants several times greater
  indoors than out (Orwell et al.
  2004)
• Plants and microorganisms in
  Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere
  are critical for pollutant removal
  (Wolverton and Wolverton 1993)
          Indoor Air
• Plant “Biofilters” used to clean
  volatile organic compounds
  (VOC’s) from air.
  - Toluene removed by Azalea
  enriched with bacteria
  Psuedomonas putida;
  - Formaldehyde removed by
  Chrysathemum.
  - Xylene removed by Date Palm
  - Ammonia removed by Lady
  Palm.
(De Kempener et al. 2004Orwell et al. 2004,
  Wolverton and Wolverton 1993)
                 CO2 Scrubbers
• Development of industrial bioscrubbers to decrease
  green-house gasses from fossil-fueled power plants
  (Jeong et al. 2003)
• Hot spring Algae (pH 7-11) to treat CO2 (Hsueh et al.
  2006)
             Green Roofing
• Increased runoff in urban environment due to
  impervious surfaces (Kohler et al. 2002)

• Gravel = 51% runoff while Vegetated = 18%
  runoff

• 10% cover in green roof yielded 3% decrease in
  runoff

• A 2% slope with 4 inch media decreased runoff
  to 13%
           (Mentens et al. 2006, VanWoert et al. 2005)
                         Green Roofing
• Affects local microclimate
  - Increased infiltration
  - Increased evaporation
  - Decreased temperature
  - Decreased flooding
  - Dust filtration (and air pollutants)
  - Improved thermal comfort indoors
  - Increased urban wildlife habitat
  - Provides urban ecosystem services

(Kohler et al. 2002, Mentens et al. 2006, Pangopoulos 2008, VanWoert et al. 2006)
Green Roofing




From Mentes et al. 2006
  Green Roofing




From VanWoert et al. 2005
    Urban Forestry
• Trees provide shade, increased
  insulation, decreased insolation,
  increased infiltration, and intake
  of pollutants in the urban
  landscape
  - Decreased summer air
  conditioning = $15.25/tree, but
  Increased winter heating =
  $5.25/tree (Simpson and
  McPherson 1998)
  - Increased canopy cover by 40%
  yields 2% reduction in vehicle
  emissions (Scott et al. 1998)
The 411 on Graywater (or Greywater)
Municipal wastewater
• Sinks, washers, bathtub
• 50-80% of municipal water use
Not toilet water (that’s black water)
Typical contaminants:
• Low levels of organics and nutrients
• Solids (food particles, hairs and fibers)
• Heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cd, Al, Pb, etc)
• Xenobiotic Organic Compounds (shampoos, detergents,
  perfumes, coffee, tea, diary products, cleaners, etc)
• Pharmaceuticals
Micro-organisms
• Bacteria
• Protozoans
• Helminths                                  (Eriksson et al. 2002, Garland et al. 2004)
 REUSE!
Filtered and treated greywater can be reused within
  the municipal, domestic, and industrial systems in
  the following ways:
• Restricted and unrestricted irrigation
• Garden/lawn watering
• Toilet flushing
• Non-potable household use
Reusing greywater can lead to a 25-50% reduction in
  total domestic water consumption


                           (Li et al. 2009, Jokerst et al. 2009, Ghisi and Ferreira 2007)
Methods for Remediation
• Hydroponics
  – Horizontal
  – Vertical
• Constructed Wetlands
  – Free Water Flow
  – Horizontal Subsurface Flow
  – Vertical Flow
• Greenhouse Use
• In tandem with Physical Filtration
  Methods
Hydroponic Systems
• Horizontal
  – Indoor or outdoor
• Vertical (Living Walls)
  – Pre-filtered
  – Indoor aesthetics
  – Downward flow through semi-potted plants
• Benefits:
  – easily added amendments for improved filtration
  – Recycles otherwise wasted nutrients
  – Breaks down organic compounds
                             (Benefits, Environmental, Greywater Treatment
                             2009, Garland et al. 2004, Garland et al. 2000)
Even Useful in
Advertising…..!
Constructed Wetlands
Outdoor use of marsh/wetland species to filter
  extra nutrients, contaminants, and surfactants
  associated with greywater
• Place inside impermeable layer to prevent
  leaching
• Sand or gravel filter layer
• Estimated 0.8 m2 of wetland/person


                                (Ghisi and Ferreira 2007, Jokerst et al.
                                2009, Vymazal 2009)
Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Model       Vertical Flow Model




                       (Vymazal 2009)



                                         (Gross et al. 2007)
Free Water Surface and Subsurface Model




                                                        (Jokerst et al.2009)
At the end of the
Constructed Wetland
treatment, there is a
significant reduction in
contaminants such as excess
nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.

                  (Philippi et al. 1999)
 Greenhouse Use
  Greywater runoff can be
  used to irrigate/water
  greenhouse plants

In tandem with physical
treatment options:
• Septic tanks
• Sedimentation
•Sand/gravel filtration layers
• Disinfectants (Usually Chlorine, but can be biological:
Essential Oils!)
                                 (Winward et al. 2008, Garland et al. 2004, Philippi et al. 1999)
                   Plants to Use!


Typha lattifolia        Scirpus acutus     Phragmites australis

Triticum aestivum    Or your favorite      Lactuca sativa
                     oranmental….




                                         (Jokerst et al. 2009, Gross et al. 2007,
                                         Winward et al. 2008,Garland et al. 2004)
         Gain Ground-
Turn your concrete jungle into an
       Urban Ecosystem
References
Benefits, Environmental, Greywater Treatment. EcoWalls. 2009. www.greenecowalls.com
De Kempeneer, L., B. Sercu, W. Vanbrabant, H. Van Langenhove, W. Verstraete. 2004. Bioaugmentation of the phyllosphere for the removal of toluene
       from indoor air. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 64: 284–288
Eriksson, E, K Auffarth, M Henze, A Ledin. 2002. Characteristics of grey wastewater. Urban Water 4 (2002) 85–104
Garland, JL, LH Levine, MC Yorio, ME Hummerick. 2004. Response of greywater recycling system based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of
       surfactents. Water Research 38: 1952-1962.
Ghisi, E, DF Ferreira 2007. Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in a multi-story residential building in southern Brazil.
       Building and Env. 42: 2512–2522.
Gross, A, O Shmueli, Z Ronen, E Raveh. 2007. Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland: a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small
       communities. Chemosphere 66: 916-923.
Hsueh, H.T., H. Chu, and S.T. Yu. 2006. A Batch Study on the Bio-fixation of Carbon Dioxide in the Absorbed Solution from a Chemical Wet Scrubber by
       Hot Spring and Marine Algae. Chemosphere. 66 (5): 878-886
Jeong, M.L., J.M. Gillis, and J.Y. Hwang. 2003. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal Photosynthesis Carbon Dioxide Mitigation by Microalgal
       Photosynthesis Bull. Korean Chemistry Society. 24 (12): 1763
Jokerst, AW, LA Roesner, SE Sarvelle. 2009. An evaluation of graywater reuse utilizing a constructed wetland treatment system.
Kohler, M., M. Schmidt, F.W. Grimme, M. Laar, V.Lucia de Assuncao Paiva, and S. Tavares. 2002. Green Roofs in temperate climates and in the hot-
       humid tropics – far beyond aesthetics. Environmental Management and Health. 13 (4): 382-391
Li, F, K Wichmann, R Otterpohl. 2009. Review of the technological approaches for greywater treatment and reuses. Sci of the Total Env. 407: 3439-3449.
Mentens, J., D. Raes, and M. Hermy. 2006. Green Roofs as a Tool for Solving the Rainwater Runoff Problem in the Urbanized 21st Century. Landscape and
       Urban Planning. 77: 217-226
Oberndorfer, E., J. Lundholm, B. Bass, R.R. Coffman, H. Doshi, N. Dunnett, S. Gaffin, M. Kohler, K.K.Y. Liu, and B. Rowe. 2007. Green Roofs as Urban
       Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services. BioScience. 57 (10): 823-833
Ong, BL. 2003. Green Plot Ratio: an Ecological measure for architecture and urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 63: 197-211.
Orwell, R.L., R.L. Wood, J. Tarran, F. Torpy, and M.D. Burchett. 2004. Removal of Benzene by the Indoor Plant/Substrate Microcosm and Implications for
       Air Quality. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 157: 193-207
Panagopoulos, T. 2008. Using Microclimatic Landscape Design to Create Thermal Comfort and Energy Efficiency. Conferencia Sobre Edificious
       Eficientes, Universidade do Algarve. 1-4
Philippi, L.S. 1999. Domestic effluent treatment through integrated system of septic tank and root zone. Water Sci. Technol. 40(3):125–13.
Scott, K.L., J.R. Simpson, and E.G. McPherson. 1999. Effects of Tree Cover on Parking Lot Microclimate and Vehicle Emissions. Journal of Arboriculture.
       25 (3): 129-142
Simpson, J.R. and E.G. McPherson. 1998. Landscape and Urban Planning: Sacramento’s Parking Lot Shading Ordinance: Environmental and Economic
       Costs of Compliance. Atmospheric Environment. 32 (1): 69-74
VanWoert, N.D., D.B. Rowe, J.A. Anderson, C.L. Rugh. R.T. Fernandez, and L. Xiao. 2005. Green Roof Stormwater Retention: Effects of Roof Surface,
       Slope, and Media Depth. Journal of Environmental Quality. 34: 1036-1044
Vymazal, J. 2009. The use of constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow for various types of wastewater. Ecol. Engin. 35:1-17.
Winward, GP, LM Avery, T Stephenson, B Jefferson. 2008. Essential oils for disinfection of greywater. Water Research 42: 2260-2268.
Wolverton, B.C. and J.D. Wolverton. 1993. Plants and Soil Microorganisms: Removal of Formaldehyde, Xylene, and Ammonia from the Inddor
       Environment. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences. 38: 2

				
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