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1.      See: Lavi & Mishchinsky v/ Assessing Officer (1956), Gazette of Laws 11,
    Pag. 526-528, cited by Menachem Goldberg: “Labor Law in Israel” Pag. 14
2.      See Case Marko v/ National Inssurance , published in Isarel’s Labor
    Judgements (P.D.A.) 1973-5, pag. 31,35,36.
3.      See: “Atbetsrecht” by Prof. A. Sollner, W. Kohalammer Verlag. Suttgart
    Berlin Koln, Mainz- 1969 p. 197 cited by Menachem Goldberg, supra 1.
4.      Stevenson Jordan & Harrison Ltd. v/Mc. Denald (1952) T..L.R. 101, cited by
    Menachen Goldberg supra, 1 page 20
5.      Natania v/ Berger, publised in Israel Labor Judgements (1971) (P.D.A.) pag.
    177, 190. Ibidem 1 Pag 33.
6.      Ibidem 5, pag. 173
7.      Ibidem 5 , pag. 188
8.      Labor Appeal 300229/96 given on 16.1.02, published in Israel Labor
    Judgements (P.D.A.) 37, Pag. 817: “Ami Cohen v/ Dan Cooperatfive.
9.      Tourism Services Regulations (Escort in Overseas Tours) - Collection of
    Regulations 1990, {ag/ 324. 672.
10.     Collection of Regulations 1997- 451
11.     Tourism Services Regulations (Guides) 1967. Collection of Regulations
    3.1.1967, Pag. 1156 and its ammendments.
12.     Israel Association of Tour Guides v/ Ministry of Tourism and others. H.C.J
    (Bagatz) 441/87. Not published.
13.     Israel Association of Tour Guides v/ Ministry of Tourism and others, Further
    Hearing 27/87. Not published.
14.     The Treaty of Rome, signed in Rome on 25.3.1957.
15.      Council Directives 68/367 E.E.C. of 15.10.68 (OJ 1968 I, 260/17,
    Council Directive 75/368 of 16.6.1975 (OJ 1975 L. 167/22)
    Council Directive 89/48 EEC of 21.12.88 (OJ 1989 L 19/16)
    Directive 92/51 EEC (OJ 1992 I 209/25)
    See also: “European Travel Law” by Jaqub-Bedford, Pag. 22,23.
16.     Case C-288/89 Stitching Collective v/Voor de Media (1991, ECR 1-4007 cited
    by Yaqub-Bedford” ibidem, pag. 21
17.     Art. 59 of the Treaty. See 6.4
18.     Commission v/ Italian Republic (1991) ECR- 709
    Commission v/ French Republic (1991) ECR 1-659
    Commission v/ Hellenic Republic (1991) ECR- 1-727
    cited in “European Travel Law” ibidem pag. 22
19.      Commission v/ The reign of Spain- c375/92 (1994), ECR 923 cited in
    “European Travel Law” ibidem pag. 40.
20.     Case c-106/91 Rambath (1992) ECR 1-335. Cited in European Travel Law”
21.     Collective Agreement Number 7014/2000 between the New General
    Confederation of Workers in Israel- Trade Union Department, and the Israel
    Association of Tour Guides No. 7014/2000.
    21A)Collective Agreements Law. Gazette of Laws 1957 Pag. 63-86
    22) Extension Order published in Official Announcements and Advertisements
    Gazette (Ialkut
        Hapirsumim 2001, Pag 403, Brochure 4934.
23) Tourist Services Law (1976). Gazette of Laws 1976. Pag. 228
24) Arrangements in the Budget of the State (Ammendments of Laws) Gazette of
Laws-1999, psg. 90
25) Ibidem 11 above.
26) Control of Commodities and Services (Identification of Business for the sale of
Goods and
    Rendering of Services to Tourists Order- 1967.
27) See Chapter 2 .
28) In Israel: Contracts Law (General Part) 1973. Gazette of Laws 1973- pag. 118
                Contracts Law (Remedies for Breach of Contract) 1970. Gazette of
Laws 1970 pag. 16.
29) In Israel: Section 34 and 35 of the Civil Wrongs Law (New Text)- 1968. Gazette
of Laws 1968
                Pag. 101.
30). In Israel: Section 63 of the Civil Wrongs Law (New Text) ibidem.
31). See also: Winfield and Jolowicz on Torts- 12th. Edition, Pag. 83.
32.) Teddis v/ proprietors of the Bann Reservation (1878) 3 app. cases, 430, 455, by
Lord Bluckburn.
33.) See: 9.3.2
34) See 9.3.3
35) Section 13 Civil Wrong Ordinance (New Version)-1968. Supra 29.
36) Section 15, ibidem.
37) Council Directive 90/314/EEC of 13.6.90 on Package travel, package holidays
and package tours
     O.J. No. LI 158, p. 59.
38) Ibidem: Art. 5.2
39) In Irland according to Section 3 of the Package Holidays and Travel Act (1995)
an Organizer can
     be any person organizing packages and for this reason, can cover either the
Travel Agent or the
     Tour Operator..
      In the Neetherlands, Chapter 7A of Book 7 of the Civil Code incorporated as a
result of the E.C.
      Directives on Package Tours, introduceds almost strict liability of the Tour
Operator, in relation
      to the execution of the Package Tours.
   In France: according to the Law of 13.7.92 (Title V; Jo 14.7.93 Pag 9459 the
Resposibility lies
     according to most of the writers- on the Travel Agent who is fully liable as
stated in par. 23 of .      the Law. In my opinion: in both of them. (See infra)
      In the United Kingdom, The Package Travel, Package Holidays and Package
     Regulations made on 22.12.92, according to Section 15, the Liability lies on the
    “other party to the Contracto “ and according to Section 2 Interpretation: means
    “the parties other than the consumer to the Contract, that is. the organizar or the
     retailer, or both as the case may be”.
     In Portugal: The Decree-Law No. 198/93 , 27th. May 1993. Diario de la
     Republica, I Serie A No. 123, Pag. 2904, both the Tour Operator and the Travel
     Agency are responsible towards the Consumer.
     In Denmark: According to the Package Travel Act No. 472 of June 30th. 1993,
     Art. 28 Both the Travel Agent and the Tour Operator are responsible for the
    Proper performance of the Contract, but vis a vis the consumer is the Travel
     Agent the responsible, and the Travel Agent subrogates the right the tourist has
    against the Tour Operator

     See also: Dr. Jose Fosman: “The implementation of the European Union
               Directives on Package Tours” submitte to lthe 9th. International
               Congress of Iftta, May 1994.- Dublin

               Dr. Jose Fosman: Last Developments in Israeli Jurisprudence
               regarding the Tour Operator-Travel Agency Responsibility. Submitted
               to the 4th . International Conference of Iftta- Palma de Mallorca.

43. John Cohen v/ Sociaty for the Protection of Nature in Israel and others. C.A.
    (Haifa) 1142/82. District Judgements Reports Book 50 (1) Pag. 400.
44) Sociaty for the Protection of Nature in Israel v/ John Cohen and others. C.A.
     452/451/88 High Court Judgments Reports Book 46 (1) Pag. 133.
45) See also: Dr. Jose Fosman “The Law when awarding Damages” Travel Law
     Journal. Issue two Pag. 47

trabajos/footnotes/tour guides 21.8.05

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