Docstoc

ART IN THE PROVINCE OF BURGOS

Document Sample
ART IN THE PROVINCE OF BURGOS Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                               www.turismoburgos.org




        ART IN THE PROVINCE OF BURGOS
                The lands of what is today the Province of Burgos are varied in their geography and have a
        long and complex history and an extremely rich artistic heritage that is unique in Europe for both its
        quantity and quality. Virtually all of the eras and cultures have left their creative mark on the province,
        from the remotest Paleolithic times up to the contemporary age.

                    Prehistory and Protohistory

                Although many Stone Age archaeological sites have been discovered in the province of
        Burgos, not many artistic works have survived from that period. One of the most important examples
        are the markings in the Penches Cave, which include incisions on the cave walls representing goat
        heads, possibly made in the Magdalenian period. The Palomera Cave, located in the Ojo Guareña
        complex, has traditionally been dated back to the Paleolithic Age. This age is probably the one that
        generated the richest and most complete artistic works in the area of Burgos. These include
        anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and geometric representations. Some of the images represented here,
        the most schematic, appear to correspond to the Post-Paleolithic Age. The Galería del Silex, in
        Atapuerca also has engravings from this time.

                 The Neolithic and the metal ages were when artistic expression began to develop significantly
        in the province. Architecture began to take on significant protagonism. From the Neolithic Age until an
        undetermined point in the Bronze Age a mode of monumental collective burial flourished in different
        parts of the world, and specifically on the European Atlantic coast: dolmens, true funerary gravesites
        that received the dead for hundreds of years. There are a very large number of dolmen sites
        throughout the province. Some of the most well-known include Ahedo de Butrón, Busnela, etc. During
        the Iron Age, the main forms of artistic expression that developed in the province are connected to the
        decoration of military funerary objects and ceramics. The Museo de Burgos has impressive examples
        from notable sites such as Miraveche and Villanueva de Teba.

                    The Roman World

                  Although the first contacts between the Duero River Basin and the Roman world go back to
        the second century B.C., it was not until the first century B.C. that artistic manifestations of that
        civilization began to appear in the province of Burgos. The most interesting remains are found in the
        city of Clunia, the head of the Legal Assembly of the Hispania Tarraconense. Though few
        architectural remains have survived, some of the most important are the great theater, forum, and the
        baths, buildings probably built in the 1st and 2nd centuries. A large part of the collection of Roman
        sculptures found in Burgos comes from this city. One of the highlights is the “Isis of Clunia”, in the
        Museo de Burgos. Other cities like Segisama, now the town of Sasamón, were also dynamic centers
        and the site of important buildings, as shown by the imposing capitels from the Imperial times found
        here. Beginning in the 3rd century, as part of the ruralization that was occurring throughout the empire,
        there was a multiplication of villas, which became centers of agriculture. Some significant ones such
                                                                             th
        as the Valdearados Baths, noted for their rich decoration of 4 century mosaics, are conserved in
        Burgos. In addition to these sites, the province is filled with an important series of remnants of the
        dense network of roads and bridges. Some bridges, such as the one in Tordómar are still performing
        their original function.




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                 Page 1
                                                                                                  www.turismoburgos.org




                    The Pre-Roman World. Visigothic and Mozarabic Art

                  It is very difficult to trace a panorama of artistic activity in the Province of Burgos from the 6th
                      th
        to the 10 centuries. The lack of existing works makes it impossible to establish clear lines of
                                                                                                                    th
        evolution. There was probably an initial stage, which we can call the Hispano-Visigothic, during the 6
               th
        and 7 centuries. At that time, the building models based on the solidity of stone blocks and the
        decorative formulas inherited from the Romans, though with degraded characters, remained in effect.
        The horseshoe arch became one of the specific defining elements of this style. There are quite a few
        archaeological remains and several buildings, such as the iglesia San Vicente del Valle that have
        been preserved. But the most significant construction from the period is undoubtedly the Ermita de
        Quintanilla de las Viñas, which is nothing more than the conserved part of an important basilica built
                   th
        in the 7 century. It stands out for its magnificent stonework and its rich internal and external
        ornamentation that communicates a complex iconographic message. Following the Hispano-Visigothic
        tradition, the Ermita de las Santas Elena y Centola, near Valdelateja was built in 782, after the fall
        of the Visigothic kingdom in Toledo, although the building probably underwent significant modifications
        during the Mozarabic period.

                               th
                During the 9 century, there was a trend towards the conservation of Visigothic elements in
        some buildings. At the end of that century, the iglesia de San Félix de Oca was built, and is
        associated with the count Diego Porcelos, with only the front remaining. Little by little, a certain
                                                                                                     th
        influence from the south began to be noted in some of the buildings built in Burgos in the 10 century.
        These were the years of the development of Mozarabic Art, which we find in some examples such as
        the entry of the Ermita de Santa María de Retortillo or the Ermita de Santa Cecilia de Santibáñez del
        Val.

                    Romanesque art

                 The arrival of the year 1000 brought significant changes in the economy and demography of
        Europe. There were also significant religious changes in which the Cluniacs had a significant influence
        by taking responsibility for providing a certain degree of cultural unity to Europe. A new style, the first
        pan-European system since Roman times, began to develop at that time. This was Romanesque Art,
        which was spread through the extension of the Cluniacs and through the pilgrimage routes that
        developed in Europe in the new millennium, especially the Camino de Santiago. The church floor
        layout, the semicircular fronts, the Roman arch, the saddle roof, rigid geometric structure, the use of
        domes and sculpture, associated with the architecture, as a vehicle to transmit messages, are the
        general traits that define this new style.

                 The lands of Burgos benefited from the early arrival of the Cluniacs and the opening to Europe
        through the Camino de Santiago. All of this facilitated the penetration of the Romanesque style. It
        was during the reign of Alfonso VI (1040-1109), a monarch with a clear trans-Pyrenean cultural
        vocation, when the forms were introduced and superimposed on the Mozarabic tradition. The final
        years of the 11th and first half of the 12th centuries were times of great vitality in building, demonstrated
        by the construction of buildings such as the primitive cathedral of Burgos, the church, which no longer
        exists, and cloister of the Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos, the church of the San Pedro de
        Arlanza Monastery, the church of the San Salvador de Oña Monastery, which is partly conserved,
        the San Quirce Abbey, and the San Pedro de Tejada church. All of these buildings were
        characterized by their inclusion of the traits of the Classic Romanesque style. A second stage in the
                                                                                          th
        Romanesque architecture of Burgos began in the second half of the 12 century and in the first
                            th
        decades of the 13 century. Some of the architectural elements of the buildings began to change.




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                    Page 2
                                                                                               www.turismoburgos.org




        Roman arches were frequently pointed, the first cross-work roofs appeared, with internal supports
        taking on increasingly complex forms, walls were decorated with multiple ledges and hollows, and
        sculptural and geometric decoration was more and more profuse. Burgos has a long list of buildings
        from around the year 1200. The Romanesque churches of Las Merindades (with examples such as
        iglesia de San Pantaleón de Losa, the iglesia de Santa María de Siones, and the iglesia de San
        Lorenzo de Vallejo de Mena), and the Romanesque buildings of Bureba are the most interesting.
        Also of interest is the Romanesque architecture of the Esgueva Valley, where, though the works are
        not as noteworthy as those in Bureba or the Merindades area, there is a fine set of buildings and
        construction from the late 12th century.

                 In terms of the figurative arts, monumental sculpture was the most notable. The province has
        several groups that are unique in the world, such as the series of capitels and relief panels in the
        cloister of the Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos, which provides a good example of the
        evolution of Romanesque plastic arts, from the stereotyped, geometric formulas at the end of the 12th
        century, to the more realistic and natural formulas of the late 12th century. In some cases, the
        architectural sculptures appear in connection with the capitels, and sometimes on the large porticos,
        as in the case of the iglesia de San Julián y Santa Basilisa in Rebolledo de la Torre, which dates
        back to the year 1186 and was done by the artistic genius Juan de Piasca. Interesting sculptural
        arrangements are found in the spandrels of the doorways of some churches such as the iglesia de
                                                                                                            th
        Gredilla de Sedano or the Miñon. Dozens of Romanesque baptismal fonts, especially from the 12
        century, such as the one in the iglesia de Redecilla del Camino, are found in churches throughout
        the province.

                  Unfortunately, few paintings from the Romanesque period remain in Burgos. Some interesting
        illustrated books have been conserved in libraries and archives, such as the famous Cardeña Bible.
        Also, despite the multiples losses, we still conserve important works in enamel and silver, especially
        those connected to the great workshop of the Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos, which carried
        out it production mostly in the second half of the 12th century. Pieces such as the “Frontal de Silos”, on
        display in the Museo de Burgos or some chests that are also kept by the museum are some of the
                                                   th
        highlights of this type of production in 12 century Europe.

                    The Gothic Period

                At the start of the 13th century, a series of sweeping artistic changes began to take place in the
        lands of Burgos in connection with the ideological and cultural changes that led to the full
        establishment of Gothic Art. A technical revolution – based on the use pillars and flying buttresses as
        supporting elements and the ribbed vault – allowed the development of buildings that were taller and
        more luminous than had been dreamed up to that point. Three main periods mark the arrival of Gothic
                                                                                                    th
        architecture to the city and the province. First we have the great buildings of the 13 century. A
                                      th                           th
        second period during the 14 and a good part of the 15 century followed. The third main period took
        place in the second half of the 15th century and continued until the early 16th century.

                 The Real Monasterio de Las Huelgas and the Cathedral were the buildings that began to
        show the changes and marked the start of the first period. Although construction on the Monasterio de
                                                  th                                           th
        Las Huelgas began at the end of the 12 century, its church was built in the early 13 century, and
        included formulas connected with the early Gothic-Cistercian. The mark of this unique construction is
        visible in some other buildings in Burgos, such as the front of the Monasterio de Villamayor de los
        Montes, built at that time, and in the front of the iglesia de San Gil, which was probably built at the
                      th
        end of the 13 century.




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                Page 3
                                                                                                www.turismoburgos.org




                 The building that definitively consolidated the change was the Catedral de Burgos.
        Construction began in 1221, under the aegis of the king Fernando III and the bishop don Mauricio.
        The models from classic French Gothic architecture are very noticeable in this building. It is a
        monumental basilica with three naves, a crossing, ambulatory, and cloister in which many of the new
        Gothic technical and aesthetic techniques were applied. Many other churches were built in this new
        style in the second half of the 13th century and in the early 14th century. Some used the cultured
        models established by the cathedral, as in the case of the iglesia de San Esteban in Burgos of the
        iglesia de Sasamón. Others opted for more rural designs, as in the case of the iglesia de Santa
        María de los Reyes de Grijalba. Some buildings, such as the iglesia de Villamorón provide a good
        example of the synthesis between the Romanesque tradition that resisted disappearing and the Gothic
                 th
        in the 13 century.

                             th
                The 14 century was characterized by a reduction in building activity and by the simplification
        in the decoration of the works done. Although some interesting churches, such as the iglesia de
        Nuestra Señora la Real y Antigua de Gamonal, were built, few significant works were constructed.

                                                              th
                  It was not until the second half of the 15 century that Burgos was revitalized as a great
        architectural center. The economic rise of the city and the presence of sponsors of the arts in the city
        allowed the establishment of a great architectural school that made the city, along with Toledo, one of
        the most vigorous centers on the entire Iberian Peninsula. This marked the start of the development of
        what is called Hispano-Flemish Gothic, which combines Spanish traditions with influences from the
        Nordic lands. The arrival of Juan de Colonia, the founder of a dynasty of architects and artists who
        filled the city of Burgos and its area with his works, was a decisive point in this process. His arrival has
        been tied to the European travels of the bishop don Alonso de Cartagena, who, in 1442, entrusted him
        with the construction of the cathedral’s spires and his own burial chapel in the Cathedral. Both he, and
        more especially, his son Simón de Colonia, were responsible for introducing new airs into the Gothic
        aesthetic, with their work marked by a tendency towards refinement and ornamental designs. Juan
        and Simón were responsible for the construction of the Cartuja de Miraflores, a project started in the
        period of Juan II, but that was finished only with the support of the queen Isabel la Católica. Simón
        built the spectacular Capilla del Condestable – one of the most important funerary spaces in European
        art of the Lower Middle Ages – the Casa del Cordón, and the majestic façade of the iglesia de Santa
        María de Aranda.

                 And while architecture had a significant impact, the figurative arts were no less important.
                                                                                                                th
        Gothic monumental sculpture reached a very high level of development. Already in the mid-13
        century, the plastic arts in Burgos had absorbed the French models that sought natural realism. The
        Cathedral’s Puerta del Sarmental, literally copied on the south façade of the iglesia de Sasamón,
        and the Puerta de los Apóstoles, or the Puerta de la Coronería, also in the Cathedral, are good
        examples of this. In the city itself we can find echoes of this cathedral sculpture in the entries to the
        iglesia de San Esteban and the iglesia de Santa María la Real y Antigua de Gamonal, which were
        built in the 14th century. Many wooden sculptures have been preserved in the parish churches of
        Burgos. The most important are those that show Christ crucified, which go beyond the Romanesque
        sense of hieratism and show a clear naturalistic tendency. There are several unique examples, such
        as the Descendimientos, with a magnificent example in the Monasterio de Las Huelgas, carved
        around 1300. But, as in the case of architecture, the late 15th century witnessed the reactivation of the
        Burgos school of sculpture. The master who filled this period with his works was Gil de Siloe. He was
        a clear follower of the elegant, refined, stylized, sophisticated, and highly decorative style of the
        Flemish and Burgundian world and created a series of extremely important works such as the
        altarpiece of the Capilla de Santa Ana in the Catedral de Burgos and the main altarpiece and
        sepulchers of Juan II and Isabel de Portugal and for the prince don Alfonso in La Cartuja de




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                  Page 4
                                                                                               www.turismoburgos.org




        Miraflores, which are examples of the pinnacle of European Late Gothic sculpture. A powerful school
        sprang up around him and kept his forms alive until well into the 16th century. While Siloe specialized
        in wood carving and did make some forays into stonework, Simón de Colonia and his workshop
        specialized in sculptures in hard materials. Around 1500, along with his son Francisco, he initiated one
        of the most significant undertakings in Burgalese sculpture: the main altarpiece of the iglesia de San
        Nicolás de Burgos, which visually demonstrates these sophisticated and decorative tendencies
        characterized the Hispano-Flemish world.

                                                                th        th
                 Few pictorial works have survived from the 13 and 14 centuries. There are a few examples
        from the Linear Gothic period, mainly the 14th and early 15th centuries, such as the frescoes with the
        life of Santa María Egipcíaca in the Monasterio de San Salvador de Oña or some of the paintings
        done on panels connected with decorative roofs in the Mudéjar tradition such as those in the cloister
        of the Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos or in the iglesia de San Millán in Los Balbases.
        There are very few International Gothic works. Perhaps the most interesting can be seen in the
        altarpiece of the iglesia de Torres de Medina, from the 15th century. It was in the second half of that
        century that saw the reactivation of painting in these lands. There was mass importation of painted
        panels from Flanders, brought by many of Burgos’ merchants. There was also a synthesis between
        the Spanish and Flemish styles that gave rise to what is known as the Hispano-Flemish Burgalese
        School, which is defined by its realistic naturalism, its detail, chromatism, and its concern for capturing
        space, though without rejecting some typically Spanish traits, such as the tendency towards
        expressionism. Some representatives of this school were masters such as the friar Alonso de Zamora
        (who painted the altarpiece of the iglesia de San Pedro in Tejada, today in the Museo de Burgos)
        or Diego de la Cruz (who did several works in the Cathedral). Notable works were produced by
        Pedro de Berruguete, who, around the year 1500, combined the Spanish tradition, the Flemish
        aesthetic, and some elements of the Italian Renaissance, to produce a series of panels like those in
        the iglesia de Santa María del Campo, the Annunciation in La Cartuja, or the Miracle of San Cosme
        and San Damian in the Colegiata de Covarrubias, which are of singular importance in the history of
        Spanish painting.

                 The lesser arts also developed significantly during the Gothic period. Judging from the
        preserved remnants, stained glass had two especially important periods in the 13th-14th centuries and
        again in the 15th century. But it was the art of silversmithing that reached its high point during this
                                                                          th      th
        period. Although there are many interesting pieces from the 13 and 14 centuries, it was the final
                                   th
        three decades of the 15 century, when production, especially religious production, increased
        spectacularly, that is characterized by its extension and ornamental richness. Despite the fact that
        many works have disappeared, the Cathedral, churches, and monasteries in the province continue to
        hold a large number.

                    Muslim influences. Mudéjar Art in Burgos

                The contact between the Muslim and Christian cultures over the course of the Middle Ages
        resulted in mutual aesthetic influences, with the Muslim influences on the Christian being more visible.
        The Christian lands were enormously attracted by the accumulation of rich objects from the Muslim
        south. The Treasury of the Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos received important ivory pieces
        such as the 11th-century Arqueta de Cuenca and a case from the times of the caliphs, which is now on
        display in the Museo de Burgos. This taste for oriental refinement led important figures in Burgos to
        finance works in the area that were based on the aesthetics of the Islamic models.




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                 Page 5
                                                                                                 www.turismoburgos.org




                  Burgos has some of the most important examples of Mudéjar Art, which is understood to be
        works done in Christian lands according to Muslim uses and by Muslim artists, using brick and plaster
        as the preferred construction materials. In this sense, the Real Monasterio de las Huelgas in
        Burgos is a magnificent example of the coexistence of the western ogival style and the arts rooted in
        Islam. Monarchs such as Alfonso VIII and his grandson Fernando III, who had distinguished
        themselves as clear representatives of the spirit of the crusade against Islam, during the first half of
               th
        the 13 century had no qualms about constructing in that cloister the Capilla de la Asunción (known as
        the Capilla Almohade) – which was probably done by masons from Seville for funerary purposes –
        and the Capilla del Salvador, and ordering the construction of the plasterwork that decorates the
        cloister of San Fernando, with a predominance of Muslim motifs. This group of works in Las Huelgas
        is one of the first examples of the Hispanic-Mudéjar style. In the centuries that followed, and
                                th
        continuing until the 16 century, the Muslim influence in Burgos art continued to be evident, as
        demonstrated by the construction of the Puerta de San Martín and the Puerta de San Esteban in the
        city of Burgos, built around 1300 by Moorish masons, and the coffers and decorative roofs in the
        Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos, the Monasterio de San Juan in Castrojeriz and the iglesia
                                                                          th       th
        de San Millán in Los Balbases, among others, all done in the 14 and 15 centuries.

                    The Renaissance

                 The 16th century was one of the most brilliant periods in Burgalese art. It coincided with an
        especially important time economically speaking, and important artists settled in the city, making
        Burgos one of the most important centers of Spanish creative activity, especially in the first half of the
        century. With this base, the development of the Renaissance began to take root, fixing its gaze on
        Italy, although the interpretations done in the lands of Burgos were clearly peculiar and did not
        completely disassociate from the Medieval tradition until the very final stages.

                   Architecture showed great development, and a large part of the old civil and religious buildings
        were renovated. We can make a distinction between the first period, which coincided with the first half
        of the 16th century, which is known as the Proto-Renaissance or the Plateresque period. It is defined
        by the use of complex ornamental elements, especially grutescos and a candelieri motifs that decorate
        doors, windows, and walls, and which in many cases are superimposed on Gothic constructions. One
        of the first examples is the Portada de la Pellejería of the Catedral de Burgos, built by Francisco de
        Colonia in 1516. The arrival of Diego Siloe to Burgos from Italy brought a breath of fresh air to Burgos
        art. The two most important architectural works that he constructed before going to Granada were the
        Escalera Dorada in the Cathedral and the tower of the iglesia de Santa María del Campo. The years
        in the second third of the 16th century saw the construction of important works in which little by little
        ornamental containment began to be noted, although the Gothic structural elements persisted.
        Perhaps the most interesting architect from these years was Juan de Vallejo, who built the façade of
        the Arco de Santa María and the base of the dome of the Cathedral. During the years from 1530 to
        1570, a large number of Burgos’s parishes were renovated as a result of the new demographic needs,
        knocking down or expanding old Romanesque or Gothic buildings, which were replaced or modified by
        new buildings. The dominant model was that of a hall church or “hallenkirche” (a church with three
        naves of the same height, still topped by gothic arches) that can be seen in many towns such as
        Villahoz, Santa María Rivarredonda, or Castrojeriz (the San Juan parish). Also during these years,
        some of the most important works of Burgos’ civil architecture were built, such as the Casa de
        Miranda, the Casa de Iñigo Angulo, the Palacio de Castilfalé, and the Hospital del Rey (now the
        University of Burgos) underwent significant renovation and expansion. The final thirty years of the
        century were characterized by a certain apathy towards building, although there were some important
        works built in the city as well as in the province. During these years, the traits of the Herrerian classical
        style little by little began to appear, as demonstrated in the Arco de Fernán González in Burgos.




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                   Page 6
                                                                                                www.turismoburgos.org




                  The 16th century was an especially brilliant period for Burgalese sculpture. The arrival of Felipe
        Vigarny in Burgos at the end of the 15th century brought a break from the rigid Hispano-Flemish Gothic
        formulas. But it was the return of Diego de Siloe from Italy that had the greatest effect on the
        consolidation of the new Renaissance style, defined by its natural and realistic figures. Both sculptors
        collaborated on the magnificent main altarpiece and the one of Saint Peter in the Capilla del
        Condestable in the Catedral de Burgos, which are among the most outstanding works of the Spanish
                                                 th
        Renaissance. The years of the mid-16 century were marked by the influence of Siloe and Vigarny on
        their followers. At that time, the workshop of sculptor Domingo de Amberes was very active, with many
        officials working under him. Amberes carved some of the most outstanding altarpieces in the province
        at the time, such as those in the churches of Pamplienga, Mahamud, and Isar. Beginning in 1560, a
        style of sculpture defined as Romanist Art – named because of the application of the models in Rome,
        and more specifically in the sculptures of Michelangelo – began to develop. There were two great
        Romanist workshops in Burgos. First, the one located in Miranda de Ebro that was created around
        the figure of Pedro López de Gámiz, who produced the great altarpiece of the Convento de Santa
        Clara in Briviesca. And secondly, the Burgos workshop of the brothers Rodrigo and Martín de la
        Haya, authors, among many other works, of the monumental main altarpiece of the Catedral de
        Burgos, in which the mark of Gaspar Becerra is evident.

                Although there are some important pictorial works, this type of art was not very important
                                                                        th
        during the Renaissance in these lands throughout the 16 century. There were some interesting
        painters like León Picardo, whose artistic life occupied the first third of the century, and Pedro Ruiz de
        Camargo, who painted at the end of the century, who filled many churches in Burgos and the province
        with their works. The so-called “lesser arts” experienced their true golden age. Burgos was one of the
        most important centers of production of silver work in Castilla, with important masters such as Lesmes
        Fernández del Moral, the son-in-law of Juan de Arfe. The metal grates and bars of Cristobal de
        Andino, who produced those in the Capilla del Condestable in the Catedral de Burgos were famous
        throughout Spain.

                    The Baroque Period

                                                     th                            th
                For Burgos and its province, the 17 and a good part of the 18 century represented a period
        of economic, demographic, and cultural decline, which was, in part, reflected in the arts. Nevertheless,
        although these centuries did not generate the artistic brilliance of the 15th and 16th centuries, the
        province is filled with important examples of this style. The complex and high-flown forms of the
        Baroque, characteristic of the world of the counter-reformation are very much present in Burgos and
        the province.

                There are two distinct phases in Baroque architecture. The first, the Proto-Baroque, developed
                                th
        during most of the 17 century and was associated with a certain simplicity of composition and
        decoration, though more ornamental influences began to gain ground. The second phase, the
        Churrigueresque Baroque, developed in the final years of the 17th and the first two-thirds of the 18th
        century, and was defined especially by the triumph of ornamentation, which ultimately prevailed over
        the architectural aspects.

                 In the villa of the Duke of Lerma, don Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas financed a
        series of buildings of great significance (palace, collegiate church, convents) in a style rooted in the
        Late-Herrerian style of the first decades of the 17th century, with this group (palace, collegiate church,
        and convents) being one of the most significant examples of the early Spanish Baroque. Although the
        city of Burgos fell into a certain artistic decline, some building activity was maintained during these two




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                  Page 7
                                                                                                 www.turismoburgos.org




        centuries. In the Cathedral, various Baroque chapels and spaces were constructed, including the
        Capilla de San Enrique, the Capilla de Santa Tecla, a new sacristy, etc.), all within the parameters of a
        Baroque style and highlighted with Churrigueresque figures. Also, some religious orders, such as the
        Jesuits, began to renovate their churches (today the iglesia de San Lorenzo) in a style marked by its
        extensive ornamentation. Some areas of the province, such as La Ribera del Duero, and to a lesser
        degree, La Bureba, due to their strong economic situation during these years constructed important
        civil and religious buildings, including the Sotillo de la Ribera and the Convento de la Domus Dei in
        La Aguilera.

                Sculpture, though it did not reach the same level of quality as in the 16th century, was one of
        the arts that developed the most in the lands of Burgos. The altarpiece became the dominant genre.
        Hundreds of sculptors and assemblers, many born in Cantabria, but settled in Burgos, worked for the
                                           th        th
        churches of the diocese in the 17 and 18 centuries. Thousands of works were produced in their
        workshops, ranging from some that show certain traits of the late-Herrerian classicism to those that
        are characterized by an exacerbated Churrigueresque style, and others with the delicate grace of the
        Rococo. Some of these altarpieces are among the best in the northern part of the Peninsula, such as
        the spectacular main altarpieces in the Colegiata de Lerma (1609) or the Capilla de Santa Tecla in
        the Catedral de Burgos (1735). The province has a number of important unique works done by
        virtuoso image makers from Valladolid and Madrid, as well as the sculptures carved by Gregorio
        Fernández for several Burgos convents, and the beautiful sculpture of San Bruno, sculpted by Manuel
        Pereira for the Cartuja de Miraflores.

                 There are few interesting paintings that were done in Burgos in the 17th and 18th century,
        although there are some of a certain level of quality done by painters from Madrid, Seville, Valladolid,
        and a few from Burgos, kept in the Cathedral or in the churches and monasteries in the city and
        province. There is one very interesting group of paintings in the main altarpiece of the Colegiata de
        Nuestra Señora del Manzano in Castrojeriz that were done by Mengs and his followers in a style in
        transition between the Baroque and the Neoclassical, which proves that Burgos was not disconnected
                      th
        in the mid 18 century from some of the most important artistic centers in Spain.

                                            th
                    Neoclassicism and the 19 century

                 The creation of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in 1746 was a knock for the
        arts in Spain. This institution encouraged the containment of ornamental style and sought a classical
        approach. The creation of the Academia de Dibujo del Consulado in Burgos in 1784, following the
        directives laid down by the Academy in Madrid, improved the training of Burgos’ artists. It was
        precisely this Academy, located on the new Paseo del Espolón, that was one of the first neo-classical
        buildings in Burgos. During these years, other important monuments were constructed with these
        same characteristics, including the City Hall in the capital, designed by Fernando González de Lara
        from Burgos. Many of these works were carried out as part of the urban renewal that was taking place
        as a result of the removal of the old medieval wall and the subsequent construction of new avenues
        and streets that made the provincial capital into a modern city that was facing modernity from a series
        of new urban planning concepts.

                                                                                            th
                 In Burgos and the other towns in the province, over the course of the 19 century, the main
        architectural works were civil constructions in connection with public institutions (Delegations, City
        Halls, etc.). In most cases, the architects opted for the somber lines of Neoclassicism (Diputación de
        Burgos, Palacio de Justicia, City Halls in Espinos de los Monteros, Villarcayo, Medina de Pomar,
                                                th
        etc.). But the second half of the 19 century was also a time of great development in domestic




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                               Page 8
                                                                                               www.turismoburgos.org




        architecture. This architectural renewal was especially strong in the capital, and in many cases applied
        neoclassical or eclectic aesthetic formulas.

                                                            th
                 Burgalese painting and sculpture in the 19 century did not achieve any level of significance. It
        was not until the end of this century when painting was reactivated, especially as a result of the
        establishment of two important masters in Burgos: Isidro Gil and Evaristo Barrio, who notably
        revitalized the artistic life of the city, though they were not the only artists working in the city during
        those years. The works they produced followed the path of rigorous academic standards that at times
        were still tinged with neoclassical traits. The Museo de Burgos has a good number of works by these
        artists.

                    The 20th century

                                                                         th
                 Artistic production in Burgos over the course of the 20 century achieved a certain degree of
        importance in different fields. Architecture, in connection with the growth of the capital and the
        province’s main population centers, was not always developed applying the parameters of notable
        quality, with the mere construction of the building taking precedence over architecture in many cases.
        However, we can find several important architectural works by architects from outside of Burgos and
        from other areas that have traveled the path of the neo-style, Modernism, Rationalism of the 1930s,
        and Functionalism. Some of the most important architects were Saturnino, Martínez, Carlos Moliner,
        and Marco Rico, who filled a large part of the century with their works. Some of the province’s towns,
                                                                                                            th
        such as Miranda de Ebro also showed interesting architectural activity in the first third of the 20
        century, with some interesting examples remaining in the form of both public and domestic
        architecture.

                 Painting and sculpture showed a significant resurgence in comparison with the 19th century.
                                  th
        Burgos’ artists of the 20 century walked the paths of academic tradition or those of avant-garde
        innovation. One of the most notable creators was Marceliano Santa María, who is one of the painters
        who has best captured the Castilian landscape. His work can be found in the Museo Municipal
        Marceliano Santa María, in the Monasterio de San Juan. Other notable artists include Modesto
        Ciruelos, Vela Zanetti, and Luis Sáez, who in many cases have shown clear signs of rupture in their
        works, although they do, on occasion show a certain fidelity to the past. Their works occupy a
        privileged location in the Museo de Burgos. The recently-inaugurated CAB, installed near San
        Esteban parish church in Burgos, has become a clear point of reference for contemporary art, as both
        a center with an important collection of artistic works by masters from Burgos, Spain, and abroad from
        recent decades, as well as the site of periodic exhibits of the most avant-garde creations from Spain
        and abroad. R.J.P.H.




Texts by Burgos University
                                                                                                                 Page 9

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:7
posted:9/15/2011
language:English
pages:9