Lithium Battery at work ppt

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Lithium Battery at work ppt Powered By Docstoc
					Lithium Batteries The Risk is in
your Worksite the Prevention is
      in your knowledge

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      Even these little risk need
• A hazard assessment because the risk are high
Tasks that expose workers to a high degree of
  personal risk require special planning. The
  analysis and precautions to control or reduce
  the hazard must be communicated to workers
  prior to performing the tasks.

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             Common types
• Common types of lithium based batteries are
  in use currently and they include but not
  limited to:
• Lithium Ion (Li-ion)
• Lithium Polymer (Li-po)
• Lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2)
• Lithium-sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2)
• Lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2)
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                 Read the Label
• Most primary lithium cells have a warning printed on
  the label that cautions against the following

•   - Short-circuit
•   - Charging
•   - Forced over-discharge
•   - Excessive heat or incineration
•   - Crush, puncture, or disassembly

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                    Lithium Ion (Li-ion)

•   The lightest of all metals
•   The greatest electrochemical potential
•   The largest energy density for weight.
•   The load characteristics are reasonably good in terms of discharge.
•   The high cell voltage of 3.6 volts allows battery pack designs with only one
    cell versus three.
•   Is is a low maintenance battery.
•   No memory and no scheduled cycling is required to prolong the battery's
•   Lithium-ion cells
•   cause little harm when disposed.
•   It is fragile and requires a protection circuit to maintain safe operation.
•   Cell temperature is monitored to prevent temperature extremes.
•   Capacity deterioration is noticeable after one year (whether the battery is
    in use or not).

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                         Lithium Polymer

•   The lithium-polymer differentiates itself from the conventional battery in the type
    of electrolyte used (a plastic-like film that does not conduct electricity but allows
    ion exchange - electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms).
•   The polymer electrolyte replaces the traditional porous separator, which is soaked
    with electrolyte.
•   The dry polymer design offers simplifications with respect to fabrication,
    ruggedness, safety and thin-profile geometry.
•   Cell thickness measures as little as one millimeter (0.039 inches).
•   Can be formed and shaped in any way imagined.
•   Commercial lithium-polymer batteries are hybrid cells that contain gelled
    electrolyte to enhane conductivity.
•   Gelled electrolyte added to the lithium-ion-polymer replaces the porous separator.
    The gelled electrolyte is simply added to enhance ion conductivity.
•   Capacity is slightly less than that of the standard lithium-ion battery.
•   Lithium-ion-polymer finds its market niche in wafer-thin geometries, such as PDA
•   Improved safety - more resistant to overcharge; less chance for electrolyte leakage.

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Lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-MnO2)
• Lithium-manganese dioxide cells have a metallic
  lithium anode (the lightest of all the metals) and
  a solid manganese dioxide cathode.
• Lithium-manganese dioxide cells are immersed in
  a non-corrosive, non-toxic organic electrolyte.
• They deliver a voltage of 2.8 V and are cylindrical
  in shape, in 1/2 AA to D format, with spiral

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   Lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2)

• Lithium-thionyl chloride cells have a metallic lithium anode
  (the lightest of all the metals) and a liquid cathode
  comprising a porous carbon current collector filled with
  thionyl chloride (SOCl2).
• They deliver a voltage of 3.6 V and are cylindrical in shape,
  in 1/2AA to D format, with spiral electrodes for power
  applications and bobbin construction for prolonged
  discharge. Lithium-thionyl chloride cells have a high energy
  density, partly because of their high nominal voltage of 3.6
  V. Bobbin versions can reach 1220 Wh/L and 760 Wh/kg,
  for a capacity of 18.5 Ah at 3.6 V in D format. Because self-
  discharge is extremely low (less than 1% per year), this kind
  of cell can support long storage periods and achieve a
  service life of up to 20 years.

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          “What’s Inside” TM
• Three parts comprise battery:

• Cathode

• Anode

• Electrolyte

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 Raw Materials
Lithium Ion Cells

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                                    Li-Ion Disadvantages
•   Disadvantages (Chemistry Dependent) Shelf life
•   Charging forms deposits inside the electrolyte that inhibit ion transport. Over time, the cell's capacity
    diminishes. The increase in internal resistance reduces the cell's ability to deliver current. This problem is
    more pronounced in high-current applications. The decrease means that older batteries do not charge as
    much as new ones (charging time required decreases proportionally). High charge levels and elevated
    temperatures (whether from charging or ambient air) hasten capacity loss.
•   Charging heat is caused by the carbon anode (typically replaced with lithium titanate which drastically
    reduces damage from charging, including expansion and other factors). A unit that is full most of the
    time at 25 °C (77 °F) irreversibly loses approximately 20% capacity per year.
•   Poor ventilation may increase temperatures, further shortening battery life. Loss rates vary by
    temperature: 6% loss at 0 °C (32 °F), 20% at 25 °C (77 °F), and 35% at 40 °C (104 °F). When stored at 40%–
    60% charge level, the capacity loss is reduced to 2%, 4%, and 15%, respectively
•   Internal resistance
       The internal resistance of lithium-ion batteries is high compared to other rechargeable chemistries
         such as nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium. Internal resistance increases with both cycling and
         age. Rising internal resistance causes the voltage at the terminals to drop under load, which reduces
         the maximum current draw. Eventually increasing resistance means that the battery can no longer
         operate for an adequate period.
        To power larger devices, such as electric cars, connecting many small batteries in a parallel circuit is
         more efficient than connecting a single large battery.

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• There are two types of Li-ion batteries
   – Wound Cells
   – Prismatic Configurations with flat
     plate construction
      • Flat mandrel wound pseudo-
        prismatic designs
      • Flat plate true prismatic designs
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                     Li-Ion Batteries - Are They Safe?
•   Safety requirements
•   Li-ion batteries are not as durable as nickel metal hydride or nickel-cadmium designs, and can
    be dangerous if mistreated. They may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if overheated
    or over charged. In extreme cases, these effects may be described as "explosive."
    Furthermore, over discharge can irreversibly damage battery. To reduce these risks, batteries
    generally contain a small circuit that shuts down when the battery moves outside the safe
    range of 3–4.2 V. When stored for long periods, however, the small current drawn by the
    protection circuitry itself may drain the battery. Normal chargers are then ineffective. More
    sophisticated battery analyzers can recharge deeply discharged cells by slow-charging them
    to first reactivate the safety circuit and allow the battery to accept charge. Over discharge can
    short-circuit the cell, in which case recharging can be unsafe.
•   Other safety features are required:
•   These devices occupy useful space inside the cells, reduce their reliability; ,and irreversibly
    disable the cell when activated. They are required because the anode produces heat during
    use, while the cathode may produce oxygen. These devices and improved electrode designs
    reduce/eliminate the risk of fire or explosion.
•   These safety features increase costs compared to nickel metal hydride batteries, which
    require only a hydrogen/oxygen recombination device (preventing damage due to mild
    overcharging) and a back-up pressure valve.
•   Many types of lithium-ion cell cannot be charged safely below 0°C.

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          Wound Li-ion Cells

• Electrodes
   – Separation and
• Terminals
   – casing
• Regulation and
  safety devices
   – PTC
   – Safety vent
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Flat Plate Prismatic Li-ion Cells

                                   • Electrodes,
                                     coating, and
                                   • Plates and tabs
                                   • Casing and Seals

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         Ni-Cd vs. Li-ion battery
• Ni-Cd have longer cycle life

• Li-ion have greater voltage

• Ni-Cd have longer recharge

• Li-ion are lighter, but have to
  include more safety features

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Cost of Replacement:
• Free within one year

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                Store me properly
• Cells should be stored in their original containers or
• - Cells should be stored in a dry, well ventilated area. Ideally,
  cells will be stored in a temperature controlled environment
  at 23°C or below.
• - Cells should be segregated from other combustible or
  flammable materials
• - Fresh cells should be isolated from depleted or used cells
• - Appropriate fire extinguishing means should be available
• - Storage areas should be equipped with sprinklers
• - Appropriate personal protective equipment should be
• - Exercise caution when stacking boxes to prevent crushing of
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                Care and PM
• 1. Charge often. Don't try to fully discharge
  the battery packs frequently. This only adds
  strain. Several partial discharges (regular use)
  with frequent recharges are better for lithium-
  ion than one total discharge.
• Recharging a partially charged lithium-ion
  battery pack does not cause any harm
  because it has no "memory".

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• 2. Avoid heat. Short battery life in model airplanes
  is more likely to be caused by heat rather than
  charge/discharge patterns. Keep the lithium-ion
  battery cool. Avoid a hot car, for example.
• 3. Don't charge up the battery pack just to store it
  away. When storing for long periods of time, keep
  the battery at a 40% charge level. Consider
  removing the battery from a laptop when running on
  fixed power. (Some laptop manufacturers are
  concerned about dust and moisture accumulating
  inside the battery casing.)

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• 4. Use the right charger. By now you probably know
  that each kind of battery has its own technology, its
  own rate of charge and so on. Charging lithium
  packs correctly is one way to extend their life and to
  avoid damage. The NMP lithium-ion charger is
  designed specifically for charging the NMP lithium-
  ion battery pack safely, on the bench, in the field, or
  in the car.
• 5. Don't use old batteries. Avoid purchasing spare
  lithium-ion batteries for later use. While it makes
  perfect sense to have 2 or 3 extra battery packs, so
  that you always have a fresh one charged up and
  ready to go, it isn't a great idea to just buy up
  batteries and keep them around for years before
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                                  At work
Obtain and review the battery manufacturers Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS),
• Specification sheet(s) and/or other available documentation prior to the design
    and use of battery
• packs. Perform hazard analysis (a.k.a. risk assessment) to understand the various
    failure modes
• and hazards associated with the proposed configuration and type(s) and number
    of batteries used.
 Based on a hazard analysis, incorporate appropriate safety-related design and testing
    criteria into
• battery pack and device design, with the design objective of increasing the safety
    margin during
• the battery pack life cycle. Ensure safety-related requirements are incorporated
    into design.
Ensure that written standard operating procedures (SOPs) for Lithium and Lithium Ion
• devices are developed that include mechanisms to mitigate possible battery
    failures that can occur
• during: assembly, deployment, data acquisition, transportation, storage, and
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Written work instructions or checklists should be generated for assembly and
   testing procedures.
• Wear safety glasses whenever handling batteries.
• Remove jewelry items such as rings, wristwatches, pendants, etc., that
   could come in contact with the battery terminals.
• All dented cells or batteries with dented cells should be disposed, regardless
   of electrolyte leakage. Denting of sides or ends increases the likelihood of
   developing an internal short circuit at a later time.
• Cover all metal work surfaces with an insulating material. Work areas
   should be clean and free of sharp objects that could puncture the
   insulating sleeve on each cell.

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• If cells are removed from their original packages for inspection, they should be
     arranged to preclude shorting. Do not stack or scatter the cells. They should be
     placed in non-conductive
carrying trays with individual compartments for each cell.
• Cells should be transported in non-conductive carrying trays. This will reduce the
     chances of cells being dropped, causing shorting or other physical damage.
• All inspection tools (including calipers, rulers, etc.) should be made from, or covered
     with, a non conductive material.
• After a cell has been inspected it should be returned to its original container.
• If leads or solder tabs need to be shortened, only cut one lead at a time. Cutting
     both leads at the same time can short the cell.
• • Never touch a cell case directly with a hot soldering iron. Heat sinks should be
     used when soldering to the tabs and contact with the solder tabs should be limited
     to a few seconds.
• • Exercise caution when handling cells around solder pots. If leads need to be
     tinned, do only one at a time. Also, guards should be in place to prevent cells from
     falling into solder pots.

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Cells should not be forced into battery holders or other types of housings.
   This could deform the bottom of the case causing an internal short circuit.
   Furthermore, the terminal cap could be crushed putting pressure on the
   glass-to-metal seal. This could result in a cell venting. Check for proper fit
   before inserting the cells into any type of housing.
• • Excessive force should not be used to free a cell or battery lodged inside
   the housing.
• • Cells and/or batteries, should not be exposed to high voltage AC sources
   or other DC power supplies that could result in subjecting the cells to
   unanticipated charging or forced-discharging currents. Secondary cells
   should be charged only according to the cell or battery manufacturer’s
   directions, particularly with respect to maximum applied voltage.

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• Releases from Cells (Vented, Leaked or Exploded)
• The electrolyte contained within the lithium cells can
  cause severe irritation to the respiratory tract, eyes
  and skin. In addition, violent cell venting could result
  in a room full of hazardous air contaminants,
  including corrosive or flammable vapors. All
  precautions should be taken to limit exposure to the
  electrolyte vapor. Review the MSDS or product
  information sheet PRIOR to working with cells, so
  that you are familiar with the steps to take in the
  event of a release.

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• Lithium may emit a colorless to pale yellow gas
  with a sharp, pungent odor.
• The electrolyte contained in lithium cells can
  cause severe irritation to the respiratory tract,
  eyes, and skin.
• Potential hazards may include the release of:
• − Thionyl chloride, bromine, chlorine dioxide,
  hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and sulfuryl
  chloride gasses
• − Strongly acidic wastewater
• − Hydrogen from the reaction with water
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      It could be an emergency
Emergency Actions
• Employees:
− Warn others and report the emergency.
− Evacuate to a safe area.
− Attend to any person that has been exposed to
  the material, if safe to do so.
− Wait for further instructions from the
  Emergency Coordinator.
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             Emergency Coordinator:
− Ensure that area personnel have evacuated and injured personnel have
    been attended to.
− Review the material safety data sheet.
− Assess the extent and magnitude of the release.
− Determine if further evacuation is required.
− Determine if the emergency response contractor must be mobilized. If the
    extent of the
hazard cannot be determined the emergency response contractor should be
− Introduce additional ventilation, if possible, until pungent odor is no longer
− Oversee response, neutralization, cleanup and disposal of released

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• Cleanup Procedures (for trained/qualified personnel):
− Don appropriate personal protective equipment (e.g., lab coat, gloves, safety
    glasses, respirator).
− Place leaking cell in a sealable plastic bag and cover with a mixture of neutralizing
    agent (soda ash or baking soda) and absorbent material (vermiculite). Double-
    bag the leaking cell and seal the bag.
− Absorb/neutralize any spilled electrolyte with absorbent material and neutralizing
Collect the contaminated absorbent into a sealable bag.
− After removing the cells and any absorbent/neutralizing materials, the areas can
    be cleaned with water or an ammonia-based cleaner.
− Place all waste materials in an appropriate container and identify contents with a
    red hazardous waste tag and request pickup or move to a Main Accumulation
    Area for
hazardous waste.

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•   Primary, Non-Rechargeable
•   Use Lith-X Class D
•   extinguishing agent.
•   DO NOT use water
•   Use an ABC dry chemical
•   extinguisher or water hose stream.
•   Fight the fire based on the fueling
•   material – e.g., paper, plastic,
•   solvent, etc. P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
               Fire Lithium-Ion
• Secondary, Rechargeable
• Use an ABC dry chemical extinguisher or water hose
• Fight the fire based on the fueling material – e.g.,
  paper, plastic, solvent, etc.
• Use an ABC dry chemical extinguisher or water hose
• Fight the fire based on the fueling material – e.g.,
  paper, plastic, solvent, etc.

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                        First Aid
• EYES: Immediately flush eyes with a direct stream of
  water for at least 15 minutes with eyelids held open,
  to ensure complete irrigation of all eye and lid tissue.
  Get immediate medical attention.
• • SKIN: Flush with cool water or get under a shower,
  remove contaminated garments. Continue to flush
  for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention, if
• • INHALATION: Move to fresh air. Monitor airway
  breathing and circulation. Taken appropriate first aid
  and/or CPR actions, as necessary. Get immediate
  medical attention.
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            We are TDG/HazMat
• While many types exist, not all batteries are subject
  to the Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Act
  and Regulations. For example, common household-
  type alkaline, nickel cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal
  hydride (NiMH), and silver-zinc batteries are not
  classified as dangerous goods. Even some small
  lithium batteries, depending on the amount of
  lithium they contain, may also be exempt from the
  TDG Regulations. When batteries are shipped by air,
  more requirements or even some restrictions apply.
  For example, even household type batteries must
  have the terminals protected from short-circuit for
  air shipment.
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         Common Place Same Risk
• Lithium batteries have become commonplace
  and the Regulations regarding their transport
  now affect a wider audience. They can be
  found in everything from consumer
  applications (watches, mobile phones,
  computers, etc) through industrial
  applications (communications, automobiles,
  etc). Because of this, IATA has developed the
  following information to assist shipper's,
  freight forwarders, ground handling agents,
  airlines/operators and passengers in
  complying with those Regulations.
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Fire Explosion and High Risk

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• Some batteries are regulated as dangerous goods
  because they may pose hazards during transport.
  These hazards include:
• short-circuits, which can lead to fires; and/or
• leaks of corrosive liquid or other material that can
  injure people or damage property.
• Most batteries are classified as class 8 - Corrosives.
  However, some may be classified as class 9 -
  Miscellaneous Products, Substances or Organisms or
  class 4.3 - Water Reactive Substances. The
  manufacturer (i.e. consignor) is responsible for
  classifying the battery. Although Transport Canada
  can provide help in the classification process, we will
  not classify a battery for you.
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The risks are closer than you think

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• Lithium batteries shall be stored in a sprinkler-
  protected facility. Do NOT store lithium batteries in
  offices, lunch rooms, smoking areas, or any space
  normally occupied by people. Lithium batteries
  should be segregated from other types of batteries;
  consult with your local Fire Department for the
  degree of segregation necessary. Lithium battery
  storage areas must be placarded in accordance with
  National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard
  704. A recommended NFPA placard for lithium
  battery storage areas appears below. Be aware that
  the codes used at your location may vary.

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Recycle Properly Don’t Cause a fire

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