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Southwest Wyoming NO2 PSD Cumulative Increment Consumption

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					International Corporation                                                 Air Sciences




       Southwest Wyoming NO2 PSD Cumulative Increment
               Consumption Modeling Protocol




                                            Prepared for

                                          Ken Rairigh
                            Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality
                                         122 W. 25th St.
                                     Cheyenne, WY 82002



                                            Prepared by

                                 ENVIRON International Corporation
                                   101 Rowland Way, Suite 220
                                        Novato, CA 94945




                                           July 17, 2007




101 Rowland Way, Suite 220, Novato, CA 94945                                 415.899.0700
July 2007




                                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                        Page


1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 1-1

2. CUMULATIVE PSD INCREMENT CONSUMPTION MODELING
   REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................... 2-1

     Modeling Guidance................................................................................................................ 2-1
     Model Selection ..................................................................................................................... 2-1
     Selection of Modeling Domains ............................................................................................ 2-2

3. MODEL SELECTION AND CONFIGURATION........................................................... 3-1

     Model Selection ..................................................................................................................... 3-1
     Comparison of CALPUFF with ISC...................................................................................... 3-1
     CALMET/CALPUFF Sensitivity Analyses........................................................................... 3-2

4. EMISSION INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT.................................................................. 4-1

     Point Sources ......................................................................................................................... 4-1
     Petroleum Field (Oil & Gas) Sources .................................................................................... 4-2
     Area Sources .......................................................................................................................... 4-2
     Emission Inventory Quality Assurance Procedures............................................................... 4-6

5. PROGNOSTIC METEOROLOGICAL MODELING ................................................... 5-1

     Overview .............................................................................................................................. 5-1
     MM5 Modeling Domain ........................................................................................................ 5-2
     MM5 Input and Initialization................................................................................................. 5-2
     MM5 Physics and FDDA Configurations.............................................................................. 5-2
     Model Performance Evaluation and Postprocessing.............................................................. 5-4

6. FINAL CALMET/CALPUFF MODELING PROCEDURES......................................... 6-1

     CALMET Configuration........................................................................................................ 6-1
     CALPUFF Configuration....................................................................................................... 6-2
     Post Processing and Data Archiving And Distribution.......................................................... 6-3
     Model Evaluation and Quality Assurance Procedures........................................................... 6-4

7. REFERENCES......................................................................................................................R1




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                                                  APPENDICES

Appendix A: Dispersion Modeling Configuration Analysis………………………………….A-1
Appendix B: Sample CALMET Control Parameter Input File………..…………………….A-35
Appendix C: Sample CALPUFF Control Parameter Input File………..……………………A-57


                                                      TABLES

Table 3-1.    Summary of dispersion model configuration sensitivity analyses....................... 3-2
Table 4-1.    Track segment density ranges used for allocation to counties............................. 4-3
Table 5-1.    Configurations of physics and FDDA for the 36/12-km
              MM5 simulations of calendar years 2001, 2002, and 2003................................. 5-3


                                                     FIGURES

Figure 1-1.   Target region for the southwestern Wyoming PSD
              increment analysis, including the Bridger and Fitzpatrick
              Wilderness areas, the Jonah-Pinedale Development Area, and
              surrounding portions of Sublette and western Fremont counties......................... 1-2
Figure 2-1.   Overview of PSD increment modeling domain in southwestern
              Wyoming and surrounding states......................................................................... 2-2
Figure 2-2.   Final Southwestern Wyoming modeling domain as used in the
              NO2 PSD increment analysis. .............................................................................. 2-3
Figure 5-1    Wyoming PSD modeling domains, including the MM5 12-km
              modeling domain. ................................................................................................ 5-3
Figure 6-1.   Receptor networks used in the CALPUFF PSD increment analysis ................... 6-3




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                                                             1. INTRODUCTION


Industrial growth, including large-scale oil and gas exploration and production, has increased
significantly in southwestern Wyoming in recent years. This increased activity has been
accompanied by increases in atmospheric emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) which, in turn,
have consumed a portion of the annual average ambient NO2 increment available under EPA’s
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program. Under the PSD program specified in the
Clean Air Act, States are required to track cumulative PSD increment consumption to insure that
the combined changes in emissions from all new and modified sources since the PSD baseline
date do not exceed the maximum allowable increment values. To help meet this requirement, the
Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) has developed this modeling protocol
document to address issues associated with conducting a comprehensive cumulative NO2 PSD
increment consumption study. This protocol is based on a modeling analysis of increment
consumption from point, area, and mobile sources impacting Sublette County and the Bridger
and Fitzpatrick Wilderness Areas in southwestern Wyoming (ENVIRON, 2007). The
Bridger/Fitzpatrick Wilderness Areas lie just to the northeast of the Jonah-Pinedale oil and gas
development area where much of the recent energy production growth in southwestern Wyoming
has occurred (see Figure 1-1). This protocol is intended to provide details of procedures useful
to preparing future PSD increment consumption estimates in southwestern Wyoming as well as
other portions of the State.

This modeling protocol is the result of a series of analyses that were used to identify the most
appropriate model configurations adopted for the southwestern Wyoming increment study
described above. It is designed to provide readers with background on the model selection and
configuration process and as a source of guidance for future regional scale modeling efforts.
PSD modeling requirements are described in Section 2. Dispersion modeling procedures are
discussed in Section 3, including a description of the sensitivity analyses used to identify the
most appropriate modeling configuration for the PSD increment analysis (details of this analysis
are presented in Appendix A). Information on data sources and methods used to develop the
model-ready emission inventories needed for the analysis is presented in Section 4. Prognostic
meteorological modeling procedures using the MM5 mesoscale model, which is the first step in
the development of meteorological fields needed for dispersion modeling, are described in
Section 5. Final modeling procedures used in the PSD analysis are presented in Section 6.

Readers should note that development of a comprehensive cumulative PSD increment
consumption estimate that accounts for increment consuming and expanding emissions from
point, area, and mobile sources on a regional scale is a major undertaking. Detailed current and
baseline emissions data must be developed and processed for modeling. In addition, extensive
experience with application of regional scale atmospheric dispersion and chemical
transformation and deposition models and access to advanced, multi-processor computer
architectures is required to successfully complete such an analysis.




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                                      Class I Area Boundary


                                      Jonah-Pinedale Development Area (JPDA)

                                      County Boundary
                                                               UTM Zone 12 (NAD 27)




                    4820



                                                                           Fitzpatrick
                    4800
                                                                                                     Fremont County
                                                                                Wilderness
                                                                     Br
                                                                       id g

                    4780                                                           Area
                                                                           er


                                 Sublette County
                                                                           Wi
UTM Northing (km)




                                                                              lde
                                                                                  rn
                                                                                    es



                    4760
                                                                                   sA
                                                                                         rea




                    4740
                                                        Jonah-Pinedale
                                                        Development
                                                        Area (JPDA)
                    4720




                    4700




                    4680
                           540         560         580               600             620       640    660       680
                                                                     UTM Easting (km)



Figure 1-1. Target region for the southwestern Wyoming PSD increment analysis, including the
Bridger and Fitzpatrick Wilderness areas, the Jonah-Pinedale Development Area, and
surrounding portions of Sublette and western Fremont counties.




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                             2. CUMULATIVE PSD INCREMENT CONSUMPTION
                                     MODELING REQUIREMENTS


Calculation of the NO2 cumulative increment consumption required the application of a suitable
dispersion model capable of predicting annual average NO2 concentrations over the study region
from significant sources of NOx that potentially contribute to increment consumption or
expansion. For the NO2 increment calculation, annual average NO2 concentrations were first
modeled using an emissions inventory representative of the NO2 baseline year (1988) and then
modeling was conducted using an emission inventory representative of current emissions.
Predicted annual average baseline NO2 concentrations were then subtracted from the predicted
annual current year NO2 concentrations at each model receptor location, resulting in an estimate
of NO2 increment consumption at each receptor location.


MODELING GUIDANCE

EPA and the Federal Land Managers (National Park Service, National Forest Service, U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service) have released guidance related to atmospheric dispersion modeling
applicable to PSD increment consumption analyses. EPA’s basic modeling guidance is
contained in the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 51, Appendix W). As the primary focus
of the southwest Wyoming PSD analysis is increment consumption within the BFWA, guidance
for modeling air quality impacts in Class I areas is also applicable, including guidance prepared
by the Interagency Workgroup on Air Quality Modeling (IWAQM, 1998) which deals with
issues related to modeling long-range transport of pollutants from distant sources to Class I
areas, specifically for purposes of the PSD program. The IWAQM guidance calls for the use of
the CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion modeling system for modeling such impacts. This
recommendation is based on the finding that proper treatment of spatial variations in wind speed
and direction is needed to obtain accurate dispersion estimates for sources located at receptor
locations occurring at significant distances from the sources being modeled and for sources and
receptors located in areas of complex terrain. EPA guidance noted above suggests that the use of
steady-state Gaussian plume models such as ISC and AERMOD, which invoke the assumption
of a spatially homogeneous horizontal wind field, be limited to source receptor distances of no
more than approximately 50 km (or less in locations with complex terrain).


MODEL SELECTION

Two alternative atmospheric dispersion models were selected for calculating NO2 increment
consumption in southwestern Wyoming: a Gaussian puff model (CALPUFF) and a Gaussian
plume model (ISC). Results obtained using these two models were compared and the relative
advantages and disadvantages of each evaluated. Results of this analysis, together with the
modeling guidance described above, were used to inform the selection of an appropriate model
for the final increment consumption calculations as described in Section 3. It should be noted
that WDEQ will specify the model to use for a particular application (CALMET/CALPUFF or
ISC/AEROD) on a case-by-case basis, taking into account all relevant factors, including
pollutants and impacts to be addressed, source receptor distances, terrain, etc.



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SELECTION OF MODELING DOMAINS

The first step in the selection of an appropriate modeling domain for the southwestern Wyoming
PSD increment analysis was to identify the receptor regions of interest. In this case, the WDEQ
determined that increment consumption in the BFWA Class I areas and surrounding Class II
areas were to be targeted (see Figure 2-1). The next step was to determine the types and
locations of sources potentially contributing to increment consumption in the receptor region. In
accordance with applicable guidance (IWQAM, 1998), major sources at distances of up to 300
km from the BFWA were considered. However, in recognition of the fact that modeling
dispersion over such a large area is a resource intensive task, a step-wise, “inside out” modeling
approach was used to approach the final desired result. Under this approach, initial modeling
was limited to sources of NOx emissions in Sublette County. Upon completion of this initial
work, the modeling was expanded to include emissions from additional sources located within a
300 km radius of the BFWA. The final modeling domain is referred to as domain D3 (see
Figure 2- 2).
LCPy (m)




                                                                 LCPx (m)

Figure 2-1. Overview of PSD increment modeling domain in southwestern Wyoming and
surrounding states. Blue circle is radius 300 km ring around the Bridger and Fitzpatrick
Wilderness Areas which are Federal Class I areas straddling the Sublette – Freemont county
border (see Figure 1-1). Wells located within the Jonah-Pinedale oil & gas development area in
Sublette County are shown in grey. Red stippled rectangular regions indicate the area over
which dispersion model receptor grids were defined for PSD increment consumption
calculations.

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LCPy (m)




                                                                            D1xx




                                                                                     D2




                                                                                          D3


                                                                               LCPx (m)

           Figure 2-2. Final Southwestern Wyoming modeling domain (Domain D3 represented by the
           blue box) as used in the NO2 PSD increment analysis. Domain 2 is the LCP coordinate system
           representation of the UTM domain used for initial modeling of emissions sources in Sublette
           County, including a series of CALPUFF and ISC dispersion modeling sensitivity analyses
           designed to determine the optimal final modeling configuration as described in Section 3. Also
           shown are county boundaries, and the Bridger and Fitzpatrick Wilderness Areas (green shaded
           area in center of figure).




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                            3. MODEL SELECTION AND CONFIGURATION


MODEL SELECTION

Application of dispersion models for the PSD analysis required making numerous choices with
respect to model selection, source representations, receptor locations, model options, etc.
Guassian plume models such as ISC (EPA, 1995) and AERMOD (EPA, 2004) are recommended
for applications involving source-receptor distances of less than about 50km, where spatial
variations in the wind field are minimal and the species being modeled can be treated as
chemically inert. On the other hand, EPA’s Guideline on Air Quality Models (40 CFR 51,
Appendix W) as well as guidelines published by the Federal Land Managers (IWAQM, 1998;
FLAG 2000) recommend use of the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system for performing Class
I area impact analyses primarily because this Gaussian puff modeling system is able to account
for spatial inhomogeneities in winds and mixing heights and formation of sulfate and nitrate
particulates. Proper treatment of spatial variations in wind speed and direction is needed to
obtain accurate dispersion estimates for sources located in complex terrain and at receptor
locations occurring at significant distances from the sources being modeled. As the
comprehensive PSD increment consumption analysis described in this protocol involves source -
receptor distances of up to 300 km in complex terrain, CALMET/CALPUFF was selected as the
appropriate model to use for estimating impacts in Class I areas. Nevertheless, in situations
requiring modeling of impacts from primary pollutants within approximately 50km of sources,
use of ISC or AERMOD is appropriate. These models can also be used to obtain screening-level
estimates of pollutant impacts at greater downwind distances.


COMPARISON OF CALPUFF WITH ISC

Stoeckenius et al. (2006) present comparisons of results obtained using CALPUFF with results
from application of the short term and long-term versions of the ISC model (ISC-ST and ISC-
LT) for annual average NOx impacts in the Class II area from sources in Sublette County (see
complete description in Appendix A). As all of the emission sources analyzed are in the Class II
area, the most significant Class II area impacts occur at much shorter source-receptor distances
than is the case with the Class I area impacts. Results of these comparisons showed that
CALPUFF predicted higher maximum Class II area annual average NOx concentrations than did
ISC. The CALPUFF maximum predictions were on the order of 50% higher than the ISC
predictions. While these comparisons were based on the use of different meteorological data sets
in ISC and CALPUFF and no attempt was made to configure CALMET/CALPUFF modeling
options to be more consistent with the ISC configuration (such as, for example, with the use of
the plume slug treatment option), it is believed that the higher CALPUFF predictions are
primarily a result of the ability of CALPUFF to account for the recirculation of pollutants within
the Upper Green River Basin under light wind conditions which allows concentrations to build
up near the major emissions sources. The steady-state ISC models cannot replicate this
phenomenon. Thus, Stoeckenius et al. (2006) concluded that use of CALMET/CALPUFF, in
addition to being the appropriate choice for modeling NOx impacts at the distant Class I
receptors, was also an acceptable, if potentially somewhat conservative, choice for modeling
impacts within the Class II area. Nevertheless, a Gaussian plume model such as ISC or
AERMOD may be an acceptable choice for estimating increment consumption within Class II
areas near sources of interest as noted above.
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CALMET/CALPUFF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES

Stoeckenius et al. (2006) conducted a series of sensitivity analyses with CALMET/CALPUFF in
which they examined the impact of various modeling configurations on NO2 PSD increment
consumption estimates. These analyses provide insight into the sensitivity of predicted annual
average NO2 concentrations on model configuration options related to the:

     1.   spatial resolution of meteorological fields,
     2.   spatial resolution of receptor networks,
     3.   spatial resolution of area sources,
     4.   choice of chemical mechanism, and;
     5.   selection of the puff splitting option in CALPUFF.

    All sensitivity runs were based on meteorological modeling over Domain D2 with point and
    area emissions sources in Sublette County and the Bridger and Naughton power plants.
    Results of these sensitivity analyses are summarized in Table 3-1 together with the final
    selected configuration options. Recommendations resulting from the sensitivity analyses are
    described below. Additional details of the analyses that were performed can be found in
    Appendix A.

Table 3-1. Summary of dispersion model configuration sensitivity analyses (see text).
 Configuration
  Sensitivity      Options Analyzed                    Results                   Recommendation
Class II area             1 km spacing vs. 4 km              Higher concentrations resolved with 1           Use 1 km spacing to
receptor spacing          spacing                            km spacing                                      resolve peak impactsa
Class I areas             SWWYTAF study receptors            Little difference in model predictions          Use NPS specified
receptor spacing          (4 km spacing; 318                                                                 receptor network for
                          receptors total) vs. NPS                                                           consistency with Federal
                          specified receptors (approx.                                                       Land Manager modeling
                          1.4 km spacing; 1000                                                               guidance
                          receptors total)
CALMET                    1 x 1 km vs. 4 x 4 km grid         Generally little difference in predicted        Use of 4 km resolution is
meteorological field                                         concentrations; significant penalty in          adequate and consistent
resolution                                                   model run time at higher resolution             with available computing
                                                             (1km)                                           resources
Area source gridding      1 x 1 km grid vs. 4 x 4 km         Peak near-source impacts from oil &             Use 1 km resolution in
resolution                grid                               gas sources are sensitive to source grid        Sublette Co. to adequately
                                                             resolution; impacts at Class I areas are        model near-source
                                                             much less sensitive                             impacts
CALPUFF chemical          None vs. MESOPUFF II vs.           Model results sensitive to simulation of        Use RIVAD mechanism to
mechanism                 RIVAD                              NO to NO2 conversion and loss of NOx            explicitly treat NO to NO2
                                                             to nitrate                                      conversion; RIVAD
                                                                                                             predictions of NOx are
                                                                                                             conservative relative to
                                                                                                             MESOPUFF II mechanism
                                                                                                             recommended by Federal
                                                                                                             Land Managers for
                                                                                                             estimating NO3 impacts
CALPUFF puff              On vs. Off                         Insignificant effect on peak Class II and       Turn off puff splitting
splitting algorithm                                          Class I area NO2 impacts; significant           option
                                                             penalty in model run times with puff
                                                             splitting implemented
a
  A 1-km receptor spacing within the Class II area was judged adequate and consistent with accepted practice for the cumulative PSD
increment consumption analysis for the combined impact of all sources in Sublette County. More refined receptor network specifications as
                    1
per WDEQ guidance would typically be used when modeling the increment consumption associated with a specific individual source.


1
 Wyoming DEQ/Air Division Quality Requirements for Submitting Modeling Analyses; March, 2006
(deq.state.wy.us/aqd/construction, asp)
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Meteorological resolution

Two alternative spatial resolutions (1 km and 4 km) were tested in the CALMET model to
develop the meteorological fields needed to drive the CALPUFF dispersion model simulations.
In principal, the use of a higher resolution CALMET grid should allow more accurate simulation
of fine scale meteorological features, resulting in more accurate model predictions. In practice,
however, the actual benefit derived from the use of higher resolution meteorological fields in the
prediction of annual average impacts is less clear given the limited amounts of observational data
available to drive CALMET together with limitations in the ability of CALMET and CALPUFF
to simulate small scale dispersion features. Results of this sensitivity analysis indicated that
maximum area source NOx impacts in the near field (i.e., within the Class II area) are not very
sensitive to the choice of 4 km or 1 km for the meteorological field resolution (differences in
NOx concentrations were approximately ± 3.5%). Near-field maximum impacts from point
sources were found to be more sensitive to the choice of meteorological field resolution but only
in the immediate vicinity of the sources where concentrations are most sensitive to small changes
in the mean wind direction. Within the Class I area (i.e., further downwind of the emissions
sources), the concentration differences between the 1 km and 4 km runs were found to be quite
small, although the relative differences were proportionately larger as a result of the low average
NOx impacts. For an individual source group, differences in the Class I area ranged from small
positive values to small negative values, suggesting that the sensitivity of total NOx
concentration from all sources combined in the Class I area to changes in meteorological field
resolution is likely to be less, as some of the sensitivities of opposite sign will cancel each other
out. Thus, we expect no significant sensitivity of NOx predictions at Class I receptors to the
choice of 1 km or 4 km for the meteorological field resolution.

A key consideration in the selection of the meteorological field resolution for
CALMET/CALPUFF analyses is the length of time required to carry out the model computations
and the ultimate size of the CALPUFF output fields. The model run time issue is less critical for
CALMET as the fields need only be generated once but, due to the large number of sources and
receptors to be analyzed, CALPUFF must be run on the fields many times (for different
source/receptor combinations). When the 1 km meteorological fields were used to compute
impacts of 234 gas field sources in the Jonah-Pinedale Development Area (JPDA) over a
network of 1,504 receptors, CALPUFF required approximately 85 hours to complete. This
compares with a run time of approximately 17 hours for the same sources and receptors but using
the 4 km meteorological fields. Based on this five-fold increase in run time, Stoeckenius et al.
(2006) estimated that a CALPUFF simulation of the 465 oil & gas field sources in Sublette
County outside of the JPDA over a network of 8,391 Class II receptors (using 1 km receptor
spacing) would require approximately 33 days to complete using the 1 km meteorological fields
over Domain 1xx (D1xx). Run times for the larger domains (D2 and D3) would be longer –
probably much longer given the larger number of puffs that need to be simulated over these
larger domains. These results suggest that use of 1 km meteorological fields to model over
domains D2 or D3 would not be feasible given the long CALPUFF run times that would be
required when using these fields.




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Receptor Networks

Results from the sensitivity runs with different receptor network densities as described in Table
3-1 above show that use of high resolution receptors (1 km spacing) at Class II locations near
major sources resolves concentration peaks that are missed by the 4 km receptor grid. Given the
need to model numerous sources throughout the southern portion of Sublette County, use of the 1
km Class II network grid is appropriate. For the Class I area, we note that, although the
WYDEQ SWWYTAF network of 318 receptors seemed to do a good job of resolving the peak
impact, PSD modeling analyses should make use of the larger set of 1000 receptor sites specified
by the Federal Land Managers.


Area Source Gridding Resolution

Two alternative gridding resolutions for representing oil & gas sources in CALPUFF were
tested. Peak NOx impacts estimated using 1 x 1 km emissions grids were found to differ
significantly from impacts modeled using 4 x 4 km grids as the spatial variation of emission
densities is greater when using the 1 km grid cells. These differences decrease rapidly as one
moves further away from the source region, however, such that the difference in maximum Class
I area NOx impacts is just 3%. Nevertheless, since one of the goals of the modeling analysis was
to estimate increment consumption in the Class II area, the final modeling configuration
specified use of 1 km grid cells for representing the oil & gas emissions in Sublette County.


Puff Slitting

CALPUFF includes an option to allow puffs to be split along horizontal planes (vertical splitting)
and vertical planes (horizontal splitting) when certain criteria are satisfied. Test runs were made
with puff splitting turned on in the default mode which allows for three-way vertical splitting
once per day (at hour 17) based on mixing height, and five-way horizontal splitting based on puff
size, elongation rate, and minimum concentration. Results of these runs were compared with
identical runs with the puff splitting option turned off. Tests were done using both point and area
sources. Puff splitting was found to have no significant impact on in maximum concentrations in
either the Class I or Class II areas. Since puff splitting increased run times considerably, puff
splitting was not used in the final model configuration.


Chemical Mechanism

Results from simulations described in Table 3-1 above using the RIVAD chemical mechanism
suggested that average NO to NO2 conversion factors vary from 60% to over 90% depending on
the source – receptor distance. In addition, loss of NOx to nitrate is estimated to be significant
over the longer transport times associated with impacts within the Class I area. These results
suggest that a realistic simulation of NO2 impacts must take both of these phenomena into
account. This can only be accomplished in CALPUFF using the RIVAD mechanism. We note,
however, that ambient monitoring data were not available within the study region which would
have allowed us to evaluate the performance of the RIVAD simulation, leaving some uncertainty
regarding the accuracy of the NO to NO2 and NO2 to nitrate conversion rates simulated by
RIVAD. Nevertheless, results presented in Appendix A show that the RIVAD NO2 to nitrate
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conversion rate is lower than the rate obtained using the MESOPUFF II mechanism, thus
suggesting that the RIVAD NOx predictions can be used as a conservative upper bound estimate
on NO2. It was therefore decided to use the RIVAD mechanism for all CALPUFF model runs.

Predictions of NO2 concentrations can be based on NOx emissions alone. Although hydroxyl
radical concentrations simulated with the RIVAD mechanism are partially dependent on SO2
concentration, the impact of SO2 on hydroxyl radical availability for NO2 oxidation is minimal
because the first order SO2 oxidation rate constant used in RIVAD is an order of magnitude
smaller than the NO2 oxidation rate constant. Furthermore, SO2 emissions from oil and gas
sources, which were typically the greatest consumer of PSD increment of all modeled sources,
were significantly less than the NOx emissions: gas fired equipment generally emits negligible
quantities of SO2 and NOx/SO2 ratios from diesel drill rigs typically range from 20:1 to 30:1
(Pollack et al., 2006; WRAP-SSJF, 2007). As a result, no significant uncertainties are likely to
arise in RIVAD NO2 predictions as a result of ignoring the influence of SO2 emissions, at least
for applications dominated by oil and gas sources and other situations in which NOx emissions
are significantly greater than SO2 emissions.




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                                        4. EMISSION INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT


Emissions from sources potentially contributing to increment consumption or expansion in the
receptor region shown in Figure 1-1 were included in the analysis. Emission inventories were
developed for both the PSD baseline year (1988) and the current year. For the current year
inventory, the most recent available data for each source category at the time of the study were
obtained. This included 2004 data for several key categories (oil & gas production sources and
point sources) and 2002 data for the remaining source categories (on-road mobile, off-road
mobile, and other area sources). A sensitivity analysis was conducted to confirm that area
sources outside of Domain D2 (see Figure 2-2) do not contribute significantly to increment
consumption in the receptor region. As a result, only point sources were considered outside
Domain D2. For locations outside of Wyoming, only major point sources (defined as sources
with annual NOx emissions greater than 100 tpy) located outside of Wyoming but within 200 km
of the geographic centroid of the BFWA and “super-major” point sources (defined as sources
with actual annual NOx emissions of 500 tpy or more located outside of Wyoming but within 300
km of the geographic centroid of the BFWA) were included in the modeling analysis. Other
sources outside of Wyoming were not considered because they are not expected to have any
significant increment consumption impact in the receptor region.

Processing of the emissions to prepare them for use in the CALPUFF modeling consisted of
spatial and temporal allocation, determination of source parameters, and formatting of
CALPUFF input files. Procedures followed in processing emissions for each source category are
described below. In all cases, NOx emissions are reported as equivalent mass of NO2 and all
sources are assumed to emit at the EPA default NO/NO2 molar ratio of 9:1 which is reasonably
accurate for most sources (EPA 2005). The impact of any deviations from the assumed 9:1
NO/NO2 emissions ratio is minimal in the BFWA Class I areas because these areas are relatively
distant from NOx sources and nearly all of the emitted NO is converted to NO2 by the time
emissions reach the BFWA.


POINT SOURCES

Annual emission rates, locations and stack parameters for point sources were provided by
WYDEQ from permit files and other data sources. All sources listed in Wyoming’s current year
(2004) inventory were included for all Wyoming locations within the boundaries of the
outermost modeling domain (domain D3). Sources in Sublette County for which permits have
been issued but construction had not begun as of 2005 (“permitted to emit but not yet
constructed” or PTE_NYC sources) were also included in the current year inventory. Major
point sources (defined as sources with actual annual NOx emissions of 100 tpy or more) located
outside of Wyoming but within 200 km of the geographic centroid of the Bridger/Fitzpatrick
Wilderness Areas and “super-major” point sources (defined as sources with actual annual NOx
emissions of 500 tpy or more located outside of Wyoming but within 300 km of the geographic
centroid of the Bridger/Fitzpatrick Wilderness Areas) were included in the modeling analysis for
the current year (2002) and PSD baseline (1987). PSD baseline NOx emissions for major and
minor point sources were taken as the average of the 1988 and 1987 actual annual emissions.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec4pr(Emissions).doc                4-1
July 2007




PETROLEUM FIELD (OIL & GAS PRODUCTION) SOURCES

Current year (2004) and PSD baseline (1987) emissions for process burners (line heaters,
separator heaters, reboiler heaters, etc.), wellhead internal combustion (IC) engines, well
completions, recompletions, and testing were obtained by wellhead location from WYDEQ’s
data files. Drill rig emissions in the Pinedale field are limited to 1 May – 15 November as
required by stipulations for crucial wildlife winter range. Other Pinedale source equipment
operates year-round; all sources, including drill rig emissions, in all other fields also operate
year-round. Well completion (well fracturing) emissions were included in the current year
inventory for wells in the JPDA; no well fracturing was estimated for the baseline year. Within
the Pinedale field, well fracturing was limited to the Pinedale drilling season.

Because it was not practical to model the thousands of wellheads heated in the modeling domain
as individual sources, emissions assigned to each wellhead were initially gridded on a 1 x 1 km
grid cell network. In Sublette County, each 1 km2 cell was modeled as an individual area source.
Because of the large number of 1 km2 grid cells with oil & gas emissions in the rest of Wyoming,
cells were aggregated into 8 km2 blocks outside of Sublette County for modeling purposes.


AREA SOURCES

In addition to the point sources and oil & gas sources described above, current year and baseline
emissions estimates were also obtained for other NOx source categories in Wyoming, including
on-road mobile sources, major types of non-urban off-road sources (agricultural equipment,
locomotives, recreational equipment, logging equipment), urban off-road sources such as
construction equipment, urban stationary sources (including stationary fuel combustion sources
such as commercial boilers) and aircraft emissions at airports. Emissions from each of these
source categories were treated as area sources in the dispersion modeling analysis. As noted
above, only area sources within Domain D2 were included in the analysis as area sources outside
this domain were found to have a negligible impact on increment consumption within the target
receptor zone. This decision resulted in a considerable savings in CALPUFF run times.


On-Road Mobile Sources

Wyoming county level summer and winter on-road mobile source emissions for current year
(2002)1 and PSD baseline (1987) were provided by WDEQ based on the results of a previous
study (Pollack et al., 2006). These emissions were assigned to road links by facility (roadway)
class using EPA road network data (EPA, 2003a). Roadway links were initially represented by
area sources comprised of groups of 1 x 1 km grid cells. Emissions were then combined into 10
x 10 km grid cells for roadways in domain D2 outside of Sublette County and into 16 x 16 km
grid cells for roadways in domain D3 outside of D2 to reduce the number of individual sources
to a manageable number. Temporal allocations were based on monthly and hour-of-day
allocation factors used in the SWWYTAF study (Earth Tech, 1999).




1
    Data for 2004 were not available.
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec4pr(Emissions).doc                  4-2
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Locomotives

County level locomotive emissions were provided by the WDEQ. Emissions were spatially
allocated using spatial data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS, 2002) that
establishes the location of major rail lines and indicates the level of activity on each track
segment in terms of ranges of million gross ton miles (MGTM) per mile corresponding to each
segment. For each segment, the midpoint of the density range was assumed to represent the
average track loading on that segment. See Table 4-1 lists the ranges and the midpoint values
used in this study. The top end density, reported as an open-ended range greater than 100
MGTM/mi, which was assigned a value of 120 MGTM/mi.

Table 4-1. Track segment density ranges used for allocation to counties.
                Segment Density Range          Assumed Segment Density
Density ID            (MGTM/mi)                          (MGTM/Mi)
         0                    unknown, abandoned, or dummy                        0
         1                                         0.1 to 4.9                   2.5
         2                                         5.0 to 9.9                  7.45
         3                                      10.0 to 19.9                  14.95
         4                                      20.0 to 39.9                  29.95
         5                                      40.0 to 59.9                  49.95
         6                                      60.0 to 99.9                  79.95
         7                                 100.0 and greater                   120



To create gridding surrogates based on the BTS data required several steps. First, a shapefile
was created that contained all Wyoming counties. Next, the BTS shapefile and the county
shapefile were projected to the same map projection so that the counties were overlaid by the
BTS track segments. Then, track segments were intersected by the county borders so that county
fips codes would be assigned to track segments in the county. These county-specific track
segments were then intersected by the domain D3, 1 kilometer grids in order to assign each
segment of track a grid cell ID. For each grid cell it was then possible to sum the products of
segment densities and grid cell-specific segment lengths to obtain the total grid cell activity as
ton-miles. Finally, comparing the grid cell activity to the total county activity provided the
necessary factor to assign county emissions to grid cells.

The domain D3, 1 kilometer surrogates that resulted from the above process were segregated into
each modeling domain (Sublette Co., Domain D2, and Domain D3). To facilitate CALPUFF
modeling, these 1 kilometer surrogates were then regridded on a 4 km grid within domain D2
and an 8 km grid within domain D3 so as to keep the total number of sources to be modeled in
each domain to a manageable number.


Agricultural Equipment

County-level emissions from agricultural equipment were provided by WDEQ for the current
year (2002)2 and the PSD baseline year (1987). Spatial allocation surrogates were created by
first intersecting a land-use coverage (University of Wyoming, 1996) with a county coverage.

2
    Data for 2004 were not available.
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec4pr(Emissions).doc                 4-3
July 2007




The resulting county land use coverage was then unioned with the LCP and UTM, 1 kilometer
modeling grids. Results of this union were processed to determine the fraction of a county's total
agricultural land occurring in each grid cell. These fractions where then further processed to sift
the gridding surrogates into each modeling domain (Sublette Co., Domain D2, and Domain D3)
for both the lcp and utm coordinate systems.

Because the 1km gridding gives too many sources to run in CALPUFF, the emissions grid was
coarsened to achieve a manageable number of sources. A 4 km grid was used to represent
agricultural equipment sources in Sublette County, a 12 km grid was used in the remainder of
domain D2, and a 20 km grid was used in portions of domain D3 outside of domain D2.


Recreational and Logging Equipment

Total annual emissions by county for recreational marine, recreational equipment, and logging
equipment for current year (2002) and PSD baseline (1987) were supplied by WDEQ.
Emissions from these sources were spatially allocated as described below. All temporal profiles
were assumed to be constant throughout the year.

Recreational Marine
Spatial allocation surrogates for recreation marine equipment were based on the area of lakes
found in a county. In Sublette County, Fremont Lake is the only major location within where
recreational equipment (including recreational marine equipment) is used. Therefore, all
Sublette County emissions from the recreational marine equipment was assigned to a single area
source constructed from a group of 1 x 1 km grid cells located over Fremont Lake. For other
counties, coverage of the national land and water, us_lw_2k, was obtained from the EPA
(2003a). This coverage was simplified to retain only bodies of water greater than 2 square
kilometers in area. The remaining lakes coverage was intersected with a county coverage. The
resulting county lakes coverage was then unioned with the LCP and UTM, 1x1 kilometer grids
over all of domain D3. The results of the union were processed to determine the fraction of a
county's total water area occurring in each grid cell. The fractions represent preliminary gridding
surrogates. At this point it was recognized that several counties with recreational marine
emissions did not have sufficient lake area to yield a gridding surrogate. For those counties, the
recreational/logging equipment surrogates were used. Once this gap-filling was accomplished,
the surrogates were further processed to sift the gridding surrogates into six separate files - three
unique domains in both the LCP and UTM coordinate systems.

Because the 1km gridding gives too many sources to run in CALPPUFF, the 1 kilometer grid
cells were aggregated into larger blocks of contiguous grid cells using an automated technique.
By altering the strictness by which contiguity was defined, it was possible to influence the total
number of sources that resulted from this process.


Other Recreational Equipment and Logging Equipment
In Sublette County, emissions from other (non-marine) recreational and logging equipment are
minimal and were therefore assigned to the same area source used to represent the recreational
marine equipment, i.e., Fremont Lake. In other counties, spatial allocation surrogates for
recreation (nonmarine) and logging equipment were based on the area of forested land in each
county. A coverage of the national parks and forests was obtained from the EPA (2003). This

G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec4pr(Emissions).doc                    4-4
July 2007




coverage was edited to remove any forested lands where logging and recreational vehicles were
known to be prohibited. The remaining forested land coverage was intersected with a county
coverage. The resulting county forested land coverage was then unioned with the LCP and UTM
1x1 kilometer grids over all of domain D3. Results of the union were processed to determine the
fraction of a county's total forested land occurring in each grid cell. These fractions served as the
preliminary gridding surrogates which were then further processed into separate files for domain
D2 outside of Sublette County and domain D3 outside of domain D2.

Because the 1km gridding gives too many sources to run in CALPUFF, the 1 kilometer grid cells
were aggregated into blocks of contiguous grid cells using an automated technique. By altering
the strictness by which contiguity was defined, it was possible to influence the total number of
sources that resulted from this process.


Urban Area Sources

Urban area sources were defined to represent NOx emissions from off-road mobile source
categories other than those described above and from residential wood combustion,
commercial/residential fuel combustion and open burning of household waste. Emissions were
modeled using current year (2002)3 and PSD baseline (1987) emissions data provided by
WDEQ.

In Sublette County, emissions were assigned to the three cities within the modeling domain
(Pinedale, Marbleton and Big Piney) in proportion to population (2000 Census). Boundaries of
each urban area were defined as groups of 1 x 1 km cells fit within the urban area boundaries
defined in the 1995 SWWYTAF study (Earth Tech, 2001).

Spatial allocation surrogates for urban area sources outside of Sublette County were based on the
area of land in each county having a housing unit density greater than 0.1 units per acre. A
coverage of the national population and housing, pophu2k, was obtained from the EPA (2003).
This coverage was intersected with a county coverage. The resulting county population and
housing coverage was then unioned with the LCP and UTM 1x1 kilometer grid over all of
domain D3. For those areas where this intersection yielded a housing unit density greater than
0.1 units per acre, an urban area surrogate record was created. These surrogate records were
processed to determine the fraction of a county's urban land area occurring in each grid cell. The
resulting fractions represent the preliminary gridding surrogates. These preliminary surrogates
were further processed into separate files for domain D2 outside of Sublette County and domain
D3 outside of domain D2.

Because the 1km gridding gives too many sources to run in CalPuff, the 1 kilometer grid cells
were aggregated into large blocks of contiguous grid cells using an automated technique. By
altering the strictness by which contiguity was defined, it was possible to influence the total
number of sources that resulted from this process.




3
    Data for 2004 were not available.
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec4pr(Emissions).doc                    4-5
July 2007




Aircraft

Aircraft emissions by airport were provided by the WDEQ. Locations of the 32 Wyoming
airports in domain D3 were obtained (Billings, 2005) and used to define a 4 x 4 km area source
comprised of four 1 km grid cells approximately centered on each airport location. In Sublette
County, aircraft emissions were assigned to the sources used to define the urban area source
emissions, for consistency with the SWWYTAF study.


EMISSION INVENTORY QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES

Emissions Quality Assurance (QA) is one of the most critical steps in performing air quality
modeling studies. Because emissions processing is tedious, time consuming and involves
complex manipulation of many different types of large data sets, errors are frequently made in
emissions processing and, if rigorous QA measures are not in place, these errors may remain
undetected. Emissions QA for the PSD analysis employed a multi-step approach including
initial QA of emissions data received from the WDEQ by the designated emissions data
“gatekeeper”, QA of results by personnel conducting the processing of emissions into model-
ready format, and final QA of the model-ready emissions by the dispersion modeling personnel.
This multi-step process involving independent quality checks by three separate groups of
individuals involved in emissions processing was designed to detect and correct errors prior to
conducting any air quality model simulations.

Emissions QA performed as part of the emissions processing included:

      •     Confirmation of data received from WDEQ with appropriate WDEQ personnel, including
            confirming emission totals and spot-checking of other key data such as number of data
            records (sources) in each file.
      •     Review of point source stack parameters for any missing or physically unrealistic values
            (to confirm QA/QC checks that had already been performed by the WDEQ).
      •     Mapping of spatial surrogates used for allocation of area source emissions with overlaid
            emissions grid. Maps were reviewed to determine if gridded surrogates matched
            underlying land use / land cover values as expected. For oil & gas emissions, maps of
            well locations were prepared and used to check for any wells located outside of the
            modeling domain.
      •     Spot checking of allocated emissions values to determine if they were properly
            calculated.
      •     Matching of emission totals recalculated from the spatially allocated emissions data with
            original totals as received from WDEQ.
      •     Spot checking of CALPUFF input records created via a perl script from spatially
            allocated area source emissions and point source emission files.
      •     Comparison of total emissions as scanned directly from CALPUFF and ISC input records
            with original totals as received from WDEQ.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec4pr(Emissions).doc                    4-6
July 2007




                              5. PROGNOSTIC METEOROLOGICAL MODELING


OVERVIEW

Application of the CALPUFF dispersion model requires three-dimensional fields of hourly
winds and temperature and various two-dimensional fields including mixing height, atmospheric
stability, dispersion properties (e.g., stability class) and surface characteristics.1 These data are
prepared using the CALMET diagnostic meteorological model. CALMET prepares a three-
dimensional wind field via a diagnostic process that includes a combination of objective analysis,
parameterizations for slope flows, kinematic terrain effects and terrain blocking, along with a
divergence minimization procedure. Boundary layer processes are treated via a
micrometeorological module. CALMET requires as input first guess wind and temperature
fields, data on surface characteristics, terrain heights, and surface and upper air meteorological
observations for the objective analysis. In keeping with available guidance (IWAQM, 1998),
application of CALMET is based on the use of the MM5 prognostic mesoscale meteorological
model for development of the first-guess meteorological fields required by CALMET. MM5
solves the full suite of non-hydrostatic prognostic primitive equations for the three-dimensional
wind, temperature, water (in all phases), and pressure fields. It can be run with multiple one-way
or two-way nested grids to resolve a range of atmospheric processes and circulations on spatial
scales ranging from one to several thousands of kilometers. Procedures for performing the MM5
and CALMET modeling for the southwestern Wyoming PSD increment analysis are described in
this section.

Given the size of the modeling domain (Figure 2-2) and the presence of extensive areas of
complex terrain, a high resolution CALMET wind field was needed to reproduce key
meteorological features. Based on previous modeling performed for WRAP (ENVIRON, 2004),
a 4 km horizontal resolution was selected for the final CALMET application, with sensitivity
tests to be conducted at a 1 km resolution as described in Section 5 below. MM5 modeling at no
greater than 12 km resolution was deemed necessary to support CALMET modeling at this
resolution.

Although it may be acceptable in some cases to base a PSD analysis on a single year of
meteorological data, the use of additional years of data is advisable given year-to-year
differences in dispersion conditions. Therefore, the southwest Wyoming analysis was based on
three years of meteorological data: 2001, 2002, and 2003. These data years were selected
primarily on the basis of the availability of national MM5 modeling databases which have been
developed in support of the Regional Haze rule and other regulatory initiatives. As these
national MM5 databases were conducted at a 36 km grid scale resolution, it was necessary to
create new 12 km resolution MM5 runs over a domain that easily encompasses the CALPUFF
modeling domain, domain D3, which was defined in Section 2 above (see Figure 2-2). Suitable
12 km MM5 modeling over the entire western U.S. previously completed in support of the
Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) is available for 2002 and was used for this analysis
(Kendall-Cook, 2005). New 12 km nested runs were made for 2001 and 2003. To allow for
potential future applications of the 12 km MM5 results to other locations in Wyoming, a
relatively large domain was selected for these new runs as shown in Figure 5-1.

1
 CALPUFF can also be run with simplified (single station) meteorological data but this option is not considered
further here.
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec5pr_progmet.doc                                          5-1
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MM5 MODELING DOMAIN

As noted above, MM5 modeling was conducted at 12 km resolution for 2001 and 2003 by
nesting a 12 km modeling grid over domain MD12 (Figure 5-1) within the 36 km National RPO
grid used to create the parent 36 km resolution MM5 runs. Grid parameters of the MM5 36/12-
km nested grid system are:

Grid Resolution                      Cell Size                LCP range2
36-km grid                           165 by 129               (-2952, -2304) to (2952, 2304)
12-km grid                           109 by 91                (-1548, -144) to (-252, 936)
Note that the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling domains are defined on a different LCP map
projection.3


MM5 INPUT AND INITIALIZATION

Output from the 2001 and 2003 MM5 simulations over the 36-km national RPO grid were
obtained from Alpine Geophysics (McNally, 2006). These outputs were processed by the MM5
NESTDOWN program to generate the inputs for the 12-km MM5 simulation. For sake of
consistency, the same vertical structure (in 34 sigma levels) as used in the parent 36-km RPO
MM5 runs was adopted for the 12 km runs.

NOAA Techniques Development Laboratory (TDL)’s U.S. and Canada Surface Hourly
Observations (ds472 data) were acquired from the National Center for Atmospheric Research
(NCAR). The ds472 data contain hourly surface observations including temperature, wind speed
and direction, and humidity (dew point) at airport stations across the United States and Canada.
These data were used for the Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA) procedure applied in
the 12 km MM5 runs.


MM5 PHYSICS AND FDDA CONFIGURATIONS

As extensive effort has been undertaken to formulate 12 km western U.S. MM5 simulations and
achieve acceptable model performance for 2002 for the WRAP work (Kemball-Cook, 2005),
physics options and FDDA structure for the 2001 and 2003 12-km MM5 runs were made
consistent with the configurations used in the 2002 simulation as shown in Table 5-1.




2
  LCP coordinates for MD12 are based on an LCP projection defined by central latitude of 40 degrees north, central
longitude of 97 degrees west, true latitude one of 33 degrees north and true latitude two of 45 degrees north.
3
  LCP coordinates for CALMET/CALPUFF modeling (domain D3) are based on an LCP projection defined by
central latitude of 42.55 degrees north, central longitude of 108.55 degrees west, true latitude one of 30 degrees
north and true latitude two of 60 degrees north.
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec5pr_progmet.doc                                       5-2
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Table 5-1. Configurations of physics and FDDA for the 36/12-km MM5 simulations of calendar
years 2001, 2002, and 2003.
                         2001         2001       2002        2002      2003          2003
                         36km         12km       36km        12km      36km          12km
 Microphysics                             Reisner2             Reisner2    Reisner2   Reisner2   Reisner1   Reisner2
 Cumulus                                  KF                   None        BM         None       KFII       None
 PBL                                      PX                   PX          PX         PX         PX         PX
 Land Surface Model                       PX                   PX          PX         PX         PX         PX
 Radiation                                RRTM                 RRTM        RRTM       RRTM       RRTM       RRTM
 FDDA: Grid 3D, Wind                      Yes                  Yes         Yes        Yes        Yes        Yes
 FDDA: Grid 3D, Temp                      Yes                  Yes         Yes        Yes        Yes        Yes
 FDDA: Grid 3D,                           Yes                  Yes         Yes        Yes        Yes        Yes
 Moisture
 FDDA: Grid Sfc, Wind                     Yes                  Yes         Yes        Yes        Yes        Yes
 FDDA: Grid Sfc, Temp                     Yes                  No          No         No         No         No
 FDDA: Grid Sfc,                          Yes                  No          No         No         No         No
 Moisture
 FDDA: Obs, Sfc Wind                      No                   Yes         Yes        Yes        No         Yes




Figure 5-1. Wyoming PSD modeling domains, including the MM5 12 km modeling domain
(outer yellow box).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec5pr_progmet.doc                                          5-3
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MODEL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND POSTPROCESSING

In order to insure that the MM5 results are suitable for the intended application, a statistical
model performance evaluation using the performance measures described by Emery and Tai,
(2001) was conducted for the 2001 and 2003 simulations and results compared with those
obtained by Kemball-Cook (2005) for the 2002 simulation. Since the 2002 simulation has
undergone significant evaluation and sensitivity testing to maximize the performance of the final
simulation, acceptable performance for the 2001 and 2003 simulations was judged to have been
attained by achieving statistical results substantially similar to those obtained for 2002.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec5pr_progmet.doc                      5-4
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                   6. FINAL CALMET/CALPUFF MODELING PROCEDURES


CALMET CONFIGURATION

Meteorological data required to drive the CALPUFF model was generated for four different
years using the CALMET meteorological processor:

           1995: CALMET input files were obtained from a previous regional modeling study
           conducted under the auspices of the Southwest Wyoming Technical Air Forum (Earth
           Tech, 2001). The SWWTAF inputs included MM5 prognostic meteorological fields at a
           20 km grid resolution. These inputs were used in CALMET to generate meteorological
           fields over the SWWYTAF LCP projection domain shown in Figure 5-1.

           2001: CALMET was run using output from the MM5 mesoscale model applied at 12 km
           resolution over domain MD12 as described in Section 5.

           2002: CALMET was run using output from an MM5 application covering the entire
           western U.S. at 12 km resolution previously completed for the in support of Regional
           Haze modeling under sponsorship of the Western Regional Air Partnership (ENVIRON,
           2004).

           2003: CALMET was run using output from the MM5 mesoscale model applied at 12 km
           resolution over domain MD12 as described in Section 5.

CALMET was run at 4 km resolution for all four years. All available routine surface
observations collected within or close to the borders of the CALMET domain were obtained
from archives at the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). Similarly, upper air data were
obtained from NOAA’s Forecast Systems Lab.1 Processing of the upper air data included filling
in missing values as required by CALMET. Most missing data were filled in using data from the
previous day’s sounding taken at the same hour. Where soundings were missing for several
days, the first missing day was filled-in from the last available day and the last missing day was
filled-in from the next available day. This process was then repeated until all of the missing days
were filled-in. Hourly precipitation data were obtained from surface airways observations
compiled by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in ds472 format2 for
stations within or close to the boundary of the modeling domain.

Gridded terrain data for use in CALMET were obtained in the form of 1 x 1 degree
latitude/longitude blocks consisting of 3 arc-second (approximately 90 m) resolution Digital
Elevation Model (DEM) data as compiled by the Defense Mapping Agency. Land use data
required by CALMET were obtained from the United States Geological Service (USGS) 200 m
resolution Composite Theme Grid (CTG) files. These data were processed onto the 4 km
CALMET grid by the TERRELL preprocessing program. Additional CALMET input parameter
settings were selected for consistency with the SWWYTAF analysis (EarthTech, 2001). A
sample CALMET control parameter file is provided in Appendix B.



1
    raob.fsl.noaa.gov/Raob_Software.html
2
    dss.ucar.edu/datasets/ds472.0/
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec6pr.doc                           6-1
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CALPUFF CONFIGURATION

CALPUFF was run in a final configuration guided by the results of the sensitivity analyses
described in Section 3. This included specification of the RIVAD chemical mechanism and with
the puff splitting option turned off. Both wet and dry deposition were modeled. Since the
modeling included explicit treatment of emissions sources over a wide area and the focus was on
PSD increment consumption associated with these sources, zero boundary conditions were
assigned.

To insure complete spatial coverage of predicted increment consumption values, a combination
of three receptor networks was employed in CALPUFF (see Figure 6-1):

      •    A network of 1,000 receptors located within the BFWA Class I areas as specified for use
           in air quality analyses by the National Park Service.3
      •    A network of 8,391 receptors on a rectangular grid at 1 km spacing covering the southern
           half of Sublette County (where the largest concentration of NOx sources are found).
      •    A network of 1,186 receptors on a rectangular grid at 4 km spacing covering most of the
           remainder of Sublette County and the area of domain D1xx to the east of the BFWA.

Hourly ozone concentrations are used by CALPUFF under the RIVAD chemical mechanism
option to estimate the rate of conversion of NO to NO2 and NO2 to total nitrate. Data from ozone
monitoring sites located within or near the modeling domain were obtained from EPA and input
to CALPUFF for this purpose. Background ammonia data are not needed as they are only used
under the RIVAD mechanism for computing the equilibrium between HNO3 and ammonium
nitrate which is not relevant to the calculation of NO2 concentrations.

Other CALPUFF input parameters were selected in accordance with procedures used in the
SWWYTAF study and are shown in Appendix C.




3
    http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/maps/Receptors/index.cfm
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec6pr.doc                            6-2
July 2007



                                                                      Class I NPS Receptors


            100




                                                                                               Class II 4 km Receptors
             80




             60
LCPy (km)




             40




             20




              0




            -20



                  -160      -140       -120        -100         -80   -60      -40       -20
                                                          LCPx (km)


                         Class II 1 km Receptors

Figure 6-1. Receptor networks used in the CALPUFF PSD increment analysis.


POST PROCESSING AND DATA ARCHIVING AND DISTRIBUTION

Raw (hourly) CALPUFF concentration predictions were post processed into annual averages
using the CALPOST program. Contour maps showing the spatial distributions of annual average
concentrations over the modeling domain were prepared for both the current year results and the
baseline results. These maps provided an overview of the results and served as a quality control
check. NO2 increment consumption was then calculated at each model receptor point by
subtracting the annual average calculated under the baseline emissions inventory from the
corresponding annual average calculated under the current year inventory. Contour maps were
prepared showing the spatial distribution of increment consumption, along with tables listing the
contributions of individual source groups to total increment consumption at the locations of the
ten highest increment consumption values.

All modeling data files, including inputs, run scripts, parameter files, and post-processed outputs
were archived to external hard drives for long term storage. Duplicate copies of these files were
made for distribution to WDEQ for use in future modeling efforts.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\Sec6pr.doc                                                         6-3
July 2007



MODEL EVALUATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES

CALMET/CALPUFF simulations were subject to a series of model evaluation and quality
assurance procedures to verify that results were developed in the intended manner and are
acceptable for use in making air quality management decisions. Quality assurance (QA) focused
on verifying model inputs and proper model execution. The most critical element for QA of
CALMET/CALPUFF simulations is the QA of the meteorological and emissions input files as
discussed in previous sections. The major QA issue specifically associated with the air quality
model simulations is verification that the correct science options were specified in the model
itself and that the correct input files were used when running the model. A system of file naming
conventions was used as the bases for designating environment variables in linux scripts that
compile the final model input parameter file and execute the series of model runs required for
each portion of the analysis. This system helps insure that the correct model inputs were used for
each individual model run. In addition, model output listing (.lst) files were reviewed to verify
that correct parameter settings and external input files were specified.

Since CALMET is a diagnostic model which uses dynamically constrained spatial interpolation
of observations to derive gridded meteorological fields, it is not useful to conduct a traditional
model performance evaluation of CALMET results as close agreement with available
observations is guaranteed by design. Instead, CALMET results were qualitatively evaluated in
terms of the degree to which they are consistent with the key meteorological features expected to
occur over the modeling domain. This was facilitated by examination of diagnostic plots of
CALMET output. Given the intended application in this study of the CALMET results to
modeling of annual average NO2 concentrations, the primary meteorological features of interest
were winds and mixing heights. Plots of CALMET surface winds were evaluated to determine if
they reflect the influence of major terrain features, including the tendency to flow around rather
than over obstacles in the presence of stable layers and the reproduction of kinematic flows
(thermally driven mountain and valley winds) over areas of complex terrain under conditions
favorable to such events. Wind and mixing height fields were examined for different times of
the day during each season and on the days corresponding to the ten highest predicted daily
average concentrations as listed in the CALPUFF output. In addition, seasonal average winds
and mixing heights were computed and the results plotted to verify that CALMET is replicating
the expected seasonal influences on these parameters.

A statistical performance evaluation of CALPUFF concentration predictions was not possible
due to lack of suitable ambient data. However, spatial contour plots of predicted NO2
concentrations were prepared as described above and examined to insure consistency with
expected patterns in light of the spatial distribution of emissions sources.




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July 2007




                                                7. REFERENCES


Billings, Richard. 2005. “AirportLocations.dbf” Provided by Eastern Research Group
        (Richard.Billings@erg.com). June 20.

BTS, 2002. “Rail2m”, National Transportation Atlas Database 2002, Bureau of Transportation
      Statistics, Washington DC. Internet address: http://www.bts.gov/gis.

Earth Tech. 1999. “1995 Air Emissions within the Southwest Wyoming Regional Modeling
       Domain – Volume 1: CALPUFF Modeling Inventory.” Earth Tech, Inc., Concord, MA
       and Air Sciences, Denver, CO, November.

Earth Tech, 2001. “The Southwest Wyoming Regional CALPUFF Air Quality Modeling
       Study.” Final Report. Earth Tech, Inc., Concord, NH, February.

ENVIRON, 2004. “2002 Annual MM5 Simulations to Support WRAP CMAQ Visibility
     Modeling for the Section 308 SIP/TIP.” ENVIRON International Corp., Novato, CA and
     Univ. of California at Riverside College of Engineering Center for Environmental
     Research and Technology, Riverside, CA, December.

ENVIRON, 2007. “Southwest Wyoming NO2 PSD Increment consumption Modeling: Final
     Results.” Prepared by ENVIRON International, Corp., Novato, CA. April.

EPA, 1995. “User’s Guide for the Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) Dispersion Models.”
      EPA-454/B-95-003a, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September.

EPA, 1996. Meteorological Processor for Regulatory Models (MPRM) User’s Guide, EPA-
      450/B-96-002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, August.

EPA, 2003. “Spatial Surrogate Coverage Files”, US Environmental Protection Agency,
      Research Triangle Park, NC. Internet address:
      ftp://ftp.epa.gov/EmisInventory/emiss_shp/us/.

EPA, 2004. “User’s Guide for the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model AERMOD.” EPA-454/B-03-
      001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September.

EPA, 2005. “Emissions Inventory Guidance for Implementation of Ozone and Particulate Matter
      National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Regional Haze Regulations.”
      EPA-454/R-05-001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC
      27711, August.

FLAG, 2000. “Federal Land Managers- Air Quality Related Values Workgroup (FLAG).”
      Phase I Report, December.

IWAQM, 1998. “Interagency Working Group on Air Quality Modeling (IWAQM) Phase 2
    Summary Report and Recommendations for Modeling Long-Range Transport Impacts.”
    EPA-454/R-98-019, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Park Service,
    USDA Forest Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, December.
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July 2007




Kemball-Cook, S., Ji, Y., Emery, C. and R. Morris 2005. “Annual 2002 MM5 Meteorological
     Modeling to Support Regional Haze Modeling of the Western United States.”
     ENVIRON International Corp. and University of California at Riverside, College of
     Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, March.

McNally, D. 2006. Personal communication, Dennis McNally, Alpine Geophysics.

Morris, R.E., Kessler, R.C., Douglas, S.G., Styles, K.R., and G.E. Moore, 1988. “Rocky
       Mountain Acid Deposition Model Assessment: Acid Rain Mountain Mesoscale Model
       (ARM3).” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atmospheric Sciences Research
       Laboratory.

Pollack, A.K., J. Russell, J. Grant, R. Friesen, P. Fields, M. Wolf. 2006. “Ozone Precursors
       Emission Inventory for San Juan and Rio Arriba Counties, New Mexico.” Prepared for
       New Mexico Environment Department, Santa Fe, NM. August.

Scire, J.S., Furmann, F.W., Bass, A., and S.R. Hanna, 1984. “User’s Guide to the MESOPUFF
        II Model and Related Processor Programs.” EPA-600/8-84-013, U.S. Environmental
        Protection Agency.

Scire, J.S., Strimaitis, D.G., and R.J. Yamartino, 2000. “A User’s Guide for the CALPUFF
        Dispersion Model (Version 5).” Earth Tech, Inc., Concord, MA, January.

Stauffer, D.R. and N.L. Seaman. 1991. “Use of four-dimensional data assimilation in a
       limitedarea mesoscale model. Part II: effects of data assimilation within the planetary
       boundary layer.” Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, pp.734-754.

Stoeckenius, T., S. Lau, E. Tai, R. Morris, M. Jimenez, and J. Russell. 2006. “Southwest
       Wyoming NO2 PSD Increment Consumption Modeling: Results for Sublette County.”
       ENVIRON International Corp, October.

WRAP-SSJF. 2007. “WRAP Oil and Gas: Part 1: 2002/2005 and 2018 Area Source Emission
    Inventory Improvements.” Presentation for Western Regional Air Partnership Stationary
    Sources Joint Forum Working Group Members and other interested parties, May 8.
    (available at http://www. wrapair.org/forums/ssjf/documents/eictts/OilGas/
    WRAP_Phase_II_OG_Update_050807_REVISED.pdf.




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                                                                   Appendix A

                         DISPERSION MODELING CONFIGURATION ANALYSIS




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                                                                   Appendix A


                         DISPERSION MODELING CONFIGURATION ANALYSIS

Application of dispersion models for the PSD analysis required making numerous choices with
respect to model selection, source representations, receptor locations, model options, etc. To
assist in determining the most appropriate configuration, a series of analyses were undertaken to
evaluate the impact of alternative choices on predicted concentrations. This included sensitivity
analyses using the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system and comparisons of CALPUFF model
results with results obtained using the ISC-ST and ISC-LT models. These analyses are described
in the following sections.


CALMET/CALPUFF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES

Application of the CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system requires selecting appropriate values
for numerous configuration parameters. The process for selecting values appropriate for the PSD
study included consulting EPA and Federal Land Manager guidance. In addition, methods
employed in the SWWYTAF study were reviewed, compared with current guidance, and applied
were appropriate. As the goals of the PSD increment analysis differed somewhat from those of
the SWWYTAF study, however, a series of sensitivity analyses were conducted with
CALMET/CALPUFF in which the impact of various modeling configurations on NO2 PSD
increment consumption estimates were examined. These analyses provide insight into the
sensitivity of predicted annual average NO2 on model configuration options related to the spatial
resolution of meteorological fields, spatial resolution of receptor networks, choice of chemical
mechanism, and selection of the puff splitting option in CALPUFF. Results of the sensitivity
analyses were used to inform the final modeling configuration selected for the PSD increment
consumption modeling.

All sensitivity runs were based on modeling with the 1995 meteorological database developed
for the SWWYTAF study (Earth Tech, 2001). Meteorological data required to drive the
CALPUFF model was generated using the same CALMET meteorological processor inputs used
in the SWWYTAF study, including results from the SWWYTAF 20 km resolution MM5
simulation. SWWYTAF data, which were originally mapped on a Lambert Conformal
projection (LCP) were remapped to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection (Zone
12, NAD27). This process included obtaining updated land use / land cover data from the United
States Geological Survey and new elevation data for all locations based on 7.5 minute resolution
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. For purposes of the sensitivity analysis, CALMET
modeling was performed for the subset of the original SWWYTAF domain that falls within
southwestern WY. This domain, referred to as Domain 2 (D2) is depicted in Figure A-1.
CALMET was run over this domain using both a 1 x 1 km and a 4 x 4 km grid spacing. Both sets
of outputs were used as described below to test the sensitivity of CALPUFF dispersion model
predictions to the horizontal resolution of the meteorological field. The CALMET configuration
used for this analysis was otherwise identical to that used in the SWWYTAF study.

A preliminary current year emission inventory as described by Stoeckenius et al, (2006) was
used for the sensitivity analysis. This inventory included preliminary estimates of emissions
from point sources, oil & gas production, mobile sources, and other area sources in Sublette
County. Also included were two power plants located in southwestern Wyoming: the Bridger
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plant in Sweetwater County and the Naughton plant in Lincoln County. Emissions from oil &
gas, the Sublette County point sources, and the Bridger and Naughton plants were provided by
WDEQ based on 2004 data. Emissions from the remaining source groups were provided by
WDEQ based on data from the most recent available year (2002). Separate CALPUFF runs were
made for each source category listed in Table A-1 so as to determine the relationship of
sensitivity results to the types and locations of sources being modeled.




Figure A-1. Southwestern Wyoming modeling domains. Domain 2 was used for
CALMET/CALPUFF sensitivity analysis modeling. All Sublette County emission sources and all
model receptors are located within Domain 1xx. Domain 1 was not used in this analysis. Also
shown are county boundaries, and the Bridger and Fitzpatrick Wilderness Areas.




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Table A-1. Source groups used in the sensitivity analysis (all sources except Bridger and
Naughton are in Sublette County).
 Source Group                     Abbreviation Description
 JPDA Oil & Gas                                        OG_JP           Oil & gas production in the Jonah-Pinedale
                                                                       Development Area (including Jonah drill rigs)
 Pinedale Drill                                        P_Drill         Drill rigs in the Pinedale anticline
 Oil & Gas: Other Sublette County                      OG_OthSC        Oil & gas production in Sublette Co. outside of
                                                                       the JPDA
 Point Sources: Actual Emissions                       PTS_act         Actual emissions from existing point sources
 Point Sources: PTE_NYC                                PTS_nyc         Point sources that are permitted but not yet
                                                                       constructed sources (based on potential-to-
                                                                       emit).
 Bridger Power Plant                                   Bridger         Bridger power plant in Sweetwater Co.
 Naughton Power Plant                                  Naughton        Naughton power plant in Lincoln Co.
 Agricultural Equipment                                Ag Equip        Off-road mobile sources used in agriculture
 Recreational                                          Rec.            Off-road recreational marine equipment and
 Marine/OtherEquipment                                 Marine/Equip    other recreational equipment
 Other Urban Area Sources                              Other Urban     Non-permitted stationary urban sources (e.g.,
                                                                       commercial and residential fuel combustion)
 On-Road Mobile Sources                                On-Road         On-road motor vehicles



MODELING CONFIGURATIONS

An extensive series of sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the relative impact of
different model configuration options on predicted annual average NO2 or NOx concentrations.
Alternative configurations were formulated based on choices with regard to CALMET
meteorological modeling resolution, area source gridding resolution, receptor network resolution,
choice of chemical mechanism, and puff splitting as shown in Table A-2.

Table A-2. CALPUFF Model configuration options evaluated in the sensitivity analysis.
                                                                Designation (as used in
    Configuration            Configuration Option                   Tables A-3 and
                                                                            A-7)
 Class II receptor                      1 km grid over southern half of Sublette Co.    Class II 1 km LCP
 spacing
                                        4 km grid over all of Sublette Co.              Class II 4 km LCP
 Class I receptor                       NPS receptor sites (1.4 km spacing, 1000        Class I NPS
 spacing                                sites)
                                        SWWYTAP network (4 km spacing, 318              Class I SWWYTAF
                                        sites)
 Meteorological Fields                  4 km resolution                                 4 km met
 (modeling grid)                        1 km resolution                                 1 km met
 Area Source Gridding                   4 km resolution                                 4 km area sources
 Resolution                             1 km resolution                                 1 km area sources
 Chemical Mechanism                     None                                            No chem
                                        MESOPUFF II (for NOx to NO3 conversion)         MESOPUFF
                                        RIVAD (for NO to NO2 and NOx to NO3             RIVAD
                                        conversion)
 Puff Splitting                         No puff splitting                               Puff Splitting = No
                                        Puff splitting                                  Puff Splitting = Yes




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Configuration options explored in these analyses included:

           Configuration of Receptor Networks: Two different receptor networks for calculating
           impacts within the BFWA Class I areas were examined: a set of 318 receptors used in the
           SWWYTAF study and a set of 1000 receptors at locations specified for use in air quality
           analyses by the National Park Service (NPS). These Class I area networks are shown in
           Figure A-2. In addition, two different receptor grids (a low resolution version in which
           receptors were spaced at 4 km intervals and a high resolution version in which receptors
           were spaced at 1 km intervals) were used to compute impacts within the Class II portion
           of the modeling domain. These receptor grids are shown in Figure A-3. As these grids
           were initially defined on the LCP map projection used for the final model runs, they are
           not exactly rectilinear with respect to the UTM grid.

           Configuration of Meteorological Fields: As noted above, CALMET runs were prepared
           using SWWYTAF data at two different spatial grid resolutions: a grid with 1 km
           horizontal resolution and a grid with 4 km horizontal resolution. Aside from the different
           spatial resolutions, the two CALMET runs were otherwise identically configured.

           Configuration of Area Source Gridding Resolutions: Mobile sources and stationary
           source categories consisting of emissions from numerous small sources are treated as area
           sources for purposes of dispersion modeling. These include oil & gas production
           sources, on-road and off-road mobile sources, and numerous small sources typically
           found in urban areas such as commercial and industrial fuel combustion. An appropriate
           spatial resolution must be specified for purposes of representing each type of area source
           in the dispersion model. The selected resolution will in general depend on the spatial
           distributions of emissions from these sources and their relationship to the receptor
           locations of primary interest. Two alternative gridding resolutions (1 km and 4 km) were
           used to represent area sources for purposes of the sensitivity analysis.

           Chemical Mechanisms: CALPUFF can be run in inert mode (no chemistry) or with one
           of two alternative chemical mechanisms: 1) the MESOPUFF II mechanism (Scire et al,
           1984), which models the conversion of NOx to nitrate via a pseudo-first-order reaction
           mechanism and 2) the RIVAD/ARM3 mechanism (Morris et al, 1988) which includes an
           explicit treatment of NO to NO2 conversion as well as conversion of NO2 to nitrates.

           Puff Splitting: One difficulty encountered with formulating Gaussian puff models such
           as CALPUFF is that one needs a mechanism to account for the vertical and horizontal
           shearing of puffs after they reach a size so large as to make the assumption that they are
           simply being advected in tact by the wind vector at the puff centroid unrealistic. Without
           a way of treating the effects of wind shear on puffs, there is a risk of over estimating
           concentrations at longer downwind distances. CALPUFF includes a puff splitting
           algorithm designed to simulate the effects of both horizontal and vertical wind shear by
           splitting large puffs into several smaller puffs based on certain criteria. Test runs were
           made with the puff splitting option turned off and with puff splitting turned on in its
           default mode. Under the default splitting mode, three-way vertical puff splitting is
           performed once per day (at hour 17) based on mixing height, and five-way horizontal
           puff splitting is performed based on puff size, elongation rate and minimum
           concentration (see Scire et al, 2000).


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A complete list of the CALMET/CALPUFF sensitivity runs that were performed is provided in
Table A-3. The reader is cautioned that the maximum values shown for each run in these tables
generally occur at different receptors in each run since the location or layout of the receptor
arrays are different in most cases (i.e., the maximum values are not paired in space). More
detailed comparisons of results obtained under the different model configurations, including
comparisons paired in space, are presented in the following subsections.

                                                     NPS Class I Receptors




                           4820




                           4800




                           4780




                           4760




                           4740




                           4720




                           4700




                           4680
                                    540      560      580      600         620         640         660     680

                                                       SWWYTAF Class I Receptors




                           4820




                           4800




                           4780




                           4760




                           4740




                           4720




                           4700




                           4680
                                    540        560       580         600         620         640         660     680
Figure A-2. Class I area receptor networks: NPS receptors (top), SWWYTAF receptors
(bottom).


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                                                      1 km Class II Receptors



                          4820




                          4800




                          4780



                          4760




                          4740



                          4720




                          4700




                          4680
                                    540       560       580        600   620   640   660    680



                                                       4 km Class II Receptors



                          4820




                          4800




                          4780



                          4760




                          4740




                          4720




                          4700



                          4680
                                    540        560       580       600   620   640    660    680



Figure A-3. Class II receptor networks: 1 km resolution (top), 4 km resolution (bottom).




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  Table A-3. Summary of maximum concentration predictions from CALPUFF sensitivity runs.
                                                                                                       Receptor
                 Met                  Puff      Source                               Source           Network(s)         Max NOX (ug/m3)
   Run ID Domain Resolution Chemistry Splitting Group                                Resolution     Class I    Class II Class I    Class II
   Class II Receptor Resolution Sensitivity
                                                                       2004 JPDA                  Class II 1
   R1         D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G           1 km         km LCP                            24.596

                                                                       2004                       Class II 1
   R2         D1xx        4 km            None              No         Pinedale Drill 1 km        km LCP                            12.165
                                                                       2004 Other                 Class II 1
   R3         D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G           1 km         km LCP                              6.591
                                                                                                  Class II 1
   R4         D1xx        4 km            None              No         Ag Equip      4 km         km LCP                              0.187
                                                                       Rec.                       Class II 1
   R5         D1xx        4 km            None              No         Marine/Equip 1 km          km LCP                              0.309
                                                                                                  Class II 1
   R6         D1xx        4 km            None              No         Other Urban   1 km         km LCP                              1.014
                                                                       2002 On-                   Class II 1
   R7         D1xx        4 km            None              No         Road          1 km         km LCP                              0.696

                                                                       2004 Points:
                                                                       Sublette                   Class II 1
   R8         D1xx        4 km            None              No         Actual       N/A           km LCP                            17.631
                                                                       2004 Points:
                                                                       Sublette                   Class II 1
   R9         D1xx        4 km            None              No         PTE_NYC      N/A           km LCP                              2.616
   Class I Receptor Resolution Sensitivity

                                                                       2004 JPDA                               Class I
   R10        D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G            1 km                     NPS         0.053
                                                                       2004                                    Class I
   R11        D1xx        4 km            None              No         Pinedale Drill 1 km                     NPS         0.054
                                                                       2004 Other                              Class I
   R12        D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G          1 km                       NPS         0.035
                                                                       2004 Points:
                                                                       Sublette                                Class I
   R13        D1xx        4 km            None              No         Actual       N/A                        NPS         0.026


                                                                       2004 Points:
                                                                       Sublette                                Class I
   R14        D1xx        4 km            None              No         PTE_NYC      N/A                        NPS         0.028
   Source/Met Resolution Sensitivity
                                                                                                               Class I
                                                                       2004 JPDA                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R15        D1xx        1 km            None              No         O&G           1 km         km LCP       TAF         0.077    18.240

                                                                                                               Class I
                                                                       2004 JPDA                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R16        D1xx        1 km            None              No         O&G           4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.078    13.317

                                                                                                               Class I
                                                                       2004 JPDA                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R17        D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G           1 km         km LCP       TAF         0.058    19.539



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                                                                                                      Receptor
                 Met                  Puff      Source                              Source           Network(s)         Max NOX (ug/m3)
   Run ID Domain Resolution Chemistry Splitting Group                               Resolution     Class I    Class II Class I    Class II
                                                                                                              Class I
                                                                       2004 JPDA                 Class II 4   SWWY
   R18        D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G          4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.060    14.083
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R30        D1xx        1 km            None              No         Actual       N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.031      8.742
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R31        D1xx        4 km            None              No         Actual       N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.028      5.826
   Chemistry Sensitivity
                                                                                                              Class I
                                                                       2004 JPDA                 Class II 4   SWWY
   R18        D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G          4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.060    14.083
                                                                                                              Class I
                                                                       2004 Other                Class II 4   SWWY
   R19        D1xx        4 km            None              No         O&G          4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.035      4.214
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R20        D1xx        4 km            None              No         Actual       N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.028      5.826
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R21        D1xx        4 km            None              No         PTE_NYC      N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.031      1.105
                                                                                                              Class I
                                                                       2004 JPDA                 Class II 4   SWWY
   R22        D1xx        4 km            MESOPUFF No                  O&G          4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.032    12.975
                                                                                                              Class I
                                                                       2004 Other                Class II 4   SWWY
   R23        D1xx        4 km            MESOPUFF No                  O&G          4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.018      3.781
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R24        D1xx        4 km            MESOPUFF No                  Actual       N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.015      5.536
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R25        D1xx        4 km            MESOPUFF No                  PTE_NYC      N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.019      1.029
                                                                                                              Class I
                                                                       2004 JPDA                 Class II 4   SWWY
   R26        D1xx        4 km            RIVAD             No         O&G          4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.046    13.467
                                                                                                              Class I
                                                                       2004 Other                Class II 4   SWWY
   R27        D1xx        4 km            RIVAD             No         O&G          4 km         km LCP       TAF         0.029      4.038
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R28        D1xx        4 km            RIVAD             No         Actual       N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.023      5.699
                                                                       2004 Points:                           Class I
                                                                       Sublette                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R29        D1xx        4 km            RIVAD             No         PTE_NYC      N/A          km LCP       TAF         0.027      1.079
   Chemistry Sensitivity: Power Plant Impacts
                                                                                                 Class II 1
   R32        D1xx        1 km            None              No         2004 Bridger N/A          km LCP                              0.299
                                                                                                              Class I
   R33        D1xx        1 km            None              No         2004 Bridger N/A                       NPS         0.170
                                                                       2004                      Class II 1
   R34        D1xx        1 km            None              No         Naughton     N/A          km LCP                              0.425


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                                                                                                       Receptor
                 Met                  Puff      Source                               Source           Network(s)         Max NOX (ug/m3)
   Run ID Domain Resolution Chemistry Splitting Group                                Resolution     Class I    Class II Class I    Class II
                                                                       2004                                    Class I
   R35        D1xx        1 km            None              No         Naughton      N/A                       NPS         0.101
                                                                                                  Class II 1
   R36        D1xx        1 km            MESOPUFF No                  2004 Bridger N/A           km LCP                              0.181
                                                                                                               Class I
   R37        D1xx        1 km            MESOPUFF No                  2004 Bridger N/A                        NPS         0.087
                                                                       2004                       Class II 1
   R38        D1xx        1 km            MESOPUFF No                  Naughton      N/A          km LCP                              0.300
                                                                       2004                                    Class I
   R39        D1xx        1 km            MESOPUFF No                  Naughton      N/A                       NPS         0.048
                                                                                                  Class II 1
   R40        D1xx        1 km            RIVAD             No         2004 Bridger N/A           km LCP                              0.238

                                                                                                               Class I
   R41        D1xx        1 km            RIVAD             No         2004 Bridger N/A                        NPS         0.127
                                                                       2004                       Class II 1
   R42        D1xx        1 km            RIVAD             No         Naughton      N/A          km LCP                              0.351
                                                                       2004                                    Class I
   R43        D1xx        1 km            RIVAD             No         Naughton      N/A                       NPS         0.076
   Pinedale Drill w/ RIVAD
                                                                       2004                       Class II 1
   R44        D1xx        1 km            RIVAD             No         Pinedale Drill 1 km        km LCP                            11.093
                                                                       2004                                    Class I
   R45        D1xx        1 km            RIVAD             No         Pinedale Drill 1 km                     NPS         0.062
   Sensitivity to Puff Splitting
                                                                                                               Class I
                                                            Yes:       2004 JPDA                  Class II 4   SWWY
   R46        D1xx        1 km            None              default    O&G           1 km         km LCP       TAF         0.077      18.24
                                                                       2004 Points:                            Class I
                                                            Yes:       Sublette                   Class II 4   SWWY
   R47        D1xx        1 km            None              default    Actual       1 km          km LCP       TAF         0.031       8.74



SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS RESULTS

Sensitivity to Meteorological and Area Source Resolution

A series of CALPUFF runs were performed to compare impacts from the JPDA oil & gas source
(which does not include the Pinedale drill rig emissions) and the point sources (“actual”
emissions; see Table A-1) estimated using different combinations of spatial resolutions for the
meteorological data and for defining the area sources. These model runs (designated R15 – R18,
R30, and R31) are listed in Table A-3. Results are summarized in Tables A-4 and A-5.

In the Class II area, use of the higher resolution meteorology results in slightly lower peak JPDA
concentrations but this difference is much less than the difference resulting from use of a higher
resolution grid to resolve the oil & gas area sources. The maximum point source impact is a bit
more sensitive to the meteorological data resolution as small changes in wind direction will have
a large effect on the location of the maximum given the relatively narrow width of the emission
plume near the source. In this case, the 1 km meteorology gives the greater impact estimate.
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                       A-10
July 2007




In the Class I area, the sensitivity of the peak area source impact to the area source size
resolution is much less than in the Class II area. This is to be expected given the greater source –
receptor distances involved. Sensitivity to meteorological resolution remains small although, at
these low concentration values, the percentage difference is more significant. This is also true
for the peak Class I area point source impacts.

Spatial distributions of the differences in annual average NOx predicted using the 1 and 4 km
meteorology for JPDA sources and point sources are shown in Figures A-4 and A-5,
respectively. These can be compared with the spatial distribution of annual average NOx
impacts from the JPDA and point sources shown in Figures A-6 and A-7, respectively. The
largest sensitivities in model predicted concentrations are confined to the immediate vicinity of
the peak Class II source impacts in each case. Differences throughout most of the modeling
domain, including the Class I area, are very small.

Table A-4. Maximum NOx impacts (µg/m3) over the 4 km Class II receptor network of the JPDA
oil & gas sources as predicted by CALPUFF with no chemistry and no puff splitting (runs R15 –
R18, R30 and R31).
 JPDA Oil & Gas Sources          1 km Area Sources       4 km Area Sources
             1 km Meteorology 18.240                     13.317
             4 km Meteorology 19.539                     14.083
 Point Sources (actual)
             1 km Meteorology 8.742                      --
             4 km Meteorology 5.826                      --


Table A-5. Maximum NOx impacts (µg/m3) as in Table A-4 but for maximums over the set of
318 SWWYTAF Class I receptors.
 JPDA Oil & Gas Sources     1 km Area Sources           4 km Area Sources
           1 km Meteorology 0.077                       0.078
           4 km Meteorology 0.058                       0.060
 Point Sources (actual)
           1 km Meteorology 0.031                       --
           4 km Meteorology 0.028                       --




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                        A-11
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                                                               R17 minus R15: Largest and smallest differences in Class I areas:
                                                               RecId   UTMx      UTMy     ug/m3
                                                               217     624.576 4732.071 -0.019577
                                                               235     590.989 4763.851 0.001036

                                                          UTM Zone 12 (NAD 27)




                    4820



                                                                                                                                   6
                    4800
                                                                                                                                   4

                                                                                                                                   1
                    4780
                                                                                                                                   0.5
UTM Northing (km)




                                                                                                                                   0.25
                    4760
                                                                                                                                   0

                                                                                                                                   -0.25
                    4740
                                                                                                                                   -0.5

                                                                                                                                   -1
                    4720

                                                                                                                                   -4

                                                                                                                                   -6
                    4700

                                                                                                                              ug/m3


                    4680
                            540      560       580           600         620        640         660        680
                                                             UTM Easting (km)

                           Calpuff Annual Average NOx (current year emissions)
                             Difference: R17 (4 km met) minus R15 (1 km met)
                                          JPDA Oil&Gas sources
                                  Run R17 maximum NOx = 19.5 ug/m3 at UTMx=603.143, UTMy=4696.204


Figure A-4. Spatial distribution of differences in annual average NOx predicted using the 1 and
4 km meteorology for JPDA sources (1 km resolution from Run 17 minus 4 km resolution from
Run 15).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                          A-12
July 2007



                                                               R31 minus R30: largest and smallest differences in Class I areas:
                                                               RecId   UTMx      UTMy      ug/m3
                                                               218     624.515 4734.069 -0.00366
                                                               295     612.594 4743.260 0.00057

                                                          UTM Zone 12 (NAD 27)




                    4820



                                                                                                                                   6
                    4800
                                                                                                                                   4

                                                                                                                                   1
                    4780
                                                                                                                                   0.5
UTM Northing (km)




                                                                                                                                   0.25
                    4760
                                                                                                                                   0

                                                                                                                                   -0.25
                    4740
                                                                                                                                   -0.5

                                                                                                                                   -1
                    4720

                                                                                                                                   -4

                                                                                                                                   -6
                    4700

                                                                                                                              ug/m3

                    4680
                            540   560          580           600        620         640         660        680
                                                             UTM Easting (km)

                           Calpuff Annual Average NOx (current year emissions)
                             Difference: R31 (4 km met) minus R30 (1 km met)
                                          Point Sources (actual)

Figure A-5. Spatial distribution of differences in annual average NOx predicted using the 1 and
4 km meteorology for point sources (1 km resolution from Run 31 minus 4 km resolution from
Run 30).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                          A-13
July 2007




                                                          UTM Zone 12 (NAD 27)




                    4820



                                                                                                       25
                    4800
                                                                                                       22.5

                                                                                                       20
                    4780
                                                                                                       17.5
UTM Northing (km)




                                                                                                       15
                    4760
                                                                                                       12.5

                                                                                                       10
                    4740
                                                                                                       7.5

                                                                                                       5
                    4720

                                                                                                       2.5

                                                                                                       0
                    4700
                                                                                                   ug/m3


                    4680
                              540   560        580            600      620       640   660   680
                                                             UTM Easting (km)

                            Calpuff Annual Average NOx (current year emissions)
                           Run 17 - JonahPinedale Oil&Gas, 1km Source Resolution
                            Max = 19.5 ug/m^3 at (UTMx=603.143, UTMy=4696.204)
Figure A-6. Annual average NOx from Jonah-Pinedale oil & gas sources (Run 17).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                               A-14
July 2007



                                                          UTM Zone 12 (NAD 27)




                    4820



                                                                                                       5
                    4800
                                                                                                       4.5

                                                                                                       4
                    4780
                                                                                                       3.5
UTM Northing (km)




                                                                                                       3
                    4760
                                                                                                       2.5

                                                                                                       2
                    4740
                                                                                                       1.5

                                                                                                       1
                    4720

                                                                                                       0.5

                                                                                                       0
                    4700

                                                                                                   ug/m3

                    4680
                             540   560         580           600       620       640   660   680
                                                             UTM Easting (km)


                           CALPUFF Annual Average NOx (current year emissions)
                             Run 31: Point Sources (actual) 4 km met resolution
                            Max = 5.83 ug/m^3 at (UTMx=561.707, UTMy=4694.968)

Figure A-7. Annual average NOx from point sources, current year emissions (Run 31).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                               A-15
                  July 2007



                  An important consequence of using higher resolution grids to represent area sources in
                  CALPUFF is the resulting increase in the number of sources to be modeled: changing from a 4
                  km resolution to a 1 km area source resolution increases the number of sources by a factor of 16.
                  The amount of time required to complete a CALPUFF simulation is sensitive to the number of
                  sources included in the model run, as illustrated by the example in Figure A-8. Each additional
                  source is seen to add approximately 1.5 hours to the time required to complete the full year
                  simulation over domain D3 using the 4 km CALMET output. For this reason, decisions
                  regarding the spatial resolution used to represent area sources must take into account both the
                  potential impact on results (which decreases with increasing source – receptor distance) and the
                  impact on CALPUFF run times. As a practical matter, then results indicate that each simulation
                  must be limited to at most a few hundred sources.

                                                                               CALUFF Run Times
                                                                       Domain D3 Area and Point Source Runs

                                                                                         Area Sources    Point Sources

                              45


                              40

                                                                                                           y = 0.065x + 1.5593
                              35                                                                                 2
                                                                                                               R = 0.9402
Wall Clock Days to Complete




                              30


                              25


                              20


                              15


                              10


                               5


                               0
                                   0         100                    200                    300                    400            500   600    700
                                                                                                 No. of Sources


                  Figure A-8. CALPUFF model run times as a function of number of sources included in the
                  simulation (based on eight domain D3 area source and two domain D3 point source runs with
                  one year of meteorology at 4 km resolution using the RIVAD chemical mechanism).


                  Sensitivity to Receptor Network Resolution

                  An estimate of the sensitivity of the peak Class II area impact from area sources to the receptor
                  network spacing can be obtained by comparing results at 4 km spacing used in R17 (peak NOx
                  impact from JPDA O&G of 19.5 µg/m3) with the 1 km spacing used in R1 (peak NOx impact of
                  24.6 µg/m3). This comparison shows that use of the denser 1 km Class II area receptor grid
                  results in a 25% greater peak Class II impact with the oil and gas sources resolved at 1 km. The

                  G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                 A-16
July 2007



ability of the 1 km receptor network to more fully resolve the Class II peak impact of point
sources is indicated by comparing the results for point sources over the 1 km receptor network in
R8 (maximum impact of 17.6 µg/m3) with results for over the 4 km network in R31 (maximum
impact of 5.8 µg/m3). The maximum from R8 is located at a distance of 1.2 km from the largest
point source (Big Piney compressor station) whereas the maximum from R31 is located 2 km
further away from this source at a point where emissions are more dispersed.

For Class I area impacts, comparisons of runs using the NPS receptor network and the
“SWWYTAF”1 network of 318 receptors shown in Table A-3 (R10 and R17 for the JPDA
sources, R13 and R31 for Sublette Co. “actual” point sources, and R14 and R21 for Sublette Co.
“PTE_NYC” point sources) show that the peak values resolved by the SWWYTAF network for
these individual source categories are just slightly larger than the corresponding peaks resolved
over the NPS receptor network. In all cases, the location of the peak on the SWWYTAF
receptor network was found to be located 0.8 km from the location of the peak on the NPS
network.


Chemical Mechanisms

CALPUFF runs R18 – R29 as listed in Table A-3 illustrate the impact of the selection of
chemical mechanism (none, MESOPUFF, or RIVAD) on peak impacts. Maximum NOx impacts
in the Class II area are roughly the same in each case as we would expect given the short travel
times to the location of the maximum Class II impact. RIVAD predicts a peak NO2 Class II area
impact that is 60 to 70% of the peak NOx impact, reflecting the incomplete conversion of NO to
NO2 at these near-source locations.

Class I maximum NOx impacts based on the MESOPUFF chemistry runs are just over half of the
maximum NOx impact under the no chemistry run, reflecting the impact of the MESOPUFF
mechanism of loss of NOx to nitrates. Results using the RIVAD mechanism fall in between
these two extremes.

Judging from the maximum annual average concentrations shown in Table A-3, nearly all of the
NOx appears as NO2 at the Class I receptors under the RIVAD mechanism. This is confirmed by
the spatial pattern of NO2/ NOx ratios (computed as ratios of annual averages) predicted under
the RIVAD mechanism for the JPDA source as shown in Figure A-9: the lowest ratios occur in
the near source region where the maximum Class II impacts are. At the more distant Class I
receptor sites, NO2/NOx ratios predicted using the RIVAD mechanism are in the 0.90 to 0.95
range.

Maximum annual average NOx Class II area impacts under the different chemical mechanism
options are summarized in Figure A-10. Predicted NOx impacts are slightly higher with the
RIVAD mechanism but the relative values of the individual source maximums are nearly
identical in each case. Within the Class I area, however (Figure A-11), NOx to nitrate conversion
modeled under the MESOPUFF and RIVAD mechanisms results in lower NOx impacts than
under the “no chemistry” case. This is especially so under the MESOPUFF mechanism.



1
 This receptor network was developed in connection with work previously performed under the auspices of the
Southwest Wyoming Technical Air Forum (SWWYTAF).
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                   A-17
July 2007



Maximum annual average NO2 Class II area impacts under the different chemical mechanism
options are shown in Figure A-12. As NO2 is not predicted directly under the “no chemistry” or
MESOPUFF options, we show here NO2 estimates made by multiplying the NOx predicted under
these two options by the EPA guideline conversion factor of 75%. Predicted NO2 is lowest
under the RIVAD mechanism, which produces relatively low NO2/NOx ratios close to the NOx
source. MESOPUFF results are intermediate between the “no chemistry” and RIVAD estimates.
For the maximum Class I impacts, however (Figure A-13), the situation is somewhat different as
RIVAD predicts a more complete conversion of NO to NO2 at these farther downwind locations.
As a result, RIVAD NO2 estimates at the Class I maximum are nearly equal to the value obtained
by taking the NOx impacts under the “no chemistry” option and multiplying by the EPA 75%
conversion factor; the higher conversion predicted by RIVAD is offset by the lack of NO2 to
nitrate conversion when the “no chemistry” option is used. These results indicate the importance
of properly accounting for NO to NO2 conversion and the limitations involved in simply
assuming an across-the-board 75% conversion factor.

The choice of chemical mechanism was found to have almost no impact on the relative
contributions of the different emission source categories to total concentration. This is illustrated
in Figure A-14 for source contributions to the total NO2 concentration at the location of the Class
I area maximum all-source impact.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                         A-18
July 2007



                                                          UTM Zone 12 (NAD 27)




                    4820




                    4800                                                                                   0.85


                                                                                                           0.8
                    4780
UTM Northing (km)




                                                                                                           0.75


                    4760
                                                                                                           0.7


                                                                                                           0.65
                    4740

                                                                                                           0.6

                    4720
                                                                                                           0.55


                                                                                                           0.5
                    4700
                                                                                                       NO2/NOx
                                                                                                        Ratio

                    4680
                           540   560            580           600       620      640       660   680
                                                              UTM Easting (km)

                                  Calpuff Annual Average NO2/NOx ratios
                                   Current year emissions - JPDA sources
                                  Chemistry Sensitivity - Rivad Mechanism
                                                  Max NOx                        Max NO2



Figure A-9. Spatial distributions of average annual NO2/NOx ratios predicted with the RIVAD
chemical mechanism for JPDA sources.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                    A-19
July 2007




                                                  Annual Average NOx: Class II Max Values

                 1.60E+01



                 1.40E+01



                 1.20E+01



                 1.00E+01
   NOx (ug/m3)




                                                                                                         No Chemistry
                 8.00E+00                                                                                MESOPUFF
                                                                                                         RIVAD

                 6.00E+00



                 4.00E+00



                 2.00E+00



                 0.00E+00
                            OG_JP           OG_OthSC               PTS_act           PTS_nyc   AllGrps
                                                    Source Category

Figure A-10. Maximum Class II annual average NOx (oil & gas and point sources) under the
“no chemistry”, and MESOPUFF and RIVAD chemical mechanisms (values are not paired in
space). Source categories are defined in Table A-1.




                                                  Annual Average NOx: Class I Max Values

                 1.80E-01


                 1.60E-01


                 1.40E-01


                 1.20E-01
   NOx (ug/m3)




                 1.00E-01                                                                                No Chemistry
                                                                                                         MESOPUFF
                 8.00E-02                                                                                RIVAD



                 6.00E-02


                 4.00E-02


                 2.00E-02


                 0.00E+00
                            OG_JP           OG_OthSC               PTS_act           PTS_nyc   AllGrps

                                                       Source Category
Figure A-11. Maximum Class I annual average NOx (oil & gas and point sources) under the “no
chemistry”, and MESOPUFF and RIVAD chemical mechanisms (values are not paired in
space). Source categories are defined in Table A-1.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                    A-20
July 2007




                                                                Maximum Class II Area NO2

                               1.20E+01




                               1.00E+01




                               8.00E+00
    Annual Average (ug/m3)




                                                                                                                                   No Chem NOx * 0.75
                               6.00E+00                                                                                            MESOPUFF NOx * 0.75
                                                                                                                                   RIVAD NO2


                               4.00E+00




                               2.00E+00




                               0.00E+00
                                           OG_JP     OG_OthSC          PTS_act             PTS_nyc             AllGrps
                                                                    Source Category




Figure A-12. Maximum Class II annual average NO2 (oil & gas and point sources) under the
“no chemistry”, and MESOPUFF and RIVAD chemical mechanisms (estimates for “no
chemistry” and MESOPUFF based on multiplying predicted NOx by 0.75). Values are not paired
in space. Source categories are defined in Table A-1.




                                                                        Maximum Class I NO2


                                1.40E-01



                                1.20E-01



                                1.00E-01
      Annual Average (ug/m3)




                                8.00E-02
                                                                                                                                               No Chem NOx * 0.75
                                                                                                                                               MESOPUFF Nox * 0.75
                                                                                                                                               RIVAD NO2
                                6.00E-02



                                4.00E-02



                                2.00E-02



                               0.00E+00
                                             OG_JP      OG_OthSC              PTS_act                PTS_nyc             AllGrps
                                                                         Source Category



Figure A-13. Maximum Class I annual average NO2 (oil & gas and point sources) under the “no
chemistry”, and MESOPUFF and RIVAD chemical mechanisms (estimates for “no chemistry”
and MESOPUFF based on multiplying predicted NOx by 0.75). Values are not paired in space.
Source categories are defined in Table A-1.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                                                       A-21
July 2007




                                                          Source Contributions (ug/m3) at Location of Class I Maximum
                                                                 Receptor 217 (UTMx=624.576, UTMy=4732.071)

                                   100%


                                     90%            0.023                                                         0.025
                                                                                    0.014


                                     80%


                                     70%            0.021                                                         0.021
                                                                                    0.011
    Cumulative % Contribution




                                     60%
                                                                                                                             PTS_nyc
                                                                                                                             PTS_act
                                     50%            0.026
                                                                                    0.013                         0.027      OG_OthSC
                                                                                                                             OG_JP
                                     40%


                                     30%


                                     20%            0.045                           0.024                         0.044


                                     10%


                                         0%
                                               No Chem * 0.75                   MESOPUFF*0.75                    RIVAD




                                                      Source Contributions (ug/m3) at Location of Class I Maximum
                                                            Receptor 217 (UTMx=624.576, UTMy=4732.071)

                                 0.140



                                 0.120


                                                  0.023                                                              0.025
                                 0.100
     Cumulative % Contribution




                                 0.080            0.021                                                              0.021      PTS_nyc
                                                                                                                                PTS_act
                                                                                                                                OG_OthSC
                                 0.060            0.026                                                                         OG_JP
                                                                                     0.014                           0.027


                                                                                     0.011
                                 0.040

                                                                                     0.013
                                                  0.045                                                              0.044
                                 0.020
                                                                                     0.024

                                 0.000
                                              No Chem * 0.75                     MESOPUFF*0.75                      RIVAD




Figure A-14. Source contributions to total NO2 at location of maximum Class I area combined
oil & gas and point source impact; NO2 for “no chemistry” and MESOPUFF chemistry estimated
as 75% of NOx; numbers within bar segments are source contributions in µg/m3 (Top: bar
heights scaled to percent contribution; Bottom: bar heights scaled to concentration).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                                       A-22
July 2007



Puff Splitting

Results from runs with the puff splitting option turned on (runs R46 and R47) were compared
with identical runs made with puff splitting turned off (R15 and R30, respectively) as shown in
Table A-6. All of these runs used the 1 km meteorology along with the Class II 4 km LCP
receptor network and the Class I SWWYTAF receptor network. Runs R46 and R15 are for the
2004 Jonah-Pinedale oil & gas sources; runs R47 and R30 are for the Sublette Co. point sources.
As shown in Table A-3, all of these runs used the 1 km meteorology along with the Class II 4 km
LCP receptor network and the Class I SWWYTAF receptor network. Runs R46 and R15 are for
the 2004 Jonah-Pinedale oil & gas sources; runs R47 and R30 are for the Sublette Co. point
sources. For both of these source categories, maximum NOx concentrations in both the Class II
and Class I areas were identical to within four significant figures between the puff splitting and
no puff splitting runs, indicating that the use of puff splitting has, practically speaking, no effect
on the annual average concentrations in these simulations.

Table A-6. Comparison of results with and without use of puff splitting option in CALPUFF.
                                                             Receptor                          Max NOX
Run           Met                 Puff Source Source        Network(s)                         (ug/m3)
 ID Domain Resolution Chemistry Splitting Group Resolution    Class I            Class II   Class I Class II
                                         2004
                                         JPDA              Class I             Class II 4
R15 D1xx   1 km       None      No       O&G      1 km     SWWYTAF             km LCP         0.077 18.240
                                         2004
                                         JPDA              Class I             Class II 4
R46 D1xx   1 km       None      Yes      O&G      1 km     SWWYTAF             km LCP         0.077 18.238
                                         2004
                                         Points:
                                         Sublette          Class I             Class II 4
R30 D1xx   1 km       None      No       Actual N/A        SWWYTAF             km LCP         0.031      8.742
                                         2004
                                         Points:
                                         Sublette          Class I             Class II 4
R47 D1xx   1 km       None      Yes      Actual 1 km       SWWYTAF             km LCP         0.031      8.742



CALPUFF/ISC COMPARISONS

The ISC-ST (short-term) and ISC-LT (long-term) dispersion models were exercised in a series of
runs as listed in Table A-7 for the same domain, receptor networks, and emissions data as used in
the CALPUFF modeling described above. Source parameters were also identical to those used
in CALPUFF. Both ISC-ST and ISC-LT were run in regulatory default mode. Meteorological
data used to drive the ISC dispersion model consisted of five years (1999 – 2003) of
preprocessed data developed by the WDEQ (Jonah surface observations and Riverton upper air
data).

Predicted maximum annual average NOx concentrations by source group predicted by ISC-ST
and ISC-LT are summarized in Table A-7 together with corresponding CALPUFF results from
identically configured runs listed in Table A-3. Note that the maximum is listed for each source
group and all source groups combined regardless of location (results not paired in space).
Thus, the row labeled “TOTAL FROM ALL SOURCES” does not necessarily equal the sum of
the individual maximum source contributions as the maxima generally occur in different
locations for different source groups.

G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                          A-23
July 2007




Table A-7. Summary of maximum concentrations predictions from ISC (note results are not
paired in space). Corresponding CALPUFF maximum NOx predictions from Table A-3 are also
shown.
              Compare w/                                                              Maximum Annual Average NOx          CALPUFF
               CALPUFF                                                                   Concentration [ug/m3]              NOx
               (see Table                                           Receptor
 Run ID ST/LT     A-3)                  Source Group               Network(s)     1999      2000    2001 2002     2003
                                                          Class II Impacts (ISC–ST)
ISC-R1      ST      R1                2004 JPDA O&G           Class II 1 km LCP   14.29     15.25 15.67 15.50     15.56      24.60

ISC-R2      ST      R2                2004 Pinedale Drill Class II 1 km LCP          9.07    8.89   8.80   9.23    9.74      12.16

ISC-R3      ST      R3                2004 Other O&G          Class II 1 km LCP      4.77    4.95   5.40   5.18    5.18       6.59

ISC-R4      ST      R4                Ag Equip                Class II 1 km LCP      0.12    0.13   0.15   0.14    0.14       0.19

ISC-R5      ST      R5                Rec. Marine/Equip Class II 1 km LCP            0.20    0.20   0.23   0.21    0.25       0.31

ISC-R6      ST      R6                Other Urban             Class II 1 km LCP      0.69    0.73   0.77   0.74    0.75       1.01

ISC-R7      ST      R7                2002 On-Road            Class II 1 km LCP      0.28    0.32   0.36   0.32    0.33       0.70
                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R8      ST      R8                Sublette Actual         Class II 1 km LCP   12.21     15.98 14.37 10.87     12.24      17.63

                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R9      ST      R9                Sublette PTE_NYC Class II 1 km LCP             3.18    3.60   3.34   2.91    3.03       2.62
MAX CONCENTRATIONS FROM ALL SOURCES:                                             15.89      19.93 18.80 16.47     16.55      26.08
                                                          Class II Impacts (ISC–LT)

ISC-R10 LT          R1                2004 JPDA O&G           Class II 1 km LCP   12.95     13.58 13.77 13.71     13.81      24.60

ISC-R11 LT          R2                2004 Pinedale Drill Class II 1 km LCP        8.27      8.08   8.09   8.43    8.91      12.16

ISC-R12 LT          R3                2004 Other O&G          Class II 1 km LCP      4.19    4.29   4.48   4.34    4.43       6.59

ISC-R13 LT          R4                Ag Equip                Class II 1 km LCP      0.10    0.11   0.11   0.11    0.11       0.19

ISC-R14 LT          R5                Rec. Marine/Equip Class II 1 km LCP            0.18    0.17   0.19   0.17    0.20       0.31

ISC-R15 LT          R6                Other Urban             Class II 1 km LCP      0.62    0.65   0.67   0.65    0.66       1.01

ISC-R16 LT          R7                2002 On-Road            Class II 1 km LCP      0.29    0.31   0.32   0.30    0.31       0.70
                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R17 LT          R8                Sublette Actual         Class II 1 km LCP   14.44     12.78 13.55 12.98     16.31      17.63
                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R18 LT          R9                Sublette PTE_NYC Class II 1 km LCP             2.88    3.39   2.96   2.75    2.65       2.62
MAX CONCENTRATIONS FROM ALL SOURCES:                                              17.21     16.03 16.62 15.90     19.33      26.08
                                                          Class I Impacts (ISC–ST)
ISC-R19 ST          R15               2004 JPDA O&G Class I SWWYTAF                  0.13    0.20   0.20   0.15    0.17       0.08
                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R20 ST          R20               Sublette Actual  Class I SWWYTAF               0.04    0.06   0.05   0.05    0.06       0.03
                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R21 ST          R21               Sublette PTE_NYC Class I SWWYTAF               0.05    0.06   0.06   0.05    0.06       0.03
                                                          Class I Impacts (ISC– LT)
ISC-R22 LT          R15               2004 JPDA O&G Class I SWWYTAF                  0.08    0.11   0.09   0.09    0.09       0.08
                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R23 LT          R21               Sublette Actual  Class I SWWYTAF             0.03      0.04   0.03   0.03    0.03       0.03
                                      2004 Points:
ISC-R24 LT          R22               Sublette PTE_NYC Class I SWWYTAF               0.03    0.05   0.04   0.04    0.03       0.03




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                          A-24
July 2007



Results presented in Table A-7 show that CALPUFF predicts higher maximum Class II area NOx
impacts than ISC-ST and ISC-LT but the maximum Class I impacts are generally a bit lower.
The spatial distribution of CALPUFF – ISC-ST differences in annual average NOx for the major
source categories are shown in Figure A-15. Figure A-16 shows the same result for ISC-LT and
Figure A-17 shows the ISC-ST – ISC-LT differences. In these figures, warm colors for the
contour interval shading represent positive differences (CALPUFF greater than ISC-ST) and
cooler colors represent negative differences (CALPUFF less than ISC-ST). All CALPUFF runs
were made with the chemistry module turned off and are of course, based on 1995 meteorology.
ISC-ST and ISC-LT results for 2001 were selected for plotting the Jonah-Pinedale results
because that is the year for which ISC-ST predicted a maximum impact. Similarly, ISC-ST and
ISC-LT results for 2000 were selected for the point source comparison because that is the year
for which ISC-ST predicted a maximum point source impact.

The largest absolute differences between CALPUFF and ISC predictions occur in the immediate
vicinity of the sources, as we would expect. CALPUFF predicts greater impacts everywhere
from the oil & gas sources but there are regions of positive and negative differences for the point
sources. Aside from differences in meteorological conditions in 1995 and the 1999-2003
meteorological data used in the ISC modeling, the generally higher values predicted in the
vicinity of the sources by CALPUFF most likely reflect the ability of CALPUFF to account for
recirculation of released material under light wind conditions allowing concentrations to build up
near the source. The steady-state ISC models cannot replicate this phenomenon.

CALPUFF – ISC-ST differences for annual average NOx from all source groups are summarized
in Table A-8. Mean normalized bias is on the order of +5 % indicating slightly higher
predictions on average by CALPUFF with a mean absolute bias on the order of 13 %. The under
prediction of ISC relative to CALPUFF is further illustrated by the quantile-quantile plot in
Figure A-18 and the scatter plots in Figure A-19, both of which show CALPUFF predictions
exceeding ISC-ST predictions wherever impacts are greater than a few ug/m3. Spatial
correlations between the two models are close to 0.9, consistent with generally similar spatial
prediction patterns.

Table A-8. Summary of CALPUFF – ISC-ST comparison statistics for annual average NOx (in
formulas, X1i=CALPUFF result at ith receptor, X2i=ISC results at ith receptor).
                                           1999     2000       2001        2002    2003
 Mean normalized bias
 Σi{(X1i – X2i)/(X1i + X2i)/2}            0.0049 0.0514 0.0585             0.0556 0.0418
 Mean absolute Bias
 Σi{|X1i – X2i|/(X1i + X2i)/2}            0.1254 0.1273 0.1240             0.1305 0.1221
 Correlation

 Σi (X1i – X1.)(X2i – X2.)
 {[Σi(X1i – X1.)2] [Σi(X2i – X2.)2]}1/2                                0.88   0.87   0.86   0.87   0.88




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                      A-25
July 2007




                                                                       Max = 10.0 ug/m3
                                                                       Min = -0.3 ug/m3                                                                        Max = 8.7 ug/m3
                                                                                                                                                               Min = -7.8 ug/m3

4820                                                                                       4820




4800                                                                                       4800
                                                                             4
                                                                                                                                                                       4
                                                                             3
4780                                                                                       4780                                                                        3
                                                                             2
                                                                                                                                                                       2
                                                                             1
4760                                                                                       4760                                                                        1
                                                                             0.5
                                                                                                                                                                       0.5
                                                                             -0.5
4740                                                                                       4740                                                                        -0.5
                                                                             -1
                                                                                                                                                                       -1
                                                                             -2
4720                                                                                       4720                                                                        -2
                                                                             -3
                                                                                                                                                                       -3
                                                                             -4
4700                                                                                       4700                                                                        -4
                                                                             -5
                                                                         TPD                                                                                           -5
4680                                                                                       4680
       540   560       580     600      620     640      660     680                              540   560     580      600     620     640      660    680

                   Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]                                                   Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]
                        from Jonah/Pinedale Oil and Gas                                                             from 2004 Actual Point Sources
                    CALPUFF (no chemistry) - ISC-ST (2001)                                                     CALPUFF (no chemistry) - ISC-ST (2000)




             Jonah/Pinedale Oil and Gas                                                                                Actual Points

                                                                       Max = 0.55 ug/m3
                                                                       Min = -1.11 ug/m3

4820




4800

                                                                                  4

4780                                                                              3

                                                                                  2

4760                                                                              1

                                                                                  0.5

4740                                                                              -0.5

                                                                                  -1

4720                                                                              -2

                                                                                  -3

4700                                                                              -4

                                                                                  -5

4680
       540   560       580     600     620      640     660      680


                     Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]
                   from 2004 Point Sources Not Yet Constructed
                      CALPUFF (no chemistry) - ISC-ST (2000)




               Points not yet constructed

Figure A-15. Differences in predicted annual average NOx (CALPUFF – ISC-ST).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                                                                       A-26
July 2007




                                                                                                     Max = 12.1 ug/m3
                                                                                                     Min = -0.1 ug/m3

                                                                                                                                                                                                               Max = 12.1 ug/m3
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Min = -1.5 ug/m3
                                                                                                          4
4750
                                                                                                          2
                                                                                                                        4750

4740
                                                                                                          1                                                                                                            4

                                                                                                          0.8           4740                                                                                           2
4730
                                                                                                          0.6                                                                                                          1
                                                                                                                        4730
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0.8
                                                                                                          0.4
4720
                                                                                                                        4720                                                                                           0.6
                                                                                                          0.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0.4
4710                                                                                                      -0.2          4710
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0.2
                                                                                                          -0.4
4700                                                                                                                                                                                                                   -0.2
                                                                                                                        4700
                                                                                                          -0.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0.4
                                                                                                          -0.8
4690                                                                                                                    4690
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0.6
                                                                                                          -1                                                                                                           -0.8
                                                                                                                        4680
4680
                                                                                                          -2               530   540   550   560   570   580   590   600   610   620   630   640   650   660           -1
   530   540         550   560      570   580     590   600    610   620   630   640   650   660

                                                                                                          -4                                                                                                           -2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -4
                                                                                                       TPD
                                   Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]                                                                   Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]
                                        from Jonah/Pinedale Oil and Gas                                                                             from 2004 Actual Point Sources
                                                                                                                                               CALPUFF (no chemistry) - ISC-LT (2000)
                                    CALPUFF (no chemistry) - ISC-LT (2001)


                           Jonah/Pinedale Oil and Gas                                                                                                          Actual Points


                                                                                                   Max = 0.76 ug/m3
                                                                                                   Min = -1.25 ug/m3




                                                                                                                 4

                                                                                                                 2
4740
                                                                                                                 1

                                                                                                                 0.8

4720                                                                                                             0.6

                                                                                                                 0.4

                                                                                                                 0.2
4700                                                                                                             -0.2

                                                                                                                 -0.4

                                                                                                                 -0.6
4680                                                                                                             -0.8
               540           560            580          600         620         640         660                 -1

                                                                                                                 -2
                                   Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]                                      -4
                                 from 2004 Point Sources Not Yet Constructed
                                    CALPUFF (no chemistry) - ISC-LT (2000)



                                 Points not yet constructed

Figure A-16. Differences in predicted annual average NOx (CALPUFF – ISC-LT).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                                                                                                                       A-27
July 2007




                                                                                                                                                                                 Max = 2.20 ug/m3                                                                                                                                                                                    Max = 6.3 ug/m3
                                                                                                                                                                                 Min = 0.02 ug/m3                                                                                                                                                                                    Min = -4.1 ug/m3



                                                                                                                                                                                      4
4750
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             4
                                                                                                                                                                                      2               4750

4745
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4745
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2
4740                                                                                                                                                                                  1
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4740                                                                                                                                                                                   1
4735
                                                                                                                                                                                      0.8             4735

4730
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.8
                                                                                                                                                                                      0.6             4730

4725
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4725
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.6
4720                                                                                                                                                                                  0.4             4720
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.4
4715
                                                                                                                                                                                      0.2             4715

4710                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4710
                                                                                                                                                                                      -0.2
4705
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4705                                                                                                                                                                                   -0.2
4700
                                                                                                                                                                                      -0.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4700

4695

                                                                                                                                                                                      -0.6            4695


4690
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4690
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.6
                                                                                                                                                                                      -0.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.8
4685
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4685


4680
                                                                                                                                                                                      -1              4680

       530   535   540   545   550   555   560   565   570   575   580   585   590   595   600   605   610   615   620   625   630   635   640   645   650   655   660   665
                                                                                                                                                                                                             530   535   540   545   550   555   560   565   570   575   580   585   590   595   600   605   610   615   620   625   630   635   640   645   650   655   660   665
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -1
                                                                                                                                                                                      -2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -2
                                                                                                                                                                                      -4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             -4
                                            Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]
                                                 from Jonah/Pinedale Oil and Gas                                                                                                                                                             Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]
                                                                                                                                                                                  TPD                                                              from 2004 Actual Point Sources
                                                      ISC-ST - ISC-LT (2001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ISC-ST - ISC-LT (2000)

                                                 Jonah/Pinedale Oil and Gas                                                                                                                                                                                                          Actual Points
                                                                                                                                                                                  Max = 0.77 ug/m3
                                                                                                                                                                                  Min = -0.40 ug/m3



                                                                                                                                                                                             4

                                                                                                                                                                                             2
4740
                                                                                                                                                                                             1

                                                                                                                                                                                             0.8

4720                                                                                                                                                                                         0.6

                                                                                                                                                                                             0.4

                                                                                                                                                                                             0.2
4700                                                                                                                                                                                         -0.2

                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.4

                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.6
4680
                                                                                                                                                                                             -0.8
                         540                      560                     580                     600                      620                     640                     660
                                                                                                                                                                                             -1

                                                                                                                                                                                             -2

                                                   Difference in Annual Average NOx [ug/m3]                                                                                                  -4
                                                 from 2004 Point Sources Not Yet Constructed
                                                             ISC-ST - ISC-LT (2000)

                                                       Points not yet constructed


Figure A-17. Differences in predicted annual average NOx (ISC-ST – ISC-LT).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A-28
July 2007




              20




                                                                                     20
                                                    1:1                                                           1:1
              15




                                                                                     15
ISC-ST 1999




                                                                       ISC-ST 2000
              10




                                                                                     10
              5




                                                                                     5
              0




                                                                                     0
                   0   5      10           15             20    25                        0   5   10         15         20   25
                                     CalPuff                                                           CalPuff
              20




                                                                                     20
                                                    1:1                                                           1:1
              15




                                                                                     15
ISC-ST 2001




                                                                       ISC-ST 2002
              10




                                                                                     10
              5




                                                                                     5
              0




                                                                                     0




                   0   5      10           15             20    25                        0   5   10         15         20   25
                                     CalPuff                                                           CalPuff
              20




                                                     1:1
              15
ISC-ST 2003

              10
              5
              0




                   0   5        10             15          20    25

                                      CalPuff
Figure A-18. Quantile – quantile plots of CALPUFF (x-axis) vs. ISC-ST annual average NOx
predictions for (left to right and top to bottom) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 for all source
categories combined (runs 1 – 9; based on Class II, 1 km receptor network; note concentrations
are not paired in space).




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                              A-29
July 2007




              20




                                                                                     20
                                                    1:1                                                           1:1


              15




                                                                                     15
ISC-ST 1999




                                                                       ISC-ST 2000
              10




                                                                                     10
              5




                                                                                     5
              0




                                                                                     0
                   0   5      10           15             20    25                        0   5   10         15         20   25
                                     CalPuff                                                           CalPuff
              20




                                                                                     20
                                                    1:1                                                           1:1
              15




                                                                                     15
ISC-ST 2001




                                                                       ISC-ST 2002
              10




                                                                                     10
              5




                                                                                     5
              0




                                                                                     0



                   0   5      10           15             20    25                        0   5   10         15         20   25
                                     CalPuff                                                           CalPuff
              20




                                                     1:1
              15
ISC-ST 2003

              10
              5
              0




                   0   5        10             15          20    25

                                      CalPuff


Figure A-19. Scatter plots of CALPUFF vs. ISC-ST annual average NOx predictions at
receptors in the Class II 1 km receptor network (all sources combined; runs R1 – R9).


SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Modeling results described above provide insight into the sensitivity of predicted annual average
NO2 on model configuration options related to the spatial resolution of meteorological fields,
spatial resolution of receptor networks, spatial resolution of area source representation, choice of
chemical mechanism, and selection of the puff splitting option in CALPUFF. Results of these
sensitivity analyses are summarized in Table A-9 together with recommendations for the final
PSD modeling configuration. These recommendations are described in more detail below.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                              A-30
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Table A-9. Summary of dispersion model configuration sensitivity analyses (see text).
     Configuration
      Sensitivity                   Options Analyzed                               Results                    Recommendation
    Class II area              1 km spacing vs. 4 km                   Higher concentrations resolved       Use 1 km spacing to
    receptor spacing           spacing                                 with 1 km spacing                    resolve peak impactsa
    Class I areas              SWWYTAF study receptors                 Little difference in model           Use NPS specified
    receptor spacing           (4 km spacing; 318                      predictions                          receptor network for
                               receptors total) vs. NPS                                                     consistency with Federal
                               specified receptors (approx.                                                 Land Manager modeling
                               1.4 km spacing; 1000                                                         guidance
                               receptors total)
    CALMET                     1 x 1 km vs. 4 x 4 km grid              Generally little difference in       Use of 4 km resolution is
    meteorological field                                               predicted concentrations;            adequate and consistent
    resolution                                                         significant penalty in model run     with available computing
                                                                       time at higher resolution            resources
    Area source                1 x 1 km grid vs. 4 x 4 km              Peak near-source impacts from        Use 1 km resolution to
    gridding resolution        grid                                    oil & gas sources are sensitive to   adequately model near-
                                                                       source grid resolution; impacts at   source impacts
                                                                       Class I areas are much less
                                                                       sensitive
    CALPUFF                    None vs. MESOPUFF II vs.                Model results sensitive to           Use RIVAD mechanism to
    chemical                   RIVAD                                   simulation of NO to NO2              explicitly treat NO to NO2
    mechanism                                                          conversion and loss of NOx to        conversion; RIVAD
                                                                       nitrate                              predictions of NOx are
                                                                                                            conservative relative to
                                                                                                            MESOPUFF II mechanism
                                                                                                            recommended by Federal
                                                                                                            Land Managers for
                                                                                                            estimating NO3 impacts
    CALPUFF puff               On vs. Off                              Insignificant effect on peak Class   Turn off puff splitting
    splitting algorithm                                                II and Class I area NO2 impacts;     option
                                                                       significant penalty in model run
                                                                       times with puff splitting
                                                                       implemented
a
  A 1-km receptor spacing within the Class II area was judged adequate and consistent with accepted practice for
the cumulative PSD increment consumption analysis for the combined impact of all sources in Sublette County.
More refined receptor network specifications as per EPA and WDEQ guidance would typically be used when
modeling the increment consumption associated with a specific individual source.



Meteorological Resolution

Two alternative spatial resolutions (1 km and 4 km) were used in the CALMET model to
develop the meteorological fields needed to drive the CALPUFF dispersion model simulations.
In principal, the use of a higher resolution CALMET grid should allow more accurate simulation
of fine scale meteorological features, resulting in more accurate model predictions. In practice,
however, the actual benefit derived from the use of higher resolution fields in the prediction of
annual average impacts is less clear given the limited amounts of observational data available to
drive CALMET together with limitations in the ability of CALMET and CALPUFF to simulate
small scale dispersion features. Results of the above sensitivity analyses indicate that near-field
maximum area source NOx impacts are not very sensitive to the choice of 4 km or 1 km for the
meteorological field resolution (approximately ± 3.5%). Near-field maximum impacts from
point sources are more sensitive to the choice of meteorological field resolution but only in the
immediate vicinity of the sources where concentrations are most sensitive to small changes in the
mean wind direction. Within the Class I area (i.e., further downwind of the emissions sources),
the concentration differences between the 1 km and 4 km runs are quite small, although the
relative differences are larger as a result of the low average NOx impacts. As the sensitivity to
meteorological field resolution are positive in some locations and negative in others, the
G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                                                        A-31
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sensitivity of total NOx from all sources combined in the Class I area is likely to be less as some
of the sensitivities of opposite sign cancel each other out.

A key consideration in the selection of the meteorological field resolution for
CALMET/CALPUFF analyses is the length of time required to carry out the model
computations. The model run time issue is less critical for CALMET as the fields need only be
generated once but, due to the large number of sources and receptors to be analyzed, CALPUFF
must be run on the fields many times (for different source groups). When the 1 km
meteorological fields were used to compute impacts of the 234 gas field sources in the Jonah-
Pinedale Development Area (JPDA) over a network of 1,504 receptors, CALPUFF required
approximately 85 hours to complete. This compares with a run time of approximately 17 hours
for the same sources and receptors but using the 4 km meteorological fields. Based on this five-
fold increase in run time, one can estimate that a CALPUFF simulation of the 465 oil & gas field
sources outside of the JPDA over the network of 8,391 Class II receptors (using 1 km receptor
spacing) would require approximately 33 days to complete using the 1 km meteorological fields
over domain 1xx (D1xx). Run times for the larger domain 3 (D3) would be longer – probably
much longer given the larger number of puffs that need to be simulated over the larger domain.
These results suggest that use of 1 km meteorological fields to model D3 is likely infeasible
given the long CALPUFF run times required.


Area Source Gridding Resolution

Two alternative gridding resolutions for representing oil & gas sources in CALPUFF were
tested. Peak NOx impacts estimated using 1 x 1 km emissions grids were found to differ
significantly from impacts modeled using 4 x 4 km grids as the spatial variation of emission
densities is greater when using the 1 km grid cells. These differences decrease rapidly as one
moves further away from the source region, however, such that the difference in maximum Class
I area NOx impacts is just 3%. Nevertheless, since one of the goals of the modeling analysis was
to estimate increment consumption in the Class II area, the final modeling configuration
specified use of 1 km grid cells for representing the oil & gas emissions in Sublette County.
Coarser grid resolution is acceptable for representing area sources located outside of Sublette
County.


Puff Splitting

CALPUFF includes an option to allow puffs to be split along horizontal planes (vertical splitting)
and vertical planes (horizontal splitting) when certain criteria are satisfied. Test runs were made
with puff splitting turned on in the default mode (which allows for three-way vertical splitting
once per day (at hour 17) base on mixing height, and five-way horizontal splitting based on puff
size, elongation rate, and minimum concentration). Results of these runs were compared with
identical runs with the puff splitting option turned off. Tests were done using both point and area
sources. Puff splitting was found to have no significant impact on maximum concentrations in
either the Class I or Class II areas. Since puff splitting increased run times, this option was not
used in the final model configuration.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                        A-32
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Receptor Networks

Results from the sensitivity analyses described above show that use of high resolution receptors
(1 km spacing) at Class II locations near major sources resolves concentration peaks that are
missed by the 4 km receptor grid. Given the need to model numerous sources throughout the
southern portion of Sublette County, the use of the 1 km Class II network grid was selected. For
the Class I area, we note that, although the WDEQ SWWYTAF network of 318 receptors seems
to do a good job of resolving the peak impact, PSD modeling analyses should make use of the
larger set of 1000 receptor sites specified by the Federal Land Managers.


Chemical Mechanism

Results from simulations described above using the RIVAD chemical mechanism suggest that
average NO to NO2 conversion factors vary from 60% to over 90% depending on the source –
receptor distance. In addition, loss of NOx to nitrate is estimated to be significant at the longer
transport times associated with impacts within the Class I area. These results suggest that a
realistic simulation of NO2 impacts must take both of these phenomenon into account. This can
only be accomplished with CALPUFF using the RIVAD mechanism. We note, however, that
ambient monitoring data are not available within the study region which would allow us to
evaluate the performance of the RIVAD simulation, leaving some uncertainty regarding the
accuracy of the NO to NO2 and NO2 to nitrate conversion rates simulated by RIVAD.
Nevertheless, the above results show that the RIVAD NO2 to nitrate conversion rate is lower
than the rate obtained using the MESOPUFF II mechanism. Therefore the RIVAD NOx
predictions can be used as a conservative upper bound estimate on NO2. As a result, the RIVAD
mechanism was selected for the PSD analysis.


Comparison of CALPUFF and ISC

Class II area annual average NOx concentrations predicted by CALPUFF were on the order of
50% higher than corresponding ISC predictions. While these comparisons were based on the use
of different meteorological data sets in ISC and CALPUFF and no attempt was made to
configure CALMET/CALPUFF modeling options to be more consistent with the ISC
configuration (such as, for example, with the use of the plume slug treatment option), it is
believed that the higher CALPUFF predictions are primarily a result of the ability of CALPUFF
to account for the recirculation of pollutants within the Upper Green River Basin under light
wind conditions which allow concentrations to build up near the major emissions sources. The
steady-state ISC models cannot replicate this phenomenon. CALPUFF NOx impacts in the Class
I area are less than corresponding ISC predictions, most likely due to the ability of CALMET to
better simulate the tendency of emissions to stagnate in the lower elevation (Class II) source
regions or to flow around the higher elevation Class I areas as compared to following the straight
line winds assumed in ISC. In any event, ISC is not judged suitable for application in the Class I
area due to the large source-receptor distances involved and the presence of complex terrain.
Thus, use of CALMET/CALPUFF, in addition to being the appropriate choice for modeling NOx
impacts at the distant Class I receptors, is also an acceptable, if potentially somewhat
conservative, choice for modeling impacts within the Class II area.




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX A.doc                        A-33
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REFERENCES

Earth Tech, 2001. “The Southwest Wyoming Regional CALPUFF Air Quality Modeling
       Study.” Final Report. Earth Tech, Inc., Concord, NH, February.

Morris, R.E., Kessler, R.C., Douglas, S.G., Styles, K.R., and G.E. Moore, 1988. “Rocky
       Mountain Acid Deposition Model Assessment: Acid Rain Mountain Mesoscale Model
       (ARM3).” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atmospheric Sciences Research
       Laboratory.

Scire, J.S., Furmann, F.W., Bass, A., and S.R. Hanna, 1984. “User’s Guide to the MESOPUFF
        II Model and Related Processor Programs.” EPA-600/8-84-013, U.S. Environmental
        Protection Agency.

Scire, J.S., Strimaitis, D.G., and R.J. Yamartino, 2000. “A User’s Guide for the CALPUFF
        Dispersion Model (Version 5).” Earth Tech, Inc., Concord, MA, January.

Stoeckenius, T., S. Lau, E. Tai, R. Morris, M. Jimenez, and J. Russell. 2006. “Southwest
       Wyoming NO2 PSD Increment Consumption Modeling: Results for Sublette County.”
       ENVIRON International Corp, October.




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                                         APPENDIX B:
                             Sample CALMET Control Parameters Input File




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CALMET
180 x 180 x 10 4km meteorological grid -- wind & met model
Met. stations used: 13 surface, n upper air, m precip., 0 overwater
---------------- Run title (3 lines) ----------------------------------
--------

                                       CALMET MODEL CONTROL FILE
                                       --------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 0 -- Input and Output File Names


Subgroup (a)
------------
Default Name               Type                   File Name
------------               ----                   ---------
GEO.DAT                    input             ! GEODAT= ../inputs/geo.wydeq_d3.lcp.dat !
SURF.DAT                   input             ! SRFDAT= ../surface/surface.wydeq_t03.2001.dat
!
CLOUD.DAT                  input             * CLDDAT= *
PRECIP.DAT                 input             ! PRCDAT= ../inputs/precip2001.wydeq_d3.lcp.dat
!
MM4.DAT                    input             !   MM4DAT=         ../inputs/20010101.mst.mm5 !
WT.DAT                     input             *   WTDAT=          *
CALMET.LST                 output            !   METLST=         calmet.wydeq_d3.lcp.20010101.lst !
CALMET.DAT                 output            !   METDAT=         calmet.wydeq_d3.lcp.20010101.dat !
PACOUT.DAT                 output            *   PACDAT=                    *

All file names will be converted to lower case if LCFILES = T
Otherwise, if LCFILES = F, file names will be converted to UPPER CASE
         T = lower case      ! LCFILES = T !
         F = UPPER CASE

NUMBER OF UPPER AIR & OVERWATER STATIONS:

       Number of upper air stations (NUSTA) No default                                  ! NUSTA = 10 !
       Number of overwater met stations
                                    (NOWSTA) No default                                 ! NOWSTA = 0 !

                       !END!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
Subgroup (b)
---------------------------------
Upper air files (one per station)
---------------------------------
Default Name Type        File Name
------------ ----        ---------
UP1.DAT       input     1 ! UPDAT= ../upperair/up400/upbis.txt ! !END!
UP2.DAT       input     2 ! UPDAT= ../upperair/up400/upboi.txt ! !END!
UP4.DAT       input     4 ! UPDAT= ../upperair/up400/upggw.txt ! !END!
UP5.DAT       input     5 ! UPDAT= ../upperair/up400/upgjt.txt ! !END!


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UP6.DAT                    input               6     !   UPDAT=        ../upperair/up400/uplbf.txt     !   !END!
UP7.DAT                    input               7     !   UPDAT=        ../upperair/up400/upriw.txt     !   !END!
UP8.DAT                    input               8     !   UPDAT=        ../upperair/up400/upslc.txt     !   !END!
UP9.DAT                    input               9     !   UPDAT=        ../upperair/up400/uptfx.txt     !   !END!
UP0.DAT                    input               0     !   UPDAT=        ../upperair/up400/upunr.txt     !   !END!
UP3.DAT                    input               3     !   UPDAT=        ../upperair/up400/updnr.txt     !   !END!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
Subgroup (c)
-----------------------------------------
Overwater station files (one per station)
-----------------------------------------
Default Name Type        File Name
------------ ----        ---------
SEA1.DAT       input     1 * SEADAT=SEA1.DAT*     *END*
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
Subgroup (d)
----------------
Other file names
----------------

Default Name               Type                  File Name
------------               ----                  ---------
DIAG.DAT                   input                 * DIADAT=                             *
PROG.DAT                   input                 * PRGDAT=                             *

TEST.PRT                   output                *   TSTPRT=                           *
TEST.OUT                   output                *   TSTOUT=                           *
TEST.KIN                   output                *   TSTKIN=                           *
TEST.FRD                   output                *   TSTFRD=                           *
TEST.SLP                   output                *   TSTSLP=                           *

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
NOTES: (1) File/path names can be up to 70 characters in length
       (2) Subgroups (a) and (d) must have ONE 'END' (surround by
           delimiters) at the end of the group
       (3) Subgroups (b) and (c) must have an 'END' (surround by
           delimiters) at the end of EACH LINE

                                                 !END!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 1 -- General run control parameters
--------------

         Starting date:                   Year       (IBYR)        --   No   default       !   IBYR=   2001 !
                                         Month       (IBMO)        --   No   default       !   IBMO=   01 !
                                           Day       (IBDY)        --   No   default       !   IBDY=   01 !
                                          Hour       (IBHR)        --   No   default       !   IBHR=   00 !




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         Base time zone        (IBTZ) -- No default                                ! IBTZ=     7   !
            PST = 08, MST = 07
            CST = 06, EST = 05

         Length of run (hours) (IRLG) -- No default                                ! IRLG=     24 !

         Run type                                (IRTYPE) -- Default: 1            ! IRTYPE=       1   !

               0 = Computes              wind fields only
               1 = Computes              wind fields and micrometeorological variables
                   (u*, w*,              L, zi, etc.)
               (IRTYPE must              be 1 to run CALPUFF or CALGRID)

         Compute special data fields required
         by CALGRID (i.e., 3-D fields of W wind
         components and temperature)
         in additional to regular            Default: T                             ! LCALGRD = T !
         fields ? (LCALGRD)
         (LCALGRD must be T to run CALGRID)

           Flag to stop run after
           SETUP phase (ITEST)             Default: 2                               ! ITEST=       2   !
           (Used to allow checking
           of the model inputs, files, etc.)
           ITEST = 1 - STOPS program after SETUP phase
           ITEST = 2 - Continues with execution of
                       COMPUTATIONAL phase after SETUP

!END!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 2 -- Map Projection and Grid control parameters
--------------

         Projection for all (X,Y):
         -------------------------

         Map projection
         (PMAP)                                                Default: UTM   ! PMAP = LCC !

                 UTM :         Universal Transverse Mercator
                 TTM :         Tangential Transverse Mercator
                 LCC :         Lambert Conformal Conic
                 PS :          Polar Stereographic
                 EM :          Equatorial Mercator
                 LAZA:         Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

         False Easting and Northing (km) at the projection origin
         (Used only if PMAP= TTM, LCC, or LAZA)
         (FEAST)                    Default=0.0     ! FEAST = 0.0 !
         (FNORTH)                   Default=0.0     ! FNORTH = 0.0 !

         UTM zone (1 to 60)


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         (Used only if PMAP=UTM)
         (IUTMZN)                                              No Default   ! IUTMZN = 12 !

         Hemisphere            for UTM projection?
         (Used only            if PMAP=UTM)
         (UTMHEM)                              Default: N                   ! UTMHEM = N !
             N   :             Northern hemisphere projection
             S   :             Southern hemisphere projection

         Latitude and Longitude (decimal degrees) of projection origin
         (Used only if PMAP= TTM, LCC, PS, EM, or LAZA)
         (RLAT0)                    No Default      ! RLAT0 = 42.55N !
         (RLON0)                    No Default      ! RLON0 = 108.55W !

         TTM :                 RLON0 identifies central (true N/S) meridian of
projection
                               RLAT0 selected for convenience
         LCC :                 RLON0 identifies central (true N/S) meridian of
projection
                               RLAT0 selected for convenience
         PS              :     RLON0 identifies central (grid N/S) meridian of
projection
                               RLAT0       selected for convenience
                 EM      :     RLON0       identifies central meridian of projection
                               RLAT0       is REPLACED by 0.0N (Equator)
                 LAZA:         RLON0       identifies longitude of tangent-point of mapping
plane
                               RLAT0 identifies latitude of tangent-point of mapping
plane

         Matching parallel(s) of latitude (decimal degrees) for projection
         (Used only if PMAP= LCC or PS)
         (XLAT1)                    No Default      ! XLAT1 = 30.0N !
         (XLAT2)                    No Default      ! XLAT2 = 60.0N !

         LCC :                 Projection cone slices through Earth's surface at XLAT1
and XLAT2
         PS :                  Projection plane slices through Earth at XLAT1
                               (XLAT2 is not used)

         ----------
         Note: Latitudes and longitudes should be positive, and include a
                letter N,S,E, or W indicating north or south latitude, and
                east or west longitude. For example,
                35.9 N Latitude = 35.9N
                118.7 E Longitude = 118.7E


         Datum-Region
         ------------

     The Datum-Region for the coordinates is identified by a character
     string. Many mapping products currently available use the model
of the




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     Earth known as the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-G ). Other
local
     models may be in use, and their selection in CALMET will make its
output
     consistent with local mapping products. The list of Datum-Regions
with
     official transformation parameters provided by the National
Imagery and
     Mapping Agency (NIMA).

     NIMA Datum-Regions (Examples)
     ------------------------------------------------------------------
------------
     WGS-G     WGS-84 GRS 80, Global coverage
     NAS-C     NORTH AMERICAN 1927 Clarke 1866, MEAN FOR (CONUS)
     NWS-27    NWS 6370KM Radius, Global Sphere (NAD27)
     NWS-84    NWS 6370KM Radius, Global Sphere (WGS84)
     ESR-S     ESRI REFERENCE Normal Sphere (6371KM Radius), Global
Reference Sphere

         Datum-region for output coordinates
         (DATUM)                    Default: WGS-G                                  ! DATUM = NWS-27   !



         Horizontal grid definition:
         ---------------------------

         Rectangular grid defined for projection PMAP,
         with X the Easting and Y the Northing coordinate

                       No. X grid cells (NX)                           No default     ! NX = 180 !
                       No. Y grid cells (NY)                           No default     ! NY = 180 !

         Grid spacing (DGRIDKM)                                        No default     ! DGRIDKM = 4. !
                                                                       Units: km

         Reference grid coordinate of
         SOUTHWEST corner of grid cell (1,1)

               X coordinate (XORIGKM)                                  No default     ! XORIGKM = -
431.0 !
               Y coordinate (YORIGKM)                                  No default     ! YORIGKM = -
302.0 !
                                                                       Units: km

         Vertical grid definition:
         -------------------------

               No. of vertical layers (NZ)                             No default     ! NZ = 10 !

               Cell face heights in arbitrary
               vertical grid (ZFACE(NZ+1))    No defaults
                                              Units: m




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        ! ZFACE =
0.,20.,40.,100.,140.,320.,580.,1020.,1480.,2220.,2980. !


!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 3 -- Output Options
--------------


       DISK OUTPUT OPTION

             Save met. fields in an unformatted
             output file ?              (LSAVE)                        Default: T   ! LSAVE = T !
             (F = Do not save, T = Save)

             Type of unformatted output file:
             (IFORMO)                                                  Default: 1   ! IFORMO =   1
!

                       1 = CALPUFF/CALGRID type file (CALMET.DAT)
                       2 = MESOPUFF-II type file     (PACOUT.DAT)


       LINE PRINTER OUTPUT OPTIONS:

             Print met. fields ?                       (LPRINT)        Default: F   ! LPRINT = F
!
             (F = Do not print, T = Print)
             (NOTE: parameters below control which
                    met. variables are printed)

             Print interval
             (IPRINF) in hours                                         Default: 1   ! IPRINF = 1
!
             (Meteorological fields are printed
              every 6 hours)


             Specify which layers of U, V wind component
             to print (IUVOUT(NZ)) -- NOTE: NZ values must be entered
             (0=Do not print, 1=Print)
             (used only if LPRINT=T)        Defaults: NZ*0
             ! IUVOUT = 10*0 !
             -----------------------


             Specify which levels of the W wind component to print
             (NOTE: W defined at TOP cell face -- 6 values)
             (IWOUT(NZ)) -- NOTE: NZ values must be entered
             (0=Do not print, 1=Print)


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             (used only if LPRINT=T & LCALGRD=T)
             -----------------------------------
                                                                       Defaults: NZ*0
               ! IWOUT = 10*0 !


             Specify which levels of the 3-D temperature field to print
             (ITOUT(NZ)) -- NOTE: NZ values must be entered
             (0=Do not print, 1=Print)
             (used only if LPRINT=T & LCALGRD=T)
             -----------------------------------
                                                  Defaults: NZ*0
              ! ITOUT = 10*0 !

             Specify which meteorological fields
             to print
             (used only if LPRINT=T)             Defaults: 0 (all variables)
             -----------------------


                 Variable                            Print ?
                                                 (0 = do not print,
                                                  1 = print)
                 --------                        ------------------

           !     STABILITY             =                       0       !   -   PGT stability class
           !     USTAR                 =                       0       !   -   Friction velocity
           !     MONIN                 =                       0       !   -   Monin-Obukhov length
           !     MIXHT                 =                       0       !   -   Mixing height
           !     WSTAR                 =                       0       !   -   Convective velocity
scale
           !     PRECIP                =                       0       ! - Precipitation rate
           !     SENSHEAT              =                       0       ! - Sensible heat flux
           !     CONVZI                =                       0       ! - Convective mixing ht.


             Testing and debug print options for micrometeorological module

                   Print input meteorological data and
                   internal variables (LDB)         Default: F       ! LDB = F !
                   (F = Do not print, T = print)
                   (NOTE: this option produces large amounts of output)

                   First time step for which debug data
                   are printed (NN1)                Default: 1                            ! NN1 =     1
!

                   Last time step for which debug data
                   are printed (NN2)                Default: 1                            ! NN2 =     2
!


             Testing and debug print options for wind field module
             (all of the following print options control output to
              wind field module's output files: TEST.PRT, TEST.OUT,


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               TEST.KIN, TEST.FRD, and TEST.SLP)

                   Control variable for writing the test/debug
                   wind fields to disk files (IOUTD)
                   (0=Do not write, 1=write)        Default: 0         ! IOUTD =
0    !

                   Number of levels, starting at the surface,
                   to print (NZPRN2)                Default: 1         ! NZPRN2 =
1    !

                   Print the INTERPOLATED wind components ?
                   (IPR0) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR0 =
0    !

                   Print the TERRAIN ADJUSTED surface wind
                   components ?
                   (IPR1) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR1 =
0    !

                   Print the SMOOTHED wind components and
                   the INITIAL DIVERGENCE fields ?
                   (IPR2) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR2 =
0    !

                   Print the FINAL wind speed and direction
                   fields ?
                   (IPR3) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR3 =
0    !

                   Print the FINAL DIVERGENCE fields ?
                   (IPR4) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR4 =
0    !

                   Print the winds after KINEMATIC effects
                   are added ?
                   (IPR5) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR5 =
0    !

                   Print the winds after the FROUDE NUMBER
                   adjustment is made ?
                   (IPR6) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR6 =
0    !

                   Print the winds after SLOPE FLOWS
                   are added ?
                   (IPR7) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR7 =
0    !

                   Print the FINAL wind field components ?
                   (IPR8) (0=no, 1=yes)             Default: 0         !   IPR8 =
0    !

!END!




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-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 4 -- Meteorological data options
--------------


       NO OBSERVATION MODE                                             (NOOBS)    Default: 0   ! NOOBS = 0
!
          0 = Use surface, overwater, and upper air stations
          1 = Use surface and overwater stations (no upper air
observations)
              Use MM5 for upper air data
          2 = No surface, overwater, or upper air observations
              Use MM5 for surface, overwater, and upper air data

       NUMBER OF SURFACE & PRECIP. METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS

             Number of surface stations                                (NSSTA)    No default   ! NSSTA =
13     !

             Number of precipitation stations
             (NPSTA=-1: flag for use of MM5 precip data)
                                          (NPSTA) No default                                   ! NPSTA =
87 !

       CLOUD DATA OPTIONS
          Griddid cloud fields:
                                                                       (ICLOUD)   Default: 0   ! ICLOUD =
0    !
             ICLOUD = 0 - Gridded clouds not used
             ICLOUD = 1 - Gridded CLOUD.DAT generated as OUTPUT
             ICLOUD = 2 - Gridded CLOUD.DAT read as INPUT

       FILE FORMATS

             Surface meteorological data file format
                                         (IFORMS) Default: 2                                   ! IFORMS =
2    !
             (1 = unformatted (e.g., SMERGE output))
             (2 = formatted   (free-formatted user input))

             Precipitation data file format
                                         (IFORMP)                                 Default: 2   ! IFORMP =
2    !
             (1 = unformatted (e.g., PMERGE output))
             (2 = formatted   (free-formatted user input))

             Cloud data file format
                                                                       (IFORMC)   Default: 2   ! IFORMC =
2    !
             (1 = unformatted - CALMET unformatted output)
             (2 = formatted   - free-formatted CALMET output or user input)




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!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 5 -- Wind Field Options and Parameters
--------------


      WIND FIELD MODEL OPTIONS
         Model selection variable (IWFCOD)                             Default: 1   ! IWFCOD =
1    !
            0 = Objective analysis only
            1 = Diagnostic wind module

             Compute Froude number adjustment
             effects ? (IFRADJ)                                        Default: 1   ! IFRADJ =
1    !
             (0 = NO, 1 = YES)

             Compute kinematic effects ? (IKINE)                       Default: 0   ! IKINE    =
0    !
             (0 = NO, 1 = YES)

             Use O'Brien procedure for adjustment
             of the vertical velocity ? (IOBR)                         Default: 0   ! IOBR =
0    !
             (0 = NO, 1 = YES)

            Compute slope flow effects ? (ISLOPE) Default: 1                        ! ISLOPE
=    1     !
            (0 = NO, 1 = YES)

             Extrapolate surface wind observations
             to upper layers ? (IEXTRP)            Default: -4                      ! IEXTRP =
-4     !
             (1 = no extrapolation is done,
              2 = power law extrapolation used,
              3 = user input multiplicative factors
                  for layers 2 - NZ used (see FEXTRP array)
              4 = similarity theory used
              -1, -2, -3, -4 = same as above except layer 1 data
                  at upper air stations are ignored

             Extrapolate surface winds even
             if calm? (ICALM)                                          Default: 0   ! ICALM    =
0    !
             (0 = NO, 1 = YES)

             Layer-dependent biases modifying the weights of
             surface and upper air stations (BIAS(NZ))
               -1<=BIAS<=1
             Negative BIAS reduces the weight of upper air stations
               (e.g. BIAS=-0.1 reduces the weight of upper air stations


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             by 10%; BIAS= -1, reduces their weight by 100 %)
             Positive BIAS reduces the weight of surface stations
               (e.g. BIAS= 0.2 reduces the weight of surface stations
             by 20%; BIAS=1 reduces their weight by 100%)
             Zero BIAS leaves weights unchanged (1/R**2 interpolation)
             Default: NZ*0
                                     ! BIAS = 10*0 !

             Minimum distance from nearest upper air station
             to surface station for which extrapolation
             of surface winds at surface station will be allowed
             (RMIN2: Set to -1 for IEXTRP = 4 or other situations
              where all surface stations should be extrapolated)
                                                    Default: 4.                     ! RMIN2 =
-1.0 !

             Use gridded prognostic wind field model
             output fields as input to the diagnostic
             wind field model (IPROG)              Default: 0                       ! IPROG =
14     !
             (0 = No, [IWFCOD = 0 or 1]
              1 = Yes, use CSUMM prog. winds as Step 1 field, [IWFCOD = 0]
              2 = Yes, use CSUMM prog. winds as initial guess field [IWFCOD =
1]
               3 = Yes, use winds from MM4.DAT file as Step 1 field [IWFCOD =
0]
        4 = Yes, use winds from MM4.DAT file as initial guess field
[IWFCOD = 1]
        5 = Yes, use winds from MM4.DAT file as observations [IWFCOD =
1]
        13 = Yes, use winds from MM5.DAT file as Step 1 field [IWFCOD =
0]
        14 = Yes, use winds from MM5.DAT file as initial guess field
[IWFCOD = 1]
        15 = Yes, use winds from MM5.DAT file as observations [IWFCOD =
1]

             Timestep (hours) of the prognostic
             model input data   (ISTEPPG)                              Default: 1   ! ISTEPPG
= 1      !


       RADIUS OF INFLUENCE PARAMETERS

             Use varying radius of influence                           Default: F   ! LVARY =
F !
             (if no stations are found within RMAX1,RMAX2,
              or RMAX3, then the closest station will be used)

             Maximum radius of influence over land
             in the surface layer (RMAX1)          No default                       ! RMAX1 =
30. !
                                                                       Units: km
             Maximum radius of influence over land




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             aloft (RMAX2)                                             No default       ! RMAX2 =
40. !
                                                   Units: km
             Maximum radius of influence over water
             (RMAX3)                               No default                           ! RMAX3 =
40. !
                                                                       Units: km


       OTHER WIND FIELD INPUT PARAMETERS

             Minimum radius of influence used in
             the wind field interpolation (RMIN)                       Default: 0.1     ! RMIN =
0.1 !
                                                                       Units: km
             Radius of influence of terrain
             features (TERRAD)                                         No default       ! TERRAD =
15. !

                                                                       Units: km
             Relative weighting of the first
             guess field and observations in the
             SURFACE layer (R1)                                        No default       ! R1 = 5.
!
             (R1 is the distance from an           Units: km
             observational station at which the
             observation and first guess field are
             equally weighted)

             Relative weighting of the first
             guess field and observations in the
             layers ALOFT (R2)                                         No default       ! R2 = 15.
!
             (R2 is applied in the upper layers                        Units: km
             in the same manner as R1 is used in
             the surface layer).

             Relative weighting parameter of the
             prognostic wind field data (RPROG)                        No default       ! RPROG =
0. !
             (Used only if IPROG = 1)                                  Units: km
             ------------------------

       Maximum acceptable divergence in the
       divergence minimization procedure
       (DIVLIM)                                                        Default: 5.E-6   ! DIVLIM=
5.0E-06 !

             Maximum number of iterations in the
             divergence min. procedure (NITER)                         Default: 50      ! NITER =
50     !

             Number of passes in the smoothing
             procedure (NSMTH(NZ))
             NOTE: NZ values must be entered


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                      Default: 2,(mxnz-1)*4 ! NSMTH =
 2 ,       4 ,       4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 , 4 ,                       4   !

       Maximum number of stations used in
       each layer for the interpolation of
       data to a grid point (NINTR2(NZ))
       NOTE: NZ values must be entered                                 Default: 99.     ! NINTR2 =
 99, 99, 99 , 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99 !

             Critical Froude number (CRITFN)                           Default: 1.0     ! CRITFN =
1. !

             Empirical factor controlling the
             influence of kinematic effects
             (ALPHA)                                                   Default: 0.1     ! ALPHA =
0.1 !

             Multiplicative scaling factor for
             extrapolation of surface observations
             to upper layers (FEXTR2(NZ))          Default: NZ*0.0
             ! FEXTR2 = 10*0.0 !
             (Used only if IEXTRP = 3 or -3)


       BARRIER INFORMATION

             Number of barriers to interpolation
             of the wind fields (NBAR)                                 Default: 0       ! NBAR =
0    !

             THE FOLLOWING 4 VARIABLES ARE INCLUDED
             ONLY IF NBAR > 0
             NOTE: NBAR values must be entered     No defaults
                   for each variable               Units: km

                   X coordinate of                 BEGINNING
                   of each barrier                 (XBBAR(NBAR))       ! XBBAR = 0. !
                   Y coordinate of                 BEGINNING
                   of each barrier                 (YBBAR(NBAR))       ! YBBAR = 0. !

                   X coordinate of                 ENDING
                   of each barrier                 (XEBAR(NBAR))       ! XEBAR = 0. !
                   Y coordinate of                 ENDING
                   of each barrier                 (YEBAR(NBAR))       ! YEBAR = 0. !


       DIAGNOSTIC MODULE DATA INPUT OPTIONS

            Surface temperature (IDIOPT1)                              Default: 0       ! IDIOPT1
=    0     !
               0 = Compute internally from
                   hourly surface observations
               1 = Read preprocessed values from
                   a data file (DIAG.DAT)




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                   Surface met. station to use for
                   the surface temperature (ISURFT)                    No default      ! ISURFT =
8 ! LND
                   (Must be a value from 1 to NSSTA)
                   (Used only if IDIOPT1 = 0)
                   --------------------------

             Domain-averaged temperature lapse
             rate (IDIOPT2)                                            Default: 0      ! IDIOPT2 =
0    !
                   0 = Compute internally from
                       twice-daily upper air observations
                   1 = Read hourly preprocessed values
                       from a data file (DIAG.DAT)

                   Upper air station to use for
                   the domain-scale lapse rate (IUPT) No default                       ! IUPT = 7
!
                   (Must be a value from 1 to NUSTA)
                   (Used only if IDIOPT2 = 0)
                   --------------------------

                   Depth through which the domain-scale
                   lapse rate is computed (ZUPT)      Default: 200.                    ! ZUPT =
200. !
                   (Used only if IDIOPT2 = 0)                          Units: meters
                   --------------------------

             Domain-averaged wind components
             (IDIOPT3)                                                 Default: 0      ! IDIOPT3 =
0    !
                   0 = Compute internally from
                       twice-daily upper air observations
                   1 = Read hourly preprocessed values
                       a data file (DIAG.DAT)

                   Upper air station to use for
                   the domain-scale winds (IUPWND)                     Default: -1     ! IUPWND =
-1     !
                   (Must be a value from -1 to NUSTA)
                   (Used only if IDIOPT3 = 0)
                   --------------------------

          Bottom and top of layer through
          which the domain-scale winds
          are computed
          (ZUPWND(1), ZUPWND(2))        Defaults: 1., 1000. ! ZUPWND=
1., 1000. !
          (Used only if IDIOPT3 = 0)    Units: meters
          --------------------------

             Observed surface wind components
             for wind field module (IDIOPT4) Default: 0                         ! IDIOPT4 =   0
!
                   0 = Read WS, WD from a surface


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                       data file (SURF.DAT)
                   1 = Read hourly preprocessed U, V from
                       a data file (DIAG.DAT)

             Observed upper air wind components
             for wind field module (IDIOPT5) Default: 0                                  ! IDIOPT5 =   0
!
                   0 = Read WS, WD from an upper
                       air data file (UP1.DAT, UP2.DAT, etc.)
                   1 = Read hourly preprocessed U, V from
                       a data file (DIAG.DAT)

             LAKE BREEZE INFORMATION

                   Use Lake Breeze Module                          (LLBREZE)
                                                                            Default: F      ! LLBREZE =
F !

                     Number of lake breeze regions (NBOX)                                   ! NBOX =    0
!

               X Grid line 1 defining the region of interest
                                                                                         ! XG1 = 0. !
               X Grid line 2 defining the region of interest
                                                                                         ! XG2 = 0. !
               Y Grid line 1 defining the region of interest
                                                                                         ! YG1 = 0. !
               Y Grid line 2 defining the region of interest
                                                                                         ! YG2 = 0. !

                 X Point defining the coastline (Straight line)
                           (XBCST) (KM)    Default: none    ! XBCST = 0. !

                 Y Point defining the coastline (Straight line)
                           (YBCST) (KM)    Default: none    ! YBCST = 0. !

                 X Point defining the coastline (Straight line)
                           (XECST) (KM)    Default: none    ! XECST = 0. !

                 Y Point defining the coastline (Straight line)
                           (YECST) (KM)    Default: none    ! YECST = 0. !


             Number of stations in the region     Default: none ! NLB =                                0 !
             (Surface stations + upper air stations)

             Station ID's in the region    (METBXID(NLB))
             (Surface stations first, then upper air stations)
               ! METBXID = 0 !

!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


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INPUT GROUP: 6 -- Mixing Height, Temperature and Precipitation
Parameters
--------------

       EMPIRICAL MIXING HEIGHT CONSTANTS

             Neutral, mechanical equation
             (CONSTB)                                                  Default: 1.41     ! CONSTB =
1.41 !
             Convective mixing ht. equation
             (CONSTE)                                                  Default: 0.15     ! CONSTE =
0.15 !
             Stable mixing ht. equation
             (CONSTN)                                                  Default: 2400.    ! CONSTN =
2400.!
             Overwater mixing ht. equation
             (CONSTW)                                                  Default: 0.16     ! CONSTW =
0.16 !
       Absolute value of Coriolis
       parameter (FCORIOL)                                             Default: 1.E-4    ! FCORIOL
= 1.0E-04!
                                                                       Units: (1/s)

       SPATIAL AVERAGING OF MIXING HEIGHTS

             Conduct spatial averaging
             (IAVEZI) (0=no, 1=yes)                                    Default: 1        ! IAVEZI =
1 !

             Max. search radius in averaging
             process (MNMDAV)                                          Default: 1        ! MNMDAV =
1 !
                                                                       Units: Grid
                                                                              cells
             Half-angle of upwind looking cone
             for averaging (HAFANG)                                    Default: 30.      ! HAFANG =
30. !
                                                                       Units: deg.
             Layer of winds used in upwind
             averaging (ILEVZI)                                        Default: 1        ! ILEVZI =
1    !
             (must be between 1 and NZ)

       OTHER MIXING HEIGHT VARIABLES

       Minimum potential temperature lapse
       rate in the stable layer above the
       current convective mixing ht.                                   Default: 0.001    ! DPTMIN =
0.001 !
       (DPTMIN)                                                        Units: deg. K/m
       Depth of layer above current conv.
       mixing height through which lapse                               Default: 200.     ! DZZI =
200. !
       rate is computed (DZZI)                                         Units: meters


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             Minimum overland mixing height                             Default:    50.   ! ZIMIN =
50. !
       (ZIMIN)                                                          Units: meters
       Maximum overland mixing height                                   Default: 3000.    ! ZIMAX =
2900. !
       (ZIMAX)                                                          Units: meters
       Minimum overwater mixing height                                  Default:   50.    ! ZIMINW =
50. !
       (ZIMINW) -- (Not used if observed                                Units: meters
       overwater mixing hts. are used)
       Maximum overwater mixing height                                  Default: 3000.    ! ZIMAXW =
2900. !
       (ZIMAXW) -- (Not used if observed                                Units: meters
       overwater mixing hts. are used)


       TEMPERATURE PARAMETERS

             3D temperature from observations or
             from prognostic data? (ITPROG)                             Default:0          !ITPROG
= 0 !

                   0 = Use Surface and upper air stations
                       (only if NOOBS = 0)
                   1 = Use Surface stations (no upper air observations)
                       Use MM5 for upper air data
                       (only if NOOBS = 0,1)
                   2 = No surface or upper air observations
                       Use MM5 for surface and upper air data
                       (only if NOOBS = 0,1,2)

             Interpolation type
             (1 = 1/R ; 2 = 1/R**2)                                     Default:1          ! IRAD =
1    !

       Radius of influence for temperature
       interpolation (TRADKM)                                           Default: 500.      ! TRADKM
= 500. !
                                                                        Units: km

             Maximum Number of stations to include
             in temperature interpolation (NUMTS) Default: 5                               ! NUMTS
= 5      !

             Conduct spatial averaging of temp-
             eratures (IAVET) (0=no, 1=yes)                               Default: 1      ! IAVET =
1    !
             (will use mixing ht MNMDAV,HAFANG
              so make sure they are correct)

       Default temperature gradient                                    Default: -.0098 ! TGDEFB = -
0.0098 !
       below the mixing height over
       water (K/m) (TGDEFB)


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       Default temperature gradient                                         Default: -.0045 ! TGDEFA = -
0.0045 !
       above the mixing height over
       water (K/m) (TGDEFA)

             Beginning (JWAT1) and ending (JWAT2)
             land use categories for temperature                                              ! JWAT1 =
999 !
             interpolation over water -- Make                                                 ! JWAT2 =
999 !
             bigger than largest land use to disable

     PRECIP INTERPOLATION PARAMETERS

             Method of interpolation (NFLAGP)                                 Default = 2   ! NFLAGP =
2 !
        (1=1/R,2=1/R**2,3=EXP/R**2)
       Radius of Influence (km) (SIGMAP)     Default = 100.0 ! SIGMAP
= 100. !
        (0.0 => use half dist. btwn
         nearest stns w & w/out
         precip when NFLAGP = 3)
       Minimum Precip. Rate Cutoff (mm/hr)   Default = 0.01 ! CUTP =
0.01 !
        (values < CUTP = 0.0 mm/hr)
!END!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 7 -- Surface meteorological station parameters
--------------

         SURFACE STATION VARIABLES
         (One record per station --                              22    records in all)


                     1              2
                 Name           X coord.
                                   ID      Y coord.   Time   Anem.
                                  (km)       (km)      zone   Ht.(m)
         ----------------------------------------------------------
!   SS1 = 'BFF '    24028   396.36   -61.20 7 10.0 !
!   SS2 = 'BIL '    24033     0.00   349.08 7 10.0 !
!   SS3 = 'CPR '    24089   163.99    39.76 7 10.0 !
!   SS4 = 'CYS '    24018   303.97 -143.52 7 10.0 !
!   SS5 = 'DEN '     3017   323.03 -284.73 7 10.0 !
!   SS6 = 'GJT '    23066     1.42 -368.18 7 10.0 !
!   SS7 = 'HLN '    24144 -252.01    440.35 7 10.0 !
!   SS8 = 'LND '    24021   -14.43    28.72 7 10.0 !
!   SS9 = 'PIH '    24156 -316.06     47.38 7 10.0 !
!   SS10 = 'RAP '   24090   424.23   175.76 7 10.0 !
!   SS11 = 'RKS '   24027   -41.61 -102.06 7 10.0 !
!   SS12 = 'SHR '   24029   120.67   239.37 7 10.0 !
!   SS13 = 'SLC '   24127 -278.68 -184.22 7 10.0 !




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July 2007




-------------------
1
        Four character string for station name
        (MUST START IN COLUMN 9)

2
               Five digit integer for station ID

!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 8 -- Upper air meteorological station parameters
--------------

         UPPER AIR STATION VARIABLES
         (One record per station -- 4                                  records in all)

                     1             2
                 Name    X coord.ID Y coord. Time zone
                           (km)       (km)
        -----------------------------------------------
! US1 = 'BIS ' 24011      572.75    481.14 7 !
! US2 = 'BOI ' 24131     -596.10    138.19 7 !
! US4 = 'GGW ' 94008      138.23    608.49 7 !
! US5 = 'GIT ' 23066        1.68   -369.58 7 !
! US6 = 'LBF ' 24023      637.34   -121.44 7 !
! US7 = 'RIW ' 24061        6.28     54.82 7 !
! US8 = 'SLC ' 24127      -278.98 -185.61 7 !
! US9 = 'TFX '    4102    -205.51   529.88 7 !
! US10 = 'UNR ' 94043      411.76   177.06 7 !
! US3 = 'DNR ' 23062      304.30   -292.42 7 !


-------------------
1
        Four character string for station name
        (MUST START IN COLUMN 9)

2
               Five digit integer for station ID

!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 9 -- Precipitation station parameters
--------------

         PRECIPITATION STATION VARIABLES
         (One record per station -- 0 records in all)


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         (NOT INCLUDED IF NPSTA = 0)

                    1          2
                 Name   Station    X coord. Y coord.
                          Code       (km)      (km)
                 ------------------------------------

!   PS1        ='K2WX',          00001,             375.330             339.332   !
!   PS002      ='K3DU',          00002,            -338.762             451.867   !
!   PS003      ='K9BB',          00003,            -520.044            -133.374   !
!   PS004      ='KAPA',          00004,             307.958            -314.521   !
!   PS005      ='KASE',          00005,             140.868            -357.653   !
!   PS006      ='KBHK',          00006,             317.974             416.419   !
!   PS007      ='KBIL',          00007,               1.250             349.081   !
!   PS008      ='KBJC',          00008,             284.088            -279.276   !
!   PS009      ='KBKF',          00009,             315.433            -299.463   !
!   PS010      ='KBPI',          00010,            -122.727               2.983   !
!   PS011      ='KBTM',          00011,            -294.730             372.456   !
!   PS012      ='KBYG',          00012,             140.442             198.225   !
!   PS013      ='KBYI',          00013,            -413.020              11.664   !
!   PS014      ='KBZN',          00014,            -194.625             350.448   !
!   PS015      ='KCAG',          00015,              83.329            -220.136   !
!   PS016      ='KCOD',          00016,             -35.734             211.404   !
!   PS017      ='KCOS',          00017,             322.761            -394.632   !
!   PS018      ='KCPR',          00018,             163.967              41.553   !
!   PS019      ='KCUT',          00019,             382.672             138.956   !
!   PS020      ='KCYS',          00020,             302.614            -143.579   !
!   PS021      ='KDEN',          00021,             321.470            -281.164   !
!   PS022      ='KDGW',          00022,             250.828              29.708   !
!   PS023      ='KDLN',          00023,            -302.210             297.583   !
!   PS024      ='KEEO',          00024,              55.320            -268.955   !
!   PS025      ='KEGE',          00025,             135.730            -310.962   !
!   PS026      ='KELY',          00026,            -526.147            -331.230   !
!   PS027      ='KENV',          00027,            -447.351            -180.198   !
!   PS028      ='KEVW',          00028,            -200.826            -134.063   !
!   PS029      ='KFNL',          00029,             289.741            -219.660   !
!   PS030      ='KGCC',          00030,             231.600             197.762   !
!   PS031      ='KGDV',          00031,             273.870             498.653   !
!   PS032      ='KGEY',          00032,              36.757             210.690   !
!   PS033      ='KGJT',          00033,               1.400            -369.937   !
!   PS034      ='KGXY',          00034,             322.475            -245.120   !
!   PS035      ='KHIF',          00035,            -277.120            -148.309   !
!   PS036      ='KHLN',          00036,            -254.441             440.454   !
!   PS037      ='KHMM',          00037,            -415.423             411.926   !
!   PS038      ='KIDA',          00038,            -273.894             109.910   !
!   PS039      ='KJAC',          00039,            -169.833             115.159   !
!   PS040      ='KJDN',          00040,             124.950             515.058   !
!   PS041      ='KJER',          00041,            -465.733              36.259   !
!   PS042      ='KLAR',          00042,             232.660            -128.537   !
!   PS043      ='KLGU',          00043,            -264.704             -77.009   !
!   PS044      ='KLLJ',          00044,            -433.522             226.646   !
!   PS045      ='KLND',          00045,             -14.453              28.688   !
!   PS046      ='KLVM',          00046,            -141.198             340.006   !
!   PS047      ='KLWT',          00047,             -65.852             483.663   !
!   PS048      ='KLXV',          00048,             188.180            -352.892   !


G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX B.doc                  A-55
July 2007




! PS049 ='KMLS', 00049,    196.116    418.537 !
! PS050 ='KMSO', 00050,   -405.540    482.996 !
! PS051 ='KOGD', 00051,   -280.863   -140.969 !
! PS052 ='KP60', 00052,   -142.832    216.540 !
! PS053 ='KP69', 00053,   -514.403    372.998 !
! PS054 ='KPIH', 00054,   -318.655     47.480 !
! PS055 ='KPUC', 00055,   -182.911   -313.427 !
! PS056 ='KPVU', 00056,   -260.689   -246.051 !
! PS057 ='KRIL', 00057,     69.112   -324.942 !
! PS058 ='KRIW', 00058,      7.854     53.751 !
! PS059 ='KRKS', 00059,    -41.585   -102.057 !
! PS060 ='KRWL', 00060,    108.284    -79.755 !
! PS061 ='KRXE', 00061,   -252.233    142.862 !
! PS062 ='KSLC', 00062,   -278.729   -185.976 !
! PS063 ='KSMN', 00063,   -403.767    289.174 !
! PS064 ='KSNT', 00064,   -490.946    193.638 !
! PS065 ='KSUN', 00065,   -447.719    118.183 !
! PS066 ='KTOR', 00066,    350.977    -42.583 !
! PS067 ='KTWF', 00067,   -470.055     10.252 !
! PS068 ='KU24', 00068,   -336.776   -338.055 !
! PS069 ='KU78', 00069,   -239.791     15.294 !
! PS070 ='KVEL', 00070,    -79.296   -225.575 !
! PS071 ='KHDN', 00071,    106.546   -219.800 !
! PS072 ='KS14', 00072,   -272.756    194.076 !
! PS073 ='KSHR', 00073,    120.691    239.337 !
! PS074 ='KWRL', 00074,     45.092    152.397 !
! PS075 ='KWEY', 00075,   -194.758    228.714 !
! PS076 ='K3HT', 00076,    -94.956    417.834 !
! PS077 ='KMLD', 00077,   -300.175    -34.157 !
! PS078 ='K77M', 00078,   -380.247    -15.521 !
! PS079 ='KAFF', 00079,    313.591   -378.833 !
! PS080 ='KU28', 00080,   -134.365   -381.205 !
! PS081 ='KEFC', 00081,    356.793    244.633 !
! PS082 ='KBPP', 00082,    380.347    402.042 !
! PS083 ='KWYS', 00083,   -195.918    232.329 !
! PS084 ='KDPG', 00084,   -360.854   -243.129 !
! PS085 ='KT62', 00085,   -300.695   -249.745 !
! PS086 ='KCCU', 00086,    200.010   -328.780 !
! PS087 ='KMNH', 00087,    327.923   -350.748 !
-------------------
1
        Four character string for station name
        (MUST START IN COLUMN 9)

2
               Six digit station code composed of state
               code (first 2 digits) and station ID (last
               4 digits)

!END!




G:\WYDEQ PSD\AQ_Modeling\Reports\Rev2ModelingProtocol\APPENDIX B.doc   A-56
             APPENDIX C:
Example CALPUFF Control Parameter Input File
CALPUFF test case run - 3 point sources
24-Hour Simulation using CALMET met. data
Gridded receptors on 17x17 20-km met grid
---------------- Run title (3 lines) ----------------------------------
--------
                    CALPUFF MODEL CONTROL FILE
                    --------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------
INPUT GROUP: 0 -- Input and Output File Names
--------------
Default Name Type           File Name
------------ ----           ---------
CALMET.DAT    input    ! METDAT =
../../../calmet/outputs.d3_2002lcp/calmet.wydeq_d3.lcp.20020101.dat !
    or
ISCMET.DAT    input    * ISCDAT =             *
    or
PLMMET.DAT    input    * PLMDAT =             *
    or
PROFILE.DAT   input    * PRFDAT =             *
SURFACE.DAT   input    * SFCDAT =             *
RESTARTB.DAT input     ! RSTARTB=
../../outputs.task03/d2216d/calpuff.d2216d.0000.rest !
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
CALPUFF.LST   output   ! PUFLST =
../../outputs.task03/d2216d/calpuff.d2216d.0101.lst !
CONC.DAT      output   ! CONDAT =
../../outputs.task03/d2216d/calpuff.d2216d.0101.conc !
DFLX.DAT      output   ! DFDAT =
../../outputs.task03/d2216d/calpuff.d2216d.0101.dflx !
WFLX.DAT      output   ! WFDAT =
../../outputs.task03/d2216d/calpuff.d2216d.0101.wflx !

VISB.DAT      output   * VISDAT = *
RESTARTE.DAT output    ! RSTARTE=
../../outputs.task03/d2216d/calpuff.d2216d.0101.rest !
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
Emission Files
--------------
PTEMARB.DAT   input    * PTDAT =              *
VOLEMARB.DAT input     * VOLDAT =             *
BAEMARB.DAT   input    * ARDAT =              *
LNEMARB.DAT   input    * LNDAT =              *
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
Other Files
-----------
OZONE.DAT     input    ! OZDAT = ../ozone/ozone.lcp2002.dat !
VD.DAT        input    * VDDAT = *
CHEM.DAT      input    * CHEMDAT= *
H2O2.DAT      input    * H2O2DAT= *
HILL.DAT      input    * HILDAT= *
HILLRCT.DAT   input    * RCTDAT= *
COASTLN.DAT   input    * CSTDAT= *
FLUXBDY.DAT   input    * BDYDAT= *
BCON.DAT      input    * BCNDAT= *
DEBUG.DAT     output   * DEBUG = *
MASSFLX.DAT   output   * FLXDAT= *
MASSBAL.DAT   output   * BALDAT= *
FOG.DAT       output   * FOGDAT= *
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
All file names will be converted to lower case if LCFILES = T
Otherwise, if LCFILES = F, file names will be converted to UPPER CASE
         T = lower case      ! LCFILES = T !
         F = UPPER CASE
NOTE: (1) file/path names can be up to 70 characters in length


Provision for multiple input files
----------------------------------

     Number of CALMET.DAT files for run (NMETDAT)
                                     Default: 1       ! NMETDAT = 1 !
     Number of PTEMARB.DAT files for run (NPTDAT)
                                     Default: 0       ! NPTDAT = 0 !
     Number of BAEMARB.DAT files for run (NARDAT)
                                     Default: 0       ! NARDAT = 0 !
     Number of VOLEMARB.DAT files for run (NVOLDAT)
                                     Default: 0       ! NVOLDAT = 0 !
!END!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
---------
INPUT GROUP: 1 -- General run control parameters
--------------

   Option to run all periods found
   in the met. file     (METRUN)   Default: 0             ! METRUN = 0 !

        METRUN = 0 - Run period explicitly defined below
        METRUN = 1 - Run all periods in met. file

    Starting date:    Year   (IBYR)   --   No   default   !   IBYR   =   2002 !
    (used only if    Month   (IBMO)   --   No   default   !   IBMO   =   01 !
     METRUN = 0)       Day   (IBDY)   --   No   default   !   IBDY   =   01 !
                      Hour   (IBHR)   --   No   default   !   IBHR   =   0 !

    Base time zone        (XBTZ) -- No default            ! XBTZ = 7.0       !
    PST = 8., MST = 7. CST = 6., EST = 5.

    Length of run (hours) (IRLG) -- No default            ! IRLG = 24 !

    Number of chemical species (NSPEC)
                                    Default: 5            ! NSPEC = 6 !

    Number of chemical species
    to be emitted (NSE)                    Default: 3     ! NSE = 6 !

    Flag to stop run after
    SETUP phase (ITEST)                    Default: 2     ! ITEST =      2   !
    (Used to allow checking
    of the model inputs, files, etc.)
          ITEST = 1 - STOPS program after SETUP phase
          ITEST = 2 - Continues with execution of program after SETUP

    Restart Configuration:

       Control flag (MRESTART)        Default: 0         ! MRESTART = 2 !

           0   = Do not read or write a restart file
           1   = Read a restart file at the beginning the run
           2   = Write a restart file during run
           3   = Read a restart file at beginning of run and write a
restart file   during run

       Number of periods in Restart
       output cycle (NRESPD)        Default: 0           ! NRESPD = 0 !

          0 = File written only at last period
         >0 = File updated every NRESPD periods

    Meteorological Data Format (METFM)
                                    Default: 1           ! METFM =   1    !

          METFM = 1 - CALMET binary file (CALMET.MET)

    PG sigma-y is adjusted by the factor (AVET/PGTIME)**0.2
    Averaging Time (minutes) (AVET)
                                    Default: 60.0    ! AVET = 60. !
    PG Averaging Time (minutes) (PGTIME)
                                    Default: 60.0    ! PGTIME = 60. !

!END!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------
INPUT GROUP: 2 -- Technical options
--------------


    Vertical distribution used in the
    near field (MGAUSS)                     Default: 1      ! MGAUSS = 1
!
       0 = uniform
       1 = Gaussian

    Terrain adjustment method
    (MCTADJ)                                Default: 3      ! MCTADJ = 3
!
       0 = no adjustment
       1 = ISC-type of terrain adjustment
       2 = simple, CALPUFF-type of terrain
           adjustment
       3 = partial plume path adjustment

    Subgrid-scale complex terrain
    flag (MCTSG)                            Default: 0      ! MCTSG =     0
!
       0 = not modeled
       1 = modeled

    Near-field puffs modeled as
    elongated 0 (MSLUG)                   Default: 0    ! MSLUG = 0 !
       0 = no
       1 = yes (slug model used)

    Transitional plume rise modeled ?
    (MTRANS)                              Default: 1    ! MTRANS =     1
!
       0 = no (i.e., final rise only)
       1 = yes (i.e., transitional rise computed)

    Stack tip downwash? (MTIP)            Default: 1    ! MTIP =   1
!
       0 = no (i.e., no stack tip downwash)
       1 = yes (i.e., use stack tip downwash)

    Method used to simulate building
    downwash? (MBDW)                      Default: 1    ! MBDW =   2
!
       1 = ISC method
       2 = PRIME method

    Vertical wind shear modeled above
    stack top? (MSHEAR)                   Default: 0    ! MSHEAR =     0
!
       0 = no (i.e., vertical wind shear not modeled)
       1 = yes (i.e., vertical wind shear modeled)

    Puff splitting allowed? (MSPLIT)      Default: 0    ! MSPLIT =     0
!
       0 = no (i.e., puffs not split)
       1 = yes (i.e., puffs are split)

    Chemical mechanism flag (MCHEM)       Default: 1    ! MCHEM = 3 !
       0 = chemical transformation not
           modeled
       1 = transformation rates computed
           internally (MESOPUFF II scheme)
       2 = user-specified transformation
           rates used
       3 = transformation rates computed
           internally (RIVAD/ARM3 scheme)
       4 = secondary organic aerosol formation
           computed (MESOPUFF II scheme for OH)

     Aqueous phase transformation flag (MAQCHEM)
     (Used only if MCHEM = 1, or 3)        Default: 0   ! MAQCHEM =
0   !
        0 = aqueous phase transformation
            not modeled
        1 = transformation rates adjusted
            for aqueous phase reactions

    Wet removal modeled ? (MWET)          Default: 1    ! MWET =   1 !
           0 = no
           1 = yes

         Dry deposition modeled ? (MDRY)       Default: 1    ! MDRY =    1 !
            0 = no
            1 = yes
            (dry deposition method specified
             for each species in Input Group 3)

         Method used to compute dispersion
         coefficients (MDISP)                 Default: 3     ! MDISP =    3
!

           1 = dispersion coefficients computed from measured values
               of turbulence, sigma v, sigma w
           2 = dispersion coefficients from internally calculated
               sigma v, sigma w using micrometeorological variables
               (u*, w*, L, etc.)
           3 = PG dispersion coefficients for RURAL areas (computed using
               the ISCST multi-segment approximation) and MP coefficients
in
               urban areas
           4 = same as 3 except PG coefficients computed using
               the MESOPUFF II eqns.
           5 = CTDM sigmas used for stable and neutral conditions.
               For unstable conditions, sigmas are computed as in
               MDISP = 3, described above. MDISP = 5 assumes that
               measured values are read

         Sigma-v/sigma-theta, sigma-w measurements used? (MTURBVW)
         (Used only if MDISP = 1 or 5)         Default: 3     ! MTURBVW =
0    !
           1 = use sigma-v or sigma-theta measurements
               from PROFILE.DAT to compute sigma-y
               (valid for METFM = 1, 2, 3, 4)
           2 = use sigma-w measurements
               from PROFILE.DAT to compute sigma-z
               (valid for METFM = 1, 2, 3, 4)
           3 = use both sigma-(v/theta) and sigma-w
               from PROFILE.DAT to compute sigma-y and sigma-z
               (valid for METFM = 1, 2, 3, 4)
           4 = use sigma-theta measurements
               from PLMMET.DAT to compute sigma-y
               (valid only if METFM = 3)

         Back-up method used to compute dispersion
         when measured turbulence data are
         missing (MDISP2)                      Default: 3    ! MDISP2 =     3
!
         (used only if MDISP = 1 or 5)
            2 = dispersion coefficients from internally calculated
                sigma v, sigma w using micrometeorological variables
                (u*, w*, L, etc.)
            3 = PG dispersion coefficients for RURAL areas (computed using
                the ISCST multi-segment approximation) and MP coefficients
in
               urban areas
      4 = same as 3 except PG coefficients computed using
          the MESOPUFF II eqns.

    PG sigma-y,z adj. for roughness?      Default: 0       ! MROUGH =      0
!
    (MROUGH)
       0 = no
       1 = yes

    Partial plume penetration of          Default: 1       ! MPARTL =      0
!
    elevated inversion?
    (MPARTL)
       0 = no
       1 = yes

    Strength of temperature inversion     Default: 0       ! MTINV =    0
!
    provided in PROFILE.DAT extended records?
    (MTINV)
       0 = no (computed from measured/default gradients)
       1 = yes

    PDF used for dispersion under convective conditions?
                                          Default: 0     ! MPDF =      0
!
    (MPDF)
       0 = no
       1 = yes

    Sub-Grid TIBL module used for shore line?
                                          Default: 0       ! MSGTIBL = 0
!
    (MSGTIBL)
       0 = no
       1 = yes

    Boundary conditions (concentration) modeled?
                                          Default: 0       ! MBCON = 0
!
    (MBCON)
       0 = no
       1 = yes, using formatted BCON.DAT file
       2 = yes, using unformatted CONC.DAT file

    Note:   MBCON > 0 requires that the last species modeled
            be 'BCON'. Mass is placed in species BCON when
            generating boundary condition puffs so that clean
            air entering the modeling domain can be simulated
            in the same way as polluted air. Specify zero
            emission of species BCON for all regular sources.


    Analyses of fogging and icing impacts due to emissions from
    arrays of mechanically-forced cooling towers can be performed
    using CALPUFF in conjunction with a cooling tower emissions
    processor (CTEMISS) and its associated postprocessors. Hourly
    emissions of water vapor and temperature from each cooling tower
    cell are computed for the current cell configuration and ambient
    conditions by CTEMISS. CALPUFF models the dispersion of these
    emissions and provides cloud information in a specialized format
    for further analysis. Output to FOG.DAT is provided in either
    'plume mode' or 'receptor mode' format.

    Configure for FOG Model output?
                                          Default: 0        ! MFOG =   0
!
    (MFOG)
       0 = no
       1 = yes   - report results in PLUME Mode format
       2 = yes   - report results in RECEPTOR Mode format


    Test options specified to see if
    they conform to regulatory
    values? (MREG)                        Default: 1        ! MREG =   0
!

        0 = NO checks are made
        1 = Technical options must conform to USEPA
            Long Range Transport (LRT) guidance
                       METFM    1 or 2
                       AVET     60. (min)
                       PGTIME   60. (min)
                       MGAUSS   1
                       MCTADJ   3
                       MTRANS   1
                       MTIP     1
                       MCHEM    1 or 3 (if modeling SOx, NOx)
                       MWET     1
                       MDRY     1
                       MDISP    2 or 3
                       MPDF     0 if MDISP=3
                                1 if MDISP=2
                       MROUGH   0
                       MPARTL   1
                       SYTDEP   550. (m)
                       MHFTSZ   0


!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUP: 3a, 3b -- Species list
-------------------

------------
Subgroup (3a)
------------

------------
Subgroup (3a)
------------

    The following species are modeled:

!   CSPEC   =          SO2    !        !END!
!   CSPEC   =          SO4    !        !END!
!   CSPEC   =          NO     !        !END!
!   CSPEC   =          NO2    !        !END!
!   CSPEC   =          HNO3   !        !END!
!   CSPEC   =          NO3    !        !END!
                                                         Dry
OUTPUT GROUP
    SPECIES          MODELED             EMITTED       DEPOSITED
NUMBER
     NAME         (0=NO, 1=YES)        (0=NO, 1=YES)   (0=NO,
(0=NONE,
   (Limit: 12                                          1=COMPUTED-GAS
1=1st CGRUP,
    Characters                                         2=COMPUTED-
PARTICLE   2=2nd CGRUP,
    in length)                                         3=USER-SPECIFIED)
3= etc.)

!               SO2    =          1,            1,          1,
0    !
!               SO4    =          1,            1,          2,
0    !
!               NO     =          1,            1,          1,
0    !
!               NO2    =          1,            1,          1,
0    !
!               HNO3   =          1,            1,          1,
0    !
!               NO3    =          1,            1,          2,
0    !

!END!

    Note:   The last species in (3a) must be 'BCON' when using the
            boundary condition option (MBCON > 0). Species BCON should
            typically be modeled as inert (no chem transformation or
            removal).


-------------
Subgroup (3b)
-------------
  The following names are used for Species-Groups in which results
  for certain species are combined (added) prior to output. The
  CGRUP name will be used as the species name in output files.
  Use this feature to model specific particle-size distributions
  by treating each size-range as a separate species.
  Order must be consistent with 3(a) above.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------
INPUT GROUP: 4 -- Map Projection and Grid control parameters
--------------

    Projection for all (X,Y):
    -------------------------

    Map projection
    (PMAP)                          Default: UTM    ! PMAP = LCC !

         UTM   :   Universal Transverse Mercator
         TTM   :   Tangential Transverse Mercator
         LCC   :   Lambert Conformal Conic
          PS   :   Polar Stereographic
          EM   :   Equatorial Mercator
        LAZA   :   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

    False Easting and Northing (km) at the projection origin
    (Used only if PMAP= TTM, LCC, or LAZA)
    (FEAST)                    Default=0.0     ! FEAST = 0.000         !
    (FNORTH)                   Default=0.0     ! FNORTH = 0.000        !

    UTM zone (1 to 60)
    (Used only if PMAP=UTM)
    (IUTMZN)                        No Default      ! IUTMZN =     0   !

    Hemisphere     for UTM projection?
    (Used only     if PMAP=UTM)
    (UTMHEM)                       Default: N       ! UTMHEM = N   !
        N   :      Northern hemisphere projection
        S   :      Southern hemisphere projection

    Latitude and Longitude (decimal degrees) of projection origin
    (Used only if PMAP= TTM, LCC, PS, EM, or LAZA)
    (RLAT0)                    No Default      ! RLAT0 = 42.55N !
    (RLON0)                    No Default      ! RLON0 = 108.55W !

         TTM :     RLON0 identifies central (true N/S) meridian of
projection
                   RLAT0 selected for convenience
         LCC :     RLON0 identifies central (true N/S) meridian of
projection
                   RLAT0 selected for convenience
         PS    :   RLON0 identifies central (grid N/S) meridian of
projection
                   RLAT0   selected for convenience
        EM     :   RLON0   identifies central meridian of projection
                   RLAT0   is REPLACED by 0.0N (Equator)
        LAZA:      RLON0   identifies longitude of tangent-point of mapping
plane
                   RLAT0 identifies latitude of tangent-point of mapping
plane

    Matching parallel(s) of latitude (decimal degrees) for projection
    (Used only if PMAP= LCC or PS)
    (XLAT1)                    No Default      ! XLAT1 = 30.0N !
    (XLAT2)                    No Default      ! XLAT2 = 60.0N !
         LCC :   Projection cone slices through Earth's surface at XLAT1
and XLAT2
         PS :    Projection plane slices through Earth at XLAT1
                 (XLAT2 is not used)

    ----------
    Note: Latitudes and longitudes should be positive, and include a
           letter N,S,E, or W indicating north or south latitude, and
           east or west longitude. For example,
           35.9 N Latitude = 35.9N
           118.7 E Longitude = 118.7E


    Datum-region
    ------------

     The Datum-Region for the coordinates is identified by a character
     string. Many mapping products currently available use the model
of the
     Earth known as the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-G ). Other
local
     models may be in use, and their selection in CALMET will make its
output
     consistent with local mapping products. The list of Datum-Regions
with
     official transformation parameters is provided by the National
Imagery and
     Mapping Agency (NIMA).

     NIMA Datum - Regions(Examples)
     ------------------------------------------------------------------
------------
     WGS-G     WGS-84 GRS 80 Spheroid, Global coverage (WGS84)
     NAS-C     NORTH AMERICAN 1927 Clarke 1866 Spheroid, MEAN FOR CONUS
(NAD27)
     NWS-27    NWS 6370KM Radius, Sphere
     NWS-84    NWS 6370KM Radius, Sphere
     ESR-S     ESRI REFERENCE 6371KM Radius, Sphere

    Datum-region for output coordinates
    (DATUM)                    Default: WGS-G        ! DATUM = NWS-27     !


METEOROLOGICAL Grid:

    Rectangular grid defined for projection PMAP,
    with X the Easting and Y the Northing coordinate

           No. X grid cells (NX)       No default      ! NX =   180   !
           No. Y grid cells (NY)       No default      ! NY =   180   !
        No. vertical layers (NZ)       No default      ! NZ =   10    !

          Grid spacing (DGRIDKM)       No default      ! DGRIDKM = 4. !
                                       Units: km

                 Cell face heights
                     (ZFACE(nz+1))     No defaults
                                        Units: m
    ! ZFACE = 0.,20.,40.,100.,140.,320.,580.,1020.,1480.,2220.,2980. !

            Reference Coordinates
           of SOUTHWEST corner of
                 grid cell(1, 1):

            X coordinate (XORIGKM)      No default       ! XORIGKM = -431.
!
            Y coordinate (YORIGKM)      No default       ! YORIGKM = -302.
!
                                        Units: km


COMPUTATIONAL Grid:

     The computational grid is identical to or a subset of the MET.
grid.
     The lower left (LL) corner of the computational grid is at grid
point
     (IBCOMP, JBCOMP) of the MET. grid. The upper right (UR) corner of
the
     computational grid is at grid point (IECOMP, JECOMP) of the MET.
grid.
     The grid spacing of the computational grid is the same as the MET.
grid.

        X index of LL corner (IBCOMP)       No default      ! IBCOMP = 58
!
                  (1 <= IBCOMP <= NX)

        Y index of LL corner (JBCOMP)       No default      ! JBCOMP = 34
!
                  (1 <= JBCOMP <= NY)


        X index of UR corner (IECOMP)       No default      ! IECOMP =
132 !
                  (1 <= IECOMP <= NX)

        Y index of UR corner (JECOMP)       No default      ! JECOMP =
108 !
                  (1 <= JECOMP <= NY)

SAMPLING Grid (GRIDDED RECEPTORS):

      The lower left (LL) corner of the sampling grid is at grid point
      (IBSAMP, JBSAMP) of the MET. grid. The upper right (UR) corner of
the
     sampling grid is at grid point (IESAMP, JESAMP) of the MET. grid.
     The sampling grid must be identical to or a subset of the
computational
     grid. It may be a nested grid inside the computational grid.
     The grid spacing of the sampling grid is DGRIDKM/MESHDN.

        Logical flag indicating if gridded
        receptors are used (LSAMP)         Default: T       ! LSAMP = F !
        (T=yes, F=no)

        X index of LL corner (IBSAMP)        No default   ! IBSAMP = 34
!
         (IBCOMP <= IBSAMP <= IECOMP)

        Y index of LL corner (JBSAMP)        No default   ! JBSAMP = 23
!
         (JBCOMP <= JBSAMP <= JECOMP)


        X index of UR corner (IESAMP)        No default   ! IESAMP =
108 !
         (IBCOMP <= IESAMP <= IECOMP)

        Y index of UR corner (JESAMP)        No default   ! JESAMP = 97
!
         (JBCOMP <= JESAMP <= JECOMP)


        Nesting factor of the sampling
         grid (MESHDN)                       Default: 1   ! MESHDN = 1
!
        (MESHDN is an integer >= 1)

!END!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------
INPUT GROUP: 5 -- Output Options
--------------
                                             *
*
     FILE                       DEFAULT VALUE             VALUE THIS
RUN
     ----                       -------------             -------------
-

    Concentrations (ICON)                1                !   ICON =   1
!
    Dry Fluxes (IDRY)                    1                !   IDRY =   1
!
    Wet Fluxes (IWET)                    1                !   IWET =   1
!
    Relative Humidity (IVIS)             1                !   IVIS =   0
!
     (relative humidity file is
      required for visibility
      analysis)
    Use data compression option in output file?
    (LCOMPRS)                           Default: T        ! LCOMPRS = T
!

    *
     0 = Do not create file, 1 = create file


    DIAGNOSTIC MASS FLUX OUTPUT OPTIONS:
      Mass flux across specified boundaries
      for selected species reported hourly?
      (IMFLX)                         Default: 0         ! IMFLX =   0
!
        0 = no
        1 = yes (FLUXBDY.DAT and MASSFLX.DAT filenames
                 are specified in Input Group 0)

      Mass balance for each species
      reported hourly?
      (IMBAL)                         Default: 0         ! IMBAL =   0
!
        0 = no
        1 = yes (MASSBAL.DAT filename is
             specified in Input Group 0)


    LINE PRINTER OUTPUT OPTIONS:

      Print concentrations (ICPRT)    Default: 0         ! ICPRT =   0
!
      Print dry fluxes (IDPRT)        Default: 0         ! IDPRT =   0
!
      Print wet fluxes (IWPRT)        Default: 0         ! IWPRT =   0
!
      (0 = Do not print, 1 = Print)

      Concentration print interval
      (ICFRQ) in hours                Default: 1         ! ICFRQ =   1
!
      Dry flux print interval
      (IDFRQ) in hours                Default: 1         ! IDFRQ =   1
!
      Wet flux print interval
      (IWFRQ) in hours                Default: 1         ! IWFRQ =   1
!

      Units for Line Printer Output
      (IPRTU)                         Default: 1         ! IPRTU =   3
!
                       for            for
                  Concentration    Deposition
          1   =      g/m**3         g/m**2/s
          2   =     mg/m**3        mg/m**2/s
          3   =     ug/m**3        ug/m**2/s
          4   =     ng/m**3        ng/m**2/s
          5   =    Odour Units

      Messages tracking progress of run
      written to the screen ?
      (IMESG)                         Default: 2         ! IMESG =   2
!
        0 = no
        1 = yes (advection step, puff ID)
        2 = yes (YYYYJJJHH, # old puffs, # emitted puffs)
         SPECIES (or GROUP for combined species) LIST FOR OUTPUT OPTIONS

                 ---- CONCENTRATIONS ----       ------ DRY FLUXES ------
------ WET FLUXES ------   -- MASS FLUX --
   SPECIES
   /GROUP        PRINTED? SAVED ON DISK?        PRINTED?   SAVED ON DISK?
PRINTED? SAVED ON DISK?    SAVED ON DISK?
   -------       ------------------------       ------------------------
------------------------   ---------------
!   SO2 =      0,           1,                   0,                 1,
0,           1,             1   !
!   SO4 =      0,           1,                   0,                 1,
0,           1,             1   !
!   NO   =     0,           1,                   0,                 1,
0,           1,             1   !
!   NO2 =      0,           1,                   0,                 1,
0,           1,             1   !
!   HNO3 =     0,           1,                   0,                 1,
0,           1,             1   !
!   NO3 =      0,           1,                   0,                 1,
0,           1,             1   !



  Note:       Species BCON (for MBCON > 0) does not need to be saved on
disk.


         OPTIONS FOR PRINTING "DEBUG" QUANTITIES (much output)

             Logical for debug output
             (LDEBUG)                                 Default: F    ! LDEBUG
= F !

           First puff to track
           (IPFDEB)                                   Default: 1    ! IPFDEB
=    1    !

             Number of puffs to track
             (NPFDEB)                                 Default: 1    ! NPFDEB
=    10      !

             Met. period to start output
             (NN1)                                    Default: 1    ! NN1 =
10       !

             Met. period to end output
             (NN2)                                    Default: 10   ! NN2 =
10   !

!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------
INPUT GROUP: 6a, 6b, & 6c -- Subgrid scale complex terrain inputs
-------------------------

---------------
Subgroup (6a)
---------------
       Number of terrain features (NHILL)        Default: 0      ! NHILL
= 0    !

         Number of special complex terrain
         receptors (NCTREC)                      Default: 0      ! NCTREC
=   0    !

         Terrain and CTSG Receptor data for
         CTSG hills input in CTDM format ?
         (MHILL)                                 No Default      ! MHILL
=   0    !
         1 = Hill and Receptor data created
             by CTDM processors & read from
             HILL.DAT and HILLRCT.DAT files
         2 = Hill data created by OPTHILL &
             input below in Subgroup (6b);
             Receptor data in Subgroup (6c)

       Factor to convert horizontal dimensions   Default: 1.0    !
XHILL2M = 1. !
       to meters (MHILL=1)

       Factor to convert vertical dimensions     Default: 1.0    !
ZHILL2M = 1. !
       to meters (MHILL=1)

       X-origin of CTDM system relative to      No Default       !
XCTDMKM = 0.0E00 !
       CALPUFF coordinate system, in Kilometers (MHILL=1)

       Y-origin of CTDM system relative to      No Default       !
YCTDMKM = 0.0E00 !
       CALPUFF coordinate system, in Kilometers (MHILL=1)

! END !

---------------
Subgroup (6b)
---------------

                           1 **
        HILL information


HILL           XC        YC       THETAH ZGRID   RELIEF       EXPO 1
EXPO 2   SCALE 1    SCALE 2    AMAX1     AMAX2
 NO.          (km)      (km)      (deg.)   (m)     (m)        (m)
(m)       (m)        (m)       (m)       (m)
----          ----      ----      ------ -----   ------       ------   --
----   -------    -------    -----     -----
---------------
Subgroup (6c)
---------------

   COMPLEX TERRAIN RECEPTOR INFORMATION

                      XRCT         YRCT        ZRCT            XHH
                      (km)         (km)         (m)
                     ------        -----      ------           ----


-------------------
1
     Description of Complex Terrain Variables:
          XC, YC = Coordinates of center of hill
          THETAH = Orientation of major axis of hill (clockwise from
                    North)
          ZGRID   = Height of the 0 of the grid above mean sea
                    level
          RELIEF = Height of the crest of the hill above the grid
elevation
          EXPO 1 = Hill-shape exponent for the major axis
          EXPO 2 = Hill-shape exponent for the major axis
          SCALE 1 = Horizontal length scale along the major axis
          SCALE 2 = Horizontal length scale along the minor axis
          AMAX    = Maximum allowed axis length for the major axis
          BMAX    = Maximum allowed axis length for the major axis

           XRCT, YRCT = Coordinates of the complex terrain receptors
           ZRCT    = Height of the ground (MSL) at the complex terrain
                     Receptor
           XHH     = Hill number associated with each complex terrain
receptor
                    (NOTE: MUST BE ENTERED AS A REAL NUMBER)

   **
     NOTE: DATA for each hill and CTSG receptor are treated as a
separate
           input subgroup and therefore must end with an input group
terminator.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUP: 7 -- Chemical parameters for dry deposition of gases
--------------

      SPECIES     DIFFUSIVITY      ALPHA STAR      REACTIVITY
MESOPHYLL RESISTANCE     HENRY'S LAW COEFFICIENT
       NAME        (cm**2/s)
(s/cm)                (dimensionless)
      -------     -----------      ----------      ----------        ------
--------------     -----------------------
   ! SO2 =        0.1509,       1000.,         8.,               0.,
4.0E-02 !
   ! NO   =       0.1345,          1.,         2.,              25.,
18.0     !
   ! NO2 =        0.1656,          1.,         8.,               5.,
3.5     !
   ! HNO3 =       0.1628,          1.,        18.,               0.,
8.0E-08 !

!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUP: 8 -- Size parameters for dry deposition of particles
--------------

    For SINGLE SPECIES, the mean and standard deviation are used to
    compute a deposition velocity for NINT (see group 9) size-ranges,
    and these are then averaged to obtain a mean deposition velocity.

     For GROUPED SPECIES, the size distribution should be explicitly
     specified (by the 'species' in the group), and the standard
deviation
     for each should be entered as 0. The model will then use the
     deposition velocity for the stated mean diameter.

        SPECIES   GEOMETRIC MASS MEAN        GEOMETRIC STANDARD
         NAME          DIAMETER                   DEVIATION
                       (microns)                  (microns)
        -------   -------------------        ------------------
  !      SO4 =         0.48,                          2.    !
  !      NO3 =         0.48,                          2.    !
!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUP: 9 -- Miscellaneous dry deposition parameters
--------------

    Reference cuticle resistance (s/cm)
    (RCUTR)                           Default: 30     !   RCUTR = 30.0 !
    Reference ground resistance (s/cm)
    (RGR)                             Default: 10     !     RGR = 10.0 !
    Reference pollutant reactivity
    (REACTR)                          Default: 8      ! REACTR = 8.0 !

    Number of particle-size intervals used to
    evaluate effective particle deposition velocity
    (NINT)                            Default: 9      !     NINT =   9   !

    Vegetation state in unirrigated areas
        (IVEG)                            Default: 1       !   IVEG =   1    !
           IVEG=1 for active and unstressed vegetation
           IVEG=2 for active and stressed vegetation
           IVEG=3 for inactive vegetation

!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUP: 10 -- Wet Deposition Parameters
---------------


                        Scavenging Coefficient -- Units: (sec)**(-1)

         Pollutant      Liquid Precip.        Frozen Precip.
         ---------      --------------        --------------

    !     SO2    =           3.0E-05,            0.0E00        !
    !     SO4    =           1.0E-04,            3.0E-05       !
    !     NO     =           0.0,                0.0E00        !
    !     NO2    =           0.0,                0.0E00        !
    !     HNO3   =           6.0E-05,            0.0E00        !
    !     NO3    =           1.0E-04,            3.0E-05       !

!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUP: 11 -- Chemistry Parameters
---------------

        Ozone data input option (MOZ)      Default: 1              ! MOZ =   1
!
        (Used only if MCHEM = 1, 3, or 4)
           0 = use a monthly background ozone value
           1 = read hourly ozone concentrations from
               the OZONE.DAT data file

        Monthly ozone concentrations
        (Used only if MCHEM = 1, 3, or 4 and
         MOZ = 0 or MOZ = 1 and all hourly O3 data missing)
        (BCKO3) in ppb                    Default: 12*80.
        ! BCKO3 = 12*44.7 !

        Monthly ammonia concentrations
        (Used only if MCHEM = 1, or 3)
        (BCKNH3) in ppb                    Default: 12*10.
        ! BCKNH3 = 12*0.2 !

        Nighttime SO2 loss rate (RNITE1)
         in percent/hour                           Default: 0.2              ! RNITE1 =
.2 !

     Nighttime NOx loss rate (RNITE2)
     in percent/hour                               Default: 2.0              ! RNITE2 =
2.0 !

     Nighttime HNO3 formation rate (RNITE3)
     in percent/hour                   Default: 2.0                          ! RNITE3 =
2.0 !

         H2O2 data input option (MH2O2)            Default: 1                ! MH2O2 =
0    !
         (Used only if MAQCHEM = 1)
            0 = use a monthly background H2O2 value
            1 = read hourly H2O2 concentrations from
                the H2O2.DAT data file

     Monthly H2O2 concentrations
     (Used only if MQACHEM = 1 and
      MH2O2 = 0 or MH2O2 = 1 and all hourly H2O2 data missing)
     (BCKH2O2) in ppb                  Default: 12*1.
     ! BCKH2O2 = 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00,
1.00, 1.00, 1.00 !


--- Data for SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL (SOA) Option
    (used only if MCHEM = 4)

         The SOA module uses monthly values of:
              Fine particulate concentration in ug/m^3 (BCKPMF)
              Organic fraction of fine particulate     (OFRAC)
              VOC / NOX ratio (after reaction)         (VCNX)
         to characterize the air mass when computing
         the formation of SOA from VOC emissions.
         Typical values for several distinct air mass types are:

           Month    1      2      3     4     5      6     7      8     9    10    11
12
                   Jan     Feb   Mar   Apr   May    Jun   Jul   Aug    Sep   Oct   Nov
Dec

         Clean Continental
            BCKPMF   1.   1.      1.    1.    1.     1.    1.     1.    1.    1.    1.
1.
           OFRAC   .15   .15     .20   .20   .20   .20    .20   .20    .20   .20   .20
.15
           VCNX    50.     50.   50.   50.   50.    50.   50.   50.    50.   50.   50.
50.

         Clean Marine (surface)
            BCKPMF .5    .5   .5       .5    .5     .5    .5    .5     .5    .5    .5
.5
           OFRAC   .25   .25     .30   .30   .30   .30    .30   .30    .30   .30   .30
.25
           VCNX    50.     50.   50.   50.   50.    50.   50.   50.    50.   50.   50.
50.
       Urban - low biogenic (controls present)
          BCKPMF 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30.              30.   30.   30.   30.       30.
30.
         OFRAC   .20    .20   .25   .25   .25   .25   .25   .25   .20   .20   .20
.20
         VCNX     4.     4.    4.    4.    4.    4.    4.    4.    4.    4.       4.
4.

       Urban - high biogenic (controls present)
          BCKPMF 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60.                60.   60.   60.       60.
60.
         OFRAC   .25    .25   .30   .30   .30   .55   .55   .55   .35   .35   .35
.25
         VCNX    15.    15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.       15.
15.

       Regional Plume
          BCKPMF 20.    20.   20.   20.   20.   20.   20.   20.   20.   20.       20.
20.
         OFRAC   .20    .20   .25   .35   .25   .40   .40   .40   .30   .30   .30
.20
         VCNX    15.    15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.   15.       15.
15.

       Urban - no controls present
          BCKPMF 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. 100.
100.
         OFRAC   .30    .30   .35   .35   .35   .55   .55   .55   .35   .35   .35
.30
         VCNX     2.     2.    2.    2.    2.    2.    2.    2.    2.    2.       2.
2.

     Default: Clean Continental
     ! BCKPMF = 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00,
1.00, 1.00, 1.00 !
     ! OFRAC = 0.15, 0.15, 0.20, 0.20, 0.20, 0.20, 0.20, 0.20, 0.20,
0.20, 0.20, 0.15 !
     ! VCNX    = 50.00, 50.00, 50.00, 50.00, 50.00, 50.00, 50.00,
50.00, 50.00, 50.00, 50.00, 50.00 !


!END!


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUP: 12 -- Misc. Dispersion and Computational Parameters
---------------

     Horizontal size of puff (m) beyond which
     time-dependent dispersion equations (Heffter)
     are used to determine sigma-y and
     sigma-z (SYTDEP)                           Default: 550.                 !
SYTDEP = 5.5E02 !
     Switch for using Heffter equation for sigma z
     as above (0 = Not use Heffter; 1 = use Heffter
     (MHFTSZ)                                   Default: 0          !
MHFTSZ = 0    !

      Stability class used to determine plume
      growth rates for puffs above the boundary
      layer (JSUP)                                  Default: 5      ! JSUP
=   5   !

     Vertical dispersion constant for stable
     conditions (k1 in Eqn. 2.7-3) (CONK1)          Default: 0.01   ! CONK1
= .01 !

     Vertical dispersion constant for neutral/
     unstable conditions (k2 in Eqn. 2.7-4)
     (CONK2)                                        Default: 0.1    ! CONK2
= .1 !

       Factor for determining Transition-point from
       Schulman-Scire to Huber-Snyder Building Downwash
       scheme (SS used for Hs < Hb + TBD * HL)
       (TBD)                                      Default: 0.5      ! TBD =
.5 !
          TBD < 0   ==> always use Huber-Snyder
          TBD = 1.5 ==> always use Schulman-Scire
          TBD = 0.5 ==> ISC Transition-point

      Range of land use categories for which
      urban dispersion is assumed
      (IURB1, IURB2)                                Default: 10     ! IURB1
=   10 !
                                                            19      ! IURB2
=   19   !

     Site characterization parameters for single-point Met data files -
--------
     (needed for METFM = 2,3,4)

        Land use category for modeling domain
        (ILANDUIN)                                  Default: 20     !
ILANDUIN = 20 !

          Roughness length (m) for modeling domain
          (Z0IN)                                  Default: 0.25     ! Z0IN
= .25 !

        Leaf area index for modeling domain
        (XLAIIN)                                    Default: 3.0    !
XLAIIN = 3.0 !

        Elevation above sea level (m)
        (ELEVIN)                                    Default: 0.0    !
ELEVIN = .0 !

          Latitude (degrees) for met location
        (XLATIN)                                Default: -999.   !
XLATIN = -999.0 !

        Longitude (degrees) for met location
        (XLONIN)                                Default: -999.   !
XLONIN = -999.0 !

     Specialized information for interpreting single-point Met data
files -----

        Anemometer height (m) (Used only if METFM = 2,3)
        (ANEMHT)                                Default: 10.     !
ANEMHT = 10.0 !

        Form of lateral turbulance data in PROFILE.DAT file
        (Used only if METFM = 4 or MTURBVW = 1 or 3)
        (ISIGMAV)                               Default: 1       !
ISIGMAV = 1 !
            0 = read sigma-theta
            1 = read sigma-v

        Choice of mixing heights (Used only if METFM = 4)
        (IMIXCTDM)                              Default: 0       !
IMIXCTDM = 0 !
            0 = read PREDICTED mixing heights
            1 = read OBSERVED mixing heights

     Maximum length of a slug (met. grid units)
     (XMXLEN)                                   Default: 1.0     !
XMXLEN = 1.0 !

     Maximum travel distance of a puff/slug (in
     grid units) during one sampling step
     (XSAMLEN)                                  Default: 1.0     !
XSAMLEN = 1.0 !

      Maximum Number of slugs/puffs release from
      one source during one time step
      (MXNEW)                                    Default: 99     ! MXNEW
=   99   !

      Maximum Number of sampling steps for
      one puff/slug during one time step
      (MXSAM)                                   Default: 99      ! MXSAM
=   5   !

     Number of iterations used when computing
     the transport wind for a sampling step
     that includes gradual rise (for CALMET
     and PROFILE winds)
     (NCOUNT)                                   Default: 2       !
NCOUNT = 2    !

     Minimum sigma y for a new puff/slug (m)
     (SYMIN)                                    Default: 1.0     ! SYMIN
= 1.0 !
     Minimum sigma z for a new puff/slug (m)
     (SZMIN)                                     Default: 1.0         ! SZMIN
= 1.0 !

    Default minimum turbulence velocities
    sigma-v and sigma-w for each
    stability class (m/s)
    (SVMIN(6) and SWMIN(6))     Default SVMIN : .50,       .50,   .50,    .50,
.50, .50
                                Default SWMIN : .20,       .12,   .08,    .06,
.03, .016

                                 Stability Class :   A     B      C           D
E     F
                                                     ---   ---    ---     ---
---   ---
                                        ! SVMIN = 0.500, 0.500, 0.500,
0.500, 0.500, 0.500!
                                        ! SWMIN = 0.200, 0.120, 0.080,
0.060, 0.030, 0.016!

     Divergence criterion for dw/dz across puff
     used to initiate adjustment for horizontal
     convergence (1/s)
     Partial adjustment starts at CDIV(1), and
     full adjustment is reached at CDIV(2)
     (CDIV(2))                                  Default: 0.0,0.0          !
CDIV = .01, .01 !

     Minimum wind speed (m/s) allowed for
     non-calm conditions. Also used as minimum
     speed returned when using power-law
     extrapolation toward surface
     (WSCALM)                                    Default: 0.5         !
WSCALM = .5 !

     Maximum mixing height (m)
     (XMAXZI)                                    Default: 3000.       !
XMAXZI = 3000.0 !

     Minimum mixing height (m)
     (XMINZI)                                    Default: 50.         !
XMINZI = 50.0 !

     Default wind speed classes --
     5 upper bounds (m/s) are entered;
     the 6th class has no upper limit
     (WSCAT(5))                      Default   :
                                     ISC RURAL : 1.54, 3.09, 5.14,
8.23, 10.8 (10.8+)

                             Wind Speed Class :      1     2      3           4
5
                                                     ---   ---    ---     ---
---
                                        ! WSCAT = 1.54, 3.09, 5.14,
8.23, 10.80 !
     Default wind speed profile power-law
     exponents for stabilities 1-6
     (PLX0(6))                       Default   : ISC RURAL values
                                     ISC RURAL : .07, .07, .10, .15,
.35, .55
                                     ISC URBAN : .15, .15, .20, .25,
.30, .30

                               Stability Class :   A         B   C     D
E       F
                                                   ---   ---     ---   ---
---     ---
                                        ! PLX0 = 0.07, 0.07, 0.10,
0.15, 0.35, 0.55 !

      Default potential temperature gradient
      for stable classes E, F (degK/m)
      (PTG0(2))                       Default: 0.020, 0.035
                                         ! PTG0 = 0.020,   0.035 !

     Default plume path coefficients for
     each stability class (used when option
     for partial plume height terrain adjustment
     is selected -- MCTADJ=3)
     (PPC(6))                  Stability Class : A     B     C     D
E     F
                                  Default PPC : .50, .50, .50, .50,
.35, .35
                                                 ---  ---   ---   ---
---   ---
                                        ! PPC = 0.50, 0.50, 0.50,
0.50, 0.35, 0.35 !

     Slug-to-puff transition criterion factor
     equal to sigma-y/length of slug
     (SL2PF)                               Default: 10.           ! SL2PF
= 5.0 !

      Puff-splitting control variables ------------------------

        VERTICAL SPLIT
        --------------

        Number of puffs that result every time a puff
        is split - nsplit=2 means that 1 puff splits
        into 2
        (NSPLIT)                            Default:     3        ! NSPLIT
= 2 !

        Time(s) of a day when split puffs are eligible to
        be split once again; this is typically set once
        per day, around sunset before nocturnal shear develops.
        24 values: 0 is midnight (00:00) and 23 is 11 PM (23:00)
        0=do not re-split    1=eligible for re-split
        (IRESPLIT(24))                      Default: Hour 17 = 1
        ! IRESPLIT = 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0 !
       Split is allowed only if last hour's mixing
       height (m) exceeds a minimum value
       (ZISPLIT)                           Default: 100.        !
ZISPLIT = 100.0 !

       Split is allowed only if ratio of last hour's
       mixing ht to the maximum mixing ht experienced
       by the puff is less than a maximum value (this
       postpones a split until a nocturnal layer develops)
       (ROLDMAX)                           Default: 0.25        !
ROLDMAX = 0.25 !


      HORIZONTAL SPLIT
      ----------------

       Number of puffs that result every time a puff
       is split - nsplith=5 means that 1 puff splits
       into 5
       (NSPLITH)                           Default:    5        !
NSPLITH = 5 !

       Minimum sigma-y (Grid Cells Units) of puff
       before it may be split
       (SYSPLITH)                          Default:    1.0      !
SYSPLITH = 1.0 !

       Minimum puff elongation rate (SYSPLITH/hr) due to
       wind shear, before it may be split
       (SHSPLITH)                          Default: 2.          !
SHSPLITH = 2.0 !

       Minimum concentration (g/m^3) of each
       species in puff before it may be split
       Enter array of NSPEC values; if a single value is
       entered, it will be used for ALL species
       (CNSPLITH)                          Default: 1.0E-07     !
CNSPLITH = 1.0E-07 !

    Integration control variables ------------------------

       Fractional convergence criterion for numerical SLUG
       sampling integration
       (EPSSLUG)                           Default:   1.0e-04   !
EPSSLUG = 1.0E-04 !

       Fractional convergence criterion for numerical AREA
       source integration
       (EPSAREA)                           Default:   1.0e-06   !
EPSAREA = 1.0E-06 !

       Trajectory step-length (m) used for numerical rise
       integration
       (DSRISE)                            Default:   1.0       ! DSRISE
= 1.0 !
     Boundary Condition (BC) Puff control variables -------------------
-----

       Minimum height (m) to which BC puffs are mixed as they are
emitted
       (MBCON=2 ONLY). Actual height is reset to the current mixing
height
       at the release point if greater than this minimum.
       (HTMINBC)                           Default:   500.     !
HTMINBC = 500. !

         Search radius (km) about a receptor for sampling nearest BC
puff.
       BC puffs are typically emitted with a spacing of one grid cell
       length, so the search radius should be greater than DGRIDKM.
       (RSAMPBC)                           Default:   10.      !
RSAMPBC = 15. !

         Near-Surface depletion adjustment to concentration profile used
when
         sampling BC puffs?
         (MDEPBC)                              Default:   1          ! MDEPBC
= 0. !
           0 = Concentration is NOT adjusted for depletion
           1 = Adjust Concentration for depletion

!END!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------
INPUT GROUPS: 13a, 13b, 13c, 13d -- Point source parameters
--------------------------------

---------------
Subgroup (13a)
---------------

       Number of point sources with
       parameters provided below      (NPT1)   No default     !   NPT1 = 7 !

       Units used for point source
       emissions below                (IPTU)   Default: 1     !   IPTU =    1
!
            1   =      g/s
            2   =     kg/hr
            3   =     lb/hr
            4   =   tons/yr
            5   =   Odour Unit * m**3/s (vol. flux of odour compound)
            6   =   Odour Unit * m**3/min
            7   =   metric tons/yr

       Number of source-species
       combinations with variable
       emissions scaling factors
       provided below in (13d)        (NSPT1) Default: 0      !   NSPT1 =   0
!

       Number of point sources with
    variable emission parameters
    provided in external file        (NPT2)   No default   !   NPT2 =   0   !

    (If NPT2 > 0, these point
    source emissions are read from
    the file: PTEMARB.DAT)

!END!

---------------
Subgroup (13b)
---------------
                                     a
         POINT SOURCE: CONSTANT DATA
         -----------------------------

b          c
  Source      X UTM     Y UTM     Stack   Base     Stack    Exit Exit
Bldg. Emission
   No.     Coordinate Coordinate Height Elevation Diameter Vel. Temp.
Dwash   Rates
              (km)      (km)       (m)      (m)       (m) (m/s) (deg.
K)
  ------   ---------- ---------- ------ ------    -------- ----- ------
-- ----- --------
     1 ! SRCNAM = 1 !
     1 ! X = -18.813, -87.348, 152.4, 2042.0,     7.315, 26.2128,
394.3,   0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 121.0322, 20.6203, 0.0, 0.0 !
     1 ! FMFAC = 1.0 !   !END!
     1 ! SRCNAM = 2 !
     1 ! X = -18.862 ,-87.284, 152.4, 2042.0,     7.315, 26.2128,
394.3,   0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 119.5378, 20.3657, 0.0, 0.0 !
     1 ! FMFAC = 1.0 !   !END!
     1 ! SRCNAM = 3 !
     1 ! X = -18.910, -87.222, 152.4, 2042.0,     7.315, 26.2128,
394.3,   0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 114.8521, 19.5674, 0.0, 0.0 !
     1 ! FMFAC = 1.0 !   !END!
     1 ! SRCNAM = 4 !
     1 ! X = -18.962, -87.154, 152.4, 2042.0,     9.450, 13.1084,
322.0,   0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 119.3013, 20.3254, 0.0, 0.0 !
     1 ! FMFAC = 1.0 !   !END!
     1 ! SRCNAM = 5 !
     1 ! X = -164.33 ,-83.15,   60.96, 2114.0,    4.267, 16.8554,
414.8,   0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 56.5480, 9.6341, 0.0, 0.0 !
     1 ! FMFAC = 1.0 !   !END!
     1 ! SRCNAM = 6 !
     1 ! X = -164.28, -83.12,   68.28, 2115.0,    4.877, 15.7277,
412.0,   0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 55.8894, 9.5219, 0.0, 0.0 !
     1 ! FMFAC = 1.0 !   !END!
     1 ! SRCNAM = 7 !
     1 ! X = -164.19, -83.02, 144.78, 2113.0,     8.077,   9.6622,
322.0,   0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 102.0112, 17.3797, 0.0, 0.0 !
     1 ! FMFAC = 1.0 !   !END!
--------


    a
       Data for each source are treated as a separate input subgroup
       and therefore must end with an input group terminator.

       SRCNAM   is a 12-character name for a source
                (No default)
     X          is an array holding the source data listed by the column
headings
                (No default)
       SIGYZI   is an array holding the initial sigma-y and sigma-z (m)
                (Default: 0.,0.)
     FMFAC      is a vertical momentum flux factor (0. or 1.0) used to
represent
                the effect of rain-caps or other physical configurations
that
                reduce momentum rise associated with the actual exit
velocity.
                (Default: 1.0   -- full momentum used)

      b
       0. = No building downwash modeled, 1. = downwash modeled
       NOTE: must be entered as a REAL number (i.e., with decimal point)

      c
       An emission rate must be entered for every pollutant modeled.
       Enter emission rate of zero for secondary pollutants that are
       modeled, but not emitted. Units are specified by IPTU
       (e.g. 1 for g/s).

---------------
Subgroup (13c)
---------------

             BUILDING DIMENSION DATA FOR SOURCES SUBJECT TO DOWNWASH
             -------------------------------------------------------
Source
a
 No.         Effective building height, width, length and X/Y offset (in
meters)
             every 10 degrees.   LENGTH, XBADJ, and YBADJ are only needed
for
             MBDW=2 (PRIME downwash option)
------       ------------------------------------------------------------
-------

--------

    a
     Building height, width, length, and X/Y offset from the source are
treated
     as a separate input subgroup for each source and therefore must
end with
     an input group terminator.

---------------
Subgroup (13d)
---------------
                                                   a
         POINT SOURCE: VARIABLE EMISSIONS DATA
         ---------------------------------------

     Use this subgroup to describe temporal variations in the emission
     rates given in 13b. Factors entered multiply the rates in 13b.
     Skip sources here that have constant emissions. For more
elaborate
     variation in source parameters, use PTEMARB.DAT and NPT2 > 0.

     IVARY determines the type of variation, and is source-specific:
     (IVARY)                                Default: 0
           0 =       Constant
           1 =       Diurnal cycle (24 scaling factors: hours 1-24)
           2 =       Monthly cycle (12 scaling factors: months 1-12)
           3 =       Hour & Season (4 groups of 24 hourly scaling
factors,
                                    where first group is DEC-JAN-FEB)
           4 =       Speed & Stab. (6 groups of 6 scaling factors,
where
                                    first group is Stability Class A,
                                    and the speed classes have upper
                                    bounds (m/s) defined in Group 12
           5 =       Temperature   (12 scaling factors, where
temperature
                                    classes have upper bounds (C) of:
                                    0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40,
                                    45, 50, 50+)



--------
    a
     Data for each species are treated as a separate input subgroup
     and therefore must end with an input group terminator.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUPS: 14a, 14b, 14c, 14d -- Area source parameters
--------------------------------

---------------
Subgroup (14a)
---------------

    Number of polygon area sources with
    parameters specified below (NAR1)       No default   ! NAR1 = 0 !

    Units used for area source
    emissions below            (IARU)      Default: 1 ! IARU = 1 !
          1 =        g/m**2/s
          2 =       kg/m**2/hr
          3 =       lb/m**2/hr
          4 =     tons/m**2/yr
          5 =     Odour Unit * m/s (vol. flux/m**2 of odour compound)
          6 =     Odour Unit * m/min
          7 =      metric tons/m**2/yr

    Number of source-species
    combinations with variable
    emissions scaling factors
    provided below in (14d)             (NSAR1) Default: 0   !   NSAR1 =   0
!

    Number of buoyant polygon area sources
    with variable location and emission
    parameters (NAR2)                      No default        !   NAR2 =    0
!
    (If NAR2 > 0, ALL parameter data for
    these sources are read from the file: BAEMARB.DAT)

!END!

---------------
Subgroup (14b)
---------------
                                     a
          AREA SOURCE: CONSTANT DATA
          ----------------------------
                                                            b
Source            Effect.     Base       Initial    Emission
 No.              Height    Elevation    Sigma z     Rates
                    (m)        (m)         (m)
-------           ------     ------      --------   ---------

--------
    a
     Data for each source are treated as a separate input subgroup
     and therefore must end with an input group terminator.
    b
     An emission rate must be entered for every pollutant modeled.
     Enter emission rate of zero for secondary pollutants that are
     modeled, but not emitted. Units are specified by IARU
     (e.g. 1 for g/m**2/s).

---------------
Subgroup (14c)
---------------

          COORDINATES (UTM-km) FOR EACH VERTEX(4) OF EACH POLYGON
          --------------------------------------------------------
Source                                                              a
 No.      Ordered list of X followed by list of Y, grouped by source
------    ------------------------------------------------------------

--------
    a
     Data for each source are treated as a separate input subgroup
     and therefore must end with an input group terminator.


---------------
Subgroup (14d)
---------------
                                               a
          AREA SOURCE: VARIABLE EMISSIONS DATA
          --------------------------------------

     Use this subgroup to describe temporal variations in the emission
     rates given in 14b. Factors entered multiply the rates in 14b.
     Skip sources here that have constant emissions. For more
elaborate
     variation in source parameters, use BAEMARB.DAT and NAR2 > 0.

     IVARY determines the type of variation, and is source-specific:
     (IVARY)                                Default: 0
           0 =       Constant
           1 =       Diurnal cycle (24 scaling factors: hours 1-24)
           2 =       Monthly cycle (12 scaling factors: months 1-12)
           3 =       Hour & Season (4 groups of 24 hourly scaling
factors,
                                    where first group is DEC-JAN-FEB)
           4 =       Speed & Stab. (6 groups of 6 scaling factors,
where
                                    first group is Stability Class A,
                                    and the speed classes have upper
                                    bounds (m/s) defined in Group 12
           5 =       Temperature   (12 scaling factors, where
temperature
                                    classes have upper bounds (C) of:
                                    0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40,
                                    45, 50, 50+)



--------
    a
     Data for each species are treated as a separate input subgroup
     and therefore must end with an input group terminator.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------

INPUT GROUPS: 15a, 15b, 15c -- Line source parameters
---------------------------

---------------
Subgroup (15a)
---------------

      Number of buoyant line sources
      with variable location and emission
      parameters (NLN2)                            No default   !   NLN2
=   0   !

     (If NLN2 > 0, ALL parameter data for
      these sources are read from the file: LNEMARB.DAT)
     Number of buoyant line sources (NLINES)          No default    !
NLINES = 0 !

     Units used for line source
     emissions below                (ILNU)         Default: 1 ! ILNU
=   1 !
           1 =        g/s
           2 =       kg/hr
           3 =       lb/hr
           4 =     tons/yr
           5 =     Odour Unit * m**3/s (vol. flux of odour compound)
           6 =     Odour Unit * m**3/min
           7 =     metric tons/yr

       Number of source-species
       combinations with variable
       emissions scaling factors
       provided below in (15c)       (NSLN1) Default: 0   !   NSLN1 =   0
!

     Maximum number of segments used to model
     each line (MXNSEG)                               Default: 7    !
MXNSEG = 7 !

       The following variables are required only if NLINES > 0.    They are
       used in the buoyant line source plume rise calculations.

        Number of distances at which                  Default: 6    !
NLRISE = 6 !
        transitional rise is computed

         Average building length (XL)                 No default    ! XL =
.0 !
                                                      (in meters)

         Average building height (HBL)                No default    ! HBL
= .0 !
                                                      (in meters)

         Average building width (WBL)                 No default    ! WBL
= .0 !
                                                      (in meters)

         Average line source width (WML)              No default    ! WML
= .0 !
                                                      (in meters)

         Average separation between buildings (DXL)   No default    ! DXL
= .0 !
                                                      (in meters)

        Average buoyancy parameter (FPRIMEL)          No default    !
FPRIMEL = .0 !
                                                      (in m**4/s**3)

!END!
---------------
Subgroup (15b)
---------------

           BUOYANT LINE SOURCE: CONSTANT DATA
           ----------------------------------

a
Source     Beg. X     Beg. Y       End. X       End. Y    Release   Base
Emission
 No.     Coordinate Coordinate   Coordinate Coordinate    Height
Elevation      Rates
            (km)       (km)         (km)        (km)        (m)       (m)
------   ---------- ----------   ---------   ----------   -------   -----
----    ---------

--------

   a
    Data for each source are treated as a separate input subgroup
    and therefore must end with an input group terminator.

   b
    An emission rate must be entered for every pollutant modeled.
    Enter emission rate of zero for secondary pollutants that are
    modeled, but not emitted. Units are specified by ILNTU
    (e.g. 1 for g/s).

---------------
Subgroup (15c)
---------------
                                                        a
           BUOYANT LINE SOURCE: VARIABLE EMISSIONS DATA
           ----------------------------------------------

    Use this subgroup to describe temporal variations in the emission
    rates given in 15b. Factors entered multiply the rates in 15b.
    Skip sources here that have constant emissions.

     IVARY determines the type of variation, and is source-specific:
     (IVARY)                                Default: 0
           0 =       Constant
           1 =       Diurnal cycle (24 scaling factors: hours 1-24)
           2 =       Monthly cycle (12 scaling factors: months 1-12)
           3 =       Hour & Season (4 groups of 24 hourly scaling
factors,
                                    where first group is DEC-JAN-FEB)
           4 =       Speed & Stab. (6 groups of 6 scaling factors,
where
                                    first group is Stability Class A,
                                    and the speed classes have upper
                                    bounds (m/s) defined in Group 12
           5 =       Temperature   (12 scaling factors, where
temperature
                                    classes have upper bounds (C) of:
                                    0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40,
                                    45, 50, 50+)
--------
    a
     Data for each species are treated as a separate input subgroup
     and therefore must end with an input group terminator.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------


INPUT GROUPS: 16a, 16b, 16c -- Volume source parameters
---------------------------

---------------
Subgroup (16a)
---------------

    Number of volume sources with
    parameters provided in 16b,c (NVL1)     No default    !   NVL1 =    0
!

    Units used for volume source
    emissions below in 16b       (IVLU)     Default: 1    !   IVLU =    1
!
          1   =      g/s
          2   =     kg/hr
          3   =     lb/hr
          4   =   tons/yr
          5   =   Odour Unit * m**3/s (vol. flux of odour compound)
          6   =   Odour Unit * m**3/min
          7   =   metric tons/yr

    Number of source-species
    combinations with variable
    emissions scaling factors
    provided below in (16c)      (NSVL1)    Default: 0    !   NSVL1 =   0
!

    Number of volume sources with
    variable location and emission
    parameters                   (NVL2)     No default    !   NVL2 =    0
!

    (If NVL2 > 0, ALL parameter data for
     these sources are read from the VOLEMARB.DAT file(s) )

!END!

---------------
Subgroup (16b)
---------------
                                       a
          VOLUME SOURCE: CONSTANT DATA
          ------------------------------
b
        X UTM      Y UTM       Effect.    Base       Initial    Initial
Emission
     Coordinate   Coordinate   Height    Elevation   Sigma y    Sigma z
Rates
        (km)        (km)         (m)       (m)          (m)       (m)
     ----------   ----------   ------    ------      --------   --------
--------


--------
    a
     Data for each source are treated as a separate input subgroup
     and therefore must end with an input group terminator.

    b
     An emission rate must be entered for every pollutant modeled.
     Enter emission rate of zero for secondary pollutants that are
     modeled, but not emitted. Units are specified by IVLU
     (e.g. 1 for g/s).

---------------
Subgroup (16c)
---------------
                                                  a
           VOLUME SOURCE: VARIABLE EMISSIONS DATA
           ----------------------------------------

     Use this subgroup to describe temporal variations in the emission
     rates given in 16b. Factors entered multiply the rates in 16b.
     Skip sources here that have constant emissions. For more
elaborate
     variation in source parameters, use VOLEMARB.DAT and NVL2 > 0.

     IVARY determines the type of variation, and is source-specific:
     (IVARY)                                Default: 0
           0 =       Constant
           1 =       Diurnal cycle (24 scaling factors: hours 1-24)
           2 =       Monthly cycle (12 scaling factors: months 1-12)
           3 =       Hour & Season (4 groups of 24 hourly scaling
factors,
                                    where first group is DEC-JAN-FEB)
           4 =       Speed & Stab. (6 groups of 6 scaling factors,
where
                                    first group is Stability Class A,
                                    and the speed classes have upper
                                    bounds (m/s) defined in Group 12
           5 =       Temperature   (12 scaling factors, where
temperature
                                    classes have upper bounds (C) of:
                                    0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40,
                                    45, 50, 50+)



--------
   a
    Data for each species are treated as a separate input subgroup
    and therefore must end with an input group terminator.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--------
INPUT GROUPS: 17a & 17b -- Non-gridded (discrete) receptor information
-----------------------

    ! NREC =   10895 !
    !END!
   1 ! X =     -47.810,     6.005,    2756.770 ! !END!
   2 ! X =     -46.490,     5.995,    2851.840 ! !END!
   3 ! X =     -45.172,     5.985,    2889.840 ! !END!

... [receptor numbers 4 to 1388 removed from this example for sake of
brevity] ...

8389 ! X =      -36.994,   -29.996,   2137.000 ! !END!
8390 ! X =      -35.994,   -29.996,   2142.500 ! !END!
8391 ! X =     -166.973,   -29.995,   2880.560 ! !END!

				
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posted:9/15/2011
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