1. The more cleavages found in a society, the more interest 30. The leadership of the union movement was for many years
groups will probably exist. ahead of its membership on civil rights issues.
2. Great Britain offers fewer access points for interest groups 31. Larger social movements tend to be those with extreme
than does the United States. positions.
3. Though American interest groups often support one party, the 32. Social movements may be triggered by a scandal.
relationship between party and interest group here is not as 33. The League of Women Voters is an example of a feminist
close as it is in Europe. organization that attracts members with material incentives.
4. The number of interest groups in the United States has slightly 34. Some feminist organizations take on specific issues that have
increased since 1960. some material benefit to women.
5. The observation that interest groups are created more rapidly 35. Women's organizations that attract members with purposive
in some periods than in others suggests that these groups arise incentives must take strong decisions on divisive issues.
out of natural social processes. 36. Women's organizations that attract members with purposive
6. Professional societies became politicized because government incentives are usually free from internal quarrels.
had the power to supervise their licensing. 37. Purposive organizations often cannot make their decisions
7. Increases in government power and responsibility are more stick on the local level.
likely to be followed by decreases in the number of political 38. Women's caucuses obtain grants from foundations and
interest groups. government agencies.
8. Government licensing power tends to prevent the 39. The National Women's Political Caucus generally liberal and
politicization of professional groups. supportive of Democratic candidates.
9. The text suggests government policy itself has helped create 40. The union movement in the United States reached its peak
interest groups. during the Great Depression.
10. Any organization that seeks to influence public policy is an 41. Trends toward service delivery have affected union
interest group. membership.
11. Labor and business groups are the largest in the United States, 42. There has been a general decline in popular approval of
followed by religious and political organizations. unions.
12. A major function of an institutional interest group is to 43. Unions composed of government workers are becoming the
provide solidary benefits to its members. most important part of the union movement.
13. Institutional interests and membership interests are nearly 44. Foundations are a major source of liberal-interest group
identical in their makeup. funding.
14. Some interest groups are able to speak for a whole segment of 45. Private-interest groups are generally better funded than public-
society, even though only a small fraction of that segment interest groups in Washington.
belongs to the group. 46. The best way to attract contributions through direct-mail
15. Americans are more likely to join religious and political solicitations is to use logical arguments and accurate data.
organizations than labor or business groups. 47. Most interest groups accurately mirror the socioeconomic
16. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored makeup of society in general.
People (NAACP) must enroll a sizable proportion of all U.S. 48. College-educated people tend to join more organizations.
blacks to be a credible black-interest group. 49. The largest proportion of interest groups in Washington
17. The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) is an consists of public-interest lobbies.
example of a material-benefits interest group. 50. The text suggests an upper-class bias is evident in American
18. Individuals who feel passionately about the goal of an interest politics because business-oriented interest groups are rarely
group are most likely to be pursuing material incentives. divided among themselves.
19. Public-interest lobbies principally benefit nonmembers. 51. Farmers are increasingly effective at getting Congress to
20. Membership organizations that rely on purposive incentives approve bills that they want passed.
tend to be shaped by the mood of the times. 52. The text argues that most conflicts in U.S. politics are
21. A social movement need not have liberal goals. conflicts within the upper-middle class.
22. Public-interest lobbies have declined in importance since the 53. Size and wealth are no longer entirely accurate measures of an
1950s. interest group's influence.
23. Think-tanks are public-interest groups that are politically 54. Members of Congress and bureau chiefs seek information that
neutral. is hard to find and expensive to collect but is often available
24. Conservatives have been slow to adopt public-interest from interest groups.
organizational strategies. 55. According to the text, the single most important activity of
25. An example of a liberal public-interest law firm is the Pacific interest groups is fundraising.
Legal Foundation. 56. Information provided by interest groups increases in value as
26. Public interest groups often do better when the government is issues become broad and more highly visible.
in the hands of an administration that is hostile to their views. 57. One important concern about interest group “ratings” is the
27. Civil rights is an issue on which the labor movement followed bias that can result from arbitrary determination of what
the attitudes of the rank and file in its lobbying activities. constitutes a liberal or conservative vote.
28. What an interest group does in the political arena gives 58. Many members of Congress tend to hear what they want to
expression to the interests of its members; know those hear and deal with interest groups that agree with their
interests and you know what the organization will do. positions.
29. The interest of an interest group's leadership will often differ 59. The primary purpose of legislative ratings is to compare the
from those of the membership. performances of different legislators.
60. Lobbyists sometimes commission public opinion polls to sway Club.
legislators toward their position. 88. Interest groups give Americans another opportunity to take
61. Some lobbying organizations deliberately attack potential their claims to government.
allies in government to embarrass them. 89. Interest groups allow the unrepresented and under represented
62. The text suggests members of Congress are skilled at an equal voice in the political system.
recognizing and discounting organized mail campaigns. 90. The largest interest group in America is the AFL/CIO labor
63. Many of the members of Congress who were, at various points union.
in time, labeled the “Dirty Dozen” lost their bids for 91. Groups that mobilize to protect particular economic interests
reelection. generally are the most fully and effectively organized.
64. The National Rifle Association is an example of a well- 92. Political scientists generally agree on why interest groups
funded, all-powerful interest group that is rarely, if ever, beat form, their nature, and their role in our political system.
in the legislative arena. 93. Generally, interest groups arise in response to changes.
65. Interest group money buys greater influence in Congress today 94. The first national groups to form in America were rooted in
than it did a few decades ago. Christian revivalism in the mid- to late-1800s.
66. Interest groups can legally supply money to public officials 95. The most successful early interest group was the railroad
who are running for office. industry.
67. Most ideological political action committees (PACs) today are 96. Organized labor is the largest and most powerful interest
conservative. group in America.
68. Most money given by political action committees (PACs) to 97. During the 1960s and 1970s, many public interest groups were
candidates running for Congress goes to incumbents. formed.
69. The phrase revolving door refers to interest-group 98. The Moral Majority, founded in 1978, was the beginning of a
contributions to congressional candidates. conservative backlash of group formation.
70. Labor groups tend to support Democrats. 99. The business lobby provides most of the electoral funding for
71. Ideological political action committees (PACs) tend to give a the Republican Party.
higher percentage of their contributions to candidates than do 100. The Christian Right provides most of the electoral funding
business groups. for the Republican Party.
72. Scholars have yet to find systematic evidence that PAC 101. Large corporations are prohibited from donating to political
contributions generally affect how members of Congress campaigns.
vote. 102. Interest groups play a negligible role in American politics.
73. Client politics are especially conducive to influence by group 103. Effective lobbyists are often former members of Congress or
money. the administration.
74. Disruptive tactics in U.S. politics are associated almost 104. There have been no legislative attempts to curb lobbying.
exclusively with left-wing groups. 105. Good lobbyists have to lie.
75. Attempts to regulate lobbying have not met with much success 106. The executive branch is a favorite target of lobbyists because
to date. it has many points of access.
76. In 1995 Congress enacted a law that tightened up registration 107. Interest groups do not generally lobby the courts.
and disclosure requirements of lobbyists. 108. Illegal protest has been a tactic of organized interests since
77. Explain why interest groups are especially numerous in the the Revolutionary War.
United States. 109. Small groups often have an organizational advantage.
78. List and discuss the factors that have led to the emergence of SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best
interest groups at different times in our history. completes each statement or answers the question.
79. Distinguish between the two kinds of interest groups. 110. What is an interest group and why are they important in our
80. What kinds of incentives get people to join interest groups? political system?
Explain each. 111. What is disturbance theory?
81. Discuss whether a class bias exists in U.S. interest groups. 112. What do multi-issue groups do? Give examples.
Provide arguments on both sides of the debate. 113. What attempts have been made to reform lobbying?
82. Explain exactly why information is such a valuable tool of 114. How do interest groups attempt to influence the courts?
influence for lobbyists. Why would information that came 115. How do interest groups lobby Congress?
from a lobbyist be of acceptable quality? Given the 116. How do interest groups lobby the executive?
viewpoints of lobbyists, why wouldn't any information they 117. What was the conservative backlash and why did it occur?
provide be immediately suspect? 118. Define lobbying and explain its importance.
83. Explain the “revolving door” problem. How did the Ethics in 119. Why do interest groups endorse and rate candidates?
Government Act attempt to address the problem? Why are ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a
some agencies more vulnerable to the complications separate sheet of paper.
associated with this problem than others? 120. Define and discuss the types of interest groups that exist
84. What are the major activities engaged in by interest groups to today. Give examples.
influence policy? Evaluate each. 121. Discuss the historical roots of interest groups and the factors
85. TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if that have led to new group formation and the death of old
the statement is false. interest groups.
86. The face of interest group politics is changing as fast as laws, 122. What strategies and tactics are used by interest groups and
political consultants, and technology allow. how effective are they?
87. More Americans than ever are joining groups like the Elks