Social Studies TAKS Communicators Day 1 Dana Kelley Social Studies Consultant Region 10 ESC 972-348-1148 firstname.lastname@example.org TAKS Communicators 2005 September 26, 2005 Day 1: Examination of Social Studies TAKS & TEKS Grayson Room October 24, 2005 Day 2: Using TAKS Data to Drive SS Instruction Grayson Room November 29, 2005 Day 3: Creating Social Studies Assessments Using WebCCAT Novell Lab, 2nd Floor, Spring Valley Bldg. *All social studies educators in any grade are invited to attend. Emphasis: Planning for SS TAKS success. Agenda • What’s New? • A Look at the Data • Lunch • Thinking About Our Thinking • Processing & Planning What’s New With You? • Take a post it note from the box • Write one change that has occurred for the new school year • Think about how it impacts you and your students Thinking About Real Life in TAKS Terms • List your event under the issues and events column on the chart provided • Describe the geographic, economic/social, and political influences that event will have on the community, district, etc. What’s New? Issues & Geographic Economic & Political Events Influences Social Influences Influences What’s New? Issues & Geographic Economic & Political Events Influences Social Influences Influences TAKS TAKS TAKS TAKS Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4 What’s New Quickly Becomes History • A great activity for students • Helps them understand the importance of historical events • Why I need to know about history • What I need to know about history • How I understand historical events What’s New & Exciting? • 5th Grade TAKS • Released Tests • Constitution Day Sept. 17th Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Inclusive (TAKS-I) • 2006 TAKS-I will be made available as a replacement for the LDAA • Students who receive special education services and for whom TAKS, even with allowable accommodations, is not an appropriate assessment should be administered the TAKS-I. Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Inclusive (TAKS-I) TAKS-I will measure the academic progress of students receiving special education services in the state-mandated Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum at or near grade level in the following areas: • science at grades 5, 8, 10, and exit level • Spanish science at grade 5 • social studies at grades 8, 10, and exit level • ELA at exit level • mathematics at exit level. • Larger font, less questions, less questions per page Personal Graduation Plan Middle school students, junior high school students, and high school students who did not perform satisfactorily on the Social Studies TAKS, or are not likely to receive a high school diploma due to insufficient credits toward graduation in social studies, as well as in other subjects, must have a personal graduation plan (PGP). This isn’t really new, just a reminder… Katrina Students & TAKS Please see the handout provided. Do you have evacuees in your classroom? What issues are you facing? Let’s Crunch Some Numbers… State Data All Administrations: Phase-in of Panel Recommendation Region 10 Met Met Standard Would Have Met TAKS test standard 2005 Standard 2004 2006 (projection) % of Gr. 8 Students 88 86 At Panel % of items correct 45.8 52.1 Rec. # of items correct 22/48 25/48 In 2005 % of Gr. 10 Students 87 85 At Panel % of items correct 52 58 Rec. # of items correct 27/50 29/50 In 2005 % of Exit Level Students 97 91 91 % of items correct 40 45.5 50.9 # of items correct 22/55 25/55 28/55 Year scheduled for exit level (2004) (2005) (2006) phase-in Grade 8 Social Studies TAKS Data ~ Region 10 TAKS Objective Items Per Average Percent Local Mastery Objective Items Items Correct Percentage Correct (70 or higher) 1. Demonstrate an understanding 13 9.08 69.8% 50.6% of issues & events in U.S. History. 2. Demonstrate an understanding 6 4.23 70.5% 49% of geographic influences on historical issues & events. 3. Demonstrate an understanding 9 6.51 72.3% 54.8% of economic & social influences on historical issues & events. 4. Demonstrate an understanding 12 8.26 68.8% 50.8% of political influences on historical issues & events. 5. Use critical thinking skills to 8 6.09 76.1% 66.6% analyze social studies information. Met Standard = 86% Commended = 29% Loc Mastery All Obj. = 27% Grade 10 Social Studies TAKS Data ~ Region 10 TAKS Objective Items Per Average Percent Local Mastery Objective Items Items Correct Percentage Correct (70 or higher) 1. Demonstrate an understanding 7 4.71 67.3% 59% of issues & events in U.S. History. 2. Demonstrate an understanding 12 9.52 79.3% 73.2% of geographic influences on historical issues & events. 3. Demonstrate an understanding 7 5.50 78.6% 76.6% of economic & social influences on historical issues & events. 4. Demonstrate an understanding 12 8.39 69.9% 53.6% of political influences on historical issues & events. 5. Use critical thinking skills to 12 9.70 80.8% 74.9% analyze social studies information. Met Standard = 84.9% Commended = 28.7% Loc Mastery All Obj =40.3% Grade 11 Social Studies TAKS Data ~ Region 10 TAKS Objective Items Per Average Percent Local Mastery Objective Items Items Correct Percentage Correct (70 or higher) 1. Demonstrate an understanding 13 9.19 70.7% 49.6% of issues & events in U.S. History. 2. Demonstrate an understanding 9 7.04 78.2% 68.2% of geographic influences on historical issues & events. 3. Demonstrate an understanding 13 9.90 76.2% 62.6% of economic & social influences on historical issues & events. 4. Demonstrate an understanding 9 6.95 77.2% 65.9% of political influences on historical issues & events. 5. Use critical thinking skills to 11 9.04 82.2% 79.9% analyze social studies info. Met Standard = 95.2% Commended = 28.9% Local Mastery All Obj. = 35.7% Social Studies TAKS Items 2005 Grade 8 TAKS 8th Grade TEKS 100 % Grade 10 TAKS 8th Grade TEKS 46% WG TEKS 36% WH TEKS 16% Exit Level TAKS 8th Grade TEKS 18% WG TEKS 5% WH TEKS 7% U.S. History from 1877 69% State Data: Grade 8 Social Studies TAKS State Data: Grade 10 Social Studies TAKS State Data: Exit Level Social Studies TAKS The majority of our students are successful. Who’s being left behind? How can we engage all of our students? A Look at the Data • Based on the state data, which groups have the greatest gap in achievement? • Based on your campus data, which groups have the greatest gap in achievement? • What goals do you have at your campus this year? • What district goals have been set? A Look at the Data • Let’s take a closer look at the 2005 results. • Use the answer sheets (with TEKS) provided to analyze what was tested on TAKS this year • Take a look at your campus item analyses or R10 item analyses • Log the results for each item in your packet • Discuss issues with the group A Closer Look at the Data What were the highest need areas on your campus/in your district –Based on TAKS Objective? –Based on Student Expectation? –Based on Subgroup? Our Goal: To spark learning in every student including students with disabilities, culturally diverse students, students with limited English proficiency, economically disadvantaged students, and other students at risk. How can we make this happen? Alignment is Essential! INSTRUCTION (Strategies & Methods) How do we get from here To here? TYLER TRIANGLE CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT (Content =TEKS) (Tasks, TAKS, etc) Let’s Break it Down… Curriculum = TEKS/student expectations Instruction = Strategies & activities Assessment = Guided Practice/ Performance Tasks Essentials for SpED Environment • Positive attitude • Focus on abilities (not disabilities) • Keep lines of communication open – With the student 1st and foremost! – With parents, other teachers, specialists • Collaborate on strategies Essentials for SpED Content Strategies • Make purpose and goals clear • Model learning • Hands on participation and interaction • Concept-based approach • Depth, not breadth Essentials for SpED Process Strategies • Focus on thinking skills (step by step) • Strengthen metacognitive ability first • Think aloud, model thinking process • Graphic organizers a must Bender, W.N. (2002). Differentiating instruction for students with learning disabilities: Best practices for general and special educators. Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Essentials for ELLs Content Modifications • Provide graphics and images to present content and vocabulary • Offer a variety of reference materials at the students’ instructional levels for independent use • Use cartoons and leave the balloons above the speakers blank, to be filled in by the students Agency Bilingual/ESL Unit August 2004 Texas Education Essentials for ELLs Content Modifications • Collect comic books that portray historic and cultural events in simplified language • Provide culturally diverse biographies, texts, and images for students • Prepare difficult passages from textbooks or documents on tape for activities listening Texas Education Agency Bilingual/ESL Unit August 2004 Essentials for ELLs Content Modifications • Use outline maps to practice writing in the details and labels • Support reading instruction by maintaining films, tapes, records, filmstrips, and other materials which may be used independently or in small groups Essentials for ELLs Content Modifications • Clear illustrations & concrete examples to assist in understanding complex concepts and skills • Highlight written materials by enlarging the size of print, organizing chapters meaningfully, by writing headings that show transitions from one idea to another • Use pictures, tables, maps, diagrams, globes, and other visual aids to assist in comparison/contrast of concepts. Essentials for ELLs Instructional Strategies – Focus on key vocabulary – Use a variety of different graphs and visuals to increase comprehensible input – Underline key words or important facts in their written assignments – Use cooperative learning and encourage language practice – Use and write shorter and less complex sentences and paragraphs with fewer sentences for easier comprehension Essentials for ELLs Instructional Strategies – Use language experience techniques in discussing concepts and ideas – Teach words that signal sequence – Check understanding of written language that may convey complex concepts – Use timelines to arrange and sequence important facts Trends • What trends did you notice while analyzing your data? • What trends did you notice about what was tested this year? • How can we use this data to guide instruction without the items? • What do all of our subgroups have in common? What are their differences? Pre Lunch Activity: List 3 personal goals you will set for you and your students for this year. What do you need to accomplish these goals? See handout. Lunch • Please pick up a map at the back of the room • You have 1 hour 15 minutes for lunch • If you have questions about the surrounding restaurants, please see me! • Enjoy! Alignment is Essential! INSTRUCTION (Strategies & Methods) How do we get from here To here? TYLER TRIANGLE CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT (Content =TEKS) (Tasks, TAKS, etc) Thoughts About Thinking Students need to find personal meaning in the curriculum for it to "sink deep" and last long. Long-term storage criteria for "learned" information: survival, enjoyment, or pain. Much of the remaining curriculum is mentally jettisoned after the final assessment. Getting Back to Bloom’s Read your question and identify its level on Bloom’s taxonomy Move to the appropriate area of the room Discuss the reason for your location with others Are you where you belong? If not, make adjustments now! You will have three minutes to complete this task Time to Discuss!! Why do we need to know this? Thinking & questioning in your classroom must be aligned to the learning objectives Teaching at the level of the TEKS is the minimum requirement! Higher levels of thinking are required for processing info for long term use Success in real life requires thinking at higher levels (info processing, analyzing, evaluating) Critical Thinking & Learning Simon and Harmin (1968) suggest hierarchy of four levels at which student learns: Acquiring information: Facts 90% loss occurs over time; little opportunity for motivation Processing information: Concepts development of relationships and understanding; more opportunity for motivation integrating and internalizing learning: Personal Meanings likely to endure; most opportunity for motivation Comprehensive Significant lasting change in attitudes and/or Learning capabilities How do we reach the level of Comprehensive Learning? Another Look at this Dimension The Knowledge Dimension Learning, Instruction, and Taxonomy of the significance of the WH1(D) explain Assessment 1066, following dates: The The Cognitive Process Dimension Knowledge Dimension 1 2 3 4 5 6 Remembe Understan Apply Analyze Evaluate Create r d A. Explain Explain Factual Knowledge significance significance of date- of date assessment B. Conceptual Knowledge C. Procedural Knowledge D. Metacognitive Knowledge 6.3(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns for selected world regions and countries shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases The The Cognitive Process Dimension Knowledge Dimension 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rememb Understan Apply Analyze Evaluate Create er d A. Understand Factual data Knowledge B. Geographic Pose Geographic Conceptual distributions questions distributions Knowledge of regions of regions C. Map, chart Procedural skills Knowledge D. Pose Metacognitive questions Knowledge Learning Objective: Blooms (II) In order to be able to teach and assess the learning objective correctly you need to understand the content knowledge and cognitive level that the student expectation (SE) addresses The Blooms (II) Taxonomy is a very useful tool for this Learning Objective: Blooms II It is not important which taxonomy you use but that you use one If you do not know the knowledge and cognitive levels of your learning objective then you can not effectively align your instruction and assessment to it Do you consider your classroom to be a… Is Yours a Critical Thinking Classroom? Learners are active and in a continuous dialogue with the teacher Learning is constructing, not feeding Truth is discovered, not delivered Teacher "leads from behind" Teacher functions as a facilitator/ mentor instead of lecturer Creating this type of environment is up to you! Our path has been mapped… Our tools have been provided… We must challenge our students to go to the next level, no matter where they are now. We can accomplish this through critical thinking and questioning. The scientific mind does not so much provide the right answers as ask the right questions. Claude Lévi-Strauss, Anthropologist Critical Thinking & the TEKS Are my questions and assignments challenging students to go to the next level of cognition? Are they aligned to my learning objectives? Do my questions encourage discovery and thinking “out of the box”? Do they encourage the use of background knowledge (both academic & non academic) to construct answers and ask questions of their own? Aligning Questions to Learning Objectives 7.14 Government. The student understands the basic principles reflected in the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to: (A) identify how the Texas Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights; Which questions are aligned to the level of the TEKS SE? 1. What is limited government? 2. What are some examples of checks and balances? 3. How are individual rights are protected by the Texas Constitution? 4. Which is the more important principle of the Texas Constitution: limited government or checks and balances? WG 1 History. The student understands how geographic contexts (the geography of places in the past) and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to: (B) trace the spatial diffusion of a phenomenon and describe its effects on regions of contact such as the spread of bubonic plague, the diffusion and exchange of foods between the New and Old Worlds, or the diffusion of American slang. Which Questions are aligned to the TEKS SE? 1. Why did the Columbian Exchange make it easier for Europeans to conquer the New World? 2. What changes took place because of Peter the Great’s desire to westernize Russia? 3. What items came from the Americas to Europe in the Columbian Exchange? 4. Why do Americans enjoy eating Mexican food? Question Alignment Application Move to your grade level group Read the selected student expectation Create at least two appropriate questions that target the level of thinking required by the TEKS Create one lower level question Create one question at a higher level than the TEKS SE – use the reference provided Processing Info Each grade level will share their work The important thing is to not stop questioning Albert Einstein Scaffolding Questions Know your students ability Start at lower levels Work toward higher levels of understanding as you question Lower level students need confidence to get to the next level Ask students questions they can be successful with before taking them to the next level Wait Time Researchers have found that there are other factors associated with questioning that can enhance critical and creative thinking. One of the purposes of questioning is to enhance and increase verbal behavior of students in the science classroom. Mary Budd Rowe has discovered that the following factors effect student verbal behavior: Wait Time Research Mary Budd Rowe (1972) found that the periods of silence following teacher questions and students' completed responses rarely lasted more than 1.5 seconds in typical classrooms. Stahl (1985) constructed the concept of "think- time, "defined as a distinct period of uninterrupted silence by the teacher and all students so that they both can complete appropriate information processing tasks, feelings, oral responses, and actions. Increasing Think Time Leads to… The number of student responses increases, - incidence of non-response decreases. Students offer more evidence, more speculative thoughts, and give more complex answers. Student confidence increases (i.e., the number of "Is this right?" intonations decreases). Student-to-student interaction increases as do conversational sequences (i.e., sequences of three or more related interchanges increase in number). Sounds Motivating!! What To Do When Students Don't Respond Repeat the question Rephrase the question Adjust the question Ask a student to attempt a rephrasing of your question What To Do When Students Don't Respond Break the question down into its component parts Make your question more specific Ask students what it is about the question that they are finding difficult RECOMMENDED PRACTICE Allow at least 5-8 seconds of wait-time after asking a question. All Students Are Accountable! All students must answer the question asked They can answer at that time or request additional time to formulate an answer They can hand in the answer later that day or the next class period All students must be accountable! What steps could I take to integrate these strategies into my Social Studies classroom? The ability to construct meaning from a confusing and rapidly changing world depends upon one's questioning skills. Unfortunately, schools tend to assign questions and questioning to teachers rather than students. There are 38 teacher questions for every one student question in the typical American classroom! Based on the Research of Ron Hyman of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Critical thinking can be thought of in terms of convergent and divergent questioning. What is the difference? (Guilford 1956, Gallegher and Aschner 1963, and Wilen 1985). Convergent Thinking Convergent questions seek to ascertain basic knowledge and understanding. Convergent questions tend to align with the first three levels of Blooms Taxonomy of Learning Objectives. Divergent Thinking Divergent questions require students to process information creatively. Divergent questions relate to the latter three levels of Blooms Taxonomy of Learning Objectives. Divergent and Creative Thinking in Social Studies There are many questions that can help students "think laterally" (deBono) or "get outside the box." The ability to extend beyond the obvious is essential in effective problem-solving It helps generate the imaginative solutions we associate with the skill of synthesis; the rearranging, modifying and combining of elements in various ways to achieve desired and exciting results. An Effective Tool for Encouraging Divergent and Creative Thinking in Social Studies… This can also assist students in formulating their own “out of the box” questions for your classroom… O.R.I.D Observations Reflections Interpretations Decisions - Use the cards provided – choose 1-2 questions from each category - Work with a partner to find out more about… Your Most Recent Trip Work with a partner but don’t divulge the location you visited Use the question cards to spur your questioning Once you’ve made it through ORID, try to guess the location Another Thinking Strategy S.C.A.M.P.E.R. Students can be taught to ask how to change an existing product, item or idea by asking them to SCAMPER (Eberle, 1972). SCAMPER tools are used on answers that we already have to questions, when we need a detour in our thinking to see something in a new way. For teacher or student use. S.C.A.M.P.E.R. Take an answer to a question and apply the following formula: S - Substitute C - Combine A - Add M – Modify P – Put to other uses E - Eliminate R - Reverse S.C.A.M.P.E.R. Answer: “Martin Luther King gave the I had a dream speech" and ask the questions: S "Who else could have delivered it at that time?' C "If MLK had had a co-author, who could it have been?" A "What would MLK have written in 2005?" M "What could we modify in the speech to intensify the theme?" P "How does this work apply to the lives of our students?' E "What would be the effect of eliminating this work?" R "What would be the antithesis of King's view?" Let’s Try It… Answer: The United States entered WWII as a result of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The United States entered WWII as a result of the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. S - Substitute C - Combine A - Add M – Modify P – Put to other uses E - Eliminate R - Reverse My S.C.A.M.P.E.R. S – What other event could have happened to draw the U.S. into WWII? C – What other countries entered the war as a result of the attack on Pearl Harbor? A – What influence did the attack on Pearl Harbor have on the balance of power in post WWII? M – What if the attack on Pearl Harbor failed? My S.C.A.M.P.E.R. P – What effect did the attack on Pearl Harbor have on the development and use of the atomic bomb? E – What if the attack never happened? R – How would a preemptive attack on Tokyo have changed the historical view of our role in WWII Your S.C.A.M.P.E.R. Choose one of your high need TAKS items or SEs Create a SCAMPER exercise for your students Work through possible confusions Work beyond the common knowledge point and get students thinking S.C.A.M.P.E.R. Benefits of SCAMPER Students both ask and answer the questions. The questions are divergent and require a deep understanding of the required content knowledge. Evaluation of student thinking and competency in social studies are accomplished through an analysis of the coherence of the question asked, answer given, and next questions posed. Uses and builds background knowledge! 3-2-1 Summary List three things that you learned today that would improve your instruction this year. Discuss two things you are interested in implementing when you return to class. What is one generalization you can make about the information we learned today? Contact Information Dana Kelley 972.348.1148 email@example.com Visit my website for resources & info: www.ednet10.net/socialstudies See you on October 24th!
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