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Social Studies TAKS Communicators Day

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									Social Studies TAKS
     Communicators
               Day 1
            Dana Kelley
     Social Studies Consultant
          Region 10 ESC
          972-348-1148
    dana.kelley@region10.org
     TAKS Communicators 2005
September 26, 2005
Day 1: Examination of Social Studies TAKS & TEKS
Grayson Room
October 24, 2005
Day 2: Using TAKS Data to Drive SS Instruction
Grayson Room
November 29, 2005
Day 3: Creating Social Studies Assessments Using WebCCAT
Novell Lab, 2nd Floor, Spring Valley Bldg.
*All social studies educators in any grade are invited to attend.
Emphasis: Planning for SS TAKS success.
                 Agenda
•   What’s New?
•   A Look at the Data
•   Lunch
•   Thinking About Our Thinking
•   Processing & Planning
      What’s New With You?
• Take a post it note from the box
• Write one change that has occurred for the
  new school year
• Think about how it impacts you and your
  students
      Thinking About Real Life in
             TAKS Terms
• List your event under the issues and
  events column on the chart provided
• Describe the geographic, economic/social,
  and political influences that event will have
  on the community, district, etc.
            What’s New?
Issues &   Geographic Economic & Political
 Events    Influences    Social   Influences
                       Influences
              What’s New?
 Issues &   Geographic Economic & Political
  Events    Influences    Social   Influences
                        Influences
TAKS        TAKS        TAKS        TAKS
Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4
           What’s New
     Quickly Becomes History
• A great activity for students
• Helps them understand the importance
  of historical events
• Why I need to know about history
• What I need to know about history
• How I understand historical events
    What’s New & Exciting?
• 5th Grade TAKS
• Released Tests
• Constitution Day Sept. 17th
  Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
             Inclusive (TAKS-I)

• 2006 TAKS-I will be made available as a
replacement for the LDAA
• Students who receive special education services
and for whom TAKS, even with allowable
accommodations, is not an appropriate
assessment should be administered the TAKS-I.
   Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Inclusive
                             (TAKS-I)
TAKS-I will measure the academic progress of students
receiving special education services in the state-mandated
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum at or
near grade level in the following areas:
    • science at grades 5, 8, 10, and exit level
    • Spanish science at grade 5
    • social studies at grades 8, 10, and exit level
    • ELA at exit level
    • mathematics at exit level.
• Larger font, less questions, less questions per page
Personal Graduation Plan

Middle school students, junior high school students,
and high school students who did not perform
satisfactorily on the Social Studies TAKS, or are not
likely to receive a high school diploma due to
insufficient credits toward graduation in social
studies, as well as in other subjects, must have a
personal graduation plan (PGP).

This isn’t really new, just a reminder…
Katrina Students & TAKS

Please see the handout provided.

Do you have evacuees in your classroom?

What issues are you facing?
Let’s Crunch Some
    Numbers…
                State Data All Administrations:
              Phase-in of Panel Recommendation
         Region 10                Met      Met Standard   Would Have Met
         TAKS test              standard       2005          Standard
                                  2004                    2006 (projection)
         % of Gr. 8 Students       88           86            At Panel
          % of items correct      45.8         52.1             Rec.
          # of items correct     22/48        25/48           In 2005

% of Gr. 10 Students              87           85             At Panel
           % of items correct     52           58               Rec.
           # of items correct    27/50        29/50           In 2005

    % of Exit Level Students      97            91               91
          % of items correct      40           45.5             50.9
          # of items correct     22/55        25/55            28/55

Year scheduled for exit level   (2004)        (2005)           (2006)
                   phase-in
                       Grade 8 Social Studies TAKS Data ~ Region 10
           TAKS Objective               Items Per   Average      Percent      Local Mastery
                                        Objective    Items    Items Correct    Percentage
                                                    Correct                   (70 or higher)

1. Demonstrate an understanding            13        9.08        69.8%           50.6%
of issues & events in U.S.
History.
2. Demonstrate an understanding            6         4.23        70.5%            49%
of geographic influences on
historical issues & events.
3. Demonstrate an understanding            9         6.51        72.3%           54.8%
of economic & social influences
on historical issues & events.
4. Demonstrate an understanding            12        8.26        68.8%           50.8%
of political influences on historical
issues & events.

5. Use critical thinking skills to         8         6.09        76.1%           66.6%
analyze social studies
information.

Met Standard = 86% Commended = 29% Loc Mastery All Obj. = 27%
                        Grade 10 Social Studies TAKS Data ~ Region 10
             TAKS Objective               Items Per   Average      Percent      Local Mastery
                                          Objective    Items    Items Correct    Percentage
                                                      Correct                   (70 or higher)

  1. Demonstrate an understanding            7         4.71        67.3%            59%
  of issues & events in U.S.
  History.
  2. Demonstrate an understanding            12        9.52        79.3%           73.2%
  of geographic influences on
  historical issues & events.
  3. Demonstrate an understanding            7         5.50        78.6%           76.6%
  of economic & social influences
  on historical issues & events.
  4. Demonstrate an understanding            12        8.39        69.9%           53.6%
  of political influences on historical
  issues & events.

  5. Use critical thinking skills to         12        9.70        80.8%           74.9%
  analyze social studies
  information.

Met Standard = 84.9%                      Commended = 28.7% Loc Mastery All Obj
=40.3%
                       Grade 11 Social Studies TAKS Data ~ Region 10
            TAKS Objective               Items Per   Average      Percent      Local Mastery
                                         Objective    Items    Items Correct    Percentage
                                                     Correct                   (70 or higher)

 1. Demonstrate an understanding            13        9.19        70.7%           49.6%
 of issues & events in U.S.
 History.
 2. Demonstrate an understanding            9         7.04        78.2%           68.2%
 of geographic influences on
 historical issues & events.
 3. Demonstrate an understanding            13        9.90        76.2%           62.6%
 of economic & social influences
 on historical issues & events.
 4. Demonstrate an understanding            9         6.95        77.2%           65.9%
 of political influences on historical
 issues & events.
 5. Use critical thinking skills to         11        9.04        82.2%           79.9%
 analyze social studies info.



Met Standard = 95.2%            Commended = 28.9% Local Mastery All Obj. = 35.7%
Social Studies TAKS Items 2005
Grade 8 TAKS      8th Grade TEKS           100 %


Grade 10 TAKS     8th Grade TEKS           46%
                  WG TEKS                  36%
                  WH TEKS                  16%

Exit Level TAKS   8th Grade TEKS           18%
                  WG TEKS                  5%
                  WH TEKS                  7%
                  U.S. History from 1877   69%
        State Data:
Grade 8 Social Studies TAKS
        State Data:
Grade 10 Social Studies TAKS
          State Data:
Exit Level Social Studies TAKS
  The majority of our
students are successful.
   Who’s being left
        behind?
  How can we engage all of our students?
       A Look at the Data
• Based on the state data, which groups
  have the greatest gap in achievement?
• Based on your campus data, which
  groups have the greatest gap in
  achievement?
• What goals do you have at your campus
  this year?
• What district goals have been set?
        A Look at the Data
• Let’s take a closer look at the 2005 results.
• Use the answer sheets (with TEKS) provided
to analyze what was tested on TAKS this year
• Take a look at your campus item analyses or
R10 item analyses
• Log the results for each item in your packet
• Discuss issues with the group
 A Closer Look at the Data
What were the highest need areas on
your campus/in your district
  –Based on TAKS Objective?
  –Based on Student Expectation?
  –Based on Subgroup?
Our Goal: To spark learning in every
  student including students with
   disabilities, culturally diverse
  students, students with limited
 English proficiency, economically
disadvantaged students, and other
          students at risk.

   How can we make this happen?
Alignment is Essential!

                      INSTRUCTION
                  (Strategies & Methods)



 How do we get from here                       To here?

                            TYLER
                           TRIANGLE


 CURRICULUM                             ASSESSMENT
(Content =TEKS)                       (Tasks, TAKS, etc)
       Let’s Break it Down…

Curriculum = TEKS/student expectations
Instruction = Strategies & activities
Assessment = Guided Practice/
               Performance Tasks
       Essentials for SpED
Environment
• Positive attitude
• Focus on abilities (not disabilities)
• Keep lines of communication open
  – With the student 1st and foremost!
  – With parents, other teachers, specialists
• Collaborate on strategies
       Essentials for SpED
Content Strategies
• Make purpose and goals clear
• Model learning
• Hands on participation and interaction
• Concept-based approach
• Depth, not breadth
          Essentials for SpED
Process Strategies
• Focus on thinking skills (step by step)
• Strengthen metacognitive ability first
• Think aloud, model thinking process
• Graphic organizers a must


 Bender, W.N. (2002). Differentiating instruction for students with learning
 disabilities: Best practices for general and special educators.
 Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.
       Essentials for ELLs
Content Modifications
• Provide graphics and images to present
  content and vocabulary
• Offer a variety of reference materials at
  the students’ instructional levels for
  independent use
• Use cartoons and leave the balloons
  above the speakers blank, to be filled in
  by the students Agency Bilingual/ESL Unit August 2004
           Texas Education
         Essentials for ELLs
Content Modifications
• Collect comic books that portray historic
  and cultural events in simplified
  language
• Provide culturally diverse biographies,
  texts, and images for students
• Prepare difficult passages from
  textbooks or documents on tape for
             activities
  listening Texas Education Agency Bilingual/ESL Unit August 2004
        Essentials for ELLs
Content Modifications
• Use outline maps to practice writing in the
  details and labels
• Support reading instruction by maintaining
  films, tapes, records, filmstrips, and other
  materials which may be used
  independently or in small groups
         Essentials for ELLs
Content Modifications
• Clear illustrations & concrete examples to assist
  in understanding complex concepts and skills
• Highlight written materials by enlarging the size
  of print, organizing chapters meaningfully, by
  writing headings that show transitions from one
  idea to another
• Use pictures, tables, maps, diagrams, globes,
  and other visual aids to assist in
  comparison/contrast of concepts.
       Essentials for ELLs
Instructional Strategies
  – Focus on key vocabulary
  – Use a variety of different graphs and
    visuals to increase comprehensible input
  – Underline key words or important facts in
    their written assignments
  – Use cooperative learning and encourage
    language practice
  – Use and write shorter and less complex
    sentences and paragraphs with fewer
    sentences for easier comprehension
       Essentials for ELLs
Instructional Strategies
  – Use language experience techniques in
    discussing concepts and ideas
  – Teach words that signal sequence
  – Check understanding of written language
    that may convey complex concepts
  – Use timelines to arrange and sequence
    important facts
              Trends
• What trends did you notice while
analyzing your data?
• What trends did you notice about
what was tested this year?
• How can we use this data to guide
instruction without the items?
• What do all of our subgroups have in
common? What are their differences?
    Pre Lunch Activity:
List 3 personal goals you
 will set for you and your
  students for this year.
  What do you need to accomplish
    these goals? See handout.
               Lunch
• Please pick up a map at the back of
the room
• You have 1 hour 15 minutes for lunch
• If you have questions about the
surrounding restaurants, please see
me!
• Enjoy!
Alignment is Essential!

                      INSTRUCTION
                  (Strategies & Methods)



 How do we get from here                       To here?

                            TYLER
                           TRIANGLE


 CURRICULUM                             ASSESSMENT
(Content =TEKS)                       (Tasks, TAKS, etc)
Thoughts About Thinking
    Students need to find personal meaning
     in the curriculum for it to "sink deep" and
     last long.
    Long-term storage criteria for "learned"
     information: survival, enjoyment, or
     pain.
    Much of the remaining curriculum is
     mentally jettisoned after the final
     assessment.
Getting Back to Bloom’s
     Read your question and identify its level on
      Bloom’s taxonomy
     Move to the appropriate area of the room
     Discuss the reason for your location with
      others
     Are you where you belong? If not, make
      adjustments now!
     You will have three minutes to complete this
      task
Time to Discuss!!
Why do we need to know this?
    Thinking & questioning in your classroom
     must be aligned to the learning objectives
    Teaching at the level of the TEKS is the
     minimum requirement!
    Higher levels of thinking are required
     for processing info for long term use
    Success in real life requires thinking at
     higher levels (info processing, analyzing,
     evaluating)
   Critical Thinking & Learning
        Simon and Harmin (1968) suggest
        hierarchy of four levels at which student
        learns: Acquiring information:
Facts               90% loss occurs over time; little opportunity for
                    motivation
                    Processing information:
Concepts            development of relationships and understanding;
                    more opportunity for motivation
                    integrating and internalizing learning:
Personal Meanings   likely to endure;
                    most opportunity for motivation
Comprehensive       Significant lasting change in attitudes and/or
Learning            capabilities
    How do we reach the level of Comprehensive Learning?
Another Look at this
         Dimension

    The Knowledge Dimension
                    Learning, Instruction, and
  Taxonomy of the significance of the
   WH1(D) explain
  Assessment 1066,
   following dates:
The                      The Cognitive Process Dimension
Knowledge
Dimension              1         2                3            4         5         6
                    Remembe   Understan         Apply       Analyze   Evaluate   Create
                       r         d

A.                                           Explain
                              Explain
Factual Knowledge                            significance
                              significance
                                             of date-
                              of date        assessment
B.
Conceptual
Knowledge

C.
Procedural
Knowledge

D.
Metacognitive
Knowledge
6.3(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions
and patterns for selected world regions and countries shown on
maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases
The                 The Cognitive Process Dimension
Knowledge
Dimension          1         2               3            4              5          6
                Rememb    Understan        Apply       Analyze        Evaluate    Create
                  er         d

A.                       Understand
Factual
                         data
Knowledge
B.                       Geographic                                              Pose
                                                      Geographic
Conceptual               distributions                                           questions
                                                      distributions
Knowledge                of regions                   of regions
C.                                       Map, chart
Procedural                               skills
Knowledge

D.                                       Pose
Metacognitive                            questions
Knowledge
Learning Objective: Blooms (II)

    In order to be able to teach and assess the
     learning objective correctly you need to
     understand the content knowledge and
     cognitive level that the student expectation
     (SE) addresses
    The Blooms (II) Taxonomy is a very useful
     tool for this
Learning Objective: Blooms II
   It is not important which taxonomy you use
    but that you use one
   If you do not know the knowledge and
    cognitive levels of your learning objective
    then you can not effectively align your
    instruction and assessment to it
Do you consider your
classroom to be a…
Is Yours a Critical Thinking Classroom?
    Learners are active and in a continuous
     dialogue with the teacher
    Learning is constructing, not feeding
    Truth is discovered, not delivered
    Teacher "leads from behind"
    Teacher functions as a facilitator/ mentor
     instead of lecturer
Creating this type of
environment is up to you!
Our path has been mapped…
Our tools have been provided…

We must challenge our students to go to the next level,
no matter where they are now. We can accomplish this
through critical thinking and questioning.
The scientific mind does not so
much provide the right answers as
ask the right questions.
                   Claude Lévi-Strauss, Anthropologist
Critical Thinking & the TEKS
   Are my questions and assignments challenging
    students to go to the next level of cognition?
   Are they aligned to my learning objectives?
   Do my questions encourage discovery and
    thinking “out of the box”?
   Do they encourage the use of background
    knowledge (both academic & non academic) to
    construct answers and ask questions of their
    own?
  Aligning Questions to Learning Objectives
 7.14 Government. The student understands the basic
    principles reflected in the Texas Constitution. The student
    is expected to: (A) identify how the Texas Constitution
    reflects the principles of limited government, checks and
    balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular
    sovereignty, and individual rights;
Which questions are aligned to the level of the TEKS SE?
1. What is limited government?
2. What are some examples of checks and balances?
3. How are individual rights are protected by the
   Texas Constitution?
4. Which is the more important principle of the Texas
   Constitution: limited government or checks and balances?
WG 1 History. The student understands how geographic
  contexts (the geography of places in the past) and
  processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced
  events in the past and helped to shape the present. The
  student is expected to: (B) trace the spatial diffusion of a
  phenomenon and describe its effects on regions of
  contact such as the spread of bubonic plague, the
  diffusion and exchange of foods between the New and
  Old Worlds, or the diffusion of American slang.

Which Questions are aligned to the TEKS SE?
1. Why did the Columbian Exchange make it easier for
   Europeans to conquer the New World?
2. What changes took place because of Peter the Great’s
   desire to westernize Russia?
3. What items came from the Americas to Europe in the
   Columbian Exchange?
4. Why do Americans enjoy eating Mexican food?
Question Alignment Application
   Move to your grade level group
   Read the selected student expectation
   Create at least two appropriate questions
    that target the level of thinking required by
    the TEKS
   Create one lower level question
   Create one question at a higher level than
    the TEKS SE – use the reference provided
Processing Info
Each grade level will share their work
The important thing is to
not stop questioning

                    Albert Einstein
Scaffolding Questions
   Know your students ability
   Start at lower levels
   Work toward higher levels of understanding as
    you question
   Lower level students need confidence to get to
    the next level
   Ask students questions they can be successful
    with before taking them to the next level
    Wait Time
   Researchers have found that there are other
    factors associated with questioning that can
    enhance critical and creative thinking.
   One of the purposes of questioning is to
    enhance and increase verbal behavior of
    students in the science classroom.
   Mary Budd Rowe has discovered that the
    following factors effect student verbal
    behavior:
Wait Time Research
    Mary Budd Rowe (1972) found that the periods
     of silence following teacher questions and
     students' completed responses rarely lasted
     more than 1.5 seconds in typical classrooms.
    Stahl (1985) constructed the concept of "think-
     time, "defined as a distinct period of
     uninterrupted silence by the teacher and all
     students so that they both can complete
     appropriate information processing tasks,
     feelings, oral responses, and actions.
Increasing Think Time Leads to…
     The number of student responses increases, -
      incidence of non-response decreases.
     Students offer more evidence, more speculative
      thoughts, and give more complex answers.
     Student confidence increases (i.e., the number of
      "Is this right?" intonations decreases).
     Student-to-student interaction increases as do
      conversational sequences (i.e., sequences of three
      or more related interchanges increase in number).
                                   Sounds Motivating!!
What To Do When Students
Don't Respond
   Repeat the question
   Rephrase the question
   Adjust the question
   Ask a student to attempt
    a rephrasing of your
    question
What To Do When Students
Don't Respond
   Break the question down into
    its component parts
   Make your question more
    specific
   Ask students what it is about
    the question that they are
    finding difficult
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE
 Allow at least 5-8 seconds of wait-time after
 asking a question.
All Students Are Accountable!
   All students must answer the question
    asked
   They can answer at that time or request
    additional time to formulate an answer
   They can hand in the answer later that
    day or the next class period
   All students must be accountable!
What steps could I take to
integrate these strategies
into my Social Studies
classroom?
The ability to construct meaning
from a confusing and rapidly
changing world depends upon
one's questioning skills.
Unfortunately, schools tend to assign
questions and questioning to teachers
rather than students.
There are 38 teacher questions for
every one student question in the
typical American classroom!
Based on the Research of Ron Hyman of Rutgers
University, New Brunswick, NJ
     Critical thinking can be
     thought of in terms of
     convergent and divergent
     questioning.

     What is the difference?

(Guilford 1956, Gallegher and Aschner 1963, and Wilen 1985).
Convergent Thinking
   Convergent questions seek to ascertain
    basic knowledge and understanding.

   Convergent questions tend to align with
    the first three levels of Blooms Taxonomy
    of Learning Objectives.
Divergent Thinking
   Divergent questions require students to
    process information creatively.

   Divergent questions relate to the latter
    three levels of Blooms Taxonomy of
    Learning Objectives.
Divergent and Creative Thinking
in Social Studies
   There are many questions that can help students
    "think laterally" (deBono) or "get outside the box."
   The ability to extend beyond the obvious is
    essential in effective problem-solving
   It helps generate the imaginative solutions we
    associate with the skill of synthesis; the
    rearranging, modifying and combining of
    elements in various ways to achieve desired and
    exciting results.
An Effective Tool for
Encouraging Divergent and
Creative Thinking in
Social Studies…
This can also assist
students in formulating
their own “out of the box”
questions for your
classroom…
O.R.I.D
   Observations
   Reflections
   Interpretations
   Decisions

- Use the cards provided – choose 1-2 questions
   from each category
- Work with a partner to find out more about…
  Your Most Recent Trip
Work   with a partner but don’t divulge the location
you visited
Use the question cards to spur your questioning

Once you’ve made it through ORID, try to guess
the location
Another Thinking
Strategy
S.C.A.M.P.E.R.
     Students can be taught to ask how to
      change an existing product, item or
      idea by asking them to SCAMPER
      (Eberle, 1972).
     SCAMPER tools are used on answers
      that we already have to questions,
      when we need a detour in our thinking
      to see something in a new way.
     For teacher or student use.
S.C.A.M.P.E.R.
   Take an answer to a question and apply the following
   formula:
      S - Substitute
      C - Combine
      A - Add
      M – Modify
      P – Put to other uses
      E - Eliminate
      R - Reverse
S.C.A.M.P.E.R.
Answer: “Martin Luther King gave the I had a dream speech"
   and ask the questions:
 S "Who else could have delivered it at that time?'
 C "If MLK had had a co-author, who could it have been?"
 A "What would MLK have written in 2005?"
 M "What could we modify in the speech to intensify the
   theme?"
 P "How does this work apply to the lives of our students?'
 E "What would be the effect of eliminating this work?"
 R "What would be the antithesis of King's view?"
Let’s Try It…

Answer:
  The United States entered WWII
  as a result of the attack on Pearl
  Harbor on December 7, 1941.
The United States entered WWII as a
result of the attack on Pearl Harbor on
December 7, 1941.
       S - Substitute
       C - Combine
       A - Add
       M – Modify
       P – Put to other uses
       E - Eliminate
       R - Reverse
My S.C.A.M.P.E.R.
 S – What other event could have happened to
   draw the U.S. into WWII?
 C – What other countries entered the war as a
   result of the attack on Pearl Harbor?
 A – What influence did the attack on Pearl
   Harbor have on the balance of power in post
   WWII?
 M – What if the attack on Pearl Harbor failed?
My S.C.A.M.P.E.R.
P – What effect did the attack on Pearl
  Harbor have on the development and
  use of the atomic bomb?
E – What if the attack never happened?
R – How would a preemptive attack on
  Tokyo have changed the historical view
  of our role in WWII
Your S.C.A.M.P.E.R.
   Choose one of your high need TAKS
    items or SEs
   Create a SCAMPER exercise for your
    students
   Work through possible confusions
   Work beyond the common knowledge
    point and get students thinking
S.C.A.M.P.E.R.
Benefits of SCAMPER
 Students both ask and answer the questions.
 The questions are divergent and require a deep
  understanding of the required content
  knowledge.
 Evaluation of student thinking and competency
  in social studies are accomplished through an
  analysis of the coherence of the question
  asked, answer given, and next questions
  posed.
 Uses and builds background knowledge!
3-2-1 Summary
   List three things that you learned today
    that would improve your instruction this
    year.
   Discuss two things you are interested in
    implementing when you return to class.
   What is one generalization you can make
    about the information we learned today?
   Contact Information
           Dana Kelley
           972.348.1148
     dana.kelley@region10.org

Visit my website for resources & info:
   www.ednet10.net/socialstudies

      See you on October 24th!

								
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