Introduction UN System in Lebanon by benbenzhou

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									Shelter Concept Paper




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                          TABLE OF CONTENT

Introduction

Section I:

   1- The Government Shelter Reconstruction Plan

   2- Shelter Working Group

   3- The Stakeholders
   3.1- The Governmental Organizations
       a-  The Prime Minister Office
       b-  The High Relief Council
       c-  The Council of the South

   3.2-   Private Consulting Firm: Khatib & Alami

   3.3-   UN: UN-HABITAT

   3.4-   Donor Countries

   3.5-   Local Authorities

   3.6- Non Governmental Organizations
       a-  Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
       b-  ACTED
       c-  National NGOs: Beit bil Jnoub(BBJ)
       d-  Danish Refugee Council (DRC)
       e-  Habitat for Humanity Lebanon (HFHL)
       f-  Japanese Emergency NGO (JEN)
       g-  Jihad el Bina

   4- On-Going Projects

   4.1 UN-HABITAT Projects
        4.2.2 Good Governance For Enhanced Post War Reconstruction
        4.2.2 Mobile units for shelter Reconstruction in Southern Lebanon

   4.2 NRC projects
       4.2.1 Rapid Shelter Rehabilitation Project (September 2006-April 2007)
       4.2.2 Roof Waterproofing project




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   4.3 ACTED Projects
       4.3.1 Shelter repair and Waterproofing (March 2007 – December 2007)

   4.4 Beit bil Jnoub Projects
       4.4.1 Design support for rebuilding homes in South Lebanon

   4.5 HFHL Projects
       4.5.1 Shelter Related Intervention
       4.5.2 Technical Shelter Assistance

   4.6 JEN Projects
       4.6.1 Distribution of Hygiene Kits
       4.6.2 Distribution of Tool Kits for Debris Clearance

Section II:

   1- Challenges and Gaps

   2- Strategic Fields of Intervention

   2.1 Socio-Economic Field

   2.2 Urban Planning Field

   2.3 Environmental Field

   2.4 The Governance and Security Fields

Conclusion




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             ABREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS



AUB            American University of Beirut
BBJ            Beit bil Jnoub
CoS            Council of the South
DGU            Directorate General of Urbanism
DRC            Danish Refugee Council
ECHO           European Commission Humanitarian Aid
GoL            Government of Lebanon
HFHL           Habitat for Humanity Lebanon
HRC            High Relief Council
IDP            Internally Displaced Persons
JEN            Japanese Emergency NGO
KSA            Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
MFA            Ministry of Foreign Affairs
NRC            Norwegian Refugee Council
OFDA           Office of the United States Foreign Disaster Assistance
RTO            Regional Technical Office
SME            Small and Medium Enterprises and industries (and SMI)
SMI            Small and Medium Industries
UN-HABITAT     UN Human Settlements Program
UoM            Union of Municipalities
USAID          United States Agency for International Development




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                           LIST OF TABLES
Table#1    Damage Assessment South Lebanon
Table#2    Compensation Schemes
Table#3    Distribution of Donor Countries
Table#4    Beit bil Jnoub Activities in UoM of Tyre
Table#5    DRC Activities in South Lebanon
Table#6    Distribution of NRC Activities in South Lebanon
Table#7    Distribution of beneficiaries on the project phases
Table#8    Shelter repair and waterproofing activities in South Lebanon
Table#9    HFHL Intervention in core home
Table#10   Distribution of hygiene kits
Table#11   Distribution of Tool Kits




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Introduction
South Lebanon has suffered for decades from Israeli invasions and occupations. In July
2006, Lebanon was the target of a violent and devastating war led by Israel, which caused
human losses as well as enormous damages to residential areas and civilian infrastructure
and related services, such as housing units, public and private schools, hospitals and
outpatient clinics, commercial and manufacturing enterprises, service sector, seaports,
Beirut International Airport, power plants, fuel depots, etc.. Furthermore, hundred of
bridges and road networks were destroyed leaving entire villages and cities especially in
South Lebanon inaccessible.

South Lebanon, Beirut Southern Suburb and Bekaa were one of the most affected areas
by the consequences of the July war. Historically, the three areas have always been
classified among the most deprived areas where poverty is highly concentrated. The cost
of the reconstruction was estimated to US$ 2.8 billion. Compensation for the housing
sector was estimated to US$ 1.4 billion.

During the thirty-three-day-war, South-Lebanon witnessed the heaviest bombing where
130,427 dwelling units were affected. The damage was unevenly spread across South-
Lebanon cazas. Actually, it was concentrated in the following four cazas: Tyre (45,795
houses), Bint Jbeil (30,787 houses), Marjeyoun (22,452 houses) and Nabatyeh (22,509
houses). The affected houses were distributed between totally and partially destroyed
units and severely damaged units.




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Table#1: Housing Damage Assessment in Southern Lebanon
                      Totally               Partially       Severely           Totally
 Caza
                     Destroyed              Destroyed       Damaged            Affected
 Rachaya                           0                    1            133                  134
 Jezzine                        24                      0            708                  732
 Hasbeya                        95                    20            1,553               1,668
 Saida                         217                    31            6,102               6,350
 Marjeyoun                   2,475                   388           19,589              22,452
 Nabatieh                      945                    48           21,516              22,509
 Bint Jbeil                  6,031                   942           23,814              30,787
 Tyre                        3,321                   750           41,724              45,795
 Total                     13,108                   2,180         115,139           130,427
                                                                   Source: CoS as of 11-01-2008

The aim of this paper is to review and document the work that has been carried out in the
shelter sector since the cease of hostilities. While the first section sheds the light on
response interventions carried out by several stakeholders, the second section attempts to
identify intervention guidelines for the shelter working group that would respond to gaps
and challenges facing the reconstruction process.


                            Damage Assessment



                                                                                Rachaya
                                       0%      5%
                                                            17%                 Jezzine
           35%
                                                                                Hasbeya
                                                                                Saida
                                                                                Marjeyoun
                                                             17%                Nabatieh
                                                                                Bint Jbeil
                             24%
                                                                                Tyre




                                                                                       Figure#1



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Section I: STAKEHODLERS RESPONSE INTERVENTIONS
Upon the cessation of hostilities, the focus of the stakeholders involved in the
reconstruction process turned from humanitarian assistance to lay the foundations for
relief and reconstruction phase. Given the magnitude of the crisis in the shelter sector, no
single national or international organization could address the multiple needs or bear the
tremendous costs associated to reconstructing South Lebanon. Therefore, the
reconstruction plan required multilateral cooperation among the various stakeholders: the
Government of Lebanon, Donor Countries, International and National NGOs, UN
agencies and the local authorities.

   5- The Government Shelter Reconstruction Plan
In the aftermath of the conflict, the Government of Lebanon (GoL) launched a national
reconstruction plan in order to respond to the urgent recovery and reconstruction needs.
The plan aimed to mobilize the international community and to enhance their active
engagement in the post war reconstruction operation. In terms of shelter, the main
objective of the national recovery and reconstruction plan was to ensure a safe and
prompt return of the displaced to their towns and villages.

The GoL housing reconstruction plan entailed compensating affected population whose
houses were damaged or destroyed. The indemnities set by the GoL cover the affected
houses (damaged or destroyed) as well as furniture. The demolished square meter is
estimated at LBP 300.000 (US$ 200) while the surface area of the dwelling unit is
estimated at 200m2. The compensations are paid according to the following standards:

Table#2: Compensation Schemes
Severity of damage        Ceiling                        Remarks
                          Amount
                           US$
Totally Destroyed            40.000 The compensation, disbursed in 2 installments
                                    (50%-50%), covers the shelter reconstruction (US$
                                    30.000) and the furniture (US$ 10.000).
Partially Destroyed          28.000 The indemnity is paid in two installments. The first
                                    payment is around US$ 6.600.
Severely Damaged             13.333 One installment for damages less than US$ 6.600
                                    otherwise the beneficiaries receive two payments.
Partially Damaged             3.333 One installment.
                                                                          Source: UN-Habitat

The disbursement of housing compensation is completed according to the following four
stages:

Stage One: The beneficiaries must fill in a compensation request form and present it to
the Council of the South offices in the Mouhafazats of the South and Nabatieh.



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Stage two: After submitting the compensation request form damage assessment and
auditing are required and an independent report is drawn for each unit provided it
includes a record with the damage scope. Costs are estimated according to the price
standards form. A copy of the record is sent to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers.
The CoS sets the compensation amount for each beneficiary and then sends certified
copies of the complete files to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers who transmits
the file to the consultant Khatib & Alami for verification. At last, the consultant returns
the file to the Presidency of the council of Ministers where payment orders are prepared
and checks are emitted by the High Relief Council.
Stage Three: The presidency of the Council of Ministers, through the High Relief
Council, sends checks with payment orders to CoS so they can be handed over to the
beneficiaries who sign the check receipt on the assigned case in the payment and sign as
well a commitment to use this compensation for the purpose it was allocated for. Then
the CoS sends back the original first payment order and a copy of the commitment to
the presidency of the Council of Ministers.
Stage Four: The beneficiaries must fill in a second compensation request form and
present it to the CoS who verifies on-site whether the first payment was spent on
restoration or reconstruction. The presidency of the Council of Ministers emits payment
orders and second payment checks which are sent to the CoS in order to be delivered to
the beneficiaries.

The total amount of disbursements for housing compensations reached until 10 December
2007, LBP 428 billion, (around US$ 286 million), covering a total number of 76,576
dwelling units. Around 80% of cases of families whose houses were totally destroyed had
access to the first payment.

   6- Shelter Working Group:
As soon as hostilities started, an emergency shelter cluster was established and
coordinated by UNHCR. In December 2006, UN-HABITAT (UN Human Settlements
Program) took over the facilitation of the cluster activities.

Cluster meeting were co-chaired by the Council of the South and UN-HABITAT and
took place on weekly basis in Beirut and Southern Lebanon.

The shelter cluster operation focuses on coordinating the various interventions
undertaken by different national and international stakeholders, identifying gaps and
unmet needs in shelter recovery operations and tracking government housing
compensations distributed to affected communities.

During a first stage, the shelter cluster interventions focused on winterization activities
and cash for repair of partially damaged homes. The main objective was to accelerate the
reconstruction process by starting the repair works.

With existence of the GoL compensation plan and numerous donor countries adopting the
reconstruction of entire villages, challenges facing cluster agencies to provide shelter


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assistance were two-folded: (1) avoiding duplication and (2) identifying un-served and
vulnerable cases.

In this context, cluster agencies with the support of the CoS identified waterproofing
treatment as a key component for shelter repair. Why waterproofing?


Although the Government of Lebanon has designed a compensation plan for damaged
houses in covering all repair and reconstruction aspects, waterproofing treatment was
considered a main gap that was not covered by the government compensation scheme.
This is due to the fact that assessments were undertaken during dry season where
waterproofing couldn’t be detected.

As for the work procedures, the CoS endorsed “shelter guidelines” developed by cluster
agencies. The guidelines aimed at “putting at ease all the concerns regarding duplication
of works and explained to the beneficiaries how the emergency shelter works
complement compensations paid by the Government of Lebanon through CoS”.

The second stage of the cluster operation saw a shift in shelter intervention. Cluster
agencies, with the help of the CoS, developed a strategy to shift the focus of their actions
from quick repair to sustainable recovery and reconstruction. The strategy was
designed to (1) complement on going efforts, (2) enhance the reconstruction process of
totally and partially destroyed houses and (3) to make sure that affected families and local
authorities are provided with the necessary technical support to actively engage in the
reconstruction of villages and towns.

   7- The Stakeholders:
In the immediate aftermath of the violent invasion, a wide range of international and
national actors rushed in to address the immediate relief and recovery challenges. The
devastating consequences of July war required the immediate intervention of a number of
stakeholders: governmental and non-governmental organizations, UN agencies, donor
countries, local authorities, etc.

   3.7-    The Governmental Organizations:

Governmental Organizations involved in the reconstruction of the housing sector in
Southern Lebanon are: The Prime Minister Office, The High Relief Council and the
Council of the South.

   d- The Prime Minister Office
The Prime Minister Office is involved in the compensation procedures. Its role is to:
   - Receive and register the compensation request form
   - Transmit the form to the designated consultant for verification (Khatib & Alami).
   - Issue payment orders.




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   e- The High Relief Council
The High relief Council responsibility is to:
   - Send checks with payment orders to CoS in order to be delivered to the
      beneficiaries according to the mechanism adopted.

    f- The Council of the South
As soon as hostilities stopped, the CoS was in charge of undertaking the damage
assessment. With respect to the disbursement of housing compensation, the CoS role is
to:
    - Provide and receive the filled in compensation forms.
    - Set the compensations amount for each beneficiary
    - Send certified copies of the completed files to the presidency of the Council of the
       Ministers.
    - Hand over checks to the beneficiaries
    - Send back the original payment order to Presidency of the Council of Ministers
    - Keep the original commitment and a copy of the payment order.
    - Send report to Presidency of the Council of Ministers.
    - Follow up the second disbursement.

Furthermore, the CoS assumes responsibilities in the shelter working group. The CoS:
   - Co-chairs the cluster meeting.
   - Provides update information on compensations.
   - Assists in developing the cluster strategy
   - Orients the NGOs towards unserved villages and towns.

   3.8- Private Consulting Firm: Khatib & Alami
The consulting office of Khatib & Alami was appointed by the prime minister office in
order to handle the following responsibilities:
   - Verify and audit damage assessment and return the file to the presidency of
        Council of minister in order to issue the payment order.
   - Report to the Prime Minister Office, through on-site verification, on the use of the
        first payment by relevant beneficiaries.

    3.9- UN: UN-HABITAT
UN-HABITAT plays a key role in the shelter sector reconstruction process. In addition to
co-chairing with the CoS weekly shelter cluster meetings, focusing on coordinating the
various interventions undertaken by the implementing agencies, UN-HABITAT is
carrying out, in cooperation with a number of partners, two main shelter reconstruction
projects in Southern Lebanon targeting not less than 5,000 families.




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   3.10- Donor Countries
Eleven donor countries and one private company adopted 139 out of 250 villages in
South Lebanon. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) adopted 90 villages while Kuwait
adopted 25 villages.

Donor countries contribution is not reduced to the shelter sector. For example, United
Arab Emirates have undertaken to rebuild affected mosques, churches and schools all
over Lebanon. This action is complementary to the housing reconstruction since it
contributes to the sustainability of the reconstruction.
Most of the adopting countries intervene in the compensation process through the GoL
who emits the payments through the above mentioned mechanism.

However, Qatar, Kuwait and Syria have different approaches:
   Qatar pays directly to the beneficiaries in three installments 25%-50%-25%
     regardless of the GoL payment mechanism. It is worth mentioning that Qatar, has
     undertaken to rebuild all public facilities, public and private schools, religious
     institutions, in addition to paying indemnities to the inhabitants of the mostly
     damaged villages in South Lebanon: Bint Jbeil, Khiam, Aynata and Aita al-Shaab.

      Kuwait intervenes in the compensation disbursement through the Kuwait Fund for
       Arabic and Economic Development. Beneficiaries receive emitted checks by the
       KFAED through the GoL. Indemnities are paid according the GoL payment
       mechanism. In addition to contributing to housing reconstruction in Southern
       Lebanon, KFAED intervened in the infrastructure rehabilitation all over Lebanon.

      Syria also has a different approach. Payment is done directly to contractors who
       are in charge of constructing totally destroyed houses after completing the design
       of the house.

Table#3: Distribution of Donor Countries
     Adopting Countries           Number of Villages               Contribution
Bahrain                                                  1                    3,315,504
Egypt                                                    3                    4,778,594
Indonesia                                                2                    1,068,096
Iraq                                                     4                  21,678,538
Jordan                                                   5                    8,628,196
Kuwait (Private)                                         2                    11544471
KSA                                                     90                 307,951,133
Kuwait                                                  25                 116,163,543
Qatar                                                    4                  25,668,564
Syria                                                    2                 149,981,620
Oman                                                     1                  18,755,624
Yemen                                                    1                    1,559,732
Total                                                  140                 671,093,615
                                                                               Source CoS



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    3.11- Local Authorities
In the aftermath of July war 2006, local authorities were called to play a major role in the
planning of the reconstruction process. They are engaged in assisting affected
communities in the reconstruction process of their totally destroyed houses, mainly the
emission of reconstruction permits. Moreover, in order to enhance the reconstruction
process, local authorities have exempted taxpayer from municipal taxes. It is worth
mentioning that several obstacles hindered the active engagement of local authorities in
the sound planning of the reconstruction at the local level, mainly: weak capacities and
know how, absence of human resources and lack of financial resources.

   3.12- Non Governmental Organizations

   h- Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
The Norwegian Refugee council (NRC) is an independent, non-governmental
organization that provides humanitarian assistance to refugees and Internally Displaced
Persons (IDPs). It has been operating in Lebanon since July 2006 war. NRC shelter
program in southern Lebanon is targeting the most vulnerable families and aims to
contribute to improving their living conditions.

   i- ACTED
Acted is an international NGO. It began its activities in Lebanon in the aftermath of July
2006 war. ACTED launched in March 2007 an OFDA funded project focusing on
waterproofing treatment. The agency is a partner with UN-HABITAT project “Good
Governance for enhanced Post-War Reconstruction”.

   j- National NGOs: Beit bil Jnoub(BBJ)

Beit bil Jnoub is a national NGO made of a team of volunteers (citizens and AUB alumni
and students). The organization was established to provide design technical support to
municipalities and families in order to ensure the sustainable rebuilding of rural homes in
the aftermath the July 2006 war.

    k- Danish Refugee Council (DRC)
The Danish Refugee Council is an independent humanitarian organization whose aim is
to protect refugees through relief work, documentation, counseling, integration, etc. The
agency implemented a winterization/cash for repair program in the aftermath of the
conflict. DRC is currently partnering with UN-HABITAT project “Mobile Units for
Shelter Reconstruction”.

     l- Habitat for Humanity Lebanon (HFHL)
Habitat for Humanity Lebanon is an international NGO founded in Lebanon in 2001. Its
first aim is to provide the means for families whose houses were damaged or destroyed to
get back to their homes and villages. The second goal is to solidify peace and civil
society.




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Working in partnership with volunteers, mosques, churches and organizations, HFHL
focuses on building simple, decent, healthy, affordable houses for Lebanese families in
need. So far, HFHL has served over 2,800 Beneficiaries across South Lebanon

   m- Japanese Emergency NGO (JEN)
JEN entered Lebanon after the ceasefire. Based on the emergency needs assessment, JEN
implemented two projects in South Lebanon: hygiene and tools kits distribution.

    n- Jihad el Bina
Jihad el Bina is a national NGO very active in south Lebanon. It plays a key role in the
shelter relief phase through:
    - Removing rubbles and debris and opening the roads and new accesses
    - Realizing a damage assessment.
    - Paying a US$ 10,000 compensation for totally destroyed houses in order to allow
        the inhabitants to rent out an apartment (US$2,000) and buy new furniture
        (US$8,000)
    - Paying a US$2000 compensation for the second year accommodation in case the
        permanent house has not been achieved yet.
    - Compensating households whose living space is superior to 200m2. Jihad el Bina
        indemnifies additional square meters.

   8- Shelter Response Projects:
4.7 UN-HABITAT Projects

4.2.2 Good Governance For Enhanced Post War Reconstruction
The project is spread over two years and is co-financed with a budget of €1.300.000 by
the Dutch (€800.000) and Cypriot (€500.000) governments.

The project was designed to respond to the immediate assistance for shelter recovery and
reconstruction in Southern Lebanon while laying the foundation for the long-term
sustainable reconstruction and development in Lebanon. The project strategy entailed the
establishment of Regional Technical Offices (RTOs) to serve the three unions of
municipalities of Tyre, Jabal Aamel and Bint Jbeil. The project is implemented in
partnership with ACTED, Beit Bil Janoub and the American University of Beirut. The
two NGOs are in charge of establishing and managing the three RTOs set up in the
municipalities of Tyre (Beit Bil Janoub), Taibe and Aitaroun (ACTED). The three RTOs
provide the following services covering 21 villages:
            Assistance for housing reconstruction.
            Monitoring and documentation of reconstruction
            Better information for municipalities: Geographic Information System
               Services.
            Improved municipal services
            Financing local community projects.
            Capacity building.




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The AUB is responsible of standardization and institutionalization of RTO operation.

                                                            Villages and Towns under
   Villages and Twons under ACTED management                      Beit Bil Janoub
                                                                    management
         Taibe RTO                   Aitaroun RTO                    Tyre RTO
  Union of Municipalities       Union of Municipalities       Union of Municipalities
        Jabal Aamel                   of Bint Jbeil                    of Tyre
Qantara                       Aitaroun                      Jbal el Botom
Aadchit Al Qsair              Braachit                      Zabqine
Markaba                       Rchaf                         Kleile
Qabrikha                      Kounine                       Tair Harfa
Taibe                         Taire                         Chamaa
Rabb Talatine                 Maroun er Ras                 Jebbain
Majdil Silim                  Ainata                        Majdelzoun



Until December 2007, the three RTOs have provided direct reconstruction assistance to
450 families.

4.2.2 Mobile units for shelter Reconstruction in Southern Lebanon
This project is implemented by UN-HABITAT in cooperation with DRC and funded by
ECHO (€400.000). It is spread over a period of six months. The objective of the project
was to respond to the massive destruction of housing units in Southern Lebanon and
Bekaa by providing reconstruction technical assistance for affected families whose
houses were totally destroyed. The uniqueness of the project lies in the mobile approach
UN-HABITAT has conceived in order to respond efficiently to the significant number of
totally destroyed houses in southern Lebanon and Bekaa. Three mobile reconstruction
units (vans converted into mobile offices) are outfitted with necessary technical
equipment and staffed by engineers, surveyors and architects to provide immediate
reconstruction assistance to affected homeowners.




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Table #5: DRC Activities in South Lebanon
Caza                        Villages                          Number of beneficiaries
Nabatieh                    Zawtar el Gharbieh                                            6
                            Harouf                                                       16
                            Qalaway                                                       2
Bint Jbeil                  Froun                                                        46
                            Kafra                                                        22
                            Beit Lif                                                     42
                            Chihine                                                      16
                            Yarine                                                       56
Tyre                        Al Boustane                                                  37
                            Majdel Zoun                                                  18
                            Baflay                                                       44
Total Number of Beneficiaries                                                           305
                                                   Source: DRC progress Report December 2007
4.8 NRC projects:

Since the end of the war, NRC implemented two shelter programs focusing on
waterproofing treatments.

4.2.2 Rapid Shelter Rehabilitation Project (September 2006-April 2007)
This project was co-funded by the European Commission Humanitarian Aid (ECHO)
with a budget of 1.8 million Euros and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)
with a budget of 615,000 Euros. It was spread over 7 months and focused on the
rehabilitation of housing units that required minor or more substantial repairs in order to
ensure that war affected families would have a habitable house for winter.

About 1,000 families in ten villages benefited from this project in southern Lebanon:
Yohmor, Adchit, Toul, Zawtar Gharbieh, Zawtar Sharqieh, Nabatieh Fawqa, Insar, Safat,
Rab Talatin, Kfarseer.

4.2.2 Roof Waterproofing project
Funded by ECHO with a budget of 2.8 million Euros, this project, initiated in April 2007
to repair damaged roofs, is covering Southern Lebanon and targets the most vulnerable
families in the area. It is expected to benefit about 8,500 people in 41 villages in Tyre,
Bint Jbeil and Marjeyoun.

In 2008, NRC will launch a new project for the waterproofing funded by ECHO. It
focuses on rehabilitating 350 additional houses (waterproofing) between January 2008
and June 2007.

NRC is operating in partnership with municipalities; actually, activities for both projects
are concentrated in 47 villages. The work is undertaken directly by the beneficiaries and
by national contractors.




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Table#6: Distribution of NRC Activities in South Lebanon
               Caza                         Number of Villages
Tyre                                                                  33
Nabatieh                                                               8
Marjeyoun                                                              4
Bint Jbeil                                                             2
Total                                                                 47
                                                              Source: NRC
The total number of houses rehabilitated in both first and second phases of both projects
and projected for the third phase is 2700.

Table #7: Distribution of beneficiaries on the projects phases
               Phase                         Number of Houses
First Phase                                                         164
Second Phase                                                        836
Third Phase                                                       1,700
Total                                                             2,700
                                                              Source: NRC




4.9 ACTED Projects

4.9.1 Shelter repair and Waterproofing (March 2007 – December 2007)
Funded by the office of the United States Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) with a
budget of US$ 1,000,000, the project covers 9 villages in Marjeyoun and Bint Jbeil Cazas
and aims to improve living conditions of vulnerable families by firstly repairing war
direct damage: holes, cracks, doors, ceilings, etc., secondly undertaking waterproofing
works. The total number of beneficiaries was 2,000 individuals (400 families) spread
over 9 villages.




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Table #8: Shelter repair and waterproofing activities in South Lebanon
        Cazas                Villages           Number of             Budget USD
                                                Households
                       Qabrikha                               31                56,021

                       Deir Siriane                           38                78,451

                       Aachit Al Qsair                        26                47,359
       Marjeyoun
                       Tallouse                               18                32,231

                       Majdal Silim                          115               189,963

                       Froun                                  52                96,388

                       Ghandouriye                            27                44,846
       Bint Jbeil
                       Qalaouiye                              52                72,297

                       Borj Qalaouiye                         47                74,280

         Total         9 villages                            406               691,836

                                                                          Source: ACTED

4.10    Beit bil Jnoub Projects:

4.10.1 Design support for rebuilding homes in South Lebanon
The project focuses on providing design technical support to municipalities and families
in order to ensure sustainable rebuilding of rural homes in the aftermath the July 2006.

Using IT technology and working with municipalities and local inhabitants the BBJ
project has two objectives:
       To ensure that affected families receive the necessary architectural designs for
rebuilding their houses to acceptable spatial, health and safety standards.
       To provide each family with the estimated cost for rebuilding and secure
necessary building permits from the municipality.

4.11    HFHL Projects:

HFHL has undertaken two projects related to shelter, funded by USAID, Emily Anton
Memorial Foundation (US), Bible Land Foundation (UK) and Citigroup (Lebanon).




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4.11.1 Shelter Related Intervention
The project encompasses two programs: The repair program and the Core Home
program.
The repair program covered 2,391 beneficiaries in the following villages: Abbaseye,
Qaouzah, and Qana.
The core home covered 397 houses in Beit Yahoun, El-Tiri, Kounine, Yaroun,
Majdelzoun, rechkananay and Sidiqine.

Table #9: HFHL Intervention in core home
Village                        Compensations                 Number of Core homes
Beit Yahoun                                        130,063                             48
El-Tiri                                            113,476                             51
Kounine                                            139,385                             60
Yaroun                                             126,575                             55
Majdelzoun                                          62,459                             16
Rechkananay                                         38,310                             10
Sidiqine                                           468,871                            157
Total                                            1,079,139                            397
                                                                             Source: HFHL

4.11.2 Technical Shelter Assistance
This project is located in Siddiqine and Bint Jbeil towns and has almost the same goals of
the RTO. It consists in providing technical assistance for both the citizens, through
architectural and civil plans, and municipalities, through improving the municipal
response planning.




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4.12    JEN Projects:

4.12.1 Distribution of Hygiene Kits
Following to the deterioration of hygiene conditions, JEN decided to distribute hygien
kits for vulnerable people whose house were totally destroyed and who had to live in
temporary houses. JEN improved hygiene about 1248 returnees in 208 households.
4.13 Location: 5 villages in Nabatieh September 2006

Table#10: Distribution of hygiene kits
                        Number of                                Number of Hygiene
 Village Name                               Damaged Houses
                        Households                                Kits distributed
Mhaibib                              180                   101                     23

Markaba                            1,700                   660                     53

Taybe                              2,200                 1,150                     65

Debbine                              800                   287                     36

Kfar Chouba                        1,200                   920                     31

Total                              6,080                 3,118                    208
                                                                           Source: JEN
4.6.2 Distribution of Tool Kits for Debris Clearance

JEN distributed Tool Kits for debris clearance in 38 villages through the Tool Kits
Management Committee.




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Table #11: Distribution of Tool Kits
       Village Name    Number of Basic Tool Kits   Target Households
Mhaibib                                        8                     101
Taybe                                        10                    1,150
Debbine                                        9                     287
Kfar Kila                                      8                     350
Khiam                                        24                    1,250
Aadchit el Qsair                             11                      109
Qantara                                      15                      125
Borj Qalaway                                 10                      107
Blida                                        10                      287
Maroun er Ras                                20                      203
Yaroun                                       15                      150
Hanine                                       15                      180
Aita ach Chaab                               30                      907
Beit lif                                     10                      107
Kafra                                        10                       20
Hadatha                                      12                      165
Kounine                                      10                       75
Beit Yahoun                                  12                      120
Aalma ach Chaab                              10                      145
Zalloutiye                                   10                      108
Marouahine                                   15                      230
Tair Harfa                                   15                      234
Baflay                                       10                      109
Debal                                        10                       96
Mjadel                                       10                       80
Chhabieh                                     10                      100
Safad el Battikh                             12                      105
Jmaijime                                     15                       95
Majdel Silim                                 20                      203
Hannaouiye                                   10                       18
Deir Aamess                                  11                      119
Jbal el Botom                                10                       86
Qaaqaaait ej jisr                              8                      10
Zaoutar el Gharbiye                          15                       82
Beni Haiyane                                 10                       18
Toura                                        15                      147
Halloussiye                                  10                       82
Maaroub                                      20                      480
Total                                       485                    8,240
                                                                Source JEN




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Section II:

   1- Challenges and Gaps:
Southern Lebanon, emerging from the violent July 2006 war, is facing the vast challenges
of reconstructing its housing sector according to its needs. The reconstruction plan urgent
target was to ensure a prompt return of the displaced population to their towns and
villages.

In fact, sustainable post-war recovery and reconstruction are complex challenges for the
state and the society. They constitute the major goals to be reached when a series of
specific challenges have been met. The most critical key challenges and gaps, detailed
below, constitute major constraints that are hindering the shelter reconstruction
sustainability and results optimization.

a. Financial Obstacles: Delays in the compensation disbursements, due to the long
administrative procedures especially at the auditing stage, represent financial and
operational obstacles that slow down the reconstruction process. The lack of financial
means constrains citizens from achieving the construction works, and, therefore, prevents
them from returning back to their homes. This situation contributes to worsening the
crisis in the shelter sector by aggravating the social conditions.

b. Legal Obstacles: The Absence of reconstruction regulatory framework constitutes a
major bottleneck to shelter recovery in South Lebanon. In fact, except the decree issued
by the Ministry of Interior that allowed municipalities to give rebuilding permits
according to the building code, the GoL did not issue new laws to manage and control the
reconstruction operation. This measure put more pressure on the municipalities that are
not in a position to plan, monitor and control the reconstruction process since they lack of
technical and financial tools. Moreover, the General Directorate of Urban Planning that is
supposed to assume these responsibilities does not play any significant role in this phase.

c. Technical Obstacles: Technical obstacles are divided in two categories:
Lack of proper urban planning rules and regulations: Most of the villages in South
Lebanon are not surveyed. In this context, the urban planning rules and regulations as
well as zoning are not applied which explain the chaotic situation in those areas
especially in the heavily damaged villages. It is worth noting that the Ministry of Finance
has started in year 2000 small villages in South Lebanon while large villages where not
covered due to the scarcity of financial resources.

Inaccurate documentation of housing: The lack of accurate data on housing has caused
crucial problems in determining and verifying the size, location and ownership of totally
destroyed houses prior to this disaster. It is worth knowing that the president of Siddiqine
municipality mentioned that some totally destroyed houses were not listed in the damage
assessment and, owners of those households have not received any compensation and
therefore could not start yet their shelter reconstruction.



                                                                                         22
d. Management Obstacles: The absence of a defined plan, targeting all the
reconstruction aspects and the poor community awareness and know how to manage the
reconstruction process, put more strains on individuals who lack the necessary awareness
and technical expertise to manage their destroyed homes rebuilding. People face financial
as well as technical problems.

e. Governance obstacles: Weaknesses in the reconstruction process performance are
related to governance issues. Governance challenges require the continued search for
peace, security and political stability, transparency, decentralization, equity, participation,
reform in the local development strategies etc.

f. Socio-Economic Obstacles: The areas hit during the war have always been among
the most deprived and impoverished in the country. The July 2006 war worsened the
socio-economic conditions, thus putting more pressure on the various stakeholders and
the southern population. In fact, it increased the unemployment rate due to the destruction
of small and medium businesses (farmers, fishermen, truck drivers, craftsmen, etc.),
widened social gaps through an increase in the poverty rate. The crisis affecting the
economic sector led to a new wave of migration both temporary and permanent.
Therefore, it is urgent to undertake special reconstruction and recovery programs that
tackle local building capacity for poverty eradication and employment generation.




                                                                                            23
   Strategic Fields of Intervention:

Emerging from July 2006 war, the shelter sector recovery plan is facing the complexity
of the reconstruction. In fact, the plan main objective was to meet two categories of
needs: the first category concerns the short term or immediate needs of ensuring a prompt
return of the displaced to their homes, while the second category concerns the long term
needs of ensuring the sustainability of the shelter reconstruction operation. In South
Lebanon, the first goal is being progressively reached, most of the time, regardless the
sustainability goal. Except BBJ project “Design support for rebuilding homes in South
Lebanon” and UN-HABITAT projects entitled “Good Governance for Enhanced Post
War Reconstruction” and “Mobile units for shelter Reconstruction in Southern Lebanon”
that satisfy the long term needs, the second category of needs has not been met yet. Thus,
the fundamental challenge of the sector reconstruction management is how to reconcile
between the short term and long term need in order to bridge the gap between the two
goals and ensure a sustainable reconstruction.

A strategic reconstruction plan should focus on community development in order to
reduce the vicious cycle of dependence upon external resources. Therefore, there is a
need for a new comprehensive vision to manage reconstruction and development efforts.
Stakeholders involved in the process, and mainly the GoL, should define a strategic
reconstruction plan responding to the urgent needs while integrating a long term
developmental strategy that ensure the transition from the disaster towards sustainable
settlements. Integrating the principles of sustainability from the stages of recovery in the
shelter sector can contribute significantly to building foundations for development and
thus, creating viable and less vulnerable communities.

Shelter reconstruction sustainability can be ensured through enhancing quality of life,
economic vitality, social equity, environmental quality, governance. Hence, it is proposed
that the strategic plan should focus on the following fields of intervention: Socio-
economic, urban, environmental, security and governance.

2.1 Socio-Economic Field: Livelihood support

A leading challenge to relief and recovery efforts is the chronic problem of poverty and
unemployment. Hence, special programs, complementary to the reconstruction process,
to alleviate poverty and generate employment must be put in place in order to provide
strong links between relief and development.

In fact, Social conditions in south Lebanon have always been difficult due to economic
problems such as lack of investments, specific economic policies that improve this sector
conditions. South Lebanon has always suffered from poverty, unemployment migration,
etc. Nowadays, the situation is worsening since the socio-economic problems have been
exacerbated by July war. Therefore, a vital local economy is one of the key elements in
sustainable recovery and development in South Lebanon.




                                                                                         24
The area is facing the challenge of putting in propitious conditions to economic growth.
Such economic development would create additional jobs, integrate the young
unemployed population in the local job market and therefore reduce migration
phenomenon, improve their living conditions and the social welfare and finally, achieve
the third millennium goal of eradicating the poverty.

Employment generation programs should be launched, according to peoples’ aspirations,
in order to link relief, development and reconstruction. Promoting sustainable economic
development consists in creating new dynamics inside this sector, by developing already
existing activities or investing in new high added value sectors. These action plans should
tackle mainly the poor and middle classes since they recruit, in addition to the qualified
labor force, unqualified workers that are largely available in the area.

In this context, investments should be oriented towards:
    - Alternative Agriculture: Introduce new products that would generate high returns.
         For example, thyme agriculture could be introduced instead of tobacco which is a
         losing agriculture for both the government and the farmer
    - Organic agriculture
    - Food processing industry: invest in the industrial sector in order to maximize the
         return on investment and avoid unsold harvest stock.
    - Aquaculture in coastal cities: develop the fishing activity and improve fishermen
         conditions.
    - Tourism: Take advantage of the availability places of interest –patrimonial and
         leisure- through highlighting on the patrimonial asset, developing new tourist
         attractions such as ecotourism and linking the Southern tourist sites.

Furthermore, economic action plans should focus on small and medium enterprises and
industries (SME and SMI) and involve women in order to promote gender equality.


2.2 Urban Planning Field:

The urban fabric is anarchic in South Lebanon. Poverty and the increasing demand for
residential lands have led to the use of unsuitable terrains. As a result, many informal
settlements are located in public domains that are not equipped to accommodate such
constructions. This chaotic situation is worsening during the post-crisis period since the
GoL reconstruction plan authorized the municipalities to deliver the reconstruction
permits without the approval of the DGU.

Hence, interventions in the urban planning field should include the following:
      Managing the urbanization and avoiding the proliferation of informal settlements.
      Integration of the informal settlements through the renovation of the urban fabric.
       This operation includes revision of the building conditions, cleaning-up the
       unhealthy districts and the facades renovation. That would be the case of lots of
       popular districts in the South located in public domains.




                                                                                        25
      Surveying the villages that were not included in the ministry of finance plan. It is
       worth mentioning that Taybe village and Bint Jbeil city have proceeded with this
       operation.
      Highlighting the identity of historical cities by preserving its urban fabric. For
       example, the municipality of Bint Jbeil did not start the reconstruction operations
       in the city centre before ensuring the conservation of the village historical cachet.
      Protecting and preserving the agricultural areas as they constitute an asset for the
       area of study.
      Solving the squatted public domain problems without creating a new social crisis.
       This could be done through a leasing agreement, for a small monthly sum
       between municipalities or the concerned public authority and the citizens.

As per visited municipalities’ request, it is also important to start:
      Extending the UN-HABITAT project Good Governance for Enhanced Post War
       Reconstruction to cover other villages that were severely destroyed. HFHL could
       also contribute with a similar project.
      Extending the waterproofing projects implemented by NRC and ACTED to cover
       all remaining villages.

2.3 Environmental Field:

The environmental degradation is accelerated and put South Lebanon at danger of loosing
its potential sectors characterizing its territory: agriculture and tourism. A poor
management of the natural resources such as water, agricultural lands, coast, etc. could
compromise the economic development, the quality of life, the social stability and
consequently the shelter reconstruction sustainability.

Therefore, there is an emergency to have recourse to:

      Protecting the agricultural plain from urban expansion and soil degradation -
       because of using pesticides.
      Protecting spring and underground water and littoral from pollution due to septic
       tanks, by equipping each UoM by waste water plant. Khiam suffers from spring
       water pollution.
      Fighting against soil degradation through reducing the agriculture pressure and
       the vulnerability against fire and inundations.
      Implementing a solid waste management plan in order to reduce the volume of
       household, industrial, etc. waste.


2.4 The Governance and Security Fields:

Simply integrating reconstruction and development could not be sufficient to address the
challenges that are facing the reconstruction plan. The principles of good governance,
equity, efficiency, transparency, civic engagement and security are key elements for
sustainable development and crisis mitigation and management. Empowerment of



                                                                                         26
governance actors such as community organizations and NGOs is important because they
can play an active role in planning and implementing policies for risk reduction and
sustainable recovery strategies. To do so, it is essential to address the issues at their roots.

In order to ensure an efficient, transparent, comprehensive and sustainable reconstruction
process, it is necessary to reinforce public institutions. These institutions should work in
synergy among themselves as well as with concerned civic institutions and local
authorities. For instance, the General Directorate for Urban Planning should intervene to
plan and coordinate with relevant institutions and local authorities the shelter
reconstruction.

Good governance could be reached through developing local governments capacities as
active partners in the reconstruction process. Thus, Local governments should become
development agents that participate to the planning in order ensure the reconstruction
sustainability. In addition, municipalities should set a municipal audit in order to evaluate
the outcome of the action plans. The municipal audit reinforce the role of the existing
structure while allowing local representative and specialized teams established within the
municipalities to monitor and manage the sustainability of the reconstruction operation.
Moreover, it is important to ensure all actors involvement, women in particular, in all
planning and implementation activities.

Decision-makers, the GoL and municipalities can contribute to the targets optimization
through the following initiatives:
    - Promotion of subsidized micro-credit policies
    - Reform inside Lebanese fiscal and financial systems in order to enhance the
       development
    - Mobilization of donor and partner countries
    - Implication of repatriated capitals in the development strategies while stimulating
       their reinvestment in productive sectors.

Security conditions in South Lebanon represent a major threat to the sustainability of
rebuilt houses. In fact, unexploded cluster bombs constitute a great danger to citizens’
life. In addition, the risk of another war may affect this sustainability as well.

Conclusion:
Shelter sector in South Lebanon is facing major challenges and obstacles. Its
reconstruction could never be sustainable without a strategic reconstruction plan
promoting governance, while focusing on socio-economic development, environmental
protection and urban expansion management.

To conclude, it is important to take advantage from the crisis and make from the disaster
an opportunity to address preexisting issues. Thus, recovery phases could be a chance to
revisit past practices and try correcting them in order to reach sustainable shelter
reconstruction.




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