A_P Cat Dissection Lab

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A_P Cat Dissection Lab Powered By Docstoc
					Names: _______________________________________ Date: ____________ Bell: ____

                            Anatomy & Physiology
                             Cat Dissection Lab
Work together in your group. Decide within your group what jobs each member has. All
are responsible for learning the different anatomical features of the cat. Please make the
effort to keep your work space tidy, your instruments clean, & work together during lab
class periods.

Cat Storage: Store the cat double bagged & tied. Wet paper toweling should be
wrapped around the cat. Place in a cooler for overnight storage. Put a masking tape ID
for your group and bell on the outside of the outer bag.

►► When you see these symbols pay attention – they indicate what you have to do.
Be able to identify the structures you are directed to find.

Procedure:
      1. Obtain the lab manual for the cat.
      2. Read: Introduction: The Cat & Man, pg 1-2
      3. Read: Anatomical Terminology, pg 3-4
►►          Know terms
      4. Read: External Features; pg 5-8
►►          Be able to identify the external features of the cat
►►          Our cat is a Male or Female: __________________
►►          How do you know this?



        5. Read: The Skeleton, pg 9-15
►►             Know difference between the cat & human
►►             Know cat & human dental formula
►►             Note similarity between cat & human skeleton
        6. Read: General Dissection Hints, pg 16
►►             Remember to use dissection tools properly; tools are sharp
►►             If you cut yourself, TELL ME IMMEDIATELY!
               Use gloves & yellow apron cover-up to protect hands & clothing
               Use the spray bottle to keep cat moist – especially overnight
               CLEAN & PROPERLY STORE ALL INSTRUMENTS WHEN
FINISHED EACH DAY!
        7. Read: Muscular System, An Overview, pg 17
►►             Understand terms
        8. Read: Beginning Dissection, pg 18-19 & FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS!
►►             Read & follow directions carefully. Use the towels covered with
plastic to place the cat upon; the dissection trays are not large enough to use
►►             The cat will be skinned when you have completed these instructions.


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►►              Pages 21 – 34 offer discussions of the many muscles. Once skinned,
proceed through these pages; find & know the muscles described on your specimen
►►              Pages 36 – 37 Complete #1-20. Submit this for a grade. Find the quiz
at the end of the packet.
        9. Continue through the lab manual directions on pages 38 to 67.
►►              Complete # 1-20 on page 45-46. The quiz sheet is at the end of the
packet. Submit for a grade.
►►              Complete Self-Quiz I pages 70-71. Submit for a grade. Find the
sheets at the end of the packet.
        10. Read: The Salivary Glands, pg 72-73
►►              Follow the directions to find the parotid gland, submaxillary gland,
sublingual gland, molar gland, & infraorbital gland.
        11. Read: The Oral Cavity, pg 74-75
►►              Follow the directions to expose the oral structures. Compare to
diagram on page 75 & photo on page 76.
►►              When ready, complete the Self-Quiz II, The Oral Cavity. Submit for
a grade. As before, you may submit as a group or individually.
        12. Now you are ready to open the abdominal cavity of the cat. Read: The
            Abdominal Cavity, pg 79-85. Follow the instructions and pay attention to the
            diagrams. Make sure you can identify these structures in your specimen.
►►              Take the Self-Quiz III (pages 86-87). Submit for a grade. Find the
quiz at the end of this packet.
        13. Read: The Thoracic Cavity, pg 88-90. Follow the instructions for opening &
            studying the thoracic cavity.
►►              Take the Self-Quiz IV (pages 91-92). Submit for a grade. Find the
quiz at the end of this packet.
        14. We will not be doing a sheep heart. However, read pages 92-100 to
            familiarize yourself with this most important muscle.
►►              Take the Self-Quiz V (pages 102-103). Submit for a grade. Find the
quiz at the end of this packet. (Note: typo in lab manual, lists this as quiz VI)
        15. Read: Veins – Anterior Region, pg 104-120. Follow the instructions for
            learning about the veins & arteries of the cat.
►►              Take the Self-Quiz VI (pages 121-122). Submit for a grade. Find the
quiz at the end of this packet.
        16. Read: The Urogenital System – Female/Male (pages 123-133). Follow the
            instructions for the sex of the cat you have.
►►              Take the Self-Quiz VII (pages 134-135). Submit for a grade. Find the
quiz at the end of the packet.
        17. This is the conclusion of the cat dissection lab. Discard your cat into the
            plastic bags that have been their storage bags and place into the trash.




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Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                       REVIEW (pages 36-37)
         SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES – ENTIRE BODY, VENTRAL VIEW

Look at the photo of the ventral view of the cat on page 37. At this point you should
have already located, separated, & identified their origins, insertions, & actions.

The photo identifies 20 muscles which you are to identify on the lines below:

   1. __________________________________________________________________
   2. __________________________________________________________________
   3. __________________________________________________________________
   4. __________________________________________________________________
   5. __________________________________________________________________
   6. __________________________________________________________________
   7. __________________________________________________________________
   8. __________________________________________________________________
   9. __________________________________________________________________
   10. __________________________________________________________________
   11. __________________________________________________________________
   12. __________________________________________________________________
   13. __________________________________________________________________
   14. __________________________________________________________________
   15. __________________________________________________________________
   16. __________________________________________________________________
   17. __________________________________________________________________
   18. __________________________________________________________________
   19. __________________________________________________________________
   20. __________________________________________________________________




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Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                       REVIEW (pages 45-46)
          SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES – ENTIRE BODY, DORSAL VIEW

Look at the photo of the dorsal view of the cat on page 46. At this point you should have
already located, separated, & identified their origins, insertions, & actions.

The photo identifies 20 muscles which you are to identify on the lines below:

   1. __________________________________________________________________
   2. __________________________________________________________________
   3. __________________________________________________________________
   4. __________________________________________________________________
   5. __________________________________________________________________
   6. __________________________________________________________________
   7. __________________________________________________________________
   8. __________________________________________________________________
   9. __________________________________________________________________
   10. __________________________________________________________________
   11. __________________________________________________________________
   12. __________________________________________________________________
   13. __________________________________________________________________
   14. __________________________________________________________________
   15. __________________________________________________________________
   16. __________________________________________________________________
   17. __________________________________________________________________
   18. __________________________________________________________________
   19. __________________________________________________________________
   20. __________________________________________________________________




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Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                             SELF-QUIZ I (pages70-71)
                               MUSCULAR SYSTEM

   1. The skin is connected to the muscle layers below by a fibrous connective tissue
      known as


   2. The bone to be moved by a skeletal muscle serves as the ____ for that muscle.
         a. Origin
         b. Insertion
         c. Action
         d. Rotation
   3. Name the muscle hat acts as the antagonist of the biceps brachii.


   4. The ventral and lateral portions of the abdominal wall are composed of 3 layers of
      muscle. Name these in the proper order beginning with the outermost one first.


   5. Name the major superficial muscles of the shoulder and dorsal thoracic areas.


   6. Name the tough connective tissue that ties the gastrocnemius muscle to the
      calcaneous bone.


   7. Name the muscles that raise the ribs; that lower the ribs.


   8. Name the large broad sheet of muscle that originates along the thoracic and
      lumbar vertebrae and inserts upon the humerus.


   9. The sartorius and gracilis are superficial muscles located at the ___.
          a. Head
          b. Chest
          c. Arm
          d. Leg
   10. Define the following terms:
          a. Aponeurosis

          b. Pronation

          c. Flexion



                                            5
       d. Circumduction

       e. Linea alba

       f. Transect

       g. Orbicularis oris

       h. Masseter

       i. Hamstrings

       j. Synergistic

11. Label the features in the attached photograph of the cat.




                                         6
Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                            SELF-QUIZ II (pages70-71)
                               THE ORAL CAVITY

   1. Name the divisions of the pharynx.



   2. Name the 7 passageways that penetrate the pharynx.




   3. Name the 4 different types of papillae found on the surface of the tongue. How
      do they differ?




   4. Name the bones that comprise the hard palate.




   5. Besides the palatine tonsils, what other tonsils do you possess?


   6. The secretions of the salivary glands begin the digestion of ___.
          a. Proteins
          b. Sugars
          c. Starches
          d. Lipids
   7. The esophagus is located ____.
          a. to the right of the trachea
          b. to the left of the trachea
          c. dorsal to the trachea
          d. ventral to the trachea
   8. A major blood vessel is formed just posterior to the submaxillary gland as a result
      of the union of smaller vessels. Name the major blood vessel formed.


   9. Name the cap of cartilage which prevents food from entering the esophagus while
      swallowing.




                                           7
10. Define the following terms:
       a. Dentition

       b. Eustachian tube

       c. Pharynx

       d. Larynx

       e. Naso-pharynx

       f. Frenulum lingueae

       g. Deciduous teeth

       h. Glottis

       i. Stensen’s duct

       j. Wharthon’s duct

11. Label the structures indicated on the photograph.




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Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                            SELF-QUIZ III (pages 86-87)
                             THE ADOMINAL CAVITY

   1. Name the 5 lobes of the liver.



   2. Describe the structures of the greater & lesser omentum.



   3. How do the jejunum & ileum differ?



   4. What is the location & function of the ileocecal valve?



   5. Name the parts of the large intestine beginning at its origin.



   6. How does the location of the adrenal gland differ in the cat and in man?


   7. How is the urinary bladder suspended?


   8. Name the 3 tubular structures that pass through the diaphragm?



   9. Which of the following is not found in the abdominal cavity?
          a. Gall bladder
          b. Kidney
          c. Trachea
          d. Pancreas
   10. Define, identify, & locate the structures listed below:
          a. Esophagus

          b. Duodenum

          c. Jejunum



                                            9
       d. Colon

       e. Fundus

       f. Rugae

       g. Pyloric spinchter

       h. Mesentery

       i. Cystic duct

       j. Common bile duct

11. Label the structures indicated in the attached diagram.




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Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                           SELF-QUIZ IV (pages 91-92)
                            THE THORACIC CAVITY

   1. Name the 7 lobes of the cat lung.



   2. How many pairs of ribs does the cat possess? Man?


   3. What 3 types of vessels are seen when we section the lung?


   4. Describe the structure of the pericardium.



   5. Do the bronchii contain cartilage rings? The bronchioles? The alveoli?



   6. We inhale 20% O2 & 0.04% CO2. What percentage of the exhaled air are O2 &
      CO2?


   7. Name the cartilaginous structures that make up the larynx?


   8. Name the hormones secreted by the thyroid and their functions.




   9. What is the function of the thymus gland?



   10. Define the terms listed below:
          a. Tidal volume

          b. Emphysema

          c. Pneumonia




                                          11
       d. Surfactant

       e. Mediastinum

       f. Phrenic nerve

       g. Hering-Breuer reflex

       h. Negative pressure breathing

       i. Pleurisy

       j. Parathyroid glands

11. Label the structures on the attached diagram.




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Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                            SELF-QUIZ V (pages 102-103)
                                   THE HEART

   1. Name the membranous sac which encloses the heart.


   2. A large gland which extends into the neck region partially covers the heart. Name
      the gland.


   3. Another name for the mitral valve is the ________________________ valve.
   4. Name the valves located at the origin of the aorta.


   5. The first branches of the aorta, located near its base, lead to the ______________
      and are known as the ___________________________ arteries.

   6. Blood returning from the lower portion of the body enters the right atrium of the
      heart through the blood vessel known as the ____________________________.


   7. The flaps of the atrioventricular valves are held in place by the tough fibrous
      __________________________________.

   8. Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the heart at the
         a. Right atrium
         b. Left atrium
         c. Right ventricle
         d. Left ventricle
   9. The right & left ventricles are separated by the ___________________________.

   10. Define each of the terms listed below:
          a. Papillary muscle

          b. Foramen ovale

          c. Endocardium

          d. Coronary thrombosis

          e. Fibrillation

          f. Mitral stenosis




                                           13
       g. Heart murmur

       h. Rheumatic heart

       i. Chordae tendineae

       j. Tachycardia

11. Label the structures indicated in the attached diagram.




                                        14
Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                          SELF-QUIZ VI (pages 102-103)
                              VEINS & ARTERIES

   1. Name the large veins & arteries that carry blood to & from the kidneys.



   2. The jugular veins drain the head of blood. Name the large arteries lying alongside
      the jugulars that carry blood to the head.



   3. Name the 3 major blood vessels that join to from the hepatic portal vein.



   4. Name the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle with blood.



   5. Name the major branches of the brachiocephalic artery.



   6. Name the major branches of the abdominal aorta.



   7. Name the genital arteries of the male and female cat.




   8. Name the major branches of the external iliac arteries.




   9. Name the major veins that empty into the innominate veins.




                                           15
10. For each of the veins named below, tell from what parts of the body they carry
    blood.
       a. Brachiocephalic

       b. Femoral

       c. Intercostals

       d. Greater saphenous

       e. Gastrosplenic

       f. Mesenteric

       g. Brachial

       h. Cephalic

       i. Radial

       j. Phrenic

11. Label the structures indicated on the attached diagram.




                                        16
Name(s): _______________________________________________________________

                         SELF-QUIZ VII (pages 134-135)
                            UROGENITAL SYSTEM

   1. The human fetus develops in its mother’s uterus. In what structure does the cat
      embryo develop?



   2. The vagina & urethra join to form a single duct in the ______.
         a. Female cat
         b. Human female
         c. Both
         d. Neither
   3. The urethra & vas deferens join & exit as a single duct in the ____.
         a. Male cat
         b. Human male
         c. Both
         d. Neither
   4. Name the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.



   5. Name the blood vessels supplying blood to the testes & those that drain the testes.



   6. Name the several membranous coverings of the testes.



   7. What vessels & structures comprise the spermatic cord?



   8. Name the duct that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the
      body.




   9. Besides the testes and penis, name 4 accessory make reproductive structures.




                                           17
10. Define the terms listed below:
       a. Fallopian tubes

       b. Gubernaculums

       c. Prostate

       d. Cowper’s gland

       e. Hernia

       f. Gynecology

       g. Hermaphrodite

       h. Cryptorchidism

       i. Vasectomy

       j. Castration

11. Label the structures indicated on the attached diagram.




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