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					                                   REMEDIES                                              12(b)(7): Failtojoinnec. PartyunderR.19.                                                *Ifcan’t interpleadthentrydismissalunderR.19.
R1ofFRE:only onesystemnow.                                                               Timing of12(b)s– Before Plead:                                                                                         Amending thePleading
Substitutionary– Legalremedy:reasonablesub., usually$.                                   -Canbring all7 inpre-answer.                                                            Responsive: Party’s haveoneamendmentas ofright before responsivepleading. 15(a).
Specific-Equitable remedy: restore whatD has taken.                                      -Waiver: Ifdon’tbring in first responsethenwaive 2-5. 12(g),(h).                        1.Initialcomplaint.
1.Considerations forEquitable: a).Noadequate legalrem. b)Balance interestsofP/D          -Nowaiverof6and7 ifleave outofpre-answer motion. 12(h)(2).                              2.Counterclaim
Sigma Chemical: Enforcingacovenant fortradesecretsand working forcomp. H–                -Ifno pre-answer motion,canbringany ofthe7 inanswer.                                    3.Crossclaim
interests ofCo/PoutweighedD,soPisentitledto permanent injunction.                        -Judge views in light most favorableto nonmoving party.                                 Non-Responsive:where no response is requiredand claimisnot ontrialcalendar, have
2.Pre-Hearing Seizure –DueP.                                                             12(c):Motion forjudgment onpleadings –afterpleadings. Ifadd new info, treat like        20days fromtime youserved. 15(a).
Fuentes:stopped payment onstove. Court orderedreplevin.Held– noexceptionalcirc.          Sum.J underR. 56.                                                                       -Answer
Rule:Except underexceptionalcircs.prehearingseizurew/out noticeandanopp. for                                                    2.Answer:                                        FallBack:canamendby leave ofcourtorwrittenconsent ofopponent.15(a)
hearing is unconstitutional.                                                             8(d):must respond toall allegationsortreatasadmitted.                                   Leave ofCourt:shall be freely givenwhenjustice requires.15(a).
                                                                                         8(b)– DefenseResponses:                                                                 JusticeRequires unless:a)Badfaith; b)Unreasonable delay; c)Feudal ;d)Prejudice– no
                                                                                         a. Admit –subjectto11(b)(4)violation.                                                   notice.,pastdiscovery.
                        FINANCINGLITIGATION
                                                                                         b.Deny:Specific orGeneral–subject to 11(b)(4)violation.                                 Response to Amend:within time left fororig. pleadingor10 days fromservice of
Amer.Rule: Partyspayownfees.
                                                                                         Zielinski:PlearnedafterSOLthatshe had wrong P.                                          amend.,whicheveris longer.
Eng.Rule: Loserpays.
                                                                                         H–D failedtobespecific astowhat wasadmit anddenied. Canuse generaldenialbut             Aquaslide:Allowed Dtoamend because No badfaithbyD,no Prejudice: forSOL
54(d):Winnercan move forcosts but notatt. Fees.                                          subjecttoR.11.                                                                          causecourtsaid newDefendantcouldn’tclaimSOL,and veryunfairto makeD defend
Contingency: Spreadcosts.
                                                                                         -NoSOLdefense in light ofmisconduct.                                                    when not hisslide.
CapsonRecovery:Decreaseaccesstojustice butsavesaccessto med.care.
                                                                                         c. Lacksuff. Info.as to thetruthofthe matter-Argue R.11.                                RelationBackDoctrine15(c)(1):amend. isdatedbackto original filing ifSOLstatute
                                                                                         8(c):Affirmative Defenses:                                                              allows;or
                             PLEADING-COMPLAINT                                          1.Mandatory– have toput inpleadingandcan’t bring upafter.                               1. AddClaimorDefense15(c)(2):samet/o issuff. notice.
History:                                                                                 2.Youcanbring it upafter12(b)motionsbecause not pleading.                               Moore:Lackofconsent to malpractice.
1.Equity/Chancery(specific) – injunction;Constructive Trust;RescissionofK;Reform         3.Layman:trespass v.easement.                                                           -H: norelationbackcause nosamet/o = no notice:before andaftersurgery.
K; Accounting; Quiet Title.                                                              -H:excludeeasementdefense because failedtoput in answer.                                -Prej.Cause motionwasafterdiscoveryand undue delay15(a).
2.CL/Legal($andspecific)– Action inreplevin; Ejectment; Writ ofmandamus;                 4.Test:whethertheD intends to rest hisdefense uponsome fact not included in             Bonerb:negligent maintenance+ negligentcounseling.
HabeasCorpus.                                                                            allegations necessarytosupport P’scase.                                                 -H:Noticewas givenbecausebroad to narrow.
3.Pleading usetodet.court.                                                                                                                                                       2. Adding Party15(c)(3):same t/oandw/in120 days fromorig.and:
4. FRE1–Combinedcourts.                                                                                                                                                          a.)Party had noticeas to notprejudice.,andb)kneworshould haveknownthatbut for
                                                                                                                      ETHICSANDRULE -11
5. Functionnow:Noticeand facts.                                                                                                                                                  the mistakewould beD.
                                                                                         Policy:Deterabuse ofdiscovery.
R.3:Lawsuit commencesw/pleading/complaint filing.
                                                                                         GeneralRule: must have reasonablebasis in lawand fact in anysubmission (signed)to
R.7: 1)Complaint = Answer;2)Answer= nadaorcourtordered reply;
                                                                                         thecourt.                                                                                                                    DISCOVERY
3)CounterClaim=Reply; 4)CrossClaim= Answer; 5)3rd -PartyComp =3rd P
                                                                                          Standard:Reasonable lawyerunderthecircumstances.                                       Discovery Conference26(f):assoonas practicalorw/in 21daysbeforesched.conf.
answer.;6)3rd P. A.= nadaorct. ordered.
                                                                                         1.11(b)(1):purpose -harass; unnec.Delay; needless increase incosts.                     -Mustsubmit discoveryplan14daysafterconf. 26(f)(4).
Elements ofPleading -R.8:                                                                2.11(b)(2):warrantedby law, nonfrivolousarguments. 8(a).                                InitialDisclosures 26(a)(1): must providethe followingw/o request
1.8(a)(1)–jurisdiction
                                                                                         Religious Tech:Pbrought frivolousracketeeringclaim.                                     26(a)(1)(A):info. onind. likelyto have info.supportingownclaim.
2.8(a)(2)–short plainstatement.
                                                                                         H– violated 11(b)(2)part $topartyand part to the court.                                 26(a)(1)(B):documentsorcopiesthatsupportownclaim.
Assumption: Factsaretrue.
                                                                                         3.11(b)(3):evidentiarysupport forfactualallegations (orlikelyafterdiscovery).           26(a)(1)(C):evidence forcomputationofdamages.
PeopleDept.:Negligenceagainstcitybut not howwas neg. (form).
                                                                                         Chromatic:10seeds. Clerk found 9 of10 werecorrect. Pamendedcomplaint to7                26(a)(1)(D):insurance.
-Even in form,stillhavetostate facts vitalto complaint.
                                                                                         seeds. H -was reasonable to quickly file theTRO underthe circumstnaces. Was not         26(a)(1)(E): list ofexemptions. Partiescanaddtothis listbut courtscannot. (optout of
-Test: reasonablebasis in facts forallegations. R.11.
                                                                                         reasonable under11(b)(3)to fail to investigate iffacts weretrue- “coincidence..”        initialdisclosures).
-H–pleading insufficient.
                                                                                         4.11(b)(4): Answer:denials based inevidenceorlack ofinf. 8(b)-(c).                      Timing: 14 days after26(f)conference. 26(a)(1).
Haddle:LowerH– becauseprecedantsaid“atwill”was notproperty interest,then no
                                                                                         6.Discovery–doesn’t applyto.                                                            ExpertTestimony 26(a)(2):
claim. H-S.Ct.overruledandsaid“at will” could be propertyinterestthereforpleading
                                                                                         7.Process11(c)(1)(A):                                                                   26(a)(2)(A):Testifying Expert.
wassufficient.                                                                           a.Serveseparate motion–specificconduct. Notw/12bs.                                      26(a)(2)(B):Report fromtestifyingexpert.
-Needsupporting factsand not just legalconclusions.                                      b.SafeHarbor:wait21daysbefore filing. Givestime to fix.                                 26(a)(2)(C):At least 90 daysbefore trialdate.
Swierkiewicz:circuit split onwhetheremploy.discrim.claims must plead aprima facie
                                                                                         8. Liability: Absentexceptionalcircums, firmis liable forpartnes,assoc.andees.          Non-Testifying Experts:notcovered under(a)(2). However,arguably fall under
caseorjustshortplainstatement.
                                                                                         11(c)(1)(A).                                                                            26(a)(1)(A).
-H:don’t havetoprove prima facie inplead itwas justanevidentiarystandard–
                                                                                         9.Court’sInitiative11(c)(1)(B):whenobviousotherpartyis not goingto raise. See           -26(b)(4)(B): implies thatexpert has beendisclosed under(a)(1)(A), howelsewould
sufficient.                                                                              Chromatic.                                                                              opponentknowtoDepos.
-Rule: give fair notice ofclaimandthe grounds onwhich it rests.
                                                                                         -NoSafe Harbor.                                                                         PretrialDisclosures26(a)(3):
McDonalds: P’sdescribed harmindetail andsaidMc. failedto warn.                           -No$damages unless orderis madebefore voluntarydismisorsettle.. 11 (c)(2)(b)            26(a)(3)(A):witnesses
-H: Lawsays have toshowextraordinarily unhealthyso insufficientpleading.                 Sanctions11(c):afternoticeand reasonableopp. to respond, court has discretionto         26(a)(3)(B):Depos.
-Ballardthinks this might be overturned underSwierzowi.
                                                                                         imposesanctiononcounsel, firm, orparty.                                                 26(a)(3)(C):Documentsorexhibits. 30days before trial.
Policy:                                                                                  -Order must describespecificconductthatwarrantedsanctions. 11(c)(3).                    Sanctions:37(c)(1):disallowedto useevidence;payment ofexpenses; 37(b)(2)–
-Insufficient:Efficiency-$ andtime.
                                                                                         -Limted tosuff.icient todeterr. 11(2).                                                  dismissal.
-Discoverywill unravel.                                                                  Religious Tech.:Att. Fees not granted unlesswilldeter. Ct. wantsto remove $ incentive                                SCOPE OFDISCOVERY
-Only need to notify notprove.                                                           forfilingR. 11.                                                                         26(b)(1):relevant toclaimordefense,and forgoodcausethe court mayorderdiscovery
3.8(a)(3)–demand forjudgment forreliefsought.
                                                                                         -Prevail partycan getexpensesand att. fees forthe motion. 11(c)(1)(A).                  ofmatterrelevanttosubj. matter.
                                Exceptionto8(a)-> 9(b):                                  -Violationof11(b)(2): no impose $sanctiononparty. 11(2)(A).                             GoodCause: fishingexpeditionis notsufficient.
1.Fraud orMistake:circumsshallbestated w/ particularity.
                                                                                                                                                                                 1.Motel 6:claimed motive ratherthen general impact theory. Limited hisdiscoveryto
2.Malice, Intent, Knowledge,andConditions ofthe mind = 8(a).                                                                                                                     hisVP.
Olson:P claimed fraudbyD induced himintoearly retirment.                                                             AMENDMENTSRULE -15
-H: failed to beparticular:a.)Detailthestatement;b)Id who madestatement;c.)Where         Joinder ofClaims–R18:
                                                                                         1.Pand D(13(g)cross)canjoin anyoriginalclaim.                                           -Pleadinglimitedscope ofsubject matter.
and when; d)Knowledge offruad..
                                                                                         2. Limited byJuris.andResJudicata.                                                      -Would haveto amend pleading to get goodcauseand makeclaimgeneral. Prob.R.11.
-Reasonforhigherstandard:could tormentdefendantswith punitivedamagesand req.a
                                                                                         CounterClaimJoinder– R13:                                                               Relevance:need not beadmissablejust reasonablycalculatedto leadtoadmissable
lotofdiscovery.
                                                                                         1.Compulsory13(a):same t/oandsubj. matter.                                              evidence.26(b)(1).
Leatherman:civil rights 1983actions. Circuit split astowhethera 1983claimagainsta
                                                                                         2.Permissive 13(b):notsamet/o butsamesubj. matter.                                      1.Blank:Sexdiscrim. Wantspartners andeeswho became partners.
municipality req. 9(b).
                                                                                         Plant::Pclaimed FQ/failure to discloseandD counterclaimed balanceofdebt(state).         -H:relevant toshowpatternand generaldiscrimination.
-H:No hieghtenedstandard. formunicipalities.
                                                                                         -PermissiveCC needsownsource offederaljurisdicitonwhenFQ. CCCdoes not.                  2.Steffan:homo innavy wouldn’t discloseconduct.
-Onlyappliedto municipalities not ind. gov.officials. Checkjurisdictionforindividuals.
                                                                                         -Test: LogicalRelation:same aggregateofoperative facts.                                 -H:Didn’t have to disclosecause irrelevanttoclaim.
                                                                                         -Counter:nexus istoo tenuous.                                                           -Rule:relevance isconfined to the legalframework ofclaim.
                           SERVICEOFPROCESS                                                                                                                                      Exceptions:
                                                                                         -H:CompulsiveCC underlogicalrelation.
Rule4:Give pleadingandsummonsthroughservice.                                                                                                                                     -Privileged.26(b)(1).
                                                                                                                             Joinder ofParties
-Purpose:Notice-WaiverofServiceR.4(d)                                                                                                                                            -Work Product26(b)(3)
                                                                                         Permissive 20(a):Pcanjoin P’sorD’s ifsame t/oorseries(pattern), andcommonQ of
Incentives forWaiver:                                                                                                                                                            -Protective Order26(c):
                                                                                         law orfact
1.4(d)(2),(5):avoid costs.                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementing Disclosures26(e):
                                                                                         -Counter42(b)&20(b):separatecauseprejudiceordelay.
2.4(d)(3)&12(a)(1)(B):ifwaive get60ratherthen20 days toanswer.                                                                                                                   1.Ifcourt orders.26(e).
                                                                                         Mosley:10 discriminationclaimsbased onsex, race, retaliation. H–joinderbecauseall
                                                                                         TitleVIIandseries.                                                                      2.Iflearnnew informaiton. 26(e)(1)
                             PLEADING–ANSWER                                             Compulsory19(12b7)–threesteps:                                                          3.Due30 daysbeforetrial.26(e)(1).
BurdensofPleading:                                                                       1.Necessary19(a)(1)-(2): Pcan’t get relief; absentpartywouldbe harmed;D will be         4.Sanctions under37(c)(1) –deny useofinformation.;payment ofexpenses; (b)(2)-
1.Phasburden under8(a).                                                                  harmed.                                                                                 dismiss;contempt.; default.
2.D has burdenunder8(b) –Defenses 3.D hasburden under8(c): Aff.Def.                      2. Feasible 19(a)? Ifdoesn’t mess upjurisdiction:PJ, SM, Objects toVenue.
Gomez:Pdoes not havetoanticipateanaffirmative defense andshowbadfaith(1983               3.Ifnot feasible, willabsence undermine theclaim. 19(b):
action). H=D hasburdentobringaffirmative defenses under8(c), notP.                       Helzbergs:CD -Lease mallspace. Broke Kand made new lease. Lessorclaimed                                          INTERROGATORIESRULE33
                                 RESPONDING                                              dismiss under12b7 forfailure to join under19. H– notdismissed. Lordswas necessary       1.33(a): no morethen25 wi/o leave.
               1.Pre-AnswerMotionforDismissal under12(b)&(c):                            but not indispensible.                                                                  2.Timing –after26(f). 33(a).
12(b)(1):SMJ –anytime; (b)(2)- PJ; (b)(3)–Venue; (b)(4)-Insufficient Process; (b)(5)-    Third PartyJoinder14(a):Allowsdefendingparty(3rd party plaintiff)tojoinonethat is       3.Scope–26(b)(1). Canask opinionbut not legalconclusions. 33(c).
Insufficient Service;                                                                    liableto itself. Limitedbyjurisdiction–can’t fuck upCD.                                 4.Onlyserveto Parties. 33(a).
12(b)(6):-Failclaimto relief(Combine withR. 8.)                                          Watergate:balconies– couldn’t interpleadcause didn’t higherthe waterproofers. Can       5.Objections (specificity):Repetitive;oppressive; undue burden; undueexpense;
-Ifadded informationtreat like motionforSum.J underR.56.                                 sayitwas himand not me butcan’t interpleadthatparty.                                    protected under26(c);privileged; irrelevant.
6. Answers: mustanswertoall thatwas not objected to.                                                                                                                             Advantages: more efficient; no discovery; arbitratorhas background knowledge;can
Obj.and Answers:                                                                                                       Non-Testifying Expert                                     pickarbitrator; flexible;private notpublic; makeown rules.
-Timing:30daysafterservice. Canbe extendedbycourtorconsent.                             1.Can’tdeposeorinterrogatoryexpertsconsulted unlessshowexceptional                       Cons: Too flexible;difficult to appeal; no day incourt.
-Mustbesignedbyattorney.                                                                circumstances. 26(b)(4)(B).
-Can move forProtective Orderunder26(c).                                                2.Youcanalso get the reportofaDr. forexaminations under35(b). 26(b)(4)(B).                                         SUMMARY JUDGMENT- 56
                                                                                        Thompson:Report wasdiscoverable.                                                         56(c):SJ is rendered ifthere is no genuine issue ofmaterialfact,and movant isentitledto
                                                                                        -Highlyprobativecause oftime.                                                            judgmentasa matteroflaw.
                             DEPOSITIONSRULE30
                                                                                        -Had noother means.                                                                      MaterialFact:relevantandcould affect the outcome. Anderson.
1.Candeposeanyone. 30(a),.
                                                                                        -Dr.could have justbeentreatedas a fact witnessandsopena under45.                        Genuine Issue:partiesdisagree– fact is genuine ifreasonable jurycould returna verdict
-Candeposewi/writtenQs.31(a)(1).
                                                                                        Chiquita:nontestifyingexpert orordinary factwitness.                                     fornonmovingparty. Anderson.
2.NoticeofDepo:timeand place.
                                                                                        -Hired inanticipation= nontestifyingexpert.                                              1.Ifyoufilea 12(b)(6)withaffidavitswillbetreated like SJ.
-Parties:serveall reasonable notice. 30(b)(1).                                          -Exceptional:no because hadplentyoftime and means.
-Non-Parties:subpoena under45(a)(1)(c). 30(a)(1).                                                                                                                                2.Judge views in light most favorable to nonmovingparty.
-Corp:generalnoticeandcorp.picksagent. 30(b)(6).                                                                                                                                 3.Can move basedonpleadingsalone.
3.Timing:after26(f). 30(a)(2)(C).                                                                                     ABUSE OFDISCOVERY                                          4.Timing –D:anytime 56(b); P:20 d.aftercomplaint orafterSJM56(a).
4. Location:CandragapartyanywherebutR45 hastobew/in100 milesofwitness’                  R.26(g)(1):Initialand Pretrial-signatureconfirms reasonable inquiry,complete and         5.Response56(e):onlypersonalknowledgeand if motionissupportedbyextra then
locale. 45(c)(3)((B)(iii)                                                               correct.                                                                                 need to addextra.
3.Inmate -Leave ofCourt.30(a)(2)                                                        R.26(g)(2):Request,Response,orObjection–signatureconfirms reasonable inquiry             6. Limits:courtcannot resolveadisputed fact,weighcredibility.
4. Amount: 10,w/o consent:orleave.                                                      andcorrect and:                                                                          7. BurdenonMovant:doesn’t have to negate just hastopointoutthatPdid not meet
5.No w/oconsent orleave:deposingsomeone morethenonce;orbefore26(f).                     a.Warranted bylaw orgoodfaithargument.                                                   burdentoprove its case.
6.Duration:onedayfor7 hrs. 30d2.                                                        b. not forharass unduedelay; increase incosts.                                           8. Burdenon nonmoving: mustshow thata reasonablejury could find in his favor.
7.No Show:37(d)sanctions -don’t haveconferjust make motion.                             c. not unreasonable orunduelyburdensome./expensive                                       Visser.
8.Objections 30(d)(1): regular;privilege; formofquestion,relevance and30(d)(1)(don’t    Process:upon motionorcourts initiative.                                                  Sanctions underR. 11and 56(g) –still need good faith:expensesandcontempt.
have to answer):privileged; protective order;30(d)(4) motion.                           Sanctions:reasonableexpenses includingattorneyfees.
9.30(d)(4)Motion: unreasonablyannoy’embarrass,oppress.                                                              MotiontoCompel/Sanction – 37                                                             RIGHTTOJURYTRIAL
                                                                                        Fail to InitiallyDisclose under26(a):                                                    Equitable/Chancery–NoJury: Injunctions;Constructive trust;RescissionofK;Reform
                                                                                        Conferin goodfaithandthen motion.to compelandsanction37(a)(2)(A).                        K; Accounting; Quiet Title.
                           RequestsforProductionR.34:
                                                                                        Partial: Fail Depo,Inter, orInspection: Conferin goodfaiththenmotiontocompel.            Legal/CL–Jury:Replevin; ejectment;writ ofmandamus; habeascorpus; $.
1.Cancombine with30(b)(1). 30b5.
                                                                                        37(a)(2)(B).                                                                             Two Prong Test:
2.Non-parties,R. 45sopeana. 34(c).
                                                                                        -Motiongranted= reasonableexpenses formaking motion, att.fees. 37(a)(4)(A).              1.Nature Action: likeequityorlegal?
3.Timing:after26(f).
                                                                                        -Lose motion– pay. 37(a)(4)(B).                                                          2.Remedysought (more important):$oraction?
4.Response:w/in 30days.
                                                                                        -Failto followorder=37(b)(2)santion.                                                     MixofClaims =jurytrial first or7tham. is violated because judgewould bedeterming
5.Scope:in possession,orcontrolofparty– includes matterthat party has influence over.
                                                                                        Complete Failure37(d):                                                                   factsthatjurywould laterbe bound by. Beacon.
34(a).
                                                                                        a.Depo:don’t have to conferjust make motion forsanctions.                                Reality: once youget judgment onliabilitythrough jury,otherclaimswill likelybecome
6.Organization: asordinarilykeptororganizeand label. 34(b).
                                                                                        b.Interr:conferrin goodfaithandthen motion forsanctions.                                 moot.
7.Can move tocompel under37(a).
                                                                                        c.InspectionR34:conferin goodfaithandthen motion forsanctions.
                           RequestsForAdmissions R.36
                                                                                        37(b)(2)Sanctions:barclaims;dismissal; default;contempt.
1.Servewrittenrequest:onParty: limited to truthofany matterw/in26(b)(1).                                                                                                                              JUDGMENT ASMATTEROFLAW
2.Timing:after26(f)conference.                                                                                                                                                   1.DirectedVerdict– before verdict:
3.Response:admit,deny orobjectw/in30daysoradmitted.                                                                  DEFAULTJUDGMENT -55                                         50(a)(1):P mustshowenoughthatareasonable jurycould find in yourfavororcourt
                                                                                        FailuretoPlead(20 or60days12(a)(1)(A)and (B))orDefend. 55(a).                            may grantJML. Look forirrationalconclusions.
                                                                                        55(a):Tellclerkoftechnicalfailure.                                                       Timing:anytime aftera party has been fully heardandbeforesubmission tothe jury.
                       PROTECTIVE ORDERSR. 26(C)
                                                                                        MethodsofJudgment::                                                                      50(a)(1)-(2).
Process:
                                                                                        1. ByClerk under55(b)(1):                                                                View:in light most favorableto nonmoving.
1.Object
                                                                                                          a.Certainsum(need affidavit)                                           Penn RR:3witnesssaw nothing (direct)v.1 witness inferred. Pfailedto meet burdenof
2. Attemptedtoconferin goodfaithwithotherparty.                                                           b.D noappearance.
3.Motionfororder.                                                                                                                                                                persuasion. *Ct.examinedcredibilitywhennotsupposed to.
                                                                                                          c.D hascap.and no minor.                                               7thAmendment: no reasonablejurycould have found foryouanyway,so not taking
4.Discretiontoorderongoodcause.
                                                                                                          d.GetJudgmentandCosts.                                                 awayratherjust moving thingsalong.
5.Reasons:toprotect fromannoyance,embarrassment;oppression; undue burden;
                                                                                        2. ByCourt under55(b)(2):                                                                2.JNOV – RenewJMLafterverdict. 50(b). Have to makeJMLbeforesubmissionto
undueexpense.
                                                                                                          a.Initiallyappearedbut fade.                                           jury.
6.Balance:a. Scope/Relevanceb. Priv. v. valueofevidence
                                                                                                          b. Apply; give 3days notice.                                           Timing: w/in 10 days ofverdict. 50(b).
Stalnaker: motiontoprotectcoworkerssexualconduct.
                                                                                        3.Setting AsideDefault: -forgoodcause under60(b): mistake; new evidence; fruad.          New Trial:back up incase loseJNOv.
-Irrelevant:conduct unconnected.                                                        4.Default is unprofessional.
-Embarrassment> valueofev.                                                                                                                                                       Lindcase:lowercourt granted new trialbased onweight ofevidence. H-judgecan’t put
                                                                                        5.Canapplyto bothPand Djust dependsonwho is defending. 55(a),(d).                        itselfinpositionofjuryandweighevidence.
7. LimitationsonDiscovery forDepos, Interr, Admissions:
                                                                                        Peralta:Whereservicewas improperadefault judgmentwill beset asideevenifclaimis           Groundsfor NewTrial:jury verdict wassoerroneous would be miscarriageofjustice.
-UnreasonablyCumulative.26(b)(2)(i).
                                                                                        meritlessbecauseDueP. is more important.                                                 Consideration is whetherthesubject matterwasw/inordinaryknowledge.
-Obtainable fromothersource that is less burdensome orexpensive. (i).
-Burden>benefit – factor(iii):a)needs ofcase; b)amount incontroversy;c)party’s                                                                                                   AdvantageofNew Trial: canweighevidence unlikeJNOV.
resources;d)imp.ofissues;e.)impact discovery has.                                                                           DISMISSAL                                                                                  Burdens:
                                                                                        Voluntary41(a)(1):1)Pcandismissanytime beforeDanswerormotion forSummary                  1.Production: mustshow enoughthata reasonablejurycould find in yourfavor.
                                                                                        judge.ment, orwithconsent.; 2)Uponcourtorders whenD won’tconsent ifD’s counter           2.Persuasion(afteranswer):hastoshow more likelythan not(preponderance).
                                                                                        claimsurviv independentlyand noprej.                                                     3.Ifeventhen Pfailed to meetburdenandD wins. Reed– Cowcase.
                        PHYSANDMENT EXAMSR.35
                                                                                        Policy:Pcanget it right;encouragessettlement.
Requirements:                                                                           Involuntary41(b):ifPfails to prosecuteorcomplyw/these rules orcourt’sorder=
1.Noticetoallparties. 35(a).                                                                                                                                                                                           Policyforrules
                                                                                        judgmenton merits.                                                                        Encouragesettlement; fairness (evens playing field);efficiency; butstill get dayincourt;
2.Goodcauseand condition incontroversy. 35(a).
                                                                                        Policy: Fairnessandefficiency.
Schlagenhauf:Tractorand Buscollided. H– youcan getexamofnonadverse.                                                                                                                                     discourage frivolous;encouragepreparation.
-IfPbrings injuury thenplead isenough.                                                                                                                                           Efficiency: limited resources; time..
-IfDbrings up thenplead is notenough:balance privacy v. goodcause (sub. need);                                             SETTLEMENT                                            Resolutionand vindication. And day incourt.
affirmativeshowingofneed..                                                              1.Don’t need permission unlessclass action.                                              Justice:combinesefficiencyand fairness/vindication.
-Controversy=centraltothecase.                                                          2.Confidentialityclauses:encouragessettlement but fails to warnpublic.                   Enforcementthroughdeterrence/sanctions.
3.Party’sorincustodyofparty. 35(a).                                                     Kanlinauskas:sexharass– orderedprotectorderforpart ofinformationcovered under
4.Must make motionfor35(a)w/time,place, manner,conditions,andscope.                     conf.Clause. Rule:ifwould create repetitionofanothers discoverythennotprotected.
5.35(b)(1): have to give report uponrequest.                                            -Pros forconfidentiality: encouragessettlement;efficiency(cheaperand faster); helpsD
                                                                                        in futuresuits; eliminates badpublicity.
                                                                                        -Cons forconfidentiality: Failstowarnpublic.
                           WORKPRODUCT R.26(b)(3)                                       3.Courtencouragessettlement under16(a)(5).
Hickmanand 26(b)(3):
                                                                                        4.Policyforsettlement:
1.Generally –ordinary factWPis notavailable ifreasonably available.
                                                                                                                                  ADR
2.Orindary fact WP isdiscoverable ifsubstantial needand undue hardship.
                                                                                        Mediation:negotiationw/ neutral3rd party helps w/ mutual agreement.. Should facilitate
3.Opinionworkproduct is neverdiscoverable.
                                                                                        a mutualagreement.
Requirements:
                                                                                        1.16(a)(5):Judges can’t forcesettlementbut canrequirereasonableefforts.
1.Relevant 26(b)(1).
                                                                                        Lockhart::judgecanorderevena nonpartytoappear.
2. Anticipationoflitigation
                                                                                        Policy forJudgesMediating: Efficiencybyinformedopinionand levelplaying field.
– Hickman(claimdoesn’t havetobe filed.)
                                                                                        Policyagainst:Coerciive; Pdoesn’t get dayin court; biased opinion.
-OrdinaryCourt ofbusiness is not inanticipationoftrial.
                                                                                        2.Sanctions under16(f)– 37(b)(2).
-Attorney: more likely inantic.
                                                                                        Arbitration:parties Kforand make upown rules. Choose arbitrator.
3.DocumentorTangible item.
                                                                                        Ferguson:writerscreditdispute. H– uphold thedecision.
-Hickman:namesaretangible.                                                              -Cts won’tsecond guess the decisionratherjust ifthe processwas fair.
3.Substant needand undue burden.
                                                                                        -Standard:deferencetoarbitratorand only overturnforcorruptprocess.
4.Notopinion.
                                                                                        -Need topreserveclaims duringarbitrationprocess.
5.No justbare bones facts:Eyewitness:couldarguestatementsare justbarebones.             Engalla:Pdiedbeforearbitrationfor malpractice. H– youcanbypass anarbitration
6.Canbeparty,attorney,orotherrep.
                                                                                        agreement ifinduced byfraud(saidwould bespeedy).

				
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