Defining Moments in Christian History

Document Sample
Defining Moments in Christian History Powered By Docstoc
					Defining Moments in
 Christian History
   The Diet of Worms (1521):
   The Protestant Reformation

          October 17, 2004
           Linford Fisher
Western Europe, c. 1525
Martin Luther (1483 – 1545)
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Luther nailing the Ninety-Five Theses to the
    Wittenberg Castle church door, 1517
Luther Nailing Ninety-Five Theses, from 2003
                Movie, Luther
Pope Leo X
Luther burning Pope Leo X’s papal bull, 1520
Luther at the Diet of Worms, 1521
  “Unless I am convinced by the testimony
  of the Scriptures or by clear reason (for I
      do not trust either in the pope or in
  councils alone, since it is well known that
   they have often erred and contradicted
        themselves), I am bound by the
       Scriptures I have quoted and my
  conscience is captive to the Word of God.
   I cannot and I will not retract anything,
     since it is neither safe nor right to go
   against conscience. Here I stand; I can
         do no other. So help me God.”
- Martin Luther, final statement at the Diet of Worms, 1521
“Martin Luther stood here and faced emperor and empire, 1521”
Late-medieval religious life cycle
Erasmus of Rotterdam, Humanist
St. Peter to Pope Julius: “The church was not like this
  when founded by Christ…Paul did not speak of
  the cities he had stormed, the princes he had
  slaughtered, the kings he had incited to war…You
  say the Church is increased when the priests have
  thrown it into tumult. You consider it flourishing
  when drunk with debauchery, tranquil when
  enjoying vices without reproof, and when the grand
  robberies and furious conflicts are justified by the
  princes and doctors as the „defense of the

-Erasmus, from “Julius Exclusus” (1513-1514)
First page from Erasmus’
1516 Greek New Testament
Western Europe, c. 1525
           Luther and Romans 1:17
   Romans 1:17 (NIV): “For in the gospel a righteousness from
    God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last,
    just as it is written: „The righteous will live by faith.‟”

   Luther: Though I lived like as a monk without reproach, I felt
    that I was a sinner before God…I did not love, yes, I hated the
    righteous God who punishes sinners, and secretly…I was angry
    with God…At last, by the mercy of God, meditating day and
    night…I began to understand that the righteousness of God is
    that by which the righteous lives by a gift of God, namely by
    faith. And this is the meaning: the righteousness of God is
    revealed by the gospel, namely, the passive righteousness with
    which merciful God justifies us by faith…Here I felt that I was
    altogether born again and had entered paradise….There a totally
    other face of the entire Scripture showed itself to me.”
                   Protest against Indulgences: Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
1) Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said “Repent,” willed that the whole life of
    believers should be repentance.
6) The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by
    assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved
    to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would
    remain entirely unforgiven.
27) They preach only human doctrines who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the
    money-box, the soul flies out of purgatory.
32) They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure
    of their salvation because they have letters of pardon.
36) Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even
    without letters of pardon.
43) Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better
    work than buying pardons
53) They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent
    in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others.
82) Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of
    the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable
    money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is
    most trivial.
94) Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through
    penalties, deaths, and hell.
Katherine von Bora (Mrs. Luther)
Ulrich Zwingli: Zurich, Switzerland (started reform c. 1520)
    John Calvin: Geneva, Switzerland
(converted 1533; went to Geneva in 1536)
Western Europe, c. 1525
Menno Simons: founder of the Mennonites (1496-1561)
              The English Reformation
Monarch                Religious Allegiance               Dates of reign

Henry VIII             Catholic; against the Pope         1509-1547
Edward VI              Protestant                         1547-1553
Lady Jane Grey         Protestant                         9 days in 1553

Mary Tudor             Catholic; supportive of the Pope   1553-1558

Elizabeth I            Protestant/Anglican                1558-1603
James I                Anglican                           1603-1625
Charles I              Anglican (Catholic leanings)       1625-1645
[Puritan Ascendancy]   Protestant (Puritan)               1645-1660
Charles II             Anglican                           1660-1685
Western Europe, c. 1525
John Wycliffe, (c. 1330-1384): England,
 the “Morning Star” of the Reformation
Pages from John Wycliffe’s English Bible, c. 1380
                 (1 Timothy)
John Huss (c. 1372-1415): Bohemia
Europe, c. 1600
Defining Moments in
 Christian History
    The Diet of Worms (1521):
    The Protestant Reformation

           October 17, 2004
            Linford Fisher

Shared By: