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Paper Prompts: Helping Kids Improve Their Observations, Inferences, and Conclusions
Using visual images on paper manipulatives prompts student thinking as they make and write
observations, inferences, and conclusions in any content area. Take home templates for
designing prompts as well as ready-made samples.

                                    Workshop Agenda
Observations
       Teaching Observation Skills
           o Observation Cards
           o Observation Reference Guides
           o Observation Rubric
       Qualitative and Quantitative
           o T charts
           o Q $ Q strips
           o Color-coding
           o Pictures
           o Who Am I?
           o Observation Scavenger Hunt
       Analogies, Similes, Metaphors
           o Magazine match-up
           o Paint cards

Inferences
       Inference vs Observation
            o Operational definition
            o Daily situations and pictures
            o Penny
            o Boy in the Water
            o Bright Light Story
            o Situation Match-ups
            o Reflections/Using a T chart

Conclusions
       Teaching Strategies
           o Operational definition
           o Focus on Evidence – mysteries
           o Conclusion Cards
           o Conclusion Rubric

Acknowledgement of material used:
Rising to the Challenge of the National science Education Standards, The Processes of Science Inquiry by
Karen Ostlund and Sheryl Mercier, 1996

Science and Children, National Science Teachers Association, January 2001
Observations
All science begins with observation. Students will have no reason to measure, classigy, infer,
predict, etc. unless they have had an opportunity to make observations and reflect upon what
they have observed. Teachers expect students to make quality observations but may not have
taught them how to do it. Productive observations are complete, detailed, accurate statements or
pictures that include both qualitative and quantitative information. Students can learn how to
make more productive observations and at the same time enhance their communication and
thinking skills.

Observation Cards can be used to remind students what to look for while making observations.
The cards on the following pages are designed to be cut apart, laminated (optional) and placed in
baggies or envelopes for students. Suggested uses are:

      Have a bag of cards for each student to use as “thinking prompts” while making
       observations.
      Start with a few cards. Gradually add others as needed or when appropriate for the
       content.
      Tailor a card set to each child’s abilities for differential instruction.
      Enlarge the cards and make them into a Word Wall.
      Sort the cards that relate to observations made with each of the 5 senses.
      Sort the cards that relate to qualitative descriptors. (all except count and measure)
      Sort the cards that relate to quantitative descriptors. (count, measure)
      Use cards to teach and encourage more descriptive vocabulary in observations.
      Number cards on back side. Designate which numbers must be used during observation
       assignments. Not all cards will be applicable in every observation. Use a rubric to
       evaluate (see rubrics).
      Have students plan and organize their writing by first putting the cards in the order they
       plan to use.
      Have students use card sets to check or evaluate a peer’s observation.
      Encourage students to make and add cards of their own to the “set” using the blank
       masters.
Observation Reference Guide
An Observation Reference Guide can be used with older students.

Students spend time at the beginning of the year creating a list of descriptors that becomes a
reference page to use anytime they are making observations during the year.
                         Observation Reference Guide
Qualitative Observations are descriptions using the five senses:




Complete the list with words that could be used while describing pictures, objects, events,
interactions between people, organisms, things, or experiments.

   IT LOOKS …          IT FEELS …         IT SMELLS …         IT SOUNDS …         IT TASTES …

  Bubbly             Rough               Sweet               Loud                Sweet
  Clear              Wet                 Moldy               Squeaky             Spicy
  Upside-down        Padded              Rotten              Rhythmic            Biter
  Pitted             Silky               Burned              Silent              Salty
  Like a cave        Like sandpaper      Like apples         Like a train        Like peppermint
                         Observation Reference Guide
Quantitative Observations are descriptions using the numbers, measurements, and units:




                                                      MEASURE

Complete the list with words that could be used while describing pictures, objects, events,
interactions between people, organisms, things, or experiments.

         MEASURING                       UNIT USED IN                   EXAMPLE(S) USING
   INSTRUMENT OR TOOL                     MEASURING                     NUMBER AND UNIT
  Clock or stopwatch               Second, minute, hour             5.4 seconds, 2 minutes ½ hour
                                                                    2 days, 1 week, 7 months,
  Calendar                         Day, week, month, year
                                                                    40 years
  Sound meter                      Decibels                         3.7 decibels
Observation Rubric                                                Observation Rubric
                                              Self or                                         1
                                                        Teacher                                        2     3      4
Criteria to include in observation   Points    peer               Included in observation   few or
                                                         Check                                       some   most   many
                                              check                                          none
Includes counting                                                 It looks like …
Includes measurement and unit                                     It feels like …
Shape                                                             It sounds like …
Size                                                              It smells like …
Color                                                             It tastes like …
Texture                                                           Things counted
Temperature                                                       Things measured
Light or Dark
Mobile or stationary                                              Total Points
Living or non-living
Natural or synthetic
Type of matter                                                    Observation Rubric
Solubility                                                                                    1
                                                                                                       2     3      4
                                                                  Included in observation   few or
Permeability                                                                                         some   most   many
                                                                                             none
Acidic, basic, or neutral                                         It looks like …
Sound characteristics                                             It feels like …
Odor characteristics                                              It sounds like …
Surface reflection characteristics                                It smells like …
Magnetic or non-magnetic                                          It tastes like …
Conductor/insulator                                               Things counted
                                                                  Things measured


Total points                                                      Total Points
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
The terms Qualitative and Quantitative need to be taught to students and used continually
throughout the year. Use the roots Quality and Quantity to help them see the difference between
these two terms. Primary students can use Using Your Senses and Counting and Measuring as
comparable terms.

Strategies to help students identify and distinguish between qualitative and quantitative
observations are:

      Use the T charts provided (primary and intermediate level) for whole group
       observations.
      Use the Q and Q strips activity, write words on index cards for sorting, or write on
       sentence strips and have students cut them apart.
      Have them visually check for qualitative and quantitative descriptors in their own written
       observations by underlining each type in a different color (red for Qualitative and
       green for Quantitative). This helps them see if they have both kinds in their observation.
      Use the Picture Cards (or anything observable) to have them list or tell 3 quantitative
       and 3 qualitative observations from each picture.
      Use the Who Am I writing assignment and evaluation rubric.
      Use the Observation Scavenger Hunt or a center with fewer objects for primary level.
      Play “I SPY”
Using Your Senses   Counting and Measuring




                                    MEASURE
QUALITATIVE - Describes   QUANTITATIVE – Counts or
                                         measures
L                         N
E                         U
T                         M
T                         B
E                         E
R                         R
S                         S               MEASURE
Cut strips apart. Rotate them among students. They identify which descriptors in the statements
are Qualitative and which descriptors are Quantitative.


The local weather data was kept for 30 days.

The colorful layers of metamorphic rock ranged between 10 and 20 feet
thick.
The seven sedimentary rocks collected were made of fine, sand-sized
particles less than .01 millimeters in diameter.
The ivory lace has a unique scalloped pattern made up of 42 different
stitches.
The violent thunderstorms produced golf ball-sized hail for 30 minutes
over a 12 mile area.
The sugar maple leaves had turned four colors, yellow, red, gold, then
brown.

The bread fungus was a grayish-green and had a musty smell.


The blue box was 12 cm. long, 10 cm wide and 6 cm high.

The expensive wallpaper had maroon and white stripes and came in rolls
that covered 60.3 square feet.
The humid afternoon temperature reached 102 degrees F, while the
evening dipped to a mild 66.
Over 12,000 high school students took the ACT and the average
female’s score was 23 points.
The gusty wind blowing against the 16 foot white sail was recorded at
27 miles per hour at 5 miles away from shore.

The boiling point of fresh water is 100 degrees C, at sea level.
Student Page

Instructions: The underlined words in the story are observations.
As you read the story, highlight the Qualitative observations
with yellow and highlight the Quantitative observations with
blue.
                         The Honeybee

The honeybee is somewhat curled up but appears to be about 9
mm. long. Its three body segments are the head, thorax, and
abdomen. All of its six are attached to the thorax. It has four
wings arranged in two pairs also attached to the thorax on the
topside. Most of the body is a teddy bear brown, but the
abdomen has several parallel bands of darker chocolate brown
on the abdomen segment. The wings are transparent, clear and
paper-thin. The barbs on its legs can be felt easily when I rub
them gently with my fingertips. The biggest things on the head
are the two compound eyes. The freeze-dried bee smells like
something decaying. The motionless bee makes no sound and
weighs about the same as one paper clip.
Teacher Answer Page

The Qualitative observations are italicized and the Quantitative
observations are bold.
                         The Honeybee

The honeybee is somewhat curled up but appears to be about 9
mm. long. Its three body segments are the head, thorax, and
abdomen. All of its six are attached to the thorax. It has four
wings arranged in two pairs also attached to the thorax on the
topside. Most of the body is a teddy bear brown, but the
abdomen has several parallel bands of darker chocolate brown
on the abdomen segment. The wings are transparent, clear and
paper-thin. The barbs on its legs can be felt easily when I rub
them gently with my fingertips. The biggest things on the head
are the two compound eyes. The freeze-dried bee smells like
something decaying. The motionless bee makes no sound and
weighs about the same as one paper clip.
                                      Who Am I?
Think about all the different observations you can make about yourself. Select at least 3
qualitative observations and 3 quantitative observations. In a paragraph use those 6
observations to describe yourself. The teacher may read this paper aloud to the class so do
not put anything in that would embarrass you. This is the rubric the teacher will use to
evaluate your writing. Please check everything yourself before the teacher does!

                                     1=               2=             3=               4=
   Who Am I ? Evaluation
                                 poor quality    fair quality    good quality    best quality
introductory sentence
3 quantitative observations
3 qualitative observations
Variety in writing
Closing sentence
Comments:
Total:
                         Observation Scavenger Hunt
Walk around the room making observations about objects in the room. Record observations that
match the descriptions listed below. The object may be living or non-living. Designate whether
the observation is qualitative or quantitative using an X in the appropriate column in the chart.

Description                                    Object observed        Qualitative    Quantitative
1. something green
2. feels bumpy
3. measures 1 foot
4. smells like cinnamon
5. tastes sweet
6. weight equals 10 paper clips
7. feels gritty
8. buzzes or hums
9. measures 1 centimeter wide
10. makes a popping sound when squeezed




                         Observation Scavenger Hunt
Walk around the room making observations about objects in the room. Record observations that
match the descriptions listed below. The object may be living or non-living. Designate whether
the observation is qualitative or quantitative using an X in the appropriate column in the chart.

Description                                    Object observed        Qualitative    Quantitative
1. something green
2. feels bumpy
3. measures 1 foot
4. smells like cinnamon
5. tastes sweet
6. weight equals 10 paper clips
7. feels gritty
8. buzzes or hums
9. measures 1 centimeter wide
10. makes a popping sound when squeezed
Analogies, Similes, Metaphors
After students have begun to improve their observations, take them to the next level. Use
pictures cut from magazines to stimulate their use of analogies. Using an analogy requires
students to explain their reasoning about the relationship they see. Analogy example: This shell
serves the same function for the oyster as this house in the picture does for people. This requires
more thinking on their part and gives you insight into their level of understanding. For primary
students use wordless picture books or big books by Tana Hobin.

In writing observations students also need to begin using comparison statements to define their
descriptors. Round can mean "round like a ball" or "round like a coin". Red can mean "fire
engine red" or "red as a rose". Using a common reference point when things can't be measured is
also important, Large can mean "as large as my shoe" or "as large as an elephant". By using
similes and metaphors the description becomes more accurate and the writing becomes richer.

Strategies to help teach analogies, similes and metaphors are:

      Find interesting looking pictures in almost any magazine.
      Change pictures often so students will constantly have to look for new connections.
      Have students bring in pictures to add to the "bank" of picture choices.
      Let students use paint sample cards from Home Depot or Lowes as a reference for more
       specific color terms in describing things.
      Using analogies, similes and metaphors is the creative outlet many students need,
      Give points for including analogies, similes and metaphors in observations.
Inferences
Once good observations are underway, the difference between observation and inference can be
taught. Students may be more familiar with the terms "fact" vs "non-fact". These can be used
interchangeably with "observation" vs "inference".

Strategies to help students distinguish between observations and inferences are:

      Have students write their own operational definitions of observations and inferences (see
       examples).
      Discuss observations and inferences that occur daily at school. Encourage students to
       share their observations and inferences orally during the day.
      For all grades, use the Picture Card set. Have students write or tell 3 observations and/or
       3 inferences from each picture.
      For grades 2-3 complete and discuss reasons for choices in the Penny activity.
      For grades 3-4, complete and discuss reasons for choices in BOY in the Water activity.
      For grades 4-5, complete and discuss reasons for choices in Bright Light Story activity.
      For grades 3-5, match up two squares that describe the same event in 5a.uares
      Activity A or 0. Designate which one is the observation and which one is the inference.
       (can be used as an assessment)
      Have students reflect on any investigation or event. What results were observations?
       What results were inferences? How do you know which are which?
  Operational Definitions to guide students in their thinking
                            about
         Observations, Inferences, and Conclusions
Observations
Based upon one or more of your senses, observations are statements about what you see, hear,
taste, smell or feel. Observations may involve using tools such as magnifying lenses and
microscopes, measuring equipment such as rulers or balances, and communication 5ki115 such
as drawing and writing. An observation is an act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence.
To watch carefully, especially with attention to details, for the purpose of arriving at a decision is
an observation.



Inferences
An inference is when you arrive at a conclusion by reasoning from the evidence and interpreting
or explaining what was observed. For example, it is an inference to assume that an insect has
released a dark, sticky liquid from its mouth because it is upset and trying to defend itself.
However, the statement "released a dark, sticky liquid from its mouth" is an observation.
Assuming you know why it happened is an inference. After seeing this event occur many times
when the organism is picked up and held tightly, one may conclude that one of the organism's
defense mechanisms is to release a dark, sticky liquid.



Conclusions
Conclusions are statements that explain why something has occurred based on evidence collected
from several observations. Conclusions explain the result, outcome, or final part of something. A
conclusion is a type of inference in which you have the most confidence after considering all the
observed evidence. Jumping to conclusions occurs when you believe you know why something
has happened without gathering all the evidence or data first.
             Penny Observations vs. Inferences
           (use paper money from math supplies or real coins)




 There is a face of a person              Anyone using the coin
  on one side of the coin.                   trusts in God.

   The people who made                  The face on the coin is an
   the coin love liberty.                  important person.

The words "In God We Trust"
                                            OBSERVATIONS
   are printed on the coin.

   On one side of the coin
                                              INFERENCES
  is a picture of a building.
   The boy is in the water.          The weather is cold.          The tree branch is broken.


                                   A goat is standing by the       The branch will fall on the
 The boy fell off the branch.
                                             pond.                        boy's head.

                                   There is a sailboat in the      The sailboat belongs to the
  The boy fell off the rocks.
                                            water.                            boy.

 The goat will soon leave the    The tree by the pond has no       There are three rocks in the
           pond.                         leaves on it.                        pond.

                                 If it rains leaves will grow on
The tree by the pond is dead.
                                              the tree.            OBSERVATIONS

 If the boy crawled out of the   The goat butted the boy into
water the goat would butt him.            the pond.                 INFERENCES
                               The Bright Light Story
The farmer was crossing the field at dusk when a bright light was sighted in the sky. Upon reaching the
farmhouse, Olson made a telephone call to the sheriff. The farmer grabbed a camera and dashed outdoors
to get pictures. The next day the big news report in the local paper was an alleged UFO sighting.



   1. Olson called the sheriff to report a UFO
                                                         9. The farmer crossed his field at dusk.
      sighting.



   2. The farmer called the sheriff after he             10. The sheriff received a call from a
      sighted a light in the sky.                            farmer who saw a light in the sky.



                                                         11. The story mentions two people: farmer
   3. Olson took pictures of the UFO.
                                                             Olson and the sheriff.



                                                         12. A farmer was crossing the field on his
   4. The farmer took pictures a h r calling
                                                             tractor when a bright light was sighted
      the sheriff.
                                                             in the sky.


                                                         13. The local newspaper reported an
   5. The farmer's report of his UFO sighting
                                                             alleged UFO sighting.
      made the headlines in the local paper.



   6. The local paper reported a UFO
      sighting near the Olson farm.                                TRUE
   7. When Olson took the pictures it was
      dark outside.                                              FALSE
   8. A farmer saw a light in the sky as he
      crossed the field at dusk.
                                                      UNDECIDED
TEACHER PAGE

                   The Bright Light Story Response Key
The farmer was crossing the field at dusk when a bright light was sighted in the sky. Upon reaching the
farmhouse, Olson made a telephone call to the sheriff. The farmer grabbed a camera and dashed outdoors
to get pictures. The next day the big news report in the local paper was an alleged UFO sighting.

 1. Olson called the sheriff to report a UFO         8. A farmer saw a light in the sky as he
    sighting.                                           crossed the field at dusk.
 This is ? as Olson could have called about the
                                                         This is ? Does it say that the farmer saw
    sighting but the story provides no evidence
                                                         the light?
    of this.
 2. The farmer called the sheriff after he
                                                     9. The farmer crossed his field at dusk.
    sighted a light in the sky.
    This is ? because we don’t know whether
                                                         This is ? Does it say that the farmer was a
    or not the farmer and Olson are the same
                                                         man or was crossing his own field?
    person
                                                     10. The sheriff received a call from a farmer
 3. Olson took pictures of the UFO.
                                                         who saw a light in the sky.
    This is ? because we don’t know what
    Olson was taking pictures of. It could have          This is ? Again, are the farmer and Olson
    been what he thought was a UFO or                    the same person?
    something else.
 4. The farmer took pictures a h r calling the       11. The story mentions two people: farmer
    sheriff.                                             Olson and the sheriff.
                                                         This is ? Again, if the farmer and Olson
   This is ? Are the farmer and Olson the
                                                         are different persons, then there are three
   same person?
                                                         people.
                                                     12. A farmer was crossing the field on his
 5. The farmer's report of his UFO sighting
                                                         tractor when a bright light was sighted in
    made the headlines in the local paper.
                                                         the sky.
   This is ? It could have been the farmer’s             This is ? The farmer could have been on a
   report, but there is not sufficient evidence          tractor, however, we don’t know that for
   to be conclusive.                                     sure.
 6. The local paper reported a UFO sighting          13. The local newspaper reported an alleged
    near the Olson farm.                                 UFO sighting.
    This is ? It could have been the same
    sighting, yet there is not a statement in the        A true statement.
    story to support that.
 7. When Olson took the pictures it was dark
    outside.
    This is ? Again, are Olson and the farmer
    the same person? The farmer grabbed the
    camera to take pictures,; we don’t know if
    the farmer took pictures.
                                                   You are in your
                          After waking up       room studying for a
                                                                         The students are
                          one morning you       test. Your brother is
A horse is covered                                                        taking a test or     They just played a
                          walk over to the       in the living room.
  in dirt & mud                                                          doing individual      game of basketball
                         window & touch it.        You hear some
                                                                           assignments.
                            It feels cold.       scary music &then
                                                      a scream.
                                                                                               You wake up. You
Sitting at a red light      The assistant
                                                                                                sit on the edge of
 you notice the car      principal comes to
                                                                                               your bed & stretch.
 next to you. It is a    your classroom. He
                                                  It must be cold                               You walk over to
  candy apple red        asks that two boys                              She got a haircut.
                                                      outside.                                    the window &
sports car. It is very    come into the hall
                                                                                                    notice that
shiny but has water      so that he may talk
                                                                                                everything looks
droplets all over it.          to them.
                                                                                                        wet.
                          A dog is walking
                                                                         The horse must
                          down the street. It
  There is a fire on                                                    have rolled on the
                         is a sunny summer      There has been an                               The car was just
the other side of the                                                   ground or was in a
                         day. Not a cloud in        accident.                                      washed.
       door.                                                              somewhat wet
                         the sky. The dog is
                                                                              place.
                                 wet.
                                                 You smell smoke.        You are an office
 There is a scary
                                                  You walk over &         aide delivering a
 movie on TV or
                         They are in trouble,     touch the door. It        message to a       It rained last night
something scary is
                           did something            feels hot. The       classroom. When         while you were
about to happen or
                         wrong, got caught.       doorknob is also      you walk in all the           asleep.
  it already did
                                                   hot. You hear a      students are quietly
      happen.
                                                   crackling noise.     looking at a paper.
                                                   Your brother &                               You are in line at
                                                                        He was playing in a
                                                 your dad walk into                             the grocery store.
                         She did not get the                              sprinkler. He was
   Someone just                                 the house. They are                            The man in front of
                          part that she had                               swimming in the
scored a touchdown                                sweating, dirty &                              you is buying 2
                            tried out for.                              lake or pool. He has
                                                    are carrying a                              large bags of dog
                                                                           just had a bath.
                                                      basketball.                                     food.
                                                                          At the football
                                                                                                 You are driving
                                                                          game you leave
 Your best friend        He must have a lot      Your friend comes                             down the interstate.
                                                                         your seat to get a
 walks out of the        of dogs, or maybe      to school & her hair                           Traffic slows down.
                                                                           snack. While
  drama room              he has one large      is short. It was long                              You can see
                                                                        getting your order,
  looking sad.                  dog.                 last week.                                flashing lights & a
                                                                        you hear the crowd
                                                                                                    police car.
                                                                               roar.
                         People in the gym       There are a lot of
                          are blowing up        cars in front of you.
  Clear, colorless,     balloons, putting up     They are slowing          It must be cold        The water is
  odorless liquid           streamers &          down & stopping.              outside.        warmer than the air.
                         bringing in sound      There are red lights
                             equipment.               flashing.


 Someone came in        People are wearing                                                     You smell smoke.
  lat to class with     long sleeved shirts                                                       Sirens are
                                                                            There is an
   gauze in their       & coats. They have      It is raining outside.                         sounding. People
                                                                         argument or fight.
   mouth & a wet         on long pants &                                                       are screaming &
        chin.                 gloves.                                                              running.

                        There are footprints
                        in the mud outside                               While outside you
                         the window. You                                  see a lot of dark      We are going to
 The team won the                               There is going to be
                        did not see anyone.                              clouds moving in.        have a school
  football game.                                a strong rainstorm.
                        The prints are large                             The wind becomes            dance.
                        & deep. The mud is                                 more intense.
                          still a little wet.

 A man walks into
                                                 A large group of
  the room. He is
                                                    students are           There is a train    You are on a bridge
 wearing a yellow
                               Water            gathered in a circle.     coming, or a train   & steam is coming
 raincoat. His coat
                                                They are making a        has already passed.      off the lake.
has droplets of clear
                                                    lot of noise.
    liquid on it.

                                                                                               You did not get to
                                                                          Your best friend
                                                                                                the game in time.
                                                 They just came           comes to school
                                                                                               You drive up as the
                         There must have        from the dentist’s        late & sits down
  There is a fire.                                                                             players are getting
                          been a party.         office & had some         next to you. Her
                                                                                                 on the bus. They
                                                   teeth pulled.          eyes are halfway
                                                                                                  are yelling &
                                                                               closed.
                                                                                                     laughing.
                                                                         You walk into the
                                                                          house. There are
                                                                                                Your best friend
  Not long ago a        She was up late &                                 cups everywhere,
                                                Your friend was out                              comes back to
large heavy person      did not get enough                                  spilled food,
                                                    in the sun.                                school after spring
    walked by.                sleep.                                     popcorn all over &
                                                                                                 break very tan.
                                                                           balloons here &
                                                                                there.
Conclusions
When students become better observers they begin to see patterns, make generalizations and
draw more productive conclusions. Use several whole group sessions for some of these strategies
to allow students plenty of modeling and practice.

Strategies to help students draw and write conclusions are:

      Have students write their own operational definitions of conclusions and explain how
       they are related to inferences (see examples).
      Discuss the types of evidence that are useful in proving something or making a
       persuasive argument. (data of all types)
      Use mystery activities to focus on evidence as a basis for drawing a conclusion.
       MysteryNet.com and TheCase.com
      Use the Conclusion Cards. Have a bag of cards for each student to use as "thinking
       prompts" while writing conclusions.
           o Start with one or two cards. Gradually add others as needed or when appropriate
               for the content.
           o Tailor a card set to each child's abilities for differentiated instruction.
           o Use the cards to teach and encourage analysis of data.
           o Designate which letters must be used on an investigation assignment. Not all
               cards will be applicable in every investigation. Use a rubric to evaluate.
           o Have students plan and organize their writing by first putting cards in the order
               they want to use.
           o Have students use card sets to evaluate a peer's conclusion.
           o Encourage students to make and add cards of their own to their "set".
           o Save copies of student conclusions (names removed) to use for evaluation
               samples with a different class or year of students.
      Use the Conclusion Rubric
                              Conclusion Cards

            A.                            B.                          C.
Briefly tell how the data      Could there have been       How could your testing be
     was collected.           errors in measurement or       useful to someone?
                                   data collecting?


           D.                           E.                             F.
 Tell specific data from        How many trials were       Look for connections or
 your results that either             done?                relationships in the data.
 supports or contradicts                                       Tell about them.
    your hypothesis.

           G.                             H.                         I.
Look for a pattern in the     Was the data from several Connect your conclusions
  data. Tell about it.            trials averaged?        back t o the problem.



            J.                           K.                            L.
Are there highs and lows      Were your results verified    Could other conditions
in the data? Tell about it.    by testing from other        during the testing have
                                      groups?                affected your results?


            M.                            N.                          O.
  Did some data seem             What would you do            Make at least 3 true
 unreasonable? Did you          differently next time?       statements about your
   use it or discard it?                                             data.


           P.                            Q.                           R.
 Does the graphed data        What new questions could
show a trend? Could you             be explored?
 make future predictions
    based upon it?


            S.                           T.                           U.

				
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