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									                   PIERCE MASON BUTLER
                   By C w d g Tltomar
     The poeition of Cherokee agent w s undoubtedly eonsidered im-
portant eince several men of high were appointed to the
position in the early day8 after the removal of the Five C i v i l i d
Tribea to the Indian Territory.
     Governor Montfort Stokes became chief executive of North
Carolina in 1830, and during the same year he waa appointed on a
oommkion to the Indians w s of the Misshippi by Andrew JOE
                            et                                 a J-
mn. Ten years later Stokes was succeeded as Chemltee agent 6y
Pierce Mason Butler who had been governor of South Carolina frronr
1836 to 1838. Stokes put up a spirited fight to retain his position
although he had been appointed Register of the Land O f f h at
Bayetteville, Arkansas. President Tyler wrote S o e that he wished
him comfort in "declining age, after long and valuable EkBI'Vice,"
but he thought it w s to have a "more active man in ao difficult a
position." Besidea Mernor Butler had already arrived i the    n
Cherokee 00untry.l
                                                   a on
     Pierce Mason Butler was born April 11,'1798, t M u t,
Edgefield County, South Carolina. He was the aixth child of William
Butler' and Behethland Foote M o e Butler. Like his elder brother,
Pierce was trained at Moses Wadell's Academy, at Abbeville. Through
the influence of John C Calhoun he was assigned to the Fourth
Infantry, United States Army, as a second lieutenant August 13,1819.
H e was traderred to the Seventh Infantry on D8~~mber rrnd    IS,
became a fir& lieutenant lKarch 1, 1822 snd a captain December 16,
1825, He resigned from the mrvice October 1 1829.8
     Pierce M Butler did not arrive a t the Cherokee Agency a8 r
strangers for he had previously been in the military service at Fort
Gibson. Living conditions on the frontier mu& have been trying to
a family accustomed to the comforts of an estate in the East and the
luxury of the governor's mansion in Columbia.
     In April, 1824 all of the troops stationed at Fort Smith, except
a few under Lieutenant B.L.E. Bonneville, w r removed to the site
selected for a new post eightg miles above this Arkansas gmima
T r e miles above the juncture of the Grand and Verdigris rivare,
Pierce M. Butler began construction of the post which was named
for Commissary General George UihPoa4 Congrem authoFieed the
marking of the Santa Fe trail in 1825 and at the same time
provided for a military road between Fort Gibson and Little
Rock. The portion of the road between Fort Smith and F r          ot
Gibson was comtructed under the direction of Captain Butler?
In the autumn of 1826, Lieutenant James L Dawson, assistant
quartermaster at Fort Gibson, was absent with a detachment en-
gaged in surveying the road to Fort Smith, construction of w i hhc
began the next year, the first road within the limits of the present
Oklahoma. Captain Butler, reported from Fort Smith on September
17, 1827, to the quartermaster general that "the publio road f o rm
Cant. Gibson to this place, a distance of fifty-~even miles, has this
day been completed"@
     At a dinner given a t Fort Gibson on July Fourth, 1826, thirtseol
toasts were drunk and speeches were made by Captain Butler and
other officers. He saw most of his military service a t Fort G i h n ,
Indian Territory, and it was there that he met and courted hio future
wife, Miranda Julia Du Val, of Maryland, who was Visiting hm
brother Edward Du V l Agent to the Cherokees.?
     Edward W.Du Val of Virginia and of Washington was appointed
Indian agent in January, 1824, to succeed Colonel David Brearly.
He removed with his family and landed at krnsaS P s on Jatmry
15 before going to Little Rock and from there to Dardenelle. Major
Dn Val was a young man when he reached Arkansas and he attempted
to magnify his own importance by ignoring Governor George W,
     aDicticmary of h e $ c a n Biography (New York, 1929). Vol. III, p. 365; Fm
cis B fibitman, Bwgraphacat Redirtcr
1 0 ) VoL I p n .
 93.           ,   o
                                    ....    of the Unitcd Sirrtcr Army, (Wohingtoq
     4 H q Putmy Been, The P'crtcnr Military Fnnrtia (Philadel hia, 1935)
     Wt -     Fm-
VoL No. 2 (Jane, 1925), p. 101.
                                T& Thro~& O u l b o ~ C ~ ~ W U &.f
                                 i                          ~ ,~       AS
     6 h . r ikpammt, : J H I d cord^, PO* Llpr." QlbfG, Boot VIU, No. 2S;
Gmat Foreman, A d a m u y the Fro&        ( N o w 1983). p 57.
     r E c h m y of AmararP, &grapLy*op. a. VoL 3, p 365.
who was Superintendent of Indian &aim in the Weet, by reporting
directly to W d h g t m . Later, Dn V l M e d to 00~tro1 Colonel
Matthew A r b u c e but that officer promptly gave him to understand
that he took no orders from an Indian agent. Du V l soon learned
hia 1eebop and he developed into a person liked and aamired by
Indians and the whites with whom he came in wntaot. E e Colmel
Arbuckle loved to drop down to Dard~nelleand spend a day with
the major, as did the other officers of the fort. On May 22, 1826,
h e r e n d Cephas Washbum wae called over f o Dwight M i i o n
 (in Arlsamm Territory) to perform the marriage ceremony between
Captain P i e m M. Butler of the United Statea army and Mirmda
Julia Du Val of Washington City. It was a gala day for DardaneUe,
and the Indians were as much           with wonderment over the great
m r i g feast prepared by Major Du Val as were the whites.8 Shortly
after his marriage, Butler msigned from the army* and 8ettled a t
 Columbia, where he beesme president of the State Bank of South
 Carolina. In 1833he was elected a trustee of South Carolina College.
 He was an enthusiast for nullification and signed the ordinance in
     When the excitement of the Seminole W r was at if8 peak, Butler
accepted a commission as lieutenant colonel of aodwyn's South
Carolina Regiment. On his return to his native state he was elected
govmor in 1836, although he had not made a campaign for the office,
saying the office should aeelr the man. He had great vision for a
public school eystem in his state which was a rare ambition in ante-
bellum days in the South. It was during his administration as
governor that the era of railroad building commenced in South
 .   The following letter written by Mrs. John Nicks, w f of General
Nicks, antler at Fort Gibson, recounts some of the difficulties and
@p of the poart, Although poor in spelling, she mu& have been
a great charmer according to an account of her written by Washing-
ton Irving during his stay at Fort (Xibsoa10 This letter, together
with a collection of other intermting Butler docnmenta, was recently
    8 J#i.h H Shinn, Pionema a d Makers of A r b u u s (Little Rock, 19081, .pp.
 1404. The Arkunses Cuze#e for November 13, 1821, noted that "Captain Umted
 Strtaa Army Butler md lady arrived in that city from Fort Gibson on a furlough of
 rmenl month which they intcmd&s            in South Carolina."
       @Aamdbgto the Regimmtal Returns of the Seventh Infantry Butler wae listed
 u doL i   n    tember, 1825. In Decamber, 18a6, Captain Butler o Company H waa
 -t         in3rmt.w In J*       1 1 be was Aw.0.L and be w u rin +
                                  2)                                      t     on
 I l e a d m 28, 1828. On Much, 1829 Butler waa listed as abeeat n k e July 2,
 1 d aa Jdy, 1829 he waa
  -                                      -on furlough for 4 m~ date 2 Jane ' 9-
                                                                . .
 On Jplf 22.129 the Arbasus CotectG atated ttmt Captain P M Butler of Can-
 toamart G h m who bad baa lwdting for the UniteJd Sktm Axmy in south
 Cuolia;r for           o a p a r past hs been elected ad& of the b
                         f                                                  d bank
 d      -     e    a Coldk
 (Obeglrbg. lm),pp. 389.106.
given to the Oklahoma Hhtorical Society by M . pi em^ Mason Butler
of Nashville, Term-. It is postmarked "Cant. Gibson 19 Ap. 1830
Paid 25," and a d d d to "Mrs. Bd. J. Butler, Columbi9, South
Carolina ''
                                        " A r k a n a ~Territory Cant Gibson
                                                               April 18th 1880
"Dear Julia CMrr. Pierce M Butler1
     "Your letter came to hand the flrrt ot December and I feel elmoat
ashamed that I have not answered it before now-the only excase I cm
make I have bin very much ingaged and I ahall do better for the future,
I was not hear a t the time Dr. Towns was but I met him on the River.
I told him you wished him to take on your things he said it wos imporralblo
that he In tended returning imedeatly in a skift.
     "I requested Mrs. Carter if he should come in my abeence to get hlm
to take all of your things she could and particularly your Trunk marked
letters she gave him your spoons it was the only thing he could cary,
your thingrr have been packed up for some time but there has bin no
oportunity of shiping of them, the River has bin very low this winter
and apring eo much so that it haa bin with great dificulty Keelr could
get up as hfgh se thb-un      till a few Days past, the S t e m Boat left hem
on Monday last she brought up the publick suplies, your thing6 were
shiped on her for New Orleans-what houee they were ehiped to I do not
know but I expect you will be informed by this mail by Oenl. N-         c
your negroee are not yet sold Genl. Nicks hae bin trying to make esl.
of them but has not yet succeeded, hie price for them is $600. Dram [TI
has bin in bad health for some time, Mr. Vail wishes to purchase them-
ha8 bin down twice I believe on that businese he 14 down now and I sm
of the opinion it will be closed this t4me
     "I sent Sucky your Domestick frock a greeable to your directions--
Mrs Carter and my self like wise received the things you directed Col.
Arbnckle to give us for which I feel great ful for-Dear Julia you do not
know what painful feelings it gave me when I raw your thingr opened
some of them looked 80 familfar to me, it made me think of paut event&+-
which would never again be realized-
     "I believe their is very little news about Camp that will be i n t e r d i n g
to you their is not much alterations since you left hear Mrs. Dawmn b a
a fine sun, and We. Carter i prety far advanced again in the family way-
I herd from your Brothers family a few days ago they were quite well
Mrs. Du Val hrra a fine daughter and Capt Du Val a t Pbrt Smith ha6 a
fine-em it i about three month8 old-
     "You wished me to write yon what has become of Lieut Mcnamwall
 . .
. I he left hquu Weeks ago he eeid he intended returnins to Vlr-
     "De8r Julia 1 do not know whether we will ever nee each other agdn
but i we do not I wish you great happinem and prorperity-ki8m your
too little Wdren tor me and be lieve me to be your devoted friend-
                                               "8 P N l c b
"And give my beat rwpecta to [paper torn] Butler"
    XlLientenurt Thomar McNaman, a native of Virginia, rru appoiatsd to
the Militmy Academy Septamber 26, 1 1 . He wra a d d Jdy 1
                                          88                         ,      a
F r SaJth d 1826 H saved a F r Gibeon from 182426, 1827-28, 1828-29,
  ok                                    t ot
-        H x p June 64 ULgQ H died S c p t m k 14, l 3 A yt W.
          e dd                               e                    8 4 h t.
Warn, '
                    l k i s t e r of the Offica8 d Crtahtea o the U. S. i b a y
A a o k G I y ~ Y r L . l ~ ) , V d I ; H d t p q o p . e i L , VL
    h e r n o r B t e ' cammimion aa agent was dated Sep@dxtr 17,
1641, and he promptly a p p e a d at Fort G 1bo to semme the duties
of hk office on Bayou Menard (about seven m l s aou~westof
Park Hill). In a short time, however, he w s ordered to move the
sgenay to Fort Gibson where he first occapied the quarters formerly
ueed by General Matthew Arbnclde, which consisted of a dilapidated
t r e r o log h o w (built in 1834), a kitchen, smokehouse and a
double log cabin which had been b d t for the servants. The Agent
asked to be permitted to remove to the quarters o the First Dragoons
off the reservation. He had Captain Nathan Boone survey a section
of land adjoining the reservation on the south, including the Dragoon
quarters, w i h he intended to keep as the agency reservation. He
reported that the Dragoon barracks were so rotten that they were good
for little or nothing, in fact, they were in such a bad condition that
Colonel Kearney preferred to live in tents w t his command.1~
     Soon after his arrival at the Agency Butler took up the case of
Rosalie Chonteau, the half-breed Osage wife of the late Colonel
Chmteau and was finally able to adjnat the affairs of Rosalie and
her family to their satisfaction and that of Chouteau's
      Captain E h n Allen Hitchcock wrote from Tahlequah on Mon-
day, December 6, 18419 4
     " . . . . Day before yesterday I returned to Mr. [Young] Wolfe's to
dinner and found Gov. Pierce M. Butler of South Carolina, here, the
recently appointed agent for the Cherokees with him, a t the invitation of
John Roes.                                                                .
    "Qov. Butler, the other day told a story of an Ossge Chief who had
a son killed in a ball game got up for the amusement of some officer8
and other gentlemen from Fort Gibson a number of years since. The chief
came to Fort Gibson and demanded a hundred dollars a s a compensation
for the death of h s son and in answer to a remonstrance that a hundred
dollar8 w a too much he juetitied the demand by pleading that the deceased
war the best horse thief in the nation; an inferior man might be worth
no more than 10 or 20 dollars but hie son was worth a hundred."
    The following letter from Butler w s in reply to a rebuke by
the Commimioner of Indian M i , T. Hartley Crawford:
                                      "Skin Bayou Cherokee Nation
                                                     23rd Feb. 1842
     "I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your commMication
 of the firat instant directing me 'fo discontinue the further discharge of the
         duty h m e d on m , it not already terminated*. Th-e instFnctiom
 nl be moat promptly executed.


 m Cq 54 s,

           61,    -
    laIWd, p 290; Office of I n k Maim, Butler to Crawford, Commiarion~d
    14Grrat Forenun (ed) A TnocEcr m Indian Tcpntory (Cedar Rapida, 19301,
    "1 t i l l at further direction immediately di8wntiouo the servha a        !
Cd. 8. C. 8trmbaash 'aa 8Decisl SIecretary",
            remahhg part of your communication implying au I conceive a
d u k e for a #up-       neglect of 'official duty. I mart be permitted to my-
i an uncalled tor--cmd ra unmerited, aa it b unexpected. I will return
a full answer on my arrival a t Fort Gibaon where I have tiles of all my
corr~pondencewith your department, I will juat now take ommion to
remark that the murder to which you refer was committed by Mosy
Alberty, a Cherok88, on Wm. Long a cititen of Arkanaae on the 31 of Deo.
last. I n twenty four hours after the murder I repaired to the spot, in
thirty six hours after I wrote you fully explaining all the facts connected
with the unfortunate affair.
     "I need rcarcely add-that this order--to discontinue The inve~~tigation
o the Cherokee Claims, will create surprise in The Cherokee Natfon.
The highest expectation had been raised among the people--end the fulleat
amfldence manifested i the kind intentions of our Government.
     "The feeling had allayed for a time at least the party divisions among
the Cherokees themselves. But if I do not greatly mistake T h e sign of
the times*-The sudden and unexplained disappointment of the higheat
antfcipations Wl awaken an internal feeling-productive of the moat
painful resultg-in the Cherokee Nation. I have only recently been ad-
vised on aome garticulars-which         although they may not be cause for
immediate apprehension, are yet entitled to the grauest consideration. Thin
information is derived from a source worthy of credit and affords informa-
tion which will form the basis of a particular communication a t any esrly
     "I wlll write you three days hence-after I ahall have had an inter-
view with some of the principle men of the Nation. In the meantime
as an explanation why my communications may not reach you in as many
rnonth6-88 days intervene between my dates. I have to add that them
is only a weekly mail to and from Fort Gibson-Hence my communicatione
through Capt. rWillism1 Armstrong return to Fort Smith-where they are
detained from three to seven d a y e r e m i n i n g however a t Capt. Armstrong's
Agency tiret one week-They then start by a semi weekly mail from Van
Buren to Little Rock. The m i often miscarries from two to three con-
aecutive w e e b (and which is monotonous here) situated sr I am, U ir
not surprising that important information--especially of an excitlng char-
s c b r 4 0 u l d not reach you tJuough other sources. Nmertheltw this
delay L not attributable to me and I felt conscious before thie tims the
imputation o neglect of duty on my part has been removed.
     '$1take the liberty of transmitting this communJcation dfrect to your
department and send a copy to Cap& Brmetrong.
     "The object is to preaerve it. I n future all my c.mnmunicationa will k
se~t   through the euperintendent of Indian Affairs ae heretofore directed
     "Hoping that you may hereafter first ascertain that c m w e ir n d & &
before it shall be ao profusely applied.
     " remain wlth great respect
                                              "Your Obt Servant,
                                                    " . 116. Butler,
                                                    Therokee Agent.
"T. Hart4ley crawford, m .  q
mCOm.Oi Ind AfY!aIrr,
w88bineton City, D. 0.
" . S. I send thts via Saint Louin, M . mid to be the most espeiUtiow route.
 P                                   o,
         . "
    'P. M B.
   M o m Alberty, Jr., a Cherokee, killed a white man of the name
&mge ]tong in the Cherokee Nation. Thia c a d great ~~t
snd mv-m        Archibald Ydl of Arkansm ordered the recrniting-and
             of s regiment in Wsahington C o w . It rrm also Stated
that the Long murder wae committed in Madison h e , Brkan6as.
At any rate, "Qovernor Yell wrote a petulant d abusive letter to
the m t a r y of war saying that if the Federal Government w d d
not pmtect the state he would call out the militia to do it. The
=&q~ that there were plenty of Federal troops near to
gim the w i e of the state all the protection necesearg; but that the
Chmkee Indians were peaceful and were not guilty of the dieorden
o h q p d against them."15
      Agent Bntler claimed that the Cherokees were "greatly a b d
by being taken from their own country for minor offenses committed
on white men " who had no business in the Cherokee countxy. "Su&
 broils were eight timea out of ten provoked on the p * of itinerant
 persons from all parts of the United States, tempted or induced them
 by gain. It i too much the habit abroad to cry out Indian outrage,
 without a just knowledge of facts. "IB
      President Jackson's method for compelling the Cherokees to
 remove to the West is disclosed in a letter from Agent Butler. This
 letter in the files of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs describe0
 the negotiations and conclusion of the treaty of 1835:
    "Mr. Butler says it is alleged, and claimed to be susceptible of proof,
that Mr. Merriweather.17 of Georgia, in an interview with President Jackson,
a considerable time before the treaty was negotiated, said to the President,
'We want the Cherokee lands in Georgia, but the Cherokees will not c o m n t
to cede them,' to which the President emphatically replied, 'You maet gel
clear of them (the Cherokees) by legislation. Take judicial jurisdiction
over their country; build fires around them, and do indirectly what you
cannot effect directly.' "
     Agent Butler wrote in the eame letter:
     " . . . . Prior to the preceding October the Rose party had been largely
 in the awendency i the nation, but that a t their last meeting preceding the
 electdon the question hinged upon whethem the 'per cspita' money due them
 under the treaty of 1835 should be immediately paid over to the people.
 The reault waa in favor of the Ridge party, who aseumed the affirmative
 of the question, the opposition of Rose and his party being predicated on
 the thwrp that an acceptanw of this money would be an acknowledgment
 of the validity of the treaty ot 1836.
     Another writer reviews the resnlts o the New Echota Treaty:18
    "On the 8ettlsment of this per capita tax, M . Butler remar-,. will

 demnd the perce and safety of the Cherokee Nation, adding that *odd
    UGiaat -
           F        The picle Cirrik'd Tribcr (Norman, 19431, p. a; y

 -                                       -
     IrB&     t comdsui-
               o             Indian         Report for 1842; TA. F h Ci-
     f t J ~ bferi&         of Edeaton, Gco      w datad a m~lnberof th.
 rraW     f-    BQ. 31,1841 to March 3,1843.
        of - o ,
                 R       ih C=ZM~LW
                                       ~.tlQoa LdiuqwF 4    w -
                                                     (W"hh,pm, Um), m.
t~ C P H L ~  an-t be -0, to the eit~cithst the ger capih money w
nearly rubaacrtnd. neither the national funds in the hands o the treasurer
nor the life of Mr. Roae would be eaie for an hour from the Infuriated
rneunbel'a of the t i e " ,
   Agent Butler's Annnal Report for 1842 shows s remarkable bight
 into the character a n d - p d t a of the Cherokee people. H a h disc
 p18yed sympathy for the needs of this da    i-          people and en-
.demored to amuse a resp0118e in the government officials in Washing-
 ton. He described their government and asserted:
      "They are rigid in the execution of their laws, generally impartfal In
the adminfatration of justice, 8s yet necessarily in a rude rtate. Am many
a a four executions have taken place in one year.
      ".. ..  There are believed to be about two thousand profeaeorr of tho
Christian religion.   .. ..   For intelligence and general integrity, there
a r e about four thousand others who might be classed among the f r t
When not under the influence of ardent spirits, they are hospitable and
                                                                             . . ..
well disposed; but when under such influence, their worst passbna reem
to be roused.
      'The evil of Introducing spirits among them, invariably carried in by
the lowest class of whites, I do not hesitate to m y i the cause of all their
troubles with the citizens of the United States. . ."..
   Butler described the citizena of Crawford and Washiagton
County, Arka11588 :'9
     "Industrious, intelligent, and neighborly disposed. The inhabitants
of those two populous countries are distinguished a s laboring. intelligent,
high-minded, and judicious people. I t is not from them difficulties occur,
o r complalnta are made, but from a plundering predatory clasa, upon whom
oath before a magistrate the Cherokees are hunted down by the military,
and taken a distance of 200 miles, to Little Rock, for trial; there lodged
in jail, to awalt slow justice. . ..
     Frequent reports were sent to Fort Gibson concerning hostilitier
of the Plains Indians against the people of Texas dong with rumor8
that the Mexicans were aiding them. Requests were made for the
officers a t Fort Gibson to make peace with these Indians on both
sides of Red River. Under orders from the secretary of war, in
March, 1843, Agent Butler left the poet with an tmcort t attend a
    The nomba o the Cherokee Advocute- for May 15, 1895 amtab 8 low article
on      one, headed "Jrkson's Doctrine will y i be pat into practica here. Firw
to    built around the Indian, the fumes of which savor o the breath of' hell.''
    An article, addnssed to the Arrow (Tahlequah), wae written by one who uigned
"Coxndlk." After iecaunting Jacksan's order to Meriweather the writer continues:
    "That advice of M . Jackeon, prenident of the United States,
                       r                                          . ... ie dread7
a matter of record, as aan from the above quoted words. The prominent idea d
whole object of the damnable acheme was to get clear of the Cherokcdd The
was the e
tbh -t         a
                n with Em, w b h me cleared a by the pruidart.
                   a t a Man, hand o a w L t it meant. ~t aimply -t
eraor had, of course, been dcdabg means with the same object in r i a , bat
                                                                     , What did
hamum the Cherokee with the law and witbout it. To charge them with crimea
red or fahe; to be tried before the U. S. courts of injutice in ordsr that $bey
m g t emon, w m o that kind of btuineu. lea= the m
 ih                  f
              rs .ad robbers, which they did do and come to
t h e d r ~ ~ C h m d m Ib n b Affairs, 1842, pp.    -
                                                                  cowntry. . . .9
                                                                fo be enjoyed
a m @ Tdcwdumi C m k in Ts~lra,
 m e ODL                               where, how-,    aothiag &efiaite
w ~ m p b h e d . Another effort was mads in the aatmm when
Bath was meompanid by eighty men oomml~ndedby Cotonsl
h e y , but the Indisns were &li v e and nonC03IMital.W
     A, ooon<?il,psrticipated in by eighteen western tribes, was begun
at Tahlequah          in June, 1843, which w s attended by General
2;4chary Taylor and Agent Butler. The meeting, presided over by
Chief John Ross, httd four wedis. Butler wrote on June 21:'l
    "AB far as I can learn mefr object, it is to renew old cuatomr, and
Mendships and to enact some Intern~~tional    laws for the government o!
each and all. There are some three or four thousand perwna in daily
atfendance. Their deliberations, and the company present, are qaiet and
    "The sheriff of the Mstrtct and hts 'squad' have spilt thirty-seven
Bsvrels of whiekey and deatmyed aeveral jug8 and bottles. llre eatbate
i that myenteen hundred gallons have been destroyed. It is sapposed
they will adjourn about the 27th. I shall go out again on the 24th and at
the termination of their meeting will further communicate to the Depart-
     A fend existed between Colonel Richard B. Mason, Comrn-t
of Fort G i k n and Agent Butler for Mason had an order %sued
requiring the Agent to remove from the military rmervation as hie
Indian viaitom were obnoxious to the officers. An order was msdg
also that the sutlers at the Post should not sell to or traffic with
the Indians, but t i was afterward relaxed. On July 4, 1844, t h e
Fort Gibson Jockey Club was organiRed with Agent Butler as presi-
dent, and races were held near the fort on September 24 and through
the w e , on an old race course laid off many years before by the
Seventh Infantry. T i w s also objected to by Colonel h n . ~
                     hs a
     Reporb from Tahleqnah, Fairfield, Park Hill, Dwight, and
Mount Zion were addressed in June and July, 1843, to "P. M.
Batler, Esquire, Agent" or to "v  &.    P. M. Butler" by the pereons
i charge of the various schools. All of the accounts were optimistic
but deplored the effect whiskey had on the Indians i the N8tio11.
     One of the best d d p t i o m of the Cherokee people ever wri$ten
ia that wntsined in the report made by Agent Butler to J Hartley
Crawford on September 30, 1843. Immediately after their removal
the Agent said that the population diminished WE& not to be
~01tdemd w e the terrible hardships they had encounersd are
          at h n
*de;        they were devoting themselves to the cultivation of the
~ d- ,        oomfortab1e double cabins.
future.. marka a teadencp t raise themmlvem i the 8cale o f n t e l t ~
and m o d beings. ....         o                  n          !
                         They give their prindpal chbf $1,000 as an 8 n
salary; and, besides this sum, it is u8ual to make an apprOp?iatt(w to
cover Bls extra experurea.. . .
    "There are eleven common Ilcboolr, under the superintendence of the
Rev. Stephen Foreman, a native Cherokee. .  .. .  Nine of the teachem u e
white men, of whom one is an adopted citizen by marriage; and the other
two teachers are native Cherokees. The expenees of them achoola are
defrayed from the national school-fund. There is allowed t each teacher
$635, including the purchase of boob. Also, $200 for the rupport o orphan
children while attending school.  ...  ."
     Butler wrote a long demription of the missionary schoole and
the teachers who ran them; described the awrrkened intereat of the
Cherokees in education and temperance. He told of the trouble
caused by irresponsible white men intruding on the Indians:
    "This is a class of people that would be of little value anywhere, and
exercise a mlachievous influence on the more unthinldng portion o thef
Indians.. . ..
    "Justice, under a written code of criminal law, is administered with
impartiality and dignity, by upright judges. Their chief justice, Jemm
Buahyhead, is a man of piety, decision, and intelligence; and, both aa a
                                   a           Influence over the govern-
preacher and magistrate, exercises ~ l u t a r y
ment and morals of the people. ,. ..
     Agent Butler sent in a comprehensive report dated from F r ot
Gibson, September 30, 1844, to the Commissi~ner Indian Affah,
T. Hartley Crawford, one of the best reports sent in by any of the
agents. It was arranged under the following snbjectq with e h    m
covered adequately : "Morals -temperance the whiskey trade ;
Amusements, Literature and the fine arts; Character; Health and
climate; Agriculture; Meehanios and manufactnres; Publio d w p
and workmen; Political and social relations; Seminoles; Military."
The Agent stated that the Indian had improved "morally, intellects-
ally, and socially"; that the Government's liberal policy had had
"the most flattering results" in that it had "proved beyond cavil
the capacity of the Indian race for a high grade of civilization."
He further stated that peraerverance in this sane enlightened course
in the treatment of the Indiana lay the hope of saving them "on the
brink of extinction, f o what has almoaf seemed to be their ap-
pointed doom."
     President Tyler, late in 1844, appointed a board of inquiry t o
investigate the difficulties among the Cherokees. The ~ u n t r p
been greatly alarmed on account of nuu~lmus      mnrders. The 00m-
mission was made up of Adjutant &nerd Roger Jones, Lieutenant
Colonel Richard B. Mason and Cherokee Agent Butler. ''The
thoroughness of their inve&igation, the lucidity of their -&    and
the p e m e l of the boar-       men of high standing--preclude the
idea of a partial .investigation or a report detemmed bppartisan
Note ahowing moaev loaned by John Drew, of Webbers Falls, to P. M. Butler, Cherokee Agent
                                Pierce Mawn Bntkr                          17

      The eommiran'oners arrived at Fort GikPon early i the winter,
 and issued a plTOOlamadi0p stating their businem with the Cherokees
 They invited the Indians to c m in and register their complaintu
 against the party in power. More than nine hundred red men Were
 p m m t at one of the meetings. A thorough investigation was made
 lasting several weeks."
      George WiIkins Kendall in his Namative on t b Terns &uta Pe
 EzpeditionM related the following :
      "It was while making inquiries, as to the nature and object8 o the
  Texan expedition, that I firat heard of an enterprise somewhat similar,
  then in contemplation in the United States. A company under the com-
  mand of Colonel Pierce X. Butler, formerly governor of South Carolin&
 and well known as an efficient and gallant officer, was to leave a point
  well up on Red River for Santa Fe, having for escort a body of United
 States dragoons. What waa the object of this enterprim, whether to
 counteract the Texans in their attempt to divert the New Mexican trade
 or otherwise, I am unable to say. It was abandoned, a t all etentn, for
 the reason that Colonel Butler could not make all hie preparation8 in
 season to ensure a sufficiency of grass and water upon the prairie#: but
 had it started. I should have made one of the party."
    Among the "Incoming Letters" in the Indian Office is one dated
June 3, 1844, asking for three months leave of absence for Governor
Pierce M. Butler because of ilI health. The agent was still a the
Cherokee Agency on July 20, as he wrote a letter to the Indian
Office on that date concerning the Cherokees whipping a Negn,
servant of Mr. Harris, sutler at the post.
    From the Cherokee Agency on November 26, 1844 Agent Butler
addressed a note to Colonel R. B. Mason:=
     "Mr. Drew is here Just starting out to the Council Ground & *her
to extend his trip as far as Washington County Arkanruur with a view of
procuring meal-for the meeting-n        the 4 of Dec.
     "If you and the Genl. shall concur-I will close with him at the price8
agreed on 3 cta for beef & 75 cta for corn or meal-part of both+    we 8hdl
direct-What would you say the relative proportions to start with? That
we shall supply a t the start.
    "I would call down, but am a t the moment busy-
                                        "Very truly P. M Butler
    [On the back of this note is a reply written in pencil]
    "The Qeneral & myself think that you had better clorre with M . Drew
at these prices, 1% pounds of bee& & 1% pounds of meal t the ration
with two quarta of salt to the 100 rations, if corn ts fssued the ration
must bear a relative proportion to the m a .
                                           "Very Respectfully Y Obt Bt
                                          "R B M a m n Nor. 26, 1844"
     Sequoyah, or George Qua, inventor of the celebrated Cherokee
syllabary, was one of the aignem of the treaty of May 6, 1828, Be
    z4acrchel Caroline Eaton, John RW and the Chuoke Indium (Mcttuhq Wb-
consin, 1914), p. 153.
    ~5 Val. I, p. 18 (New York, 1844).
      G m t FOIWMBCollection.
moved w & long before the treaty of 1835, and for 8 number of yeare
he was a member of the Nstiond Comcil of the Wsen C h d 8 e s .
In 1834 he left his home for Mexico with the avowed intention of
oearching for s e v e ~ d
                        bands of Cherokees who had gone to that country.
Sequoyah planned t collect them and induce them to return with him
 so that they could be reunited with their people. The Cherokee,
 h e m , was old, and he w s not able to carry out hia project because
 of feebleness and poverty.
      When Agent Butler learned of Sequoyah's condition he wrote
 to the Indian Department on September 12, and again on November
 23, 1844, asking for funds to be furnished so that he might send a
 deputation to bring the aged man back. The Commissioner of Indian
 affairs notified Butler on January 17, 1845, that two hundred dollars
 had been set aside for the purpose, and 00-no-leh, a Cherokee, was
 dispatched on the errand. When 00-no-leh reached Red River he
 met a party of Cherokees from Mexico who informed him that
 Sequoyah had died in July, 1844, and that his body was interred
 at San Fernando. 00-no-leh notified Butler by letter May 15, 1845
 of the sad
      When the Cherokees learned of Agent Butler's success i securing
 the funds for the rescue of their compatriot they were delighted and
 the h u e of the Cherokee Aduocate for February 13, 1845, declared
 41      . Governor Butler feels the liveliest interest in the destiny of
 George Guess. . . , he wl take immediate measure to carry out the
 designs of the War Department, which receive our sincere acknowl-
 edgments. . . . ." From Warren's Trading House on Red River a
statement w s sent to Butler on April 21,1945 by a party of Cherokees
saying that Sequoyah had died in August, 1843. A later report
was sent to Butler by 00-no-leh and signed by the members of the
party, from Bayou District, May 15, 1845.28
      The Cherokee Advocate announced in the issue for November 5,
1844, that Agent Butler had arrived at the Agency at Fort Gibson.
TWOweeks later he issued a proclamation, by authority of the
Secretary of War, announcing that a commission had been appointed
and notices sent to Chief John Ross and Captain John Rogers, heads
of the opposing parties in the nation; it w s hoped that these com-
missioners would be able to settle all difficulties between the con-
tending parties and Butler made a strong plea, as their agent, friend,
and brother for peace. The proclamation printed in English and
Sequoyah characters was dated November 18, 1844 and published in
the Aduocute for December 12, 1844.
     When the Seminoles arrived in the Ws from Florida, they
objeoted to being located near their' hated Creek enemiea. They
   =Royce, op. dt, ( d ) p. 302. For an account of Butler and Sequoysh bee
The F h Cioilircd Tribe, op. cit., pp. 3745; and Grant Foreman, Sequoyah (Nor-
mm, 19381, pp. 69-70.
    mlbi$., pp. 70-1.
 settled t Cherokee land around Fort Gibson but Agent Butler tmk
 vigorous ebps to m o v e them f o the territory of his charges, with
the d t that on January 4, 1846, a treaty was entered i t by the
United States with the Creeke and Seminole~.~~      Pierce M. Butler,
together with Major William Armstrong, Colonel James Logan and
Thomas L Judge were the signers of this treaty on the part of the
U i e Stah, by which it was hoped that all difficulties between
the Creeks and Seminoles would be ~ e t t l e d . ~
     On February 15, 1845, Cherokee Agent Butler addwrJsed a
letter to the commissioner of Indian Affairs, T. Hartley Crawford
saying :"
     "I have the honor to forward you a letter of A.A.M. Jackson of Tezolll,
--expressing a wish that I would take measures to recover two white
children who had been stolen from Austin, Texas,-
     "I have used all the means in my power by giving information to
Col. LogarbCreek Agent,-to the Creeks and other neighboring tribe6,-
Illiciting (&) their kind aid in the recovery of these chLldren. All have
expressed a willingness & desire to effect the object. . . . .
     Another letter from Agent Bntlbr states:
                                                  "Cherokee Agency-
                                                    27th March 1846-
    " 'Bill Conner' a Delaware Indian, this day delivered to the under-
signed at this place--a 'White Boy' who says his name is 'Gillis or Giles*
and his father's name is Doyle;-that he lived when stolen, in Texas, on
the river Colorado;---he saps he was taken prisoner, by the Comanches,
while he was with his 'Father* and three other men were hunting rock-
that the Indians killed the three men, but he thinka his Father made his
acape,-he does not know what season of the year this happened-The
boy speaks very imperfect english and very unwillingly-He is a robest and
healthy boy, but much tanned;--there can be but little doubt, howevep,
that is Chis1 narrative is in substance true and that he is a 'White.' "
    The lad who spoke Comanche represented "that among the
I n k of that tribe there were about twenty white boys, Americans,
and four girls, one of them grown and has a child. They were in the
same clan a8 h i d . ' 'a
    Butler gave Connor one hundred dollars and promised him two
hundred more as soon as he w s authorized from Washington. Six
months later he was in the capital still urging the payment of t k
     ~ ~ i t t r - ~ * k t , Vol. 65, p 506. Among the eignav of the treaty were Mic-
-pi,    Wild Cat, Alligator with nineteen other Seminoles, all of whom signed by
nurk in the preseact of J. B. Luce, secretary of the eornmiesionars; Samuel C.
B ~ W m6 the United %tes interpreter. Benjamin Mamhall interpreted for the
C m b md Abtshua for the United States. (Cherokee Advocate, Octdber 9, 1845,
p 3 oda 13).
     ='I&   J111uary 9, 1846, 3 coL 1
                               ,    .
     #N.tionrl Archim, Office Indian Affairs: Misc. File B-2333-2359. Ft. Gib-
w , 1W, B-2359.
     mButIer to ~mmimionerIndian Affah, March 30, 1845, Ofc Indian Af-
fairs, Wiw. Fie,* B 2420, 2506, 2532; Adaurdng the Frontier, op. cit., pp. 1744.
mamtoCamm. W             h    h    i   n    W      ~    B    u    @     w     ~
t the ~ ~ o x ofmIndian affaim, and, i S p k a man-
 o                  r                 n e m ,
~n~bsissnedto.bimsndM.G.Lewiiltogo81m~the                              Camsnohe
h d h m t o t r y t o m a k e a t r e a t y o f friendship with them a n d m
the white captives held by them
      When Butler and Lewis received their Commisari-                  they m t
to Colnmbia, &nth Carolina, the former home of ths .8gent, from
whence they took a steamer for New Orleans. On their a m d at
the port on November 1, they mpplied themselves with goob to
barter with the Indians in exdumge for the white captives, snd i              n
the hope the Comanche wonld sign a treaty to keep the peace. The
 Commissionens traveled up Red River to Shreveport where they
 bought mules arid other equipment before proceeding to their
rendeavous a t Coffee's Station on Red River in Texrre, opposite the
 mouth of the Washita. The Texanrr sent runners to the Comancheia
 to notify them that a council would be held at Comanche P a .              ek
 Governor Butler went to Fort Gibson before going to Coffee's Station
 to m r a military escort for the expedition. The ~ o ~ d a n
 would n t agree so Butler next tried to get an escort from the i -
          o                                                                   m
 rnigmt Indians in the vicinity of the Fort.
      On December 26, he left the handsome home of William Shomy
 Coodey a t Frozen Rock on the Arkansas, accompanied by that
 eminent Indian and Elijah Hicks. J. T . Washbum, one of the
 editors of the Van Buren A r k w ( ~ 8          ZsteUigetrcer was also a member
 of the expedition. Another Cherokw who joined the party was
  Teesey Guess, a son of Sequoyah. Coaooochee (Wild Cat) was the
  8eminole delegate, and the w l Imown Chickasaw Chief Isaac
  Alberaon,*s as well as several white men accompanied the delegation.
  T e delegates repreeenting the Choctaws failed to arrive but Tim
  Tiblow, a Delaware, bought a s o k of goods from t h e Choctaw
  trader, Robert M. Jonea, which he tramported to the council t tnde      o
  with t h e Plains Indians.
       The arty wss made up of forty-eight persons; sevene or
        a1     rations for aixty men were carried, beaid= $ , 0 worth
  o goods for gifts and trading with the Indiana The expedition
  proceeded to N r h Fork Town in the Creek Nation where a halt
  'oas made a t the home of Chilly McIntash who had been appointed
  a dalegate by the Craeh On December 30 a stop was made a                     t
   Edward's Rading Post on the west aide and near the mouth af
  Litfls Bmep (in pramit Hugha h e ) , m e h m      u -       mila h
  p o d 8ibrroa
       On January 2, the settlement of Dry Forehead, a Chemhee c i   bd
  from Texas, was d e d on Big Boggy. The Chickasaw cornoil
  h o w was passed and a camp made at Ole &may (a short distance
  weet of Fort Washita). The Waabita and Red riven were cnrssed.
  They pasmi through the Cnras Timber0 on January 1 . A hunting
  party of Chmh was met and bear meat bought from the men. On
  January 25, a large party of Kiclrapoo hunters, men, women and
  childrell, was met.
       On arrival in the vicinity of Comanche Peak near the B m
 River, in Taxas, partiea w r dispatched to bring in Com~h.ches
                            ee                                        to
 the council. Wild Cat made a lengthy address of welcome and ex-
 plained that various Indians had been eent by their tribee to artand
 the hand of welcome to their brothers in the West. On March 4, t eyh!
 arrived at Comanche Peak and a salute was fired to the tribes en-
 camped in the neighborhood. The first meeting with the Comanche
 chief, Buffalo Hump, was held the next day. Negotiations continued
 in an encampment at Council Springs, Texas, until May 16 when the
 treaty was signed, rutd the commissionera promised the distribution
 of pre6entf3.u
      The Adwcats asswted on April 3,1845, that several individnals
 f o Arkapsss had gone to Washington to eolicit from President
 Polk the appointment as Cherokee agent. "They however are all
doomed to disappointment, according to M d m Rumor, who whispers
that Qov. Butler i to be re-appointed. We are glad to hear it and
trust that the report may be confirmed." Chickasaw Agent, A.M.M.
Upshaw, warned his friend Superintendent William Armstrong that
Pierce Butler planned to w u r e his position as soon as Henry Clay
was elected president. Butler was so sure of the r e d t of the elwtion
that he offered to wager four mules on the d t M    '

      There was great alarm in the spring of 1846 among the Creek
settlemeats, and those Indians hoped that by inviting the hostile
tribes to a comcil on Deep Fork River that the trouble might be
averted. Invitations were forwarded by Echo Harjo and five other
Creeks to the Comanche, Wichita, Tawakoni, and other t r i k
Representatives of twelve tribes were present. They began amving
on May 2 but no business of the council had been accomplished ten
daya Isttr. Creek Chief Roley M c I n W "expresssd much impatience,
diseatisf'tion, and mortification that his Red Brothers had not
wgponded to his call-particnlarly the Cherokee, as he aaid t h q
hela the wwnptcm              which the tradition8 of theL f-fathm
maid be properly interpreted-       "*
    Agent Butler wrote to C a p h William -8,                        A*
Superintendent "W. T. Choahw Agency" on I d y 2 , 1845, ma-
                                                         La 1
mrning the notee taken by him."
      . . . . a t the late 'general Council' that met in the Cremk Nation, on
the l ~ of May & adjourned on the 16-embodied a l that atsrlrrlly oc-
          t                                             l
mred t h e r e - 4 which I have the honor to tran6nolt for the infomtiom
o yourself and the Department,
     he object was no other than appears upon the face of their pro-
ceedings-to reatore Peace. The Creeks of all other8 ll~lemed to feel
moat concern-mere ie some reason for the belief tbat-the Cree- upon
the Frontier unnecessarily-provoked-thes~ dlffimlties with4088 Border
Tribes. There is no doubt that the Comanchee%-e others o their LLMod-
ates-are in a state of preparation for hostilitiw, & that their anger nil1
be dlfflcult to appeaae. I apprehend the Friendly 'Token' rent by the
Council, if received at all: will not be met in a corresponding 8pWt of
condliation, at this time. But I incline to the opiaion, that If a judiCi0~11
aelectfon be made from the Delaware-(who 8pe~aL their language) & it
rent with the countenance. & direct to our Government, that such a
mediation, would be successful. This is a bare suggestion o mine which
    86Noteo taken at the "Grand Council" by Cherokte Agent Pierca M. Butlm,
IPcbtcn, Superintendency, File A.1830. A long account of this council io to be
found in Adwncirq~~ Frontier, o . dt, pp. 22630.
                    the           p
    sl Office Indian Affairs: West. Supt'y File A-1830-1831. Choctaw A m . 1845.
     The following communication is interesting as a sidelight on Agent Buth'8 per-
s o d bueinese:
                            "A. T. BURNLEY 8 CO.
               "Commissioner & Forwarding Merchants, New Orleanr.
       A d d d to Gov. P. M. Butler, Chemkee Agent Fort G h o n A r W
     'Shipped in good order and well conditioned by A. T- Bumley t Co. on bcmrd
the good Steamer called the Virginian . .. .  now lying in tha Port of New Orleans
and bound for Fort Gibson, Van Buren or Little Rock
                                   Seven Slav-
                  Melinda & three children                         4
                B                                                1
                Sithey 8 &Id

Not accountab1e for l f heahh or Running away
. ...                ie
      Freight for the mid hves $!jo if delivered a Fort G h ,
at Van Buren $30 if delivered at Little Rock
                                                  t                  a
                                                                   if delirepsd
Dated at New Orlaons the 2 t day of June 1845
"Gov. P M. Butler
                                                           Jaa       w.
                                                     Flew Orlt.p~ 4 June 1845
    Fort Gibson
Dau sir
    Annexed we hand you bill of lading for 7 Slav- received on             fron
pmr Red River plantation - We tried very hard t get t e Captain of the m-
                                                   o     h
& to take the Nspp.ose for a 1 price, but could not prmd upom
    h                            -                                        to b
w fsering tbere might not be another boat h d y , we deemed it berr for pr   a
intuwt t rend them now-
                                     "We us mat trPly . &%&'
                                                 A. T L e , C.
                                                     . .
                                                 by F B SwmbcP
 I hope will be redved in the 8pirit in which it Is intended-as       m a w
 for othsn-more competent to mat-     a plan on."    -
     A column and a half in the Cbrokw Adwcots were devoted
on November 6,1845, t charges against Agent ButIer by Lieutenant
Colonel Richard B. Mason of the First Dragoons. H b e d a
pamphlet dated May 28 but not made publie u t l August 10. Thia
pamphlet w s given to Butler while he was in Wsahingfon tram-
acting busin-.    In hh amwer Butler wrote regarding a paragraph
w i h read as follows:
      "The Cherokee Agent had better now turn hi8 attention to the report.
 that are in circulation among the 'people that are committed to his awe,'
 charging him with the nonpayment of their dues in some inetanm and In
 others, in withholding them until their necessities and wants compel them
 to sell their claim, a t a heavy loss to Drew and Fields, who find no dif-
 ficulty 'tis said, in promptly receiving the full amount from the A e a  gmn
      [Butler replied to these statements a8 follows:]
     "It indicated the character of its author, aa emanating from one, who,
in an official controversary, with an adversary, ie governed, rather by the
spirit of vindictive revenge, to which he yields a blind obedience, than
a sense of justice or honor, that looks for evidence before it makes its char&.
     "It is of a piece with his memorial to the War Department in which,
false suggestion is found, in an official paper to give vent to irreupoxmfble
malignity-The individual in both instances seeks refuge under the namm
of others. .. .Let the refutation of the calumny, to be found i the following
letter, rebuke its insidious circulator. A man of magnaninity would, at
once, yield to its influence, and would not heaitate to repair tbe wrong
which his reckless libel has inflicted.
     "But, from Col. Mason, I expect no such thing:-Vigilant            only ln
looking for the means of gratifying lurking resentment; and when he
cannot find those which honor would approve, with a viper's promptness
he strikes a t the rattling of the brainless. . . . ."
    T. Hartley Crawford replying to Governor Butler at Columbia,
South Carolina on September 25, 1845, oategoriaally denied Mason'e'
chargee and added :
                                "War Department Office Indian Affair8
                                       "Sept. IS, 1845
    "The Cherokee Delegation, now in this city, conaQting of John Rorrs
& others, are empowered by a Resolution of their National Council to
receive any monies due to their nation. Thie authority having been
presented to the Secretary of War he directs that the sum of $10,000 be
paid to them out of the appropriation for arreages of annaitiee &c.
    "The funds being in your hands you will pay over that sum to the
Delegation, in conformity with the order of the Secretary-
                                      "Very respectfully
                                                Your most Obt
                                                 " . Hartley Crawford
"P. M. Butler Esq
    late Cherokee Agent
        now in Washington"
    " . . . And I deem it a duty to state that during the time you have
been associated with this department, mur dticial duties have been d i e
charged to ita entire satisfaction: and I take this occasion to say that I do
     Crawford seslrt letters from Richard Fields and John D e .  rw
Edda wrote: "I have never known you sa a public officer or private
i t dvd a to be benef'itted, directly or indirectly, through Drew and
 ;r i i a l
FWb, or to my knowledge through others, to the eqmm a one       f
osof to any I d a d t h ~ bor indeed any other claimant upon
               nin                ,
the publie funds in your hsncda for disbnreement." At Columbia S. C .
on OBtober 2,1845,John DIXW       wrote : "1 fully concur with Judge
FSda in his statement contained in the above 'extmxt.' '=
     la a Memorial covering two and a half pagea of the Cherokce
ddooscrts, on June 18, 1846, signed by Principal Chief John ]&oss
and eight other of the moet prominent men of the Cherokee N t o ,
is the followinjg regarding Governor Butler: "Governor Pierce M.
Butler, who had been for some time the Cherokee agent, and who
enjoyed the entire confidence not only of his own government,-
but dm of each of the three parties into which the nation was un-
happily divided, end whose paition gave him advantages of knowing
the true state of facts which w r not enjoyed by any other
         . ..
person. . ,t
     Butler, in an advertisement in the Aduocate, on July 17, 1845,
 advised "Certain Cherokee Claim1~~ts",      that he would be at the
 Agency all through the month of July, in compIianc8 with the recent
 inutmctions from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, "to receive
  for tranaminnion to Wmhingbn, all certificates of transportation or
  sabrsietance commutation yet unsettled.  . . . ." This advertisement
. atrrtea that the agent would "be pleased to receive at the aame t i m e
  any other individual cls'hs Similar to &oae above specified, whiob
  have not been fully acted upon by the government, and in mpport of
  which the parties may have evidence in possession."
       A notice was printed in several issue8 of the Aduocats that on
  Angnst 16 a d e t y to enconrage agriculture and the domestic arts
  w u be organised and five silver c u p would be given aa premiums
    ol  d
  by Agent Butler for the best displays of homespun cloth, belts and
  BOdLO, and metrletac8@
       The September 18,1845 h e of the Aduocuts axmound that al       l
  doubts as to the appointment of an agent for the Cherokcm had been
      It was reportad that "The temperance movement grew until it
 transcesded m intareat d other subjects of gemaal ooneem in tbe
 Cherokee Nation?' Dnring that period Pierce M Bntlew wae the
 Agent, and in his laat mport before he joined the m y to ptdoipak
 in the Mexiam War he
     "Temperance has been a Qod-wnd to the Cherokee nation. UI pra~r+w
 ha8 been marked by a mucce8aful supres8ion of rice, m d a h.ppy m -
 of the tarbalent and depraved psaeione. The number oi manbum 1, am  .
 will be seen, about 2,700-a
                                   larger proportion ot the whole peoph than
 can be found f m y other of equal extent of populatloa
      '#Theeaving lufluence o this [temperance] Ioclety tihowa itu,lf not only
 In the voluntary abstinence from the use of spirits, but also in their mlniimt
 demonetration o an intention. to prevent its importation lnto t h e
 country.     ....
      'Tmm       o b a e m t i n aad acquaintance with the Indian tribe& I am
 decidedly of the opinion that all restrictive laws or arbitrary             by
superior power is productive of evil conaeqaences.     .. .. The a - t of tho
present law b to introduce by stealth, liquors oi a bad quality, and at
exhorbitant prime, whilst the consumption is induced by Lrolia I 8 rpirit
and temper in proportion to the efforts to restrain the in~linatlon.~
       Agent Butler's report regarding the Cherokee printing press war
copied in the Advocde for April 2, 1846:41
     T h e Printlng Press .
vantage J t seemed to promise
                              . . .. . . .
                                     by no means ham failed to render the a
                                           This press haa been chiefly m u -
mental in plaqing the Cherokee6 one half a century in advance bf thedr l b  a
condition; providing an easy and c h a p mode of diffaing intitraction among
the people, and stimulating them to further exertion and improvement.        . .. .
     "Aa belng Intimately connected with tbie preen, the moet hononbla
mention must be made of George Qucss, a native Cherokee-inventor d
the Cherokee alphabet-the genius of hie race-the Clulmnr of the age.        ...."     ,
    On January 4, 1847 Butler wrote the following letter to H a
William Medill from Hamburg, South Carolina :
     "I feel deeply the ambarrasing aitaation in which I am placed Both
duty cmd honor prompted me to be in Weshlngton City two monthr yo
to a&
    s      in the settlement & clodng of the lcccounts created by my-
& Col. Lewis Indian C o ~ i o n e m .A part of the time I w a unable to
turn i my bed from chronic Rheumatism, & since I have been engaged Sn
organizing a Regiment for active service in t e field against Medoo.
    "I beg you & the Department will entertain thia whole mbject in tha
liberal & jnet epirft that it m m 8 t cl for. The duty wao 8 mmt
                                      o al
arduous and responsible one. It waa executed with seal and fidelity.
    The greater portion of the time not only waa I broken down by
d h a w contracted by exposure, which put my life f o r a t h o i great
      UGnnt Farulaur, "A ~t~       of P a - f f   c h f a of    0
                                                                -            Vd
12,   No. 2
         (Jlure, 19341, p. 139.
      4lCudyn   ThoMl Foranan, OkJdCatnu Impriftts (Norman, 1936). p. 79.
          b tra6, eminently true that a largm oat lay of money WWI made
tb~n   cmght t have been for the mnic8, bat I respeetrnU~8-
                o                                                           tlut
the pacallrv dranmtaacer of the case, the C o w favolved I a border n
war, and crtter I bscsme proatrate, my collesgne was more thaa employed
in conciliatfag the different element6 of dfrroord around him.
      "1 ctm but believe an i -        public opinion, with 811 the facts before
tbam have abundantly approved the wisdom ot the measure directing thia
aJIsicm-that the action of the Commission has been approved.
      "In the strictures passed by the head of your Bureau on these ac-
writ. in passing to the Second Auditors office-I            can but believe &
declsre that your motive was a strict discharge of a high public trust-
bug under all the embarrl~~lming     considerations that less clog thrown on
t e from so reeponsible a Bureau would have been more in the spirit
of liberal justice.
      "I have for the last week been debating the propoeition of go            on
 to Washington immediately & m i n g what immediate aid I could give%ese
 accounts, and by making to the accounting officers & the Department as
 full f i & explicit explanations as the case ie susceptable of-in
        ar                                                                    the
 Llndert spirit to acltnowledge when I thought we had need Bt submit all
 the matters to some final adjustment.
       T h i s has been my inclination & at one time from a sense of justice
 to myself, & a respect to the Department had determined me to have left
 here on the 1st day of January last.,-looking a t the other side of the
 picture, when good faith & duty to the State-to the Country-+ above
 all to the claims of young & gallant spirits, who have committed them-
 selves voluntarily to my control & command, & who are unwilling that I
  mhould meparate myself from them. I am no longer a t liberty to judge
 o r take other action than to obey the call of the Country to take the
  field & aid in the vindication of the righta of the Country. Could I in this
  state of conflicting duties have received an invitation or order from the
  Department to have gone on to Washington I should have in some sort
  have been relieved from a part of the difficulty.
       -In the interim, I extremely regret the inconvenience to my Colleague,
  nmy8elf & to the Department-it is under all the circumstances now un-
  avoidable, & I must under every contingency proceed with the Regiment.
       "I will the moment I discharge my present obligations to the Country
   in a state of war-repair to Washington City with a view of closing this
   protracted & unpleaacmt mimion.
                                "I have the honor to be very Respectfully
                                               Yr Obt Bert
                                                        P. M. Butler"
   Hon. Wm. Medill
   Commi8eidner Indian Affairs.
       Churubnsco, a small village s x mile8 south of the city of Mesico,
  was the scene of one of the bloodiest battles fought by North American
  troops during the Mexican War. The convent church of San Pablo
  was converted into a fort; this ancient building was situated on an
  eminence and surrounded by stone walls and building^.^ After the

        Hcapcr's Ency&pocdia of United SIB^ History (New York, 19021, VoL 2,
  pp. 15465. The monastery of C h u m b ~ well presemd and it contains many
      pna of the battle. Then is a handborne monument erected in honor of the
  ELcam who loet their live, there. The gardens are beautiful and the historic
  ~ b d ~ a r i r i t .
 defeat at Confrerarr, the Mexieam mnt all of their stam and artill-
  them. This villsge was oonnected with Mexico City by a
  where much of the fighting took place. History relates that 9,000
  American soldiers and 32,000 Mexicans participated in the battle
 which resulted in victory for the United States on Aagnst % ,       I
 Four thousand Mexi-        were killed and 3,000 made prisoner. The
 Americdne loet in killed and wounded about 11 0 and among tham
 was the distingnished Pi-        M. Butler a t the head of his 8011th
 Carolina Palmetto Regiment.
        . .. . The Palmetto Regiment di&hqubhed i W on the field
 under Pierce M. Butler, J. P. Dickinson, and A. H. Gladden. The
 palmetto flag w s the first to enter the Mexicsn capitsl. Of the
 1,100 volunteers who saw active service in that wsr, only about 300
 returned. "43
      Soon after the battle commenced at Churubuaco, General Scott
 sent two brigades, under the command of Thomas Premtt Pierce and
 Hamilton Leroy Shields, by the left through the fields in order to
 attack the enemy f o the rear. Shields advanced with hie force of
sixteen hundred through marshy ground for a long distance; but he
 wa8 exposed to the entire fire of the enemy and failed to outflank the
Mexicans. The Palmettos of South Carolina were badly cut up and
finally took shelter in and about a large barn near the causeway
where Santa Anna's reserv-four        thousand foot and three thousand
horse--were planted. Shield's called for volunteers to follow him
and his appeal was instantly answered by Colonel Pierce Mason
Butler who cried: "Every South Carolinian will follow you to the
     Shields led the courageous men, under inceawnt d o t against
the Mexican reaerves:u
    "Not a trigger was pulled till they stood at s hundred fifty par& from
the enemy. Then the little band poured in their volley.        ....
already wounded, was shot through the head and died imtantly. Calling
to the Palmettos to avenge his death, Shields gives the word to charge.
~urely                        . . . . ..
They chargenot four hundred in all-
         posted under cover.
                                            . . upon four thousand MsxfcatlS
                                       Dickineon, who eucceeded Butl- in
command of the Palmettos, seiees the colors se the bearer Z l r derd;
the next moment he is down himself, mortally wounded.   .. .  ."
     &nerd Jamea Shields writing to Governor David Johnson on
September 2, 1847, described the battle as "one of the maet terrifia
fires to which mldiers were ever subjected." Colonel Butlew was
wounded in one of his legs early in the battle but continued t a d v ~ ~ ~ e e
anti1 a musket ball through his head caused instantaneous desth.

           &dk *k Pdnutto S1.a (Nm YO* 1911).
    UJohoBanna,'TheMexiun Wu," The Grcas Eamtsof -
(1906) V d 17.73.
98                             t3bdda of $ k h h m
H w e . Atcbrding t a ebute i the Chmksa m,
                    a          n                      &ptcm@
80,1847, Butler was jort and showed -pay     for the &mkea&
     Pbrm M Baler wan tall and dMng&hed in persod a p
            By temperament he was more of a military offiem than
 .               H
                " e waa marked, however, by broad meid interesb
and at t h e time of his death' waa a member of many fraternal
exqpizationta in hm date.''


     UDSerionmy tf A-
     .L h
 OE B t i m

         of A

     4 I=:
                                Bia~aphy,op. ck, VoL 3 p. 566: The N d n d Cy-
                     l h g m p h y , (New York, 1904). VoL 1 , p- 168. The biog.
                             oj Americe~Bbgrsphy waa written by F'ranci~P
                tditiam h the B a k f j .Pierce Mason Butler ooa &
                                     d chP
     u.edn(Cg~mrnorofFlori&d ' a l e a t s o f ~ o f A p d r e r J s c k r a n . Upon

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