THE MIDDLE EAST
U.S. Foreign Policy
Reasons for U.S. involvement in the Middle East
• Cold War
• Contain communism & Soviet influence
• Establish allies & pro-U.S. governments
• Arab-Israeli Conflict
• US support for Jewish state
• Middle East = 80% of world’s oil reserves
• After WWI
• Jewish immigration =
TRUMAN Foreign Policy
1947: UN Partition Plan
• partition of Palestine into
Jewish and Arab states
• Jerusalem to be an
• The plan
• Led to creation of Israel
• rejected by the
• never implemented
1 st ARAB-ISRAELI WAR
Israeli War for Independence
1948 : Creation of Israel
• Caused 1st Arab-Israeli war
• Arab armies attack Israel
• US supported Israel
• But beginning to understand the importance of
Arab nations to US economy (oil)
• War results in
• a divided Jerusalem
• 650,000 Palestinian refugees
• 8 months of fighting =
• Israel holds 77% of
• Jews from Arab
migration into Israel
• The Israeli Knesset
passes law which
entitles any Jew to full
• Jordan annexes
• East Jerusalem
• West Bank
• Egypt controls
• Gaza Strip
2 nd ARAB-ISRAELI WAR
1956 : Suez Crisis
• Egyptian leader , Gamal Abdel Nasser
nationalization of the Suez Canal
• In part because of US refusal to give
economic aid for building of Aswan Dam
• British, French and Israeli military campaign in
• Israeli troops captured Egypt's Sinai peninsula
• US helps negotiate Israeli withdrawal from Sinai
to be replaced with a UN force
• US forces allies’ withdrawal; Eisenhower threatens
economic sanctions on Israel if it failed to do so
JOHNSON Foreign Policy
• Palestinian Liberation Organization
(PLO) is established, with the stated
aim of “eliminating Zionism in
• Yasser Arafat
3rd ARAB-ISRAELI WAR
Six Day War
1967 : Six-Day War JOHNSON
• ordered UN troops out of
• blocked Israeli shipping
• pre-emptive attack on
• drew Syria and
Jordan into war
• Israel made massive
• the West Bank
• Gaza Strip
• Golan Heights
• the Sinai Peninsula
up to the Suez Cana
• All of Jerusalem
• 600,000 Palestinians become refugees
• Israel begins establishing settlements in occupied
• Jordan drives PLO out of Jordan
• PLO forms base in southern Lebanon
• Egypt’s “War of Attrition” against Israel, with
Soviets aiding Nasser, leads to UNSC Res. 242
• UNSC Res 242 calls for Israeli withdrawal and
establishes “land for peace” principle
• basis of Arab-Israeli negotiations
• based on Israel giving up land won in the 1967
war in return for peace deals recognizing Israeli
borders and its right to security
NIXON Foreign Policy
• Black September in Jordan, the
conflict between Palestinian guerrilla
organizations and King Hussein of
Jordan that began in September 1970
and ended in July 1971 with the
expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon.
• Black September (group), a Palestinian
organization named after the conflict.
• Black September, the terrorist events
during the Munich 1972 Olympics
• occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in
Munich, West Germany,
• when members of the Israeli Olympic team were
taken hostage by the Palestinian organization Black
September, a militant group with ties to Yasser
• killed eleven Israeli athletes and one German
• 5 of the 8 terrorists killed by police officers during
an aborted rescue attempt
• The three surviving captured fedayeen were later
released by Germany following the hijacking of a
• Israel responded w/ series of Israeli air strikes and
assassinations of the principal planners
Black September terrorists on balcony of the Israeli team quarters at the Olympic village
4 th ARAB-ISRAELI WAR
Yom Kippur War
1973: Yom Kippur War
• Egypt and Syria attack Israel
• No territorial change
• U.S. support for Israel in Yom Kippur War resulted
• an oil embargo against the U.S. by the Arab nations
• lasts for 5 months
• The Yom Kippur War altered America’s
relationship with the countries of the Middle East
• U.S. learned that in the future , the U.S. would have to
consider the interests of the Arab nations as well as
those of Israel
THE 70s ECONOMY
• First time since World War II, the United
States faced an insufficient fuel supply
• to counter OPEC, the United States took the
lead in forming the International Energy
• most significant cause of 1970s inflation was
a large increase in the price of oil
• responses to the energy crisis in 1973-1974
• sanctioned the construction of the Alaskan pipeline
• enacted a 55–mile–an–hour speed limit
• agitation mounted to use more coal and nuclear
CARTER Foreign Policy
CAMP DAVID ACCORDS
• Begin wins Israeli elections.
• Settlements in occupied territories increase.
• Egypt’s President Sadat goes to Israel
• expresses desire for ―permanent peace based on justice‖
• calls for Palestinian right to own state
• Camp David Accords –negotiations led by President Carter,
• Sinai returned to Egypt in exchange for recognition of Israel
• sets framework for settling Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
• Arab League expels Egypt.
• Israel invades Lebanon, occupies its southern border.
• The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt
1978 Camp David Agreement
• Carter’s most spectacular achievement
• Met for two weeks with :
• Egyptian leader = Anwar Sadat
• Israeli leader = Menachem Begin
• Carter’s diplomatic efforts led to
• A decrease in tensions between Egypt and Israel
• a formal peace treaty
• Israel agreed to return the Sinai to Egypt
• Egypt recognized Israel’s “right to exist”
Areas of Continued Conflict
CARTER Foreign Policy
• From the 1950s until the 1970s, United States policy toward
Iran emphasized political and military support of the Shah
• 1978 – revolution replaced the Shah with Ayatollah Khomeini
• US support of the Shah = anti-American feelings by the revolutionaries
• 1979 : Carter allowed the exiled Shah to come to the US in
for medical treatment
• Led to Iranian hostage crisis
• Iranians took over the US embassy in Teheran taking hostages
• return of Shah to Iran for trial
• that his wealth be confiscated and given to Iran
• US Response:
• rejected those demands & established a trade embargo against Iran &
appealed to the UN & later (1980) failed military rescue
• President Carter took the action of negotiating the release of the
hostages after more than a year of captivity
• 1981 Hostages released
• major contributing factor to the rising inflation =
dependence on foreign oil supplies
• INFLATION: 1976 – 11% (2005- 3%)
• In his “malaise” speech, Jimmy Carter said that
America was experiencing a “crisis of
confidence” and needed to decrease its
dependence on foreign oil
• believed that the fundamental problem of the
American economy in the late 1970s was U.S.
dependence on foreign oil
• raising the tax on gasoline
• taxing autos that were not fuel efficient
• Perhaps Jimmy Carter’s greatest
weakness as president was his lack of
• Propose complex programs to Congress but
not see them through the legislative process
• By the end of the Carter administration,
the economy was plagued by
• inflation running at over 10 percent
• interest rates near 20 percent
• a major fuel shortage (1979)
President Carter’s foreign policy
• guiding principle = HUMAN RIGHTS
• signed treaties restoring Panamanian sovereignty
over the Canal Zone
• 1978 treaty that would go into effect 1999
• China established formal diplomatic relations
with mainland China (1979)
President Carter’s Foreign Policy
• SOVIET UNION
• renewal of the Strategic Arms Limitation
• The Salt II arms control agreement
• opposition from conservatives in the Senate
because of distrust of the Soviet Union
• Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
• US response to the Soviet invasion of
• The SALT II Treaty died in the Senate
• U.S. Boycotts the 1980 Olympic Games (held in
What was the name of the strong Muslim rebel
group that was intent on overthrowing the
communist, pro-Soviet government in
Afghanistan that caused the Soviets Union to
send troops to Afghanistan in 1979 ?
Why was the SALT II agreement with
the Soviet Union never ratified by
the US Senate ?
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
•Areas of Continued Conflict
Jerusalem: Before 1967
• 1948 Jerusalem
• Between 1949
• Israel controlled
the western part
• Jordan took the
including the old
Jerusalem: After 1967
• Israel captured
the whole of
Jerusalem in 1967
• The city's status
• Israel determined
Jerusalem be its
capital in East
THE WEST BANK
• 1993 Declaration of
Principles resulting from
the Oslo peace process,
• =several handovers of
land to differing degrees
of Palestinian control.
• Currently 59% of the
West Bank is officially
under Israeli civil and
• Another 23% of it is
under Palestinian civil
control, but Israeli
• The remainder of the
territory is governed by
the Palestinian National
Authority - although
such areas have been
subject to Israeli
incursions during the
• areas of
• = mainly
• = ~ 8.5% of the
• ~2.3 million
Palestinians live in
the West Bank +
• ~6.7 million
people live in
• ~1.3 million = Israeli
• Since 1967, Israel
has pursued a
policy of building
settlements on the
• These cover about
2% of the area of
the West Bank and
are linked by
• There are also
large tracts of
as military areas
or nature reserves.
• Military checkpoints on
West Bank roads allow
Israel to monitor and
control travel in much of
the West Bank.
• During the recent
Palestinian INTIFADA ,
Israeli troops have also
encircled and staged
incursions into population
centers and severely
restricted the movement
of Palestinian civilians.
• 2002, Israel began
building a security
barrier near the north-
western edge of the West
THE GAZA STRIP
Gaza Strip: Population
• Gaza, one of the most
densely populated tracts
of land in the world,
• is home to about 1.3m
• about 33% of whom live
in United Nations-funded
• About 8,000 Jewish
settlers also lived in the
Gaza Strip until
September 2005 when
they and the troops that
protected them were
• Before the withdrawal,
travel in and out of Gaza
was severely restricted for
Access and security
• Israel controls Gaza's
airspace, coast and
most of its borders.
• 2005 Israel agreed to
allow the Palestinians
and Egypt to control
the Rafah crossing
point, and to
through Erez and
Karni crossing points.
• The construction of a
sea port was also
given the go-ahead.
• The future of Gaza's
destroyed airport is
yet to be agreed
• Israeli government declares Jerusalem its eternal, undivided capital
• Israel annexes Golan Heights, captured from Syria in 1967.
• Israel invades Lebanon a second time and lays siege to Beirut.
• PLO moves its headquarters from Beirut to Tunis.
• Reagan Peace Initiative
• Fez Summit Peace Proposal
• Intifada, a Palestinian popular uprising against the Israeli occupation
of the territories, begins in Gaza and spreads to West Bank
• The PLO accepts UN resolution 242 and 338, renounces violence and
recognizes the right of Israel to exist within its pre-1967 borders.
• The United States opens dialogue with the PLO.
• Hamas, also known as the Islamic Resistance Movement is founded.
• Gulf War begins in January in response to Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990.
• Madrid Conference – Israel and Arabs begin bilateral and multilateral negotiations.
• Bush-Baker Administration holds up $10 Billion in U.S. loan-guarantees to Israel (fiscal
years 1993 to 1997) in attempt to limit Israeli settlement building.
• Israel expels 415 Palestinians suspected of pro-Islamist sympathies to South Lebanon.
• Oslo Peace Process, the agreement between the two sides to make gradual steps
towards a final settlement of the conflict, begins.
• Clinton hosts PLO and Israel signing of the ―Declaration of Principles.‖
• Israel recognizes the PLO and gives it limited
autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza, creating the
• In return, the PLO gives up its claims to Israel’s
territory as defined by its pre-1967 borders. First
Hamas suicide attack.
• Palestinian Authority is established in Gaza and Jericho.
• Arafat arrives in Gaza.
• Jordan & Israel sign peace treaty.
• Rabin, Peres, Arafat receive Nobel Peace Prize.
• “Oslo II” establishes 3 areas in West Bank: Area A— direct Palestinian
control. Area B –jointly controlled: Palestinian civilian control and Israeli
security control. Area C – exclusive Israeli control. Prime Minister Rabin
is assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic in Tel Aviv.
• Palestinians elect Yasser Arafat as President.
• Israel launches ―Operation Grapes of Wrath‖ in southern Lebanon
• Netanyahu becomes Prime Minister of Israel.
• Summit in Washington between Arafat, Netanyahu, King Hussein, and
• Hebron Protocol signed dividing city of Hebron.
• Israel starts building a settlement, Har Homa, on a hill overlooking East
Jerusalem resulting in widespread protests.
• Peace process frozen.
• Wye River Memorandum, outlining further Israeli withdrawal from the
West Bank, is signed but frozen.
• PLO postpones declaration of statehood.
• Barak elected as Prime Minister, pledges to work for peace.
• Sharm el Sheik memorandum signed between Israel and PLO, final
status talks begin.
• President Clinton attends PNC Meeting in Gaza.
• Camp David II – Clinton-led negotiations on final status issues
• between Barak and Arafat breakdown,
• largely over the issue of Jerusalem.
• Sharon makes provocative visit to Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif.
• Protesting Israeli-Arabs shot by Israeli police.
• Second Intifada, a violent and sustained uprising, begins.
• Taba Talks: Arafat and Barak find common ground but no agreements.
• Bush inaugurated.
• Sharon elected Prime Minister.
• Violence escalates.
• Mitchell Report released.
• Ceasefire attempts are made but broken
• Reoccupation of Palestinian areas begins.
• Arafat placed under house arrest.
• Occupation of Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.
• Saudi Crown Prince peace plan, endorsed by Arab League, promises
recognition of Israel for ending occupation.
• UNSC Res. 1397 affirms 2-state vision, welcomes Saudi initiative and
• President Bush declares vision for a ―viable Palestinian state next to a
• Israel begins construction of ―security fence‖ around the West Bank.
• US-initiated war in Iraq.
• Occupation of Iraq begins.
• The Road Map is released by the US, UN, Russia and the EU.
• Geneva Accords and People’s Voice Initiative released.
• Sharon announces unilateral Gaza withdrawal plan and gains U.S.
• Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies.
• International Court of Justice rules that the route of Israel’s ―separation
barrier‖ violates international law.
• Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian Authority on a non-
• Second Intifada ends with Sharm el-Sheikh summit in February and
declaration of cease-fire by militant groups in March.
• In State of the Union address Bush recommits to two-state solution and
asks Congress for additional aid to the Palestinians.
• Gaza withdrawal is completed in September.
• Prime Minister Sharon suffers a serious stroke;
• Deputy PM Ehud Olmert assumes power.
• Hamas, which is on the US State Department’s list of terrorist
organizations, wins majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council
• Lebanon-Israeli War