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					                               thema


Salamanca Convention 2001
The Bologna Process and the European
Higher Education Area




Convention de Salamanque 2001
Processus de Bologne et Espace européen
de l’enseignement supérieur
                2


      WHAT IS EUA ?     The European University Association represents more than 620 individual, collective and affiliate
                        members, located in 45 countries: higher education institutions; national rectors’ conferences and
                        national associations of other higher education institutions; finally, regional and international asso-
                        ciations and networks, as well as interuniversity institutions.

                        Founded on 31 March 2001 to strenghten the representation of higher education institutions in
                        Europe, EUA is the result of a merger between CRE (Association of European Universities) and the
                        Confederation of European Union Rectors’ Conferences.

                        EUA aims to promote and safeguard values and the case for university autonomy, to represent
                        higher education and research in policy-making circles, to develop a European dimension in mem-
                        bers’ activities, to provide information and other relevant services to members, to promote part-
                        nerships in higher education and research within Europe, and between Europe and the rest of the
                        world. The goal of building a common European area for higher education and research activities
                        guides EUA’s endeavours.




QU'EST-CE QUE L’EUA ?   L’Association Européenne de l’Université représente plus de 620 membres individuels, collectifs et
                        affiliés, situés dans 45 pays: institutions d’enseignement supérieur; conférences nationales de rec-
                        teurs d’université et associations nationales d’autres institutions d’enseignement supérieur; enfin,
                        associations et réseaux régionaux et internationaux, ainsi qu’institutions interuniversitaires.

                        L’EUA a été fondée le 31 mars 2001, suite à la fusion de la CRE (Association des Universités
                        Européennes) et de la Confédération des Conférences des Recteurs de l’Union européenne pour
                        renforcer la voix du monde de l’enseignement supérieur en Europe.

                        Elle a pour objectif de promouvoir et maintenir les valeurs de l’université ainsi que son autonomie,
                        de représenter le monde européen de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche dans les discus-
                        sions politiques le concernant; de développer la dimension européenne des activités de ses
                        membres; de leur fournir de l’information et d’autres services; de susciter des partenariats pour
                        l’enseignement supérieur et la recherche au sein de l’Europe ainsi qu’avec les autres régions du
                        monde. La participation à la construction d’un double espace européen de l’enseignement supé-
                        rieur et de la recherche oriente l’ensemble des activités de l’EUA.

                        EUA Genève                                                                  EUA Bruxelles
                        10 rue du Conseil Général                                                   Rue d’Arlon 39-41
                        CH - 1211 Genève 4                                                          B – 1000 Bruxelles
                        tel. +41 22 3292644/3292251                                                 tel. +32 2 2305544
                        fax +41 22 3292821                                                          fax +32 2 2305751
                        info@eua.unige.ch                                                           info@eua.be
                        http//www.unige.ch/eua




                          Editeur/Publisher:        EUA Genève
                          Rédaction/Editors:        Dr Andris Barblan
                                                    Catherine Fayant (catherine.fayant@eua.unige.ch)
                          Graphiste/Designer:       Thierry Clauson
                          Imprimerie/Printer:       Cojo sa/Somco Publicité
3


     5   EDITORIAL
         Andris Barblan, Secretary General / Secrétaire général

     7   MESSAGE FROM SALAMANCA

    10   MESSAGE DE SALAMANQUE

    13   BOTSCHAFT VON SALAMANCA

    16   MENSAJE DE SALAMANCA

    19                              ´
         ACTO DE INAUGURACION DE LA CONVENCION   ´
         DE INSTITUCIONES DE LA ENSEÑANZA SUPERIOR
         Su Alteza Real, el Príncipe de Asturias

    21   CÉRÉMONIE D’OUVERTURE DE LA CONVENTION
         DES INSTITUTIONS D’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPÉRIEUR
         Viviane Reding, Membre de la Commission européenne,
         responsable de l’Education et de la Culture

    25   POTENTIAL CONVERGENCE AND THE COST OF STATU QUO
         Josep M. Bricall, Universitat de Barcelona

    34   CHANGES NEEDED AT UNIVERSITIES AND OTHER HIGHER
         EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN ORDER TO CREATE A COHERENT,
         COMPATIBLE, OPEN AND COMPETITIVE EUROPEAN HIGHER
         EDUCATION AREA
         Klaus Landfried, President, Hochschulrektorenkonferenz

    37   CONDITIONS FOR THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE
         CONVERGENCE PROCESS IN EUROPE — Roundtable of Stakeholders
         • David Coyne, Director, Directorate A - Education, European Commission
         • Gerd Köhler, Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft (GEW)
         • Stefan Bienefeld, Member of ESIB Executive Committee

    41   CONCLUSIONS OF THE WORK OF THEMATIC GROUPS
         Konrad Osterwalder, Rapporteur, Rector, ETH Zürich

    45   Appendix
         UNIVERSITIES AND THE BOLOGNA PROCESS
         Mary O’Mahony, EUA expert
5


    EDITORIAL


    This issue of Thema is a first in various ways.   Ce numéro de Thema est une première à plu-
                                                      sieurs points de vue.
    On the one hand, it includes the proceedings
    of the conference that concluded with the         D’une part, il présente les Actes de la confé-
    creation of EUA. On the other hand, it            rence qui déboucha sur la création de l’EUA.
    launches a new thematic publication series        D’autre part, il lance une nouvelle collection de
    that will highlight important aspects of the      cahiers thématiques qui mettra en lumière des
    association’s activities.                         points importants de l’activité de l’association.

    Another first: the Salamanca Convention. With     Autre première: la Convention de Salamanque.
    support from the Conference of Rectors of         Soutenue par la Conférence des Recteurs des
    Spanish Universities, the Spanish government      Universités espagnoles, par le gouvernement
    and the European Commission, the                  espagnol et par la Commission européenne,
    Convention aimed at preparing the position        elle avait pour but de préparer la prise de posi-
    of universities regarding the Bologna Process.    tion des universités face au processus de
    The conclusions of the Convention served as       Bologne, et c’est sur cette base que le nouveau
    a basis for the intervention of the newly-        Président, le professeur Eric Froment, s’est
    appointed EUA President, Prof. Eric Froment,      adressé à la rencontre des Ministres à Prague,
    at the Prague meeting of Ministers, on 18-19      les 18 et 19 mai, affirmant par là la présence
    May, where he confirmed the political pre-        politique de la nouvelle association dans le
    sence of the new association in the process of    processus d’intégration européenne de l’ensei-
    integration of European higher education.         gnement supérieur.

    Therefore you will find hereafter the             Vous trouverez donc ci-après le message de
    Salamanca message, a result of the consulta-      Salamanque, résultat de la consultation des
    tion of members on the development of a           membres sur le développement d’un Espace
    European Area of Higher Education, followed       européen de l’enseignement supérieur, suivi
    by the main contributions to the debate which     des interventions principales qui ont nourri
    enabled the drafting of this message. You will    les débats conduisant à la formulation de ce
    also find at the end of the publication the       message. Figure à la fin du cahier le docu-
    background document provided to partici-          ment de base proposé aux participants pour
    pants in order to structure the discussion of     structurer la discussion des six thèmes princi-
    the six main themes included in the Bologna       paux de la Déclaration de Bologne, document
    Declaration, a document prepared by CRE and       préparé par la CRE et la Confédération — qui
    the Confederation — which merged on 31            fusionnèrent le 31 mars pour donner nais-
    March into EUA.                                   sance à l’EUA.

    This publication and much of the preparatory      Cette publication a été rendue possible,
    work carried out for the meeting of Salamanca     comme une bonne partie des travaux menant
    were made possible thanks to the generous         à la réunion de Salamanque, grâce au soutien
    support of the Swiss Confederation.               généreux de la Confédération Helvétique.

    Andris Barblan, Secretary General                 Andris Barblan, Secrétaire général
     7


             MESSAGE FROM SALAMANCA
             SHAPING THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA


             Over 300 European higher education institu-         over-regulation and minute administrative
             tions and their main representative organisa-       and financial control of higher education in
             tions gathered in Salamanca on 29-30 March          many countries is upheld. Competition serves
             2001. Their purpose was to prepare their input      quality in higher education, is not exclusive
             to the Prague meeting of the Ministers in charge    of cooperation and cannot be reduced to
             of higher education in the countries involved in    a commercial concept. Universities in some
             the Bologna Process; they have agreed on the        countries in Europe are not yet in a position
             following goals, principles and priorities:         to compete on equal terms and are in par-
                                                                 ticular faced with unwanted brain drain
             Shaping the future                                  within Europe.

             European higher education institutions re-          Education as a public responsibility
             affirm their support to the principles of the
             Bologna Declaration and their commitment            The European Higher Education Area must be
             to the creation of the European Higher              built on the European traditions of education
             Education Area by the end of the decade.            as a public responsibility; of broad and open
             They see the establishing of the European           access to undergraduate as well as graduate
             University Association (EUA) in Salamanca to        studies; of education for personal development
             be of both symbolic and practical value in          and lifelong learning; and of citizenship as well
             conveying their voice more effectively to           as of short and long-term social relevance.
             governments and society and thus in sup-
             porting them shape their own future in the          Research-based higher education
             European Higher Education Area.
                                                                 As research is a driving force of higher educa-
PRINCIPLES   Autonomy with accountability                        tion, the creation of the European Higher
                                                                 Education Area must go hand in hand with
             Progress requires that European universities        that of the European Research Area.
             be empowered to act in line with the guiding
             principle of autonomy with accountability. As       Organising diversity
             autonomous and responsible legal, educa-
             tional and social entities, they confirm their      European higher education is characterised
             adhesion to the principles of the Magna             by its diversity in terms of languages, national
             Charta Universitatum of 1988 and, in particu-       systems, institutional types and profiles and
             lar, to that of academic freedom. Thus, uni-        curricular orientation. At the same time, its
             versities must be able to shape their strate-       future depends on its ability to organise this
             gies, choose their priorities in teaching and       valuable diversity effectively to produce posi-
             research, allocate their resources, profile their   tive outcomes rather than difficulties, and
             curricula and set their criteria for the accept-    flexibility rather than opacity. Higher educa-
             ance of professors and students. European           tion institutions wish to build on convergence
             higher education institutions accept the chal-      — in particular on common denominators
             lenges of operating in a competitive environ-       shared across borders in a given subject area
             ment at home, in Europe and in the world,           — and to deal with diversity as an asset,
             but to do so they need the necessary mana-          rather than as a reason for non-recognition or
             gerial freedom, light and supportive regula-        exclusion. They are committed to creating
             tory frameworks and fair financing, or they         sufficient self-regulation in order to ensure
             will be placed at a disadvantage in coopera-        the minimum level of cohesion so that their
             tion and competition. The dynamics needed           efforts towards compatibility are not under-
             for the completion of the European Higher           mined by too much variance in the definition
             Education Area will remain unfulfilled or will      and implementation of credits, main degree
             result in unequal competition, if the current       categories and quality criteria.
    88


KEY ISSUES   Quality as a fundamental building stone              Mobility

             The European Higher Education Area needs to          The free mobility of students, staff and grad-
             build on academic core values while meeting          uates is an essential dimension of the European
             stakeholders' expectations, i.e., demonstrating      Higher Education Area. European universities
             quality. Indeed, quality assessment must take        want to foster more mobility — both of the
             into consideration the goals and mission of ins-     "horizontal" and the "vertical" type — and do
             titutions and programmes. It requires a balance      not see virtual mobility as a substitute for phy-
             between innovation and tradition, academic           sical mobility. They are willing to use existing
             excellence and social/economic relevance, the        instruments for recognition and mobility
             coherence of curricula and students' freedom         (ECTS, Lisbon Convention, Diploma
             of choice. It encompasses teaching and               Supplement, NARIC/ENIC network) in a posi-
             research as well as governance and administra-       tive and flexible way. In view of the impor-
             tion, responsiveness to students' needs and the      tance of teaching staff with European expe-
             provision of non-educational services. Inherent      rience, universities wish to eliminate nationality
             quality does not suffice, it needs to be demon-      requirements and other obstacles and disin-
             strated and guaranteed in order to be acknow-        centives for academic careers in Europe.
             ledged and trusted by students, partners and         However, a common European approach to
             society at home, in Europe and in the world.         virtual mobility and transnational education is
                                                                  also needed.
             Quality is the basic underlying condition
             for trust, relevance, mobility, compati-             Compatible qualifications at the
             bility and attractiveness in the European            undergraduate and graduate levels
             Higher Education Area.
                                                                  Higher education institutions endorse the
             Trust building                                       move towards a compatible qualification frame-
                                                                  work based on a main articulation in under-
             As research evaluation has an international          graduate and postgraduate studies. There is
             dimension so does quality assurance in higher        broad agreement that first degrees should
             education. In Europe, quality assurance should       require 180 to 240 ECTS points but need to be
             not be based on a single agency enforcing a          diverse leading to employment or mainly pre-
             common set of standards. The way into the            paring for further, postgraduate studies. Under
             future will be to design mechanisms at               certain circumstances a university may decide
             European level for the mutual acceptance of          to establish an integrated curriculum leading
             quality assurance outcomes, with "accredita-         directly to a Master-level degree. Subject-
             tion" as one possible option. Such mechanisms        based networks have an important role to play
             should respect national, linguistic and disci-       in reaching such decisions. Universities are
             pline differences and not overload universities.     convinced of the benefits of a credit accumula-
                                                                  tion and transfer system based on ECTS and
             Relevance                                            on their basic right to decide on the accepta-
                                                                  bility of credits obtained elsewhere.
             Relevance to the European labour market needs
             to be reflected in different ways in curricula,      Attractiveness
             depending on whether the competencies ac-
             quired are for employment after the first or the     European higher education institutions want to
             second degree. Employability in a lifelong learn-    be in a position to attract talent from all over
             ing perspective is best served through the           the world. This requires action at institutional,
             inherent value of quality education, the diversity   national and European levels. Specific meas-
             of approaches and course profiles, the flexibility   ures include the adaptation of curricula,
             of programmes with multiple entry and exit           degrees readable inside and outside Europe,
             points and the development of transversal skills     credible quality assurance measures, pro-
             and competencies such as communication and           grammes taught in major world languages,
             languages, ability to mobilise knowledge, pro-       adequate information and marketing, welcom-
             blem solving, team work and social processes.        ing services for foreign students and scholars,
9


    and strategic networking. Success also           • to redefine higher education and research
    depends on the speedy removal of prohibitive       for the whole of Europe;
    immigration and labour market regulations.       • to reform and rejuvenate curricula and
                                                       higher education as a whole;
    European higher education institu-               • to enhance and build on the research
    tions recognise that their students                dimension in higher education;
    need and demand qualifications                   • to adopt mutually acceptable mechanisms
    which they can use effectively for the             for the evaluation, assurance and certifica-
    purpose of their studies and careers all           tion of quality;
    over Europe. The institutions and their          • to build on common denominators with a
    networks and organisations acknow-                 European dimension and ensure compati-
    ledge their role and responsibility in             bility between diverse institutions, curricula
    this regard, and confirm their                     and degrees;
    willingness to organise themselves               • to promote the mobility of students and
    accordingly within the framework of                staff and the employability of graduates in
    autonomy.                                          Europe;
                                                     • to support the modernisation efforts of uni-
    Higher education institutions call on              versities in countries where the challenges
    governments, in their national and                 of the European Higher Education Area are
    European contexts, to facilitate and encour-       greatest;
    rage change and to provide a framework for       • to meet the challenges of being readable,
    coordination and guidance towards conver-          attractive and competitive at home, in
    gence. They affirm their capacity and willing-     Europe and in the world; and
    ness to initiate and support progress within a   • to continue to consider higher education
    joint endeavour                                    as an essential public responsibility.
   10


            MESSAGE DE SALAMANQUE
            BÂTIR L’ESPACE EUROPÉEN DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPÉRIEUR


            Plus de 300 institutions européennes d'enseigne-      gestion, d'un cadre réglementaire plus souple
            ment supérieur ainsi que les principales organisa-    et plus positif comme de financements équi-
            tions les représentant se sont réunies à              tables à défaut desquels elles seront placées en
            Salamanque les 29 et 30 mars 2001, afin de            situation désavantageuse tant pour affronter la
            préparer leur contribution à la réunion de Prague     concurrence que pour développer la coopéra-
            rassemblant les Ministres responsables de l'ensei-    tion. La dynamique requise pour l'Espace
            gnement supérieur des pays participant au             européen de l’enseignement supérieur restera
            Processus de Bologne; elles ont convenu des           inopérante, ou provoquera une concurrence
            priorités, des objectifs et des principes suivants:   inégale, si se maintiennent l’excessive régle-
                                                                  mentation et la mainmise financière et admi-
            Bâtir l'avenir                                        nistrative qui pèsent actuellement sur l'ensei-
                                                                  gnement supérieur en de nombreux pays.
            Les institutions européennes d'enseignement
            supérieur réaffirment leur soutien aux principes      La concurrence peut promouvoir la qualité
            de la Déclaration de Bologne et leur engage-          de l’enseignement, n'exclut pas les liens de
            ment en faveur d’un Espace européen de l’en-          coopération et ne peut être réduite à un
            seignement supérieur mis en place avant la fin        concept purement commercial. En effet, en
            de la décennie. Elles considèrent que la créa-        plusieurs pays européens, les universités ne
            tion à Salamanque de l'Association Européenne         sont pas encore sur un pied d'égalité avec leurs
            de l’Université (EUA) revêt une valeur à la fois      concurrentes et sont en particulier confrontées
            symbolique et pratique car l’Association peut         à une fuite de cerveaux à l'intérieur même de
            devenir leur porte-parole efficace auprès des         l'Europe.
            gouvernements et de la société dans son
            ensemble, tout comme elle peut les soutenir           L'enseignement, une responsabilité publique
            dans la construction de leur propre avenir au
            sein de l'Espace européen de l’enseignement           L'Espace européen de l’enseignement
            supérieur.                                            supérieur doit se construire sur la tradition
                                                                  européenne d'un enseignement tenu pour une
PRINCIPES   Autonomie et responsabilité                           responsabilité publique; mais aussi sur un
                                                                  accès ouvert et extensif aux niveaux undergra-
            Pour aller de l'avant, les universités euro-          duate et postgraduate, sur une éducation de la
            péennes doivent être assurées des conditions          personnalité débouchant sur un apprentissage
            permettant à la fois autonomie et engagement          tout au long de la vie qui favorise l'esprit
            responsable. En tant qu’institutions autonomes        citoyen et une meilleure adéquation aux
            et responsables, répondant à une mission édu-         besoins de la société — à court comme à long
            cative et sociale reconnue par la loi, les univer-    terme.
            sités confirment leur adhésion aux principes
            énoncés dans la Magna Charta Universitatum            La recherche, condition de l’enseignement
            de 1988, en particulier celui de la liberté aca-      supérieur
            démique. Dans ce contexte, les universités doi-
            vent pouvoir élaborer leurs stratégies, définir       La recherche constituant l’identité motrice de
            leurs priorités en matière d'enseignement et de       l'enseignement supérieur, la création de
            recherche, allouer leurs ressources, déterminer       l'Espace européen de l’enseignement supérieur
            leurs programmes et fixer les critères d’intégra-     doit aller de pair avec celle d'un Espace euro-
            tion de leurs professeurs et étudiants. Les insti-    péen de la recherche.
            tutions d'enseignement supérieur acceptent les
            défis de l'environnement concurrentiel dans           Une diversité organisée
            lequel elles opèrent au niveau national, euro-
            péen et mondial mais, pour ce faire, elles ont        L'enseignement supérieur européen se caracté-
            besoin de la liberté nécessaire en matière de         rise par des langues, des systèmes nationaux,
        11


                des types d'établissement, des profils institu-         Mériter la confiance
                tionnels et des orientations de programmes très
                divers. Son avenir dépend cependant de sa               Si l'évaluation de la recherche revêt une
                capacité à tirer parti de cette diversité qui fait sa   dimension internationale, il en va de même
                richesse pour aboutir à des résultats constructifs      pour l'assurance qualité appliquée à l'ensei-
                plutôt que contraignants, comme à plus de               gnement supérieur. En Europe, l'assurance
                flexibilité que d'opacité. Les institutions d'ensei-    qualité ne devrait pas reposer sur une seule et
                gnement supérieur désirent ainsi recourir à des         unique agence imposant un ensemble unique
                politiques de convergence — et notamment à              de normes communes. Pour construire l'ave-
                la recherche de dénominateurs communs, par-             nir, il faut bien plutôt à l'échelle européenne
                delà les frontières, à un domaine disciplinaire         des mécanismes de reconnaissance mutuelle
                donné. Ainsi la diversité devient atout plutôt          des résultats émanant des divers systèmes
                que motif d'exclusion ou de non-reconnais-              d'assurance qualité, dont «l’accréditation»
                sance. Les institutions entendent donc élaborer         constitue un moyen parmi d’autres. Ces
                un système d'auto-régulation permettant d'as-           mécanismes doivent respecter les différences
                surer un niveau suffisant de cohésion afin que          nationales et linguistiques et le caractère des
                leurs efforts pour davantage de compatibilité           différentes disciplines, cela sans surcharger
                ne soient pas sapés par trop de volatilité dans         les universités.
                la définition des crédits, des catégories de
                diplômes et des critères de qualité.                    Assurer la pertinence

                                                                        L'adéquation aux besoins de l’emploi doit se
    QUESTIONS   La qualité en tant que pierre angulaire                 refléter différemment dans les cursus selon
FONDAMENTALES                                                           que les compétences acquises ont pour
                L'Espace européen de l’enseignement                     objectif l'entrée sur le marché du travail à
                supérieur doit non seulement prendre forme              l'issue du premier ou du second niveau de
                autour de valeurs académiques essentielles              qualification. Ce sont la valeur intrinsèque
                mais aussi répondre aux attentes des diffé-             d’un enseignement de qualité, la diversité des
                rentes parties prenantes en faisant preuve de           approches et des profils des cours proposés,
                la qualité de ses prestations. Leur évaluation          la flexibilité de programmes dotés de points
                doit tenir compte des objectifs et de la mis-           d'entrée et de sortie multiples, le développe-
                sion des institutions comme de leurs pro-               ment de compétences et d'aptitudes transver-
                grammes, ce qui demande un juste équilibre              sales telles que la communication et les
                entre innovation et tradition, entre excellence         langues, comme la capacité à exploiter ses
                académique et pertinence socio-économique,              connaissances, à résoudre des problèmes, à
                entre cohérence des cours et liberté de choix           travailler en équipe et à s'insérer dans la
                des étudiants. L’évaluation englobe enseigne-           société qui nourrissent le mieux l'employabi-
                ment et recherche ainsi que gouvernance et              lité durable dans la perspective d'un appren-
                administration ; elle s’intéresse à la réponse          tissage tout au long de la vie.
                apportée aux besoins des étudiants et à la
                fourniture de services extra-académiques. La            Développer la mobilité
                qualité intrinsèque d'une institution d'ensei-
                gnement supérieur ne suffit pas: elle doit être         Le libre mouvement des étudiants, du person-
                prouvée et garantie afin de pouvoir être                nel académique et des diplômés constitue
                visible et crédible aux yeux des étudiants, des         une dimension essentielle de l'Espace euro-
                partenaires institutionnels et de la société en         péen de l’enseignement supérieur. Les univer-
                général, à l'intérieur de son pays comme en             sités européennes veulent le développer —
                Europe et dans le monde.                                tant au plan «horizontal» que «vertical» —
                                                                        mais estiment que la mobilité virtuelle ne saurait
                La qualité est la condition nécessaire de               remplacer la mobilité des personnes. A cet
                la confiance, de la pertinence, de la mo-               effet, elles sont prêtes à utiliser de façon
                bilité, de la compatibilité et de l'attrait             constructive et flexible les instruments
                des institutions parties de l'Espace                    existant en matière de reconnaissance et de
                européen de l’enseignement supérieur.                   mobilité, (ECTS, Convention de Lisbonne,
12


     Supplément au Diplôme, réseau NARIC/ENIC).           Les institutions européennes d'enseigne-
     Vu l'importance des besoins en personnel             ment supérieur ont conscience que leurs
     enseignant formé à l’Europe, les universités         étudiants ont besoin et demandent la
     souhaitent voir éliminer le critère de nationalité   mise en place de qualifications qu'ils
     et tout autre obstacle dissuadant de s’engager       peuvent effectivement utiliser pour la
     dans une carrière académique européenne. Il          poursuite de leurs études et leur car-
     est par ailleurs également nécessaire d'adopter      rière dans l'ensemble de l'Europe. Ces
     une approche commune à l’ensemble des pays           institutions, de même que leurs réseaux
     européens concernant la mobilité virtuelle et        et organisations, reconnaissent leur res-
     l’éducation transnationale.                          ponsabilité et leur rôle à cet effet,
                                                          confirmant ainsi leur désir de s'organi-
     Rendre compatibles les formations en deux            ser pour y arriver, cela dans le cadre de
     phases                                               leur autonomie institutionnelle.

     Les institutions d'enseignement supérieur
     acceptent de développer un cadre commun de           Les institutions d'enseignement supé-
     qualifications s’articulant en deux phases. Il       rieur en appellent aux gouvernements,
     existe ainsi un consensus pour que le premier        dans un contexte national et européen, pour
     diplôme exige de 180 à 240 points ECTS mais          qu’ils facilitent et encouragent le changement
     soit très diversifié, préparant principalement à     en assurant des conditions propices à la coordi-
     un emploi ou à la poursuite d’un cycle plus          nation et à la mise en place de la convergence.
     approfondi de formation. Sous certaines condi-       Elles se savent capables et désireuses de susciter
     tions, une université doit pouvoir décider de        le changement pour contribuer au progrès
     mettre en place un programme d’un seul               d’une entreprise commune permettant :
     tenant conduisant directement à un niveau de
     mastaire. Les réseaux centrés sur une discipline     • de donner une définition nouvelle de l'ensei-
     académique donnée peuvent jouer un grand               gnement supérieur et de la recherche
     rôle dans de telles décisions. Les universités         valable pour l'ensemble de l'Europe;
     sont persuadées que le système d'accumula-           • de réformer et mettre à jour programmes et
     tion et de transfert de crédits basé sur l'ECTS,       systèmes d'enseignement supérieur;
     assorti de leur droit fondamental à décider de       • de s'appuyer sur la dimension recherche
     la validité des crédits obtenus dans un autre          pour renforcer l'enseignement supérieur;
     établissement, ne présente que des avantages.        • d'adopter des mécanismes d’acceptation
                                                            mutuelle des modes d'évaluation, d'assu-
     Rendre attrayant l'enseignement supérieur              rance et de certification de la qualité;
     européen                                             • de développer des dénominateurs communs
                                                            à valeur européenne pour rendre compa-
     Les institutions européennes d'enseignement            tibles la diversité des institutions, des
     supérieur désirent pouvoir attirer les talents         diplômes et des cursus ;
     venant du monde entier, ce qui exige des             • de promouvoir en Europe la mobilité des
     mesures à prendre aux plans tant institutionnel        étudiants et du personnel académique ainsi
     que national et européen. Il s’agit d’adapter les      que l'employabilité des diplômés;
     cursus, de rendre lisibles les diplômes dans et      • de soutenir les efforts de modernisation
     hors d’Europe, de donner crédibilité à l'assu-         entrepris par les universités des pays où la
     rance qualité, de dispenser des programmes             création de l'Espace européen de l’enseigne-
     dans les langues internationales les plus répan-       ment supérieur représente un défi particu-
     dues dans le monde, d'assurer des informa-             lièrement important;
     tions et un marketing adaptés, d’améliorer           • de relever les défis pour être plus lisibles,
     l'accueil des étudiants et des chercheurs étran-       plus attrayantes et plus compétitives à
     gers, tout cela en favorisant la mise en réseau        l'échelle nationale, européenne et mondiale;
     stratégique des institutions. Le succès d’une          et
     telle politique dépendra de la levée rapide des      • de réaffirmer que l'enseignement supérieur
     réglementations pénalisantes restreignant l'im-        constitue une responsabilité publique fonda-
     migration et l’accès au marché du travail.             mentale.
     13


             BOTSCHAFT VON SALAMANCA
             GESTALTUNG DES EUROPÄISCHEN HOCHSCHULRAUMS


             Über 300 europäische Hochschulen und die wich-      Regulierungen und eine faire Finanzierung
             tigsten Organisationen, die sie vertreten, tagten   verfügen, denn ohne diese Bedingungen
             vom 29. - 30. März 2001 in Salamanca. Ziel die-     wären sie bei der Zusammenarbeit sowie im
             ser Konferenz war die Vorbereitung des Beitrags     Wettbewerb gegenüber anderen benachteiligt.
             für das Treffen der für Hochschulwesen zuständi-    Die für die Schaffung des Europäischen
             gen Minister in den Ländern, die am Bologna-        Hochschulraums nötige Dynamik wird unge-
             Prozess teilnehmen; die Teilnehmer haben fol-       nutzt bleiben, oder zu einem unausgegliche-
             gende Ziele, Grundsätze und Prioritäten             nen Wettbewerb führen, wenn die gegenwär-
             vereinbart :                                        tige Überregulierung und die umständliche
                                                                 verwaltungs-technische und finanzielle
             Gestaltung der Zukunft                              Kontrolle der Hochschulen vieler Länder
                                                                 aufrechterhalten werden.
             Die europäischen Hochschulen bekunden
             erneut ihre Unterstützung der Grundsätze der        Der Wettbewerb fördert die Qualität der
             Erklärung von Bologna und ihr Engagement            Hochschulbildung, er schliesst die
             für die Schaffung eines Europäischen                Zusammenarbeit nicht aus und kann nicht auf
             Hochschulraums bis zum Ende dieses                  ein kommerzielles Konzept beschränkt werden.
             Jahrzehnts. Sie betrachten die Gründung der         In einigen europäischen Ländern können die
             Europäischen Hochschulvereinigung (European         Universitäten sich heute noch nicht zu glei-
             University Association – EUA) in Salamanca als      chen Bedingungen am Wettbewerb beteiligen;
             eine symbolische und praktische Handlung,           sie erleben insbesondere eine unerwünschte
             um ihrer Stimme bei den Regierungen und in          Abwanderung von Wissenschaftlern, sogar
             der Gesellschaft mehr Gehör zu verschaffen          innerhalb von Europa.
             und sie somit bei der Gestaltung ihrer eigenen
             Zukunft im Europäischen Hochschulraum zu            Bildung als öffentliche Verantwortung
             unterstützen.
                                                                 Der Europäische Hochschulraum muss auf der
GRUNDSÄTZE   Autonomie und Rechenschaftspflicht                  europäischen Tradition beruhen, die Bildung
                                                                 als einen Bereich der öffentlichen
             Der Fortschritt verlangt, dass die europäischen     Verantwortung betrachtet, offenen Zugang zu
             Universitäten in der Lage sein müssen, gemäss       Studien der ersten sowie der weiteren Stufen
             dem leitenden Prinzip der Autonomie mit             bietet, Bildung als persönliche Entfaltung und
             Rechenschaftspflicht zu handeln. Als autonome       lebenslanges Lernen fördert und dem
             und verantwortliche Rechts- Bildungs- und           Bürgersinn sowie der sozialen Relevanz auf
             Sozialeinheiten bekennen sie sich zu den            kurze und lange Sicht Rechnung trägt.
             Grundsätzen der Magna Charta Universitatum
             von 1988 und vor allem zum Prinzip der aka-         Auf der Forschung beruhende höhere
             demischen Freiheit. Die Universitäten müssen        BildungDa die Forschung eine treibende Kraft
             die Möglichkeit haben, ihre Strategien festzu-      der Hochschultätigkeiten darstellt, muss die
             legen, ihre Prioritäten für Forschung und Lehre     Schaffung des Europäischen Hochschulraums
             zu setzen, ihre Mittel zuzuteilen, ihre             mit der Schaffung des Europäischen
             Studienpläne zu erstellen und ihre Kriterien für    Forschungsraums einhergehen.
             die Aufnahme von Dozenten und Studenten
             zu bestimmen. Die europäischen Hochschulen          Organisation der Vielfalt
             nehmen die Herausforderung einer Tätigkeit in
             einem wettbewerbsorientierten Umfeld im             Das europäische Hochschulwesen ist geprägt
             eigenen Land, in Europa und in der ganzen           durch die Vielfalt der Sprachen, der nationalen
             Welt an, sie müssen jedoch zu diesem Zweck          Systeme, der Art und Profile der Institutionen
             über die notwendige Freiheit des                    und der Orientierung der Studienpläne. Seine
             Managements, leichte und unterstützende             Zukunft hängt aber auch von der Fähigkeit der
          14


                  Hochschulen ab, diese wertvolle Vielfalt wirk-     Vertrauensbildung
                  sam zu organisieren, um positive Ergebnisse
                  eher als Schwierigkeiten und Flexibilität eher     Ebenso wie die Bewertung der Forschung hat
                  als Undurchsichtigkeit zu erzielen. Die            auch die Gewährleistung der Qualität im
                  Hochschulen wollen auf der Konvergenz auf-         Hochschulwesen eine internationale
                  bauen — insbesondere auf gemeinsamen               Dimension. In Europa sollte die
                  Nennern, die jeweils auf einem bestimmten          Qualitätssicherung nicht Aufgabe einer einzi-
                  Gebiet grenzüberschreitend gültig sind —           gen Organisation sein, die gemeinsame
                  und sie wollen die Vielfalt als Vorteil betrach-   Normen setzt. Der Weg in die Zukunft wird in
                  ten und nicht als Ursache für eine                 der Schaffung von Mechanismen auf europäi-
                  Verweigerung der Anerkennung oder für              scher Ebene für die gegenseitige Akzeptanz
                  einen Ausschluss. Sie setzen sich für die          von Qualitätsgarantie-Entscheidungen beste-
                  Schaffung einer ausreichenden                      hen, wovon die "Akkreditierung" eine
                  Selbstregulierung ein, die ein Mindestmass an      mögliche Form darstellt. Diese Mechanismen
                  Kohäsion gewährleistet, damit ihre                 sollten die nationalen, linguistischen und
                  Bemühungen um die Kompatibilität nicht             fachlichen Unterschiede respektieren und die
                  durch zu starke Unterschiede bei der               Universitäten nicht überbelasten.
                  Bestimmung und Einführung von Krediten,
                  Kategorien der Diplome und                         Relevanz
                  Qualitätskriterien untergraben werden.
                                                                     Die Relevanz in Bezug auf den europäischen
                                                                     Arbeitsmarkt muss auf verschiedene Weise in
SCHLÜSSELFRAGEN   Qualität als grundlegender Baustein                den Studienplänen zum Ausdruck kommen, je
                                                                     nachdem ob die erworbene Kompetenz einer
                  Der Europäische Hochschulraum muss auf             Beschäftigung nach der ersten oder nach der
                  akademischen Kernwerten beruhen und                zweiten Studienstufe dienen soll. Die berufliche
                  gleichzeitig den Erwartungen der Beteilig-         Einsatzfähigkeit im Sinne des lebenslangen
                  ten entsprechen, d.h. Qualität nachweisen.         Lernens wird am erfolgreichsten durch den
                  Bei der Bewertung der Qualität müssen die          inhärenten Wert einer ausgezeichneten
                  Ziele und Aufgaben der Institutionen und           Bildung, durch die Vielfalt der Lernmethoden
                  Programme berücksichtigt werden. Sie erfor-        und der Studiengangprofile, durch die
                  dert ein Gleichgewicht zwischen Innovation         Flexibilität der Programme mit multiplen
                  und Tradition, zwischen akademischer               Eintritts- und Austritts-möglichkeiten und
                  Exzellenz und sozial/ökonomischer Relevanz         durch die Entwicklung transversaler Kenntnisse
                  sowie zwischen der Gestaltung der                  und Fertigkeiten — wie Kommunikation und
                  Studienpläne und der Wahlfreiheit der              Sprachen, die Fähigkeit, Wissen zu mobilisieren
                  Studenten. Die Qualitätsbewertung umfasst          und Problemlösungen, Teamarbeit und soziale
                  Lehre und Forschung ebenso wie Führung             Prozesse voranzubringen — gefördert.
                  und Verwaltung, die Aufgeschlossenheit für         Mobilität
                  die Bedürfnisse der Studenten und die
                  Bereitstellung von Dienstleistungen, die nicht     Die freie Mobilität der Studenten, des
                  dem Bildungsbereich angehören. Inhärente           Personals und der Hochschulabsolventen ist
                  Qualität genügt jedoch nicht, sie muss dar-        eine wesentliche Dimension des Europäischen
                  gestellt und garantiert werden, damit sie von      Hochschulraums. Die europäischen
                  den Studenten, den Partnern und der                Universitäten wollen eine stärkere Mobilität
                  Gesellschaft in dem jeweiligen Land, in            fördern — sowohl die "horizontale" als auch
                  Europa und weltweit anerkannt wird und             die "vertikale" Form; sie sehen die virtuelle
                  Vertrauen gewinnt.                                 Mobilität nicht als Ersatz für die physische
                                                                     Mobilität an. Sie sind bereit, die bestehenden
                  Qualität ist die grundlegende                      Instrumente für Anerkennung und Mobilität
                  Bedingung für Vertrauen, Relevanz,                 (ECTS, Abkommen von Lissabon, Diplom-
                  Mobilität, Kompatibilität und                      Zusatz, NARIC/ENIC-Netz) auf positive und
                  Attraktivität im Europäischen                      flexible Weise zu nutzen. Angesichts der
                  Hochschulraum.                                     Bedeutung der Lehrkräfte mit europäischer
15


     Erfahrung möchten die Universitäten die           Die europäischen Hochschulen stellen fest,
     Anforderungen hinsichtlich der Nationalität und   dass ihre Studenten Qualifikationen brau-
     andere Hindernisse für die akademische            chen und verlangen, die sie wirksam für
     Laufbahn in Europa abbauen. Ein gemeinsamer       ihr Studium und ihre Karriere überall in
     europäischer Ansatz für die virtuelle Mobilität   Europa nutzen können. Die Hochschulen,
     und die transnationale Bildung wird ebenfalls     ihre Netzwerke und Organisationen erken-
     erforderlich sein.                                nen ihre Rolle und Verantwortung in die-
                                                       sem Zusammenhang und bekunden ihre
     Kompatible Qualifikationen auf beiden             Bereitschaft, sich im Rahmen ihrer
     Diplomebenen                                      Autonomie in dieser Hinsicht zu organi-
                                                       sieren.
     Die Hochschulen unterstützen den Trend zu
     einem kompatiblen Qualifikations-Rahmen           Die Hochschulen fordern die
     mit einer deutlichen Unterteilung in zwei         Regierungen dazu auf, in ihrem nationalen
     Diplomstufen. Man stimmt dahingehend              sowie im europäischen Bereich den Wandel zu
     überein, dass für die erste Studienstufe 180      erleichtern und zu ermutigen und einen
     bis 240 ECTS-Punkte erforderlich sein sollten,    Rahmen für die Koordination und die
     dass diese Diplome aber unterschiedlichen         Hinführung zur Konvergenz bereitzustellen. Sie
     Studienprofilen entsprechen müssen, je            kundigen ihre eigene Fähigkeit und
     nachdem ob sie zur Aufbahme einer berufli-        Bereitwilligkeit zur Anregung und
     chen Tätigkeit oder zur Vorbereitung für wei-     Unterstützung des Fortschritts in dem gemein-
     tere Studien dienen sollen. Unter bestimm-        samen Bestreben
     ten Umständen kann sich eine Universität für
     die Einführung eines integrierten                 • die Hochschulbildung und die Forschung für
     Studienplans entscheiden, der direkt zum            ganz Europa neu zu definieren;
     "Master-level" führt. Auf Sachgebieten beru-      • die Studienpläne und das gesamte
     hende Netzwerke spielen bei diesen                  Hochschulwesen zu reformieren und zu
     Entscheidungen eine wichtige Rolle. Die             erneuern;
     Universitäten sind überzeugt von dem              • die Dimension der Forschung im Rahmen
     Nutzen eines Systems der Akkumulierung              der Hochschulbildung zu fördern und auszu-
     und des Transfers von Krediten, das auf ECTS        bauen;
     beruht, und von ihrem Recht, über die             • gegenseitig annehmbare Mechanismen für
     Zulässigkeit der Annahme von Krediten von           die Bewertung, die Gewährleistung und die
     anderer Seite zu entscheiden.                       Zertifizierung von Qualität zu entwickeln;
                                                       • auf gemeinsamen Nennern mit einer
     Attraktivität                                       europäischen Dimension aufzubauen und
                                                         die Kompatibilität zwischen verschiedenen
     Die europäischen Hochschulen wollen in der          Institutionen, Studienplänen und akademi-
     Lage sein, Talente aus allen Teilen der Welt        schen Graden zu gewährleisten;
     anzuziehen. Das verlangt Aktionen auf institu-    • die Mobilität der Studenten und der
     tioneller, nationaler und europäischer Ebene.       Mitarbeiter sowie die berufliche
     Zu den besonderen Maßnahmen gehören: die            Einsatzfähigkeit der Absolventen in Europa
     Anpassung der Studienpläne, akademische             zu fördern;
     Grade, die innerhalb und ausserhalb von           • die Modernisierungsbemühungen der
     Europa bekannt sind, glaubwürdige                   Universitäten in denjenigen Ländern, wo die
     Maßnahmen zur Qualitätssicherung,                   Herausforderungen des Europäischen
     Programme, die in den wichtigsten                   Hochschulraums am grössten sind, zu
     Weltsprachen unterrichtet werden, adäquate          unterstützen;
     Information und Marketing, gute                   • die Herausforderung, im eigenen Land, in
     Empfangsdienste für ausländische Studenten          Europa und weltweit bekannt, attraktiv und
     und Dozenten und strategisches Networking.          wettbewerbsfähig zu sein, anzunehmen und
     Der Erfolg hängt auch von der raschen             • die Hochschulbildung auch weiterhin als
     Abschaffung der prohibitiven Zuwanderungs-          Gegenstand der öffentlichen Verantwortung
     und Arbeitsmarktregulierungen ab.                   anzusehen.
    16


             MENSAJE DE SALAMANCA
             PERFILANDO EL ESPACIO EUROPEO DE LA ENSEÑANZA SUPERIOR


             Más de trescientas instituciones europeas de         rosos países el exceso de reglamentación y
             enseñanza superior con sus principales organis-      control administrativo y financiero de las insti-
             mos representativos se han reunido en                tuciones de enseñanza superior o bien faltará
             Salamanca los días 29 y 30 de marzo 2001, con        el dinamismo necesario para lograr la plena
             el fin de preparar su aportación a la Conferencia    realización del Espacio Europeo de la
             de Ministros responsables de Enseñanza Superior      Enseñanza Superior, o bien éste no garantizará
             de los países firmantes de la Declaración de         una competencia en condiciones de igualdad.
             Bolonia que tendrá lugar en Praga. En dicha
             Convención se aprobaron las metas, los principios    La competencia es útil para mejorar la calidad
             y las prioridades siguientes:                        de la enseñanza superior, no impide la coope-
                                                                  ración y no es una noción exclusivamente
             Perfilando el futuro                                 comercial. Las universidades de ciertos países
                                                                  europeos todavía no están en condiciones de
             Las instituciones europeas de enseñanza supe-        poder competir en condiciones de igualdad lo
             rior reiteran su apoyo a los principios de la        cual les expone, en particular, a un inevitable
             Declaración de Bolonia y su compromiso de            éxodo de cerebros hacia otros países europeos.
             crear un Espacio Europeo de la Enseñanza
             Superior antes de finalizar este decenio.            La educación es un servicio público
             Consideran que la creación en Salamanca de
             la European University Association (EUA), por su     El Espacio Europeo de la Enseñanza Superior
             valor tanto simbólico como práctico, servirá         deberá respetar los principios de la tradición
             a transmitir con mayor fuerza su mensaje a los       europea en materia educativa: la educación es
             gobiernos y a las sociedades, ayudándoles así        un servicio público; acceso amplio y abierto a
             a perfilar cada uno su propio futuro dentro del      los estudios de pregrado y de postgrado; edu-
             Espacio Europeo de la Enseñanza Superior.            cación con vistas a una realización personal y
                                                                  educación a lo largo de toda la vida; educa-
PRINCIPIOS   Autonomía con responsabilidad                        ción a la ciudadanía y educación con significa-
                                                                  ción social tanto a corto como a largo plazo.
             El progreso exige que se faculte a las universi-
             dades de manera que puedan aplicar el princi-        La enseñanza superior se sustenta en la
             pio fundamental de autonomía con responsa-           investigación
             bilidad. Como entidades jurídicas, educativas y
             sociales, autónomas y responsables reafirman         Puesto que la investigación es el motor de la
             su adhesión a los principios de la Magna Carta       enseñanza superior la creación del Espacio
             Universitatum de 1988 y, en particular, al de la     Europeo de la Enseñanza Superior y la creación
             autonomía universitaria. Por lo tanto, las uni-      del Espacio Europeo de la Investigación deben
             versidades deben poder elaborar sus estrate-         completarse.
             gias, elegir sus prioridades en cuanto a docen-
             cia e investigación, asignar sus recursos,           La articulación de la diversidad
             desarrollar sus curricula y fijar sus criterios de
             admisión de estudiantes y profesores. Las insti-     La enseñanza superior en Europa se distingue
             tuciones europeas de enseñanza superior acep-        por la diversidad de idiomas, sistemas nacio-
             tan el reto que supone funcionar dentro de un        nales, tipos y perfiles de institución y desarrollo
             sistema competitivo en su propio país, en            curricular. Su futuro dependerá precisamente
             Europa y en el mundo entero pero necesitan           de su capacidad para articular con eficiencia
             para ello una autonomía administrativa sufi-         esa valiosa diversidad afin de que genere venta-
             ciente, una normativa ligera y propicia y una        jas y no inconvenientes, flexibilidad y no opaci-
             financiación adecuada sin las cuales se encon-       dad. Las instituciones de enseñanza superior
             trarían en desventaja a la hora de competir y        aspiran a desarrollarse basándose en la conver-
             cooperar. En efecto, de mantenerse en nume-          gencia — en especial en los denominadores
           17


                    comunes a los países dentro de una determi-         las diferencias entre países, idiomas y discipli-
                    nada disciplina — y a considerar la diversidad      nas y no suponer una carga de trabajo exce-
                    como cualidad positiva y no como motivo de          siva para las instituciones.
                    no-reconocimiento o exclusión. Están dispues-
                    tas a facilitar la suficiente autoregulación para   Pertinencia
                    garantizar la cohesión mínima necesaria para
                    no paralizar el progreso hacia la compatibili-      La adecuación de la enseñanza a las necesi-
                    dad, por excesiva diversidad en la definición y     dades del mercado laboral deberá reflejarse
                    aplicación de créditos y entre las principales      convenientemente en los curricula, en fun-
                    categorías de grados y criterios.                   ción de que las competencias adquiridas
                                                                        estén pensadas para un empleo consecutivo
TEMAS PRINCIPALES   La calidad como pilar esencial                      al primero o al segundo ciclo de enseñanza.
                                                                        Dentro de la perspectiva del aprendizaje a
                    El Espacio Europeo de la Enseñanza Superior         lo largo de toda la vida como mejor podrá
                    tiene que desarrollarse en torno a unos             lograrse la empleabilidad será mediante la
                    valores académicos fundamentales y cumplir          buena calidad intrínseca de la enseñanza, la
                    a la vez las expectativas de todas las partes       diversidad de orientaciones y tipos de cur-
                    interesadas y, en particular, dar pruebas de        sos, la flexibilidad de los programas con
                    buena calidad. En efecto, la valoración de la       múltiples posibilidades de entrada y de
                    calidad debe tener presente la misión y los         salida así como el desarrollo de habilidades
                    objetivos asignados a cada institución y a          y competencias transversales tales como
                    cada programa. Requiere un equilibrio entre         comunicación e idiomas, capacidad de
                    innovación y tradición, excelencia académica        manejar la información, de resolver proble-
                    y pertinencia social y económica, coherencia        mas, de trabajar en equipo y de desenvol-
                    de los curricula y libre elección del estudiante.   verse socialmente.
                    Comprende la función docente e investiga-
                    dora pero también la dirección y la adminis-        Movilidad
                    tración, la capacidad de respuesta a las nece-
                    sidades de los estudiantes así como la              La libre circulación de estudiantes, profesores
                    prestación de otros servicios además de los         y diplomados constituye un aspecto esencial
                    educativos. La calidad no basta con que se          del Espacio Europeo de la Enseñanza Superior.
                    dé, hay que poder demostrarla y garantizarla        Las universidades europeas quieren fomentar
                    para que la reconozcan y aprecien los estu-         una mayor movilidad tanto "horizontal" como
                    diantes, los responsables y toda la sociedad        "vertical" y no piensan que la movilidad vir-
                    del país, de Europa y del mundo.                    tual pueda remplazar la movilidad física.
                    La calidad es la condición sine qua non             Tienen intención de utilizar de manera
                    para dotar al Espacio Europeo de la                 flexible y positiva los instrumentos de recono-
                    Enseñanza Superior de confianza, perti-             cimiento y movilidad existentes (ECTS,
                    nencia, movilidad, compatibilidad y                 Convención de Lisboa, Suplemento al
                    atractivo.                                          Diploma, Red NARIC/ENIC). Dada la impor-
                                                                        tancia que se atribuye a que el profesorado
                    Granjearse la confianza                             adquiera experiencia europea las universi-
                                                                        dades desean eliminar los requisitos de nacio-
                    Al igual que la evaluación de la investigación,     nalidad y demás trabas que desalienten a
                    también la garantía de calidad de la                seguir una carrera académica europea. Pese
                    enseñanza superior comporta una dimensión           a todo seguirá necesitándose un enfoque
                    internacional. La garantía de calidad en            común en materia de movilidad virtual y de
                    Europa no puede correr a cargo de un solo           educación transnacional.
                    organismo que aplique una serie uniforme de
                    normas. El planteamiento futuro consiste más        Compatibilidad de las cualificaciones a nivel
                    bien en diseñar mecanismos de reconoci-             de pregrado y de postgrado
                    miento mutuo de garantía de calidad a nivel
                    europeo, siendo la "acreditación" una opción        Las instituciones de enseñanza superior apoyan
                    posible. Dichos mecanismos deberán respetar         una dinámica de creación de un marco para
18


     regular la compatibilidad de las cualificaciones   para que, tanto en el contexto nacional como
     basado esencialmente en la distinción entre        europeo, impulsen y alienten el cambio y pro-
     dos ciclos de estudios: de pregrado y de post-     porcionen un marco de coordinación y aseso-
     grado. Existe amplio acuerdo en que el primer      ramiento que facilite la convergencia. Afirman
     ciclo o pregrado debe comportar entre 180 y        su capacidad y voluntad de iniciar y respaldar
     240 ECTS si bien los créditos no serán los mis-    el progreso de una acción común destinada a:
     mos según se trate de una titulación destinada
     a ejercer un empleo o de una preparación para      • volver a definir una enseñanza superior e
     proseguir estudios de posgrado. En ciertos casos     investigación para toda Europa;
     una universidad podrá crear un currículo inte-     • remodelar y actualizar todos los curricula de
     grado que lleve directamente a la obtención de       la enseñanza superior;
     un Master. Las redes de cooperación universita-    • ampliar y desarrollar la labor investigadora
     ria por materias influirán de manera decisiva        de la enseñanza superior;
     dichas decisiones. Las universidades están         • aprobar mecanismos de aceptación mutua
     convencidas de las ventajas que representa un        para la evaluación, garantía y certificación
     sistema de acumulación y transferencia de cré-       de la calidad;
     ditos como el ECTS y reafirman su derecho fun-     • reforzar la dimensión europea partiendo de
     damental a decidir acerca de la aceptación o no      los denominadores comunes y asegurar la
     de los créditos obtenidos en otros lugares.          compatibilidad entre instituciones, curricula
                                                          y grados;
     Atractivo                                          • promover la movilidad de estudiantes y pro-
                                                          fesores y la empleabilidad de los diplomados
     Las instituciones europeas de enseñanza supe-        en Europa;
     rior desean reunir condiciones para poder          • apoyar los esfuerzos de modernización de las
     atraer personas del mundo entero. Ello exige         universidades en los países donde el desafio
     un esfuerzo por parte de la institución y de las     de un Espacio Europeo de la Enseñanza
     autoridades nacionales y europeas. Entre las         Superior es más dificil de lograr;
     medidas concretas cabe destacar la adaptación      • lograr un sistema legible, atractivo y compe-
     curricular, un sistema de titulaciones fácil-        titivo a nivel nacional, europeo e internacio-
     mente legible dentro y fuera de Europa, medi-        nal; y
     das convincentes de garantía de calidad, cur-      • seguir defendiendo la enseñanza superior
     sos impartidos en las principales lenguas            como un servicio público esencial.
     internacionales, campañas de información y
     marketing adecuadas, servicios de acogida
     para estudiantes y becarios extranjeros e
     implantación de redes estratégicas. El éxito
     dependerá igualmente de la pronta elimina-
     ción de las restricciones a la inmigración y al
     acceso al mercado de trabajo.

     Las instituciones de enseñanza superior
     son conscientes de que los estudiantes
     necesitan y reclaman titulaciones que
     les sirvan realmente para seguir estu-
     dios o ejercer una carrera en cualquier
     parte de Europa. Las instituciones con
     sus respectivas organizaciones y redes
     reconocen la responsabilidad y el papel
     que les incumbe a este respecto y reite-
     ran su propósito de organizarse para
     lograrlo respetando el principio de la
     autonomía universitaria.
     Las instituciones de enseñanza superior
     lanzan un llamamiento a los gobiernos
19


                               ´                         ´
     ACTO DE INAUGURACION DE LA CONVENCION DE INSTITUCIONES
     DE LA ENSEÑANZA SUPERIOR
     Palabras de su Alteza Real, el Principe de Asturias


     Señoras y Señores,                                 que el aprendizaje de los Europeos no quede
                                                        limitado más que por la voluntad, mérito
     Permitidme que al iniciar mi intervención os       y capacidad de cada uno de ellos.
     exprese mi gran alegría por estar de
     nuevo en Salamanca y en especial por tener la      En este contexto, la construcción de un espa-
     oportunidad de volver a esta ciudad con            cio europeo de la enseñanza superior
     motivo de un acto universitario. Agradezco,        merece toda nuestra atención. Garantizar la
     por tanto, al Rector Magnífico de la               calidad, promover la cooperación entre
     Universidad de Salamanca la invitación a presi-    instituciones, favorecer la movilidad y facilitar
     dir este acto inaugural que convoca a la           el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida son
     comunidad de Enseñanza Superior Europea a          algunos de los aspectos a los que debe dedi-
     un acertado ejercicio de debate y análisis         carse especial interés y esfuerzo.
     que no puede más que generar consecuencias
     positivas para todos nosotros y nuestro            Pero carecería de sentido definir un ámbito
     futuro común.                                      de cooperación universitaria que no mirara
                                                        más allá de nuestro continente, que no refle-
     La relevancia e interés de los temas que se        jara la riqueza de las intensas relaciones
     debatirán a lo largo de las sesiones de            ya existentes con las universidades de otras
     trabajo, junto al elevado grado de participa-      regiones. Nuestro horizonte ha de ser
     ción alcanzado en esta convocatoria, son           caminar juntos hacia espacios de interrelación
     muestra del dinamismo de las universidades         más amplios y, por ello, saludo con
     europeas y de su capacidad para cooperar           especial afecto y simpatía la presencia de una
     y coordinar sus acciones de forma autónoma         importante delegación de Rectores y
     y responsable.                                     responsables universitarios de la comunidad
                                                        iberoamericana de naciones.
     Es evidente el papel destacado que las universi-
     dades y otras instituciones de enseñanza           Contáis con todo nuestro apoyo para la defini-
     superior han jugado, y deben seguir jugando,       ción de nuevas fórmulas que propicien el
     en la construcción europea. La Europa que          debate y la reflexión sobre los problemas
     queremos se basa en el capital intelectual y la    comunes, faciliten el intercambio de
     gestión del conocimiento, con los que formula      información y experiencias, garanticen la
     un proyecto de libertad, convivencia y partici-    coordinación de iniciativas y, en definitiva,
     pación que exige una apuesta decidida por la       fomenten la cooperación entre las universi-
     educación, la ciencia y la cultura.                dades iberoamericanas. El encuentro entre
                                                        nuestras comunidades universitarias es a la vez
     Los programas de movilidad académica de la         reflejo y catalizador del encuentro entre
     Unión Europea han permitido impulsar las           nuestros pueblos, de nuestra solidaridad y de
     relaciones entre nuestras instituciones de         nuestro respeto mutuo.
     enseñanza superior y desarrollar, de manera
     natural, el principio de confianza mutua y un      Señoras y Señores, en términos generales, y
     intercambio que promueve la calidad de             con resultado incierto pero a todas luces
     nuestros sistemas universitarios. Se abre ahora    abrumador, vemos cómo el rápido y continuo
     un nuevo escenario, en el que deberéis             desarrollo de las tecnologías de la
     saber combinar acertadamente la diversidad,        información y de las comunicaciones está cam-
     reflejo de la riqueza cultural de nuestros         biando nuestra forma de vida y generando
     pueblos y de la demanda plural de nuestras         profundas transformaciones en nuestra
     sociedades, con la accesibilidad y la              sociedad. Las limitaciones temporales y
     compatibilidad de nuestras estructuras de          espaciales han desaparecido y las tecnologías
     enseñanza superior, con el fin de asegurar         multimedia ofrecen nuevas oportunidades y
20


     retos en nuestra forma de acceder y divulgar      y por otro, de la incorporación de nuevas
     información, al tiempo que abren nuevas posi-     tecnologías a la vida cotidiana, las nuevas
     bilidades para el aprendizaje.                    dimensiones del trabajo basadas en la
                                                       capacidad de iniciativa personal y colectiva,
     Cuanto mayor es la cantidad de información        la mutación permanente de los perfiles
     generada por una sociedad, mayor es la            profesionales, el carácter interdisciplinar de
     necesidad de convertirla en conocimiento. En      los puestos de trabajo y la movilidad
     la sociedad del conocimiento, la creatividad y    geográfica y cultural.
     la capacidad de aprendizaje a lo largo de la
     vida serán imprescindibles para garantizar el     Por tanto, creo que es un motivo de espe-
     empleo, del mismo modo que la capacidad           ranza y por ello de alegría que se tome
     de innovación es y continuará siendo clave        conciencia de estos retos, se tomen las medi-
     para el buen desarrollo empresarial. La educa-    das necesarias para afrontarlos, y que esas
     ción, la ciencia y la tecnología están llamadas   medidas sean producto en gran parte de un
     a jugar en este proceso un papel insustituible    profundo análisis conjunto por parte de las
     y constituyen, hoy más que nunca, recursos        Universidades Europeas y siempre abierto a
     estratégicos para el desarrollo y el progreso     otras comunidades educativas.
     de los individuos y los pueblos.
                                                       El próximo sábado se constituirá, en el
     Pero el nuevo horizonte que se abre no está       Paraninfo de la Universidad de Salamanca, la
     exento de riesgos ya que, si es evidente          Asociación Europea de la Universidad. Quiero
     que la ingente cantidad de información que        adelantarme a daros ya hoy mi más sincera
     se genera no está todavía accesible en            enhorabuena por esta iniciativa. Ese día ha de
     igualdad de oportunidades a todos los ciuda-      ser también ocasión para expresar nuestro
     danos, aún lo es más el peligro de generar        agradecimiento a cuantos durante años han
     barreras cada vez más infranqueables entre        trabajado en favor del desarrollo universitario
     los ricos en conocimiento y los pobres en         europeo.
     conocimiento.
                                                       Mi felicitación a los organizadores de esta
     Pero aún con ello está muy claro que invertir     Convención y a todos los que han hecho
     en conocimiento es invertir en futuro; y          posible este importante hito en la construc-
     la medida más importante de nuestro éxito         ción del Espacio Europeo de la Enseñanza
     en este terreno será nuestra capacidad            Superior.
     para adaptar las instituciones de enseñanza
     superior de forma que puedan dar respuesta        Os deseo un fructífero debate y el mayor
     a los nuevos retos. Retos que se nos plantean     acierto en vuestras conclusiones. Y que
     cada vez en mayor número, y que son               disfruten de su estancia en Salamanca.
     consecuencia, por un lado, de la diversifica-
     ción de las sociedades en el mundo y su           Declaro inaugurada la Convención de
     composición crecientemente multicultural;         Instituciones Europeas de Enseñanza Superior.
21


     CÉRÉMONIE D’OUVERTURE DE LA CONVENTION DES INSTITUTIONS
     D’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPÉRIEUR
     Discours de Viviane Reding, Membre de la Commission européenne,
     responsable de l’Education et de la Culture


     Votre Altesse Royale, Madame le Ministre,             versités, qui ont toujours incarné le savoir,
     Mesdames, Messieurs,                                  l'avenir de la société, doivent apporter leur
                                                           part de réflexions et de propositions de solu-
     C'est avec grand plaisir que j'ai accepté de par-     tion aux multiples défis qui sont désormais
     ticiper aujourd'hui à l'ouverture de cette            connus de tous. Nul ne songe que la survie des
     Convention des institutions européennes de            universités et des établissements d'enseigne-
     l'enseignement supérieur, dans ces lieux extra-       ment supérieur pourrait de quelque façon être
     ordinaires qui témoignent de l'importance de          menacée: les besoins en enseignement de
     la communauté universitaire et scientifique au        qualité, à un niveau supérieur, n'ont peut-être
     cours des siècles passés et qui rappellent au         jamais été autant identifiés comme constituant
     monde de l'enseignement supérieur contem-             un élément indispensable à l'épanouissement
     porain les attentes de la société du 21e siècle.      personnel de l'individu et au développement
                                                           économique et social de nos sociétés. Le
     Il est des moments importants, et celui que           Conseil européen de Lisbonne a reconnu et
     nous vivons aujourd'hui en est un. En effet,          fortement souligné le fait que le savoir consti-
     nous avons aujourd'hui la possibilité de donner       tue un atout essentiel pour l'Union.
     à la coopération européenne en matière d'en-
     seignement supérieur un nouvel élan et une            Le leitmotiv des rapports d'experts ayant eu
     nouvelle dimension.                                   pour mission ces dernières années d'évaluer les
                                                           systèmes éducatifs — tant au plan national
     Dois-je rappeler que les initiatives des Ministres    qu'européen — est qu'il faut moderniser nos
     de l'Education visant à créer les conditions favo-    universités, proposer des cursus flexibles,
     rables à une convergence accrue entre des sys-        réduire les différences entre qualifications pro-
     tèmes parfois très divergents et en même temps        fessionnelles et universitaires, mieux répondre
     étanches, qui se sont matérialisées dans les Décla-   aux besoins de nos sociétés pour favoriser
     rations d'abord de la Sorbonne puis de Bologne,       l'employabilité et répondre aux attentes indivi-
     ont en fait complété et généralisé les mesures et     duelles en vue d'un épanouissement person-
     actions communautaires mises en oeuvre depuis         nel. De plus en plus, les employeurs souhaitent
     plus de deux décennies. C'est pourquoi la             que leur personnel soit capable de résoudre
     Commission a appuyé sans aucune réserve les           des problèmes nouveaux et de prendre des ini-
     propositions de coopération qui lui ont été sou-      tiatives. Il faut donc que les universités conti-
     mises par la Confédération des Conférences des        nuent à pouvoir répondre à cette demande, en
     Recteurs de l'Union européenne et par la CRE          assurant une excellente formation générale,
     dans le cadre de ce que l'on appelle maintenant       d'une part, et en adaptant sans cesse des
     communément le processus de Bologne. Elle se          filières spéciales aux besoins du marché de
     félicite notamment de la raison d'être de cette       l'emploi permettant ainsi aux apprenants d'ac-
     Convention qui s'attachera à identifier les défis     quérir de nouvelles compétences, d'autre part.
     que nous pose le nouveau siècle, ainsi que les
     grandes opportunités qu'il nous ouvre, et à en        Il est donc indispensable de renforcer la coopé-
     faire part aux Ministres de l'Education réunis à      ration entre les universités et tous leurs parte-
     Prague les 18 et 19 mai prochain.                     naires potentiels, d'instaurer un dialogue et
                                                           d'infléchir, si besoin est, les programmes pour
     Nul ne contestera qu'il est important d'adap-         les adapter aux multiples besoins nouveaux et
     ter les systèmes éducatifs au nouveau                 publics nouveaux. Ce n'est donc pas un hasard
     contexte européen, dans une perpective de             si les questions liées à l'employabilité sur le
     mondialisation et de compétitivité que la             marché du travail européen feront l'objet
     société contemporaine nous impose, que nous           d'une réflexion approfondie dans le cadre de
     le voulions ou non. Nul ne doute que les uni-         cette Convention.
22


     L'université doit dépasser la rivalité entre deux   péen de l'éducation. A vous donc d'indiquer,
     logiques que l'on oppose à tort: celle du ser-      parmi vos recommandations, celles qui relè-
     vice public et celle du marché du travail. Elle     vent de la compétence de la communauté
     confortera ainsi le sens de sa mission intel-       locale et que vous serez donc en mesure de
     lectuelle et sociale au sein de la société.         mettre en œuvre à court terme, celles qui
     La Commission y voit des raisons pertinentes        relèvent de la compétence nationale et celles
     pour plaider en faveur d'une plus grande            qui relèvent de la compétence européenne.
     autonomie des universités, thème qui sera
     abordé dans l'atelier I consacré à l'autonomie      En ce qui concerne les programmes commu-
     et la responsabilisation des établissements         nautaires, la Commission continuera de
     d'enseignement supérieur.                           jouer son rôle de catalyseur dans le domaine
                                                         de l'éducation et de la formation. A cet égard,
     Cependant, pour que les réformes éducatives         permettez-moi de souligner que les établisse-
     nécessaires aboutissent, il faut convaincre les     ments d'enseignement supérieur, dont beau-
     trois acteurs principaux qui contribuent à          coup sont déjà engagés dans des actions de
     leur succès:                                        collaboration européenne dans le cadre du
     • en tout premier lieu la communauté locale,        programme Leonardo et de l'action Erasmus
        notamment les chefs d'établissement, les         du programme Socrates, trouveront dans l'ac-
        enseignants, les étudiants, qui sont repré-      tion Grundtvig de ce dernier programme l'oc-
        sentés dans cette convention et que j'en-        casion d'expérimenter concrètement des col-
        courage vivement à faire entendre leur voix      laborations innovantes avec des partenaires
        pour faire connaître leurs besoins et leurs      extérieurs, qu'il s'agisse d'entreprises, d'autres
        attentes ;                                       pourvoyeurs de formation, de collectivités
     • en deuxième lieu, les autorités publiques ;       locales ou d'associations dans le cadre de leur
     • en troisième lieu, la communauté euro-            contribution à l'éducation tout au long de la
        péenne.                                          vie. Afin de préciser ses objectifs en ce
     Bien des exclusions et des échecs ont été dus       domaine, la Commission a élaboré un
     dans le passé à l'engagement insuffisant de         Mémorandum sur l'Education et la Formation
     l'un ou l'autre des partenaires.                    tout au long de la vie, qui a été présenté aux
                                                         Conseils des Ministres de l'Education, de la
     Vous êtes réunis ici aujourd'hui et demain          Jeunesse, de l'Emploi et des Affaires Sociales
     pour réfléchir sur les solutions concrètes à        en novembre 2000, sous présidence française.
     apporter aux problèmes qui se posent à l'en-
     seignement supérieur: accès démocratique,           Nos divers programmes serviront à nourrir
     nouveaux publics, interdisciplinarité, nou-         la réflexion, à soutenir les nouvelles ini-
     velles filières, nouvelles technologies, dia-       tiatives et à faire connaître les exemples
     logue avec le monde socio-économique,               de bonne pratique.
     compétitivité, employabilité, éducation trans-      A cet égard, je tiens à souligner une fois
     nationale, qualité, certification, etc. De nom-     encore le rôle transversal des établissements
     breuses initiatives répondant partiellement à       d'enseignement supérieur dans les pro-
     ces défis ont déjà vu le jour, tant au niveau       grammes communautaires. La Commission
     national que communautaire. Il s'agit de les        considère depuis toujours que les universités,
     identifier, de diffuser les bonnes pratiques, et    qui représentent l'élite du monde de l'éduca-
     d'aller au-delà de ce qui existe déjà en faisant    tion, ne doivent plus se limiter à dispenser
     preuve d'initiative, voire d'audace.                des cours traditionnels. Elles doivent per-
     Les résultats, les recommandations issus des        mettre une construction continue de la per-
     groupes de travail de cette conférence serviront    sonne humaine, de son savoir et de ses apti-
     de base à l'élaboration du rapport qui sera pré-    tudes, de sa faculté de jugement et d'action.
     senté aux Ministres de l'Education à Prague.        Elles doivent permettre aux étudiants, quels
                                                         que soient leur origine, leur âge, leur expé-
     Pour ma part, je m'engage aussi à ce que mes        rience préalable, de prendre conscience
     services, dans le respect du principe de subsi-     d'eux-mêmes et de leur environnement et
     diarité, soutiennent vos projets et vos idées       leur permettre de jouer leur rôle social dans
     en vue de réaliser ensemble cet espace euro-        le travail et dans la cité.
23


     L'ouverture de l'université à d'autres              établissements d'enseignement supérieur, a été
     publics ne saurait se traduire par une              lancé voilà six semaines. J'imagine que ce pro-
     dévalorisation des programmes et des                jet sera au centre des débats de l'atelier IV, qui
     diplômes. Plusieurs expériences ont déjà été        se penchera sur la compatibilité des structures
     tentées dans les Etats membres. La                  de l'enseignement supérieur en Europe.
     Commission a lancé des projets pilotes dans
     le domaine de l'accréditation des acquis préa-      J'ai examiné attentivement le programme de la
     lables (Accreditation of Prior Learning,            conférence préparé par le comité d’organisa-
     Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning) et    tion, que je tiens à remercier pour le travail
     attend vos recommandations dans ce                  accompli. Je sais que le nombre de participants
     domaine. Il semblerait d'ailleurs que les ques-     a dû être limité et que toutes les demandes
     tions relatives à la qualité et à l'accréditation   n'ont pu être satisfaites. Eu égard cependant
     qui seront examinées dans l'atelier V, se situent   à l'excellence des participants présents, je n'ai
     aujourd'hui au centre des préoccupations du         aucun doute quant à la pertinence et à la qua-
     monde éducatif. Le Réseau européen d'assu-          lité des résultats des débats.
     rance de la qualité dans l'enseignement supé-
     rieur (ENQA), créé en mars 2000, sera vraisem-      Les thèmes abordés dans les ateliers ne sont
     blablement appelé dans un proche avenir à           pas nouveaux. Les recteurs, qui ont mis en
     jouer un rôle plus actif dans l'élaboration d'une   place des organisations très efficaces au niveau
     approche de la qualité au niveau européen,          européen leur permettant de se réunir réguliè-
     en consultation et en étroite collaboration         rement pour discuter de problèmes d'intérêt
     avec les universités.                               commun — je pense ici entre autres au réseau
                                                         Coimbra auquel participe l'université de
     Même si nous avons déjà bien avancé dans la         Salamanque — se sont déjà penchés sur ces
     création d'un «Espace éducatif européen»,           thèmes et suivent d'ailleurs de près la réflexion
     même si nous avons, notamment grâce à               organisée par la Commission autour de plu-
     vous, progressé dans la voie de la coopération,     sieurs d'entre eux. La Commission attend donc
     il reste beaucoup à faire. Personne n'ignore        de vous des propositions concrètes, pra-
     que, dans le cadre de la mobilité étudiante et      tiques, réalistes, des pistes d'action afin
     enseignante, des obstacles politiques,              qu'elle puisse jouer son triple rôle d'initiateur,
     financiers, pratiques et liés à la recon-           de catalyseur et d'intermédiaire auprès des
     naissance demeurent. Je compte sur vous             autorités compétentes nationales et des autres
     pour identifier des pistes d'action réalistes et    institutions européennes comme le Conseil, et
     concrètes dans l'atelier III, en ce qui concerne    le Parlement européen.
     non seulement la mobilité physique mais sur-
     tout la mobilité virtuelle, avec tous les défis     Pour terminer, je réitère donc mon engage-
     nouveaux qu'elle suppose.                           ment à adapter les programmes communau-
                                                         taires, le cas échéant, pour tenir compte de
     La Commission est en train de réfléchir, avec       vos recommandations et à diffuser vos propo-
     des experts nationaux, sur la possibilité d'éta-    sitions au niveau européen. Je vous souhaite
     blir un système de crédits d'accumulation et        deux journées de travail fructueuses et vous
     de transfert qui permettrait à tout un chacun       demande d'identifier, parmi les recommanda-
     d'acquérir et d'accumuler des crédits               tions que vous ferez, ce que vous pouvez réali-
     tout au long de la vie, basé sur les principes      ser de manière autonome et ce que vous
     du système européen de transfert de                 attendez de vos gouvernements nationaux et
     crédits ECTS qui a connu pour sa part un            de la Commission.
     succès incontestable dans les milieux universi-
     taires. C'est l'un des thèmes qui seront abordés    Je vous remercie de votre attention.
     au cours de cette conférence. A ce sujet, je
     tiens à vous informer que le projet «Tuning of
     Higher Education Structures», la mise en conver-
     gence des structures de l'enseignement supé-
     rieur en Europe, auquel participent directe-
     ment ou indirectement plus de deux cents
25


     POTENTIAL CONVERGENCE AND THE COST OF STATU QUO
     Keynote speech by Josep M. Bricall1, Universitat de Barcelona


     1. Twelve years ago, in the Rector’s Office at                 Have not universities had to cope with more
     the University of Barcelona, as we were                        students, with new types of students, with new
     preparing to draft the Magna Charta                            demands from society, with more social
     Universitatum, Professor Alfredo Romanzi, the                  accountability, with less funding, and so on?
     then President of the CRE, told me: "Dear                      And often our institutions reacted by ad hoc
     Josep, a university professor is a man like any                responses. Why? Because they have lacked a
     other, but he doesn’t know it".                                coherent vision of their future. And a sensible
                                                                    view of the future very much depends on a
     Often we deem our institution to be so                         careful gaze at the present reality, born out of
     peculiar, that it cannot be influenced by                      the pressures exerted by enduring historical
     historical evolution or social development.                    forces. I would like to suggest four of them.
     Sometimes we even boast of it. To think
     that was perhaps not so important in the                       First, technological change as indicated by
     past. To pursue such a behaviour today                         information processing, the major productive
     would demonstrate dramatic irresponsibil-                      activity of human beings interested in process
     ity among the leaders of universities and                      control. Following the Industrial Revolution,
     other institutions of higher education.                        the largest contribution of human labour was
                                                                    — and still is — to control the means of
     Indeed, over many centuries, there have been                   production, machines and equipment in
     few moments when, as at present, the risk of                   particular, those tools that actually carry most
     losing the sense of history’s influence on our                 of the physical work. Human control was not
     institutions has been so high. This is                         always easy to separate from the work func-
     particularly true as we are not only supposed                  tion itself. The separation of both functions
     to react to recent social transformation but                   increased slowly over the centuries: as a
     also to adopt a proactive behaviour if we are                  result, external energy (i.e., non-human
     to control and even to steer change.                           power) progressively substituted for human
                                                                    arm and leg strength when operating
     I would like to deal with my subject along                     machines.
     the lines evoked by the title given to me by
     the organisers. Thus, in a first section, I will               The influence of this technological develop-
     point to those trends of the last thirty years                 ment has been enormous on the education
     that play a decisive role in the shaping of                    system. At the beginning, in the core coun-
     higher education today; I will then focus on                   tries of the Industrial Revolution, vocational
     particular aspects of this evolution, which                    studies became important in secondary edu-
     speak more to the concerns of a European                       cation, while vocational training in higher
     approach to higher education. In a second                      education remained limited to certain
     section, I shall comment some of the                           technical fields, engineering or business
     universities’ responses to the pressures                       management, for instance. In the 19th
     exerted by the trends mentioned above and                      century, however, the need for highly
     I shall underline how risky and dangerous it                   qualified skills provided the background for
     would be for higher education to proceed                       new technical universities.
     with no clear set of references. Finally, in a
     third section, I will attempt to indicate                      Recent progress in technology has started a
     some lines of thought for the future and                       new phase in the application of science and
     how risks can become opportunities.                            technical knowledge to economic, cultural
                                                                    and social aspects in our life. Thus, even in
     From trends to pressures                                       control and organisation activities, now man
                                                                    has often been replaced by machine, indivi-
     2. Let me begin with the trends!                               duals being offered more room for creativity,
     Often we refer to our past as troublesome.                     change and innovation, or for the develop-



     1   I am very grateful to Dr A. Barblan for his cooperation.
26


     ment of critical views about our technical and                              For instance, the duration of initial studies will
     social life. In modern societies, human work is                             evolve with the need to provide knowledge in
     less and less equivalent to physical labour.                                an endless and continuous flow. As jobs are
                                                                                 changing with innovation and social evolution,
     At this new stage of development, the recent                                students also know that their future is linked to
     changes in information and communication                                    their training and re-training at different peri-
     technologies have deeply affected the scope                                 ods of their life. As a result, they demand for
     of education and research. From there on, the                               more learning to learn rather than the teaching
     high level of jobs has required the sophisticat-                            of well proven data.
     ed training higher education institutions can
     offer. Thus, higher education — understood                                  Moreover, in some cases and at some
     as post-secondary education — increased its                                 moments, students require access to scientific
     scope much beyond the traditional fields of                                 disciplines, while at other times, they need the
     academic training. Moreover, the application                                techniques and knowledge implicit for work
     of science is no longer considered as a mere                                performance that will help them fit into the
     transfer from university research to society but                            pecking order of the labour market: most
     represents an interactive process requiring the                             students want to be prepared for a job in trade
     cooperation of very different research agents                               and business rather than be trained in liberal
     and users.                                                                  arts and the traditional professions. To perform
                                                                                 a job, they must learn how to behave in their
     Such an evolution explains many recent devel-                               professional life, how to innovate, how to deal
     opments in our institutions. Thus we have                                   with the problems they face, etc. In other
     more students, indeed, but of a different kind                              words, they need competencies as much as
     too. A recent study of OECD2 points to the                                  intellectual references.
     diversification of students enrolled in higher
     education: "young adults", that is to say, stu-                             Answering this demand in order to adapt to
     dents older than the traditional ones, people in                            change is not easy, especially if universities must
     their late twenties; "second biters", who come                              put at risk the format and organisation of scien-
     back to higher education in order to comple-                                tific disciplines which represent not only the
     ment or update their knowledge; and "new                                    input of their education processes but also the
     chancers" asking to benefit from further train-                             set curricula which give students the right to a
     ing opportunities. The purpose of such                                      degree or a diploma. Curricula do not only
     students is often professional or linked to the                             churn out diplomas, however, they also prepare
     labour market, but it is certainly not their only                           for jobs and train for new positions, even in a
     goal.                                                                       traditional make-up. That is why academics,
                                                                                 from the point of social efficiency, can also
     These new students will not represent the                                   understand the radical view3 that "specific edu-
     exception in the future; on the contrary, they                              cational experience may replace a university
     will be the rule. In fact, traditional university                           degree".
     students, on one side, and new learners, on
     the other, refer to different strands of the edu-                           Next to individual demands for structured infor-
     cation path. Their merger is possible when                                  mation, the technical development has placed
     learning is considered as an activity spread                                knowledge at the centre of social and economic
     along the citizens’ entire life. Probably, in not                           development. Therefore, our institutions are
     too distant a future, only slight differences will                          also requested to engineer an evolution charac-
     divide initial education from continuing educa-                             terised by an innovation drive transforming
     tion. However, the design of such a new learn-                              research outputs into growth engines. In this
     ing path will breed trouble and such an evolu-                              context, higher education institutions become
     tion is doomed to hurt many interests,                                      thus agents for the economic development of
     individual or corporate. Weaving together ini-                              communities, regions or even continents.
     tial learning and continuing education into a
     lifelong learning structure requires the integra-                           When there are such clear demands for higher
     tion of part-time studies and work interrup-                                education as well as people ready to pay for
     tions leading to important curricula changes.                               access to knowledge, on one side, and, on the


     2   OECD (1999), Education Policy Analysis 1999, Paris.
     3   Hoyer, H. in F2000 – Responding to challenges for European Universities, Report, European Commission, Eucen, July 2000.
27


     other, when there are institutions willing to                                   As providers of services tending towards
     offer education services, there is a market of                                  industrial organisation, higher education
     higher education. But beyond that evidence                                      institutions have started to adapt to the new
     and more important than such a market,                                          situation. There are some clear signs of that
     higher education has become a branch of the                                     change, for instance, the growing priority
     productive activities, i.e., a sector necessary                                 given to the GATS (General Agreement on
     to provide inputs used by society as a whole:                                   Trade and Services) negotiations organised as
     and this has longer-lasting effects on our                                      part of the Millennium Round of the World
     institutions than market behaviour. Why?                                        Trade Organisation. Another sign is the
     Because universities are not alone in the field,                                growing number of studies interested in
     far from it. Our institutions compete with                                      obstacles "to trade in education".
     other institutions of higher education or with
     newcomers, powerful — and sometimes pres-                                       These external signs express pervasive
     tigious — distance education institutions, for                                  developments inside the institutions of higher
     instance, or for-profit providers. In the field of                              education. Services as an industry induce
     research too, next to public institutions, cor-                                 phenomena such as mergers and fusions,
     poration laboratories and private centres now                                   spin-offs or downsizing now considered parts
     take their place; in developed countries, more                                  of university policies in several countries. But,
     than 50% of national research activities are                                    interestingly enough, in several instances, in
     financed or run by the private sector!                                          comparison with social services other than
     In other words, trends in the production pro-                                   educational, universities seem to cling to tra-
     cesses have turned into external pressures as                                   ditional ways of face-to-face iterative action.
     far as universities are concerned. Does this                                    The contrast between these two poles of
     mean that universities are not subject to new                                   understanding is fascinating if one is to grasp
     pressures, also from the inside? Let us look to                                 better the inner concept a university may
     a second historical trend to discuss that point.                                have of itself.

     3. Yes. An important consequence of technical                                   May I take some examples? To deal with the
     change is the increased importance of                                           multiplicity of functions that need to be
     services in society. Services are not only                                      fulfilled, the institution can become multipur-
     more numerous today and representing a                                          pose in its set up. The incentives can be
     greater percentage of social activity than                                      based on those activities linked to strategic
     before but they are also organised in a very                                    goals; this evokes a transformation in institu-
     different way. If industry, from the very begin-                                tional governance; but stimulation has to
     ning, made of machines and energy the new                                       count on non-monetary rewards and on
     tools of production, services remained activi-                                  institutional facilities not so often important in
     ties performed with a personal touch refer-                                     other activities. Other approach: should uni-
     ring to traditional norms of craftsmanship.                                     versities improve their service function by
     Until recently at least! For long, services                                     taking the format of conglomerates or, other-
     refused to be organised in a standard form                                      wise, should they concentrate on their core
     like industry. And the jobs the universities                                    business? The choice between the conglome-
     were preparing for were in fact activities                                      rate and core activities is indeed not framed in
     needing to be performed as services, the                                        the world of higher education as in other social
     traditional way.                                                                sectors.4

     This is no longer true as information and                                       If we turn away from institutions, the new
     communication technologies are transform-                                       patterns of service organisation also play on
     ing the framework and system of labour.                                         individual attitudes as far as they promote
     Services today tend to be organised as if they                                  new behaviour. "New managerialism" or
     were part of an industrial production, now                                      "academic capitalism" are some of the
     that they dispose of tools which master the                                     expressions attached to such behaviours.
     internal division of work in such a way that                                    "New managerialism" underlines the role of
     the service output becomes easily identified                                    decision made at intermediate level and is
     by its users.                                                                   interested in the earmarking of funds allocated


     4   The strategic analysis of universities: microeconomic and management perspectives, ed. by Dewatripont, M., Thys-Clement, F. and Wilkin, L.
         Brussels, 2001.
28


     to the university, for instance. As for "academic                            weighing force of vertical mobility in which
     capitalism", it analyses the way higher education                            "a significant proportion of those holding
     institutions "seem to grasp the encroachment of                              Bachelor degrees change universities (and
     the profit motive into the academy" and the way                              possibly subject and/or country) for their post-
     "faculty and professional staff expend their                                 graduate studies". This trend will increase in
     human capital stocks increasingly in competitive                             the future with the integration of the labour
     situations. In this environment university                                   market and physical or virtual mobility will
     employees are simultaneously employed by the                                 become the rule instead of exceptions or
     public sector while becoming increasingly                                    complementary actions.
     autonomous from the public, corporate body".5
                                                                                  The access to mobility, however, is still hamper-
     We can observe traces of such conducts in the                                ed by large obstacles, which, as usual, hurt the
     higher education sector, even if in a rather                                 weakest among the students. That is why pres-
     incipient manner for the moment.                                             sure is mounting on several fronts: the need for
                                                                                  improved information and transparency in order
     The above-mentioned pressures are trickling                                  to gauge learning possibilities and their fitness to
     down in territories with no really fixed borders                             the students’ and stakeholders’ demands; the
     — leading to the build up of new pressures.                                  need for convergent and compatible curricula,
                                                                                  particularly to allow for the vertical mobility
     4. A third pressure, for example, comes from                                 mentioned above; the need to protect learners,
     the enlargement of the framework of                                          citizens and firms6 by recognition, quality
     higher education activities. At present, univer-                             assessment and accreditation coordination, be it
     sity work tends to spill over its usual limits, be                           at the European or transnational level; the need
     they national or administrative.                                             for grants and scholarships following the
                                                                                  beneficiaries across administrative borders.
     At the beginning of the 19th century, the wish
     of governments to recruit a qualified elite and                              To summarise, on one hand, powerful forces
     to set up a national culture did seriously                                   push higher education to more similar
     threaten the universality of universities. Now                               approaches: "young Europeans seem less
     this state demarcation is cracking, not only                                 preoccupied with national differences and
     among universities.                                                          more concerned with the acquisition of a
                                                                                  qualification giving access to the labour
     Thus, the process of production is fragmenting                               market, and usable internationally"7, while
     while the spread of global market is growing; a                              mobility and employability concerns interact
     similar phenomenon arises when transnational                                 with each other; on the other hand, "no nation
     public opinion rises to express worries about                                can afford the full coverage of all aspects of
     civil rights disruptions. Public authorities and                             knowledge. No government can effectively
     regional organisations like the European Union                               govern the national higher education"8.
     have also new concerns, some of them being
     translated as "the European dimension" now                                   This last remark drives us to the fourth trend of
     pervading higher education curricula.                                        interest for the higher education sector.

     The evolution of the Socrates and Erasmus                                    5. Tight budgets. I do not refer to conjunc-
     programmes was built on the wish of                                          ture problems like the balancing of public
     Europeans to overcome frontiers and to look                                  budgets, not an easy one to solve. I am think-
     further, at the continent as a whole. Thus                                   ing rather of structural developments: in most
     started a snow-balling process characterised,                                wealthy countries, for instance, it is difficult to
     like in production by recourse to "vertical                                  increase the burden of taxation to cover the
     references" reducing the "horizontal fragmen-                                large expenditures required in the next years
     tation" developing in several territories; in                                by education and research; simply because
     other terms, the territorial, geographical                                   higher education is being generalised and
     mobility of students calls for the counter                                   research becomes the core tool of progress.

     5   Slaughter, S. & Leslie, L.L., appointed by Thys-Clement, F., ibid.
     6   Machado dos Santos, S. (2000), Introduction to the theme of Transnational Education. Haug, G. (2000), Response to Prof. Sergio Machado’s pre-
         sentation “Introduction to the theme of Transnational Education”. Conference of the Directors General for Higher Education and the Heads of the
         Rectors’ Conferences of the European Union. Aveiro, 3-4 April 2000.
     7   Haug, G., op. cit .
     8   Aaviksoo, J. (2000), Networking, a tool of convergence for a European Area of Higher Education. Keynote speech to the 54th biannual conference
         of CRE and CEPES. Cracow, 26-27 October 2000.
29


     When analysing university budgets, it is clear    change. Our institutions, however, cannot
     that sixty or seventy per cent of their amount    resist pressures resulting from so deep trends.
     represents the minimum share coming from          Their influences are being felt in institutions
     public and charity funding. In Europe — at        thanks to two mechanisms of social regula-
     least in the short term — the structure of        tion: the market and the governments.
     public finance as well as academic tradition
     do not allow to count on alumni support or        To sway such agents and steer the process of
     to expect sufficient endowment from private       change, universities must plan their future,
     foundations in order to pay for the enormous      look ahead in order to re-arrange the present
     overheads and investments needed by univer-       situation. In responding to pressures, their
     sities. Resource supply does not meet the         first reaction, however, too often consists in
     demand, also when invoking private funding.       building up new structures and setting up
     We need to be clearly reminded of this if we      new units alongside the traditional ones,
     are not to daydream the future.                   without reforming the latter. This juxtaposi-
                                                       tion induces complex management methods,
     Student fees and revenue generated by             whose sheer complication requires the crea-
     applied research or lifelong education are        tion of a professional bureaucracy. Moreover,
     other streams of income but they cannot           juxtaposition is often practised not at the
     cover more than a part of the institution's       level of individual institutions but in the
     overheads.                                        higher education system as a whole. Never-
                                                       theless, juxtaposition does not seem to be the
     Moreover, in European society, the gratuity       solution. Why?
     of higher education is considered part of the
     public service provided by universities. This     In higher education, some courses give a
     idea is now being questioned because educa-       broad multidisciplinary approach in their first
     tion also represents a private good increasing    stages while offering later a more specialised
     input for job opportunities of specific indivi-   focus in one discipline so that the student
     duals. A new balance is far from being            develops a solid basis in a specific field. Other
     achieved however.                                 courses begin with the vocational training
                                                       from the first cycle of studies, even, in some
     All the more so as a second reason for gratuity   cases, preparing the ground for basic skills in
     is the guarantee for equal opportunities          a very short period of time — in the shape of
     granted to all citizens. Lifelong learning is     sub-degrees. These examples of divergence
     enlarging the scope of this principle by offer-   clearly point to the growing diversification of
     ing to "second chancers" and "second biters"      academic institutions, internally and among
     similar rights to equal opportunities. As         them, as well.
     indicated by OECD9, the removal of an elite
     society does not mean a fair society: "stu-       Nevertheless in spite of the diversity of pur-
     dents from high socio-economic groups are         pose and in each case different patterns of
     more likely to be able to choose from the full    learning, inter-institutional boundaries tend
     range of tertiary education options… The          to blur because of bridges being built be-
     issue for policy and practice is how to ensure    tween curricula with the help of credit trans-
     that all learners will both have access to a      fer or credit accumulation, for instance.
     wide range of learning options and be             Indeed, such blurring of limits, even of those
     enabled and encouraged to progress and            recently raised, responds to a deep yearning
     succeed in study programmes, pathways and         for unity, a coherence achieved through the
     combinations which best meet their interest       mobility of students. Even obstacles existing
     and backgrounds as well as wider social and       as legal requirements by national authorities
     economic needs."                                  could be gotten rid of with the creation of a
                                                       global space of higher education.
     Risky responses to pressures                      But the spontaneous drift of market mecha-
                                                       nisms soon displays its limits when Europeans
     6. Every university is doing its best in order    long for some kind of intellectual cohesion to
     to respond to the challenges imposed by           accompany the single market of goods and



     9   OECD (1999), op.cit.
30


     capital. Consequently, a conscious policy is                               only works among universities and other higher
     required to balance the different forces that                              education institutions — be they offering face-
     make coherence a challenge!                                                to-face experience or virtual learning — if stu-
                                                                                dents can apply for educational services and if
     Contradictions need to be solved. For instance,                            they have the resources to pay for them; true,
     by combining a student tailored curriculum                                 when "students carry no money with them
     with the institution's commitment to curricula                             there is no need to compete for them".12
     fit for vocational or disciplinary needs. Uni-                             However, with the falling number of traditional
     versities reason in terms of content, method-                              students and the growing gap in funding, com-
     ology and the academic progression of the                                  petition will increase among institutions. They
     programme: can they guarantee the "gradu-                                  will fight also for teachers and professors, luring
     ateness" of curricula when society demands                                 them by better facilities and incentives, at the
     skills made interchangeable by the use of the                              risk of imposing brain drain to weaker regions
     credit systems everywhere? Another example,                                or institutions. They will of course struggle also
     considering that research, education and                                   for privileged contacts with corporations,
     labour has obvious European or transnational                               government and civil society.
     dimensions, how should national policies on
     research and higher education be reconciled                                But such a competition, if not framed in a
     with European or global strategies? Finally,                               strategy with explicit aims, could prove disas-
     given "the risk of being driven only by business                           trous for the university. It could be positive,
     needs with separation of education activities                              however, if institutional policies could use
     inside universities between those clearly linked                           comparative advantages to create a niche for
     to business and those which are not",10 how                                the university to prosper.
     should the empirical approach needed to
     develop vocational courses and employability                               Of course competition has advantages when
     feed into a European understanding of the                                  mobilising an institution away from routine.
     role of the humanities or of the environment                               But, in many instances, it could also evoke
     in learning practice or in the university                                  centrifugal temptations leading to different
     community life?                                                            departments and programmes breaking up
                                                                                from institutional control under the pretext of
     7. Diversification and convergence thus                                    empowering agents shackled by administrative
     represent two complementary aspects which                                  routine and the traditional organisation of
     should not be reduced to each other — this                                 disciplines with the development of innovative
     implies the capacity to accept tensions that                               action and services. But the loss of internal
     become rewarding if used in a conscious way.                               cohesion could damage the mission of the uni-
                                                                                versity, waste its resources or stifle its capacity
     Let me introduce another area where we can                                 to allocate resources according to academic
     suffer the risks of following this spontaneous                             criteria of excellence. Hence, the counter-drive
     drive of the market: competition. We are often                             aiming at reinforcing the university governing
     told that the new era of competition among                                 bodies so that they can resist "short term"
     institutions of higher education and distance                              requests by the institution's sub-units or by
     learning could induce death among universi-                                individuals. In other words, the market is no
     ties. This is probably true but, rather than                               panacea to control the pressures of deeply
     announcing future tragedies, it would be wiser                             entrenched trends of change.
     to try and understand through which channels
     competition works.                                                         8. Is government a better tool of regulation for
                                                                                society and for university life? Not as long as
     "The appearance of new providers of higher                                 traditional, pervasive, ex ante regulations of
     education… and the fast emergence of global                                higher education prevail: they do not make
     English as an alternative to the national lan-                             sense for the future. Indeed law cannot foresee
     guage" mean "systems will be less and less                                 a changing environment — it is part of it —
     protected from foreign competition by their                                and the urgency of decisions can no longer
     monopoly on education offered in the national                              wait for slow legal reforms. Neither can higher
     language".11 It seems to me that competition                               education institutions hold to uniform patterns

     10 Froment, E. (2001), Some Thoughts on Accreditation in Europe. Keynote speech to a conference of CRE. Lisbon, 8-10 February 2001.
     11 Haug, G., op.cit .
     12 Aaviksoo J., op.cit.
31


     of organisation. When the pace of change                                      primary relevance in order to establish the
     accelerates, institutions need in fact more                                   European Area of Higher Education and to
     autonomy in order to steer their course of                                    promote the European system of higher
     action in function of their own capacity to                                   education world-wide".
     react13. Such capacity expresses various
     responses to many demands, responses                                          Interestingly enough, the governments, in
     whose correct mix binds several functions                                     Bologna, decided to move by proposing
     around a core, defining activity informed by                                  strong cooperation to European higher edu-
     conscious strategic choices.                                                  cation institutions, the latter being commit-
                                                                                   ted to the fundamental principles laid down
     As a consequence, dynamic universities                                        in the Magna Charta Universitatum also
     seriously fear over-regulation by government as                               signed in Bologna in 1988, because "the uni-
     well as all the additional rules edicted by trans-                            versities’ independence and autonomy ensure
     national organisations. Protectionist legislation                             that higher education and research systems
     stifles adaptability and competitive ability.                                 continuously adapt to changing needs,
                                                                                   society’s demand and advances in scientific
     But universities are needed by society for gua-                               knowledge". In other words, governments, as
     ranteeing its progress. Hence the right role                                  regulators, are betting on universities and we
     governments should play consists in encourag-                                 are here in Salamanca to bet on our govern-
     ing the universities’ fitness to social goals by                              ments’ capacity to sustain openness and part-
     supporting quality assessment, i.e., by devel-                                nership in the long run. Such sustainability is
     oping the social accountability of institutions                               needed to reward institutional autonomy.
     clearly held responsible for the qualitative
     preferences made by public authorities.                                       From risks to opportunities
                                                                                   Challenges to autonomy
     Government policy must be transparent.
     Otherwise universities run the risk of being                                  9. "If universities do not demonstrate their
     granted wider autonomy in a context of no                                     capacity and willingness to plan their
     real structural reform. This is true in some                                  futures, explain the constraints on their
     countries where change has been incremental,                                  action, engage dialogue and find help for
     keeping to legal regulations rather than to                                   solutions to those constraints, they are not
     political drive14.                                                            using the power of autonomy, nor showing
                                                                                   responsibility" state the notes for discussion
     Now that European governments have                                            groups prepared for the Convention.15
     agreed to develop policies of convergence in
     different areas, some voices have also pleaded                                The exercise of autonomy entices risk, i.e.,
     for a common policy in research and higher                                    openness and daring, and we have to confess
     education. And, since the Lisbon summit of                                    that courageous decisions are not so frequent
     last year, research has been put on the                                       in universities when they are challenged to
     European agenda as a priority, should the                                     fulfil their role in today’s world. Routine is the
     continent improve its model of society, also                                  most formidable foe of universities.
     in social and economic terms. To reach such
     an objective, the European Commission has                                     Risk, a way to consider future open, involves
     been suggesting the adoption of ten meas-                                     dialogue, a dialogue that needs institutional
     ures, research and ICT being part of the                                      forms, for example, by introducing stakeholders
     package deal, in particular through the 6th                                   and partners in the decision-making process or,
     Framework Programme.                                                          even, on the structures of governance.

     As for higher education, in line with the                                     Dialogue also means accepting how obsolete
     Sorbonne and Bologna Declarations, European                                   our supposed self-sufficiency is. Thus dialogue
     governments have engaged in "coordinating                                     leads to a networking policy sharing among
     policies to reach in the short term, and in any                               institutions different strategic functions in
     case within the first decade of the third                                     order to establish long-term cooperation with
     millennium, objectives considered to be of                                    university partners in the public sector, civil

     13 O’Mahony, M. (2001), Universities and the Bologna Process, see hereafter p. 45.
     14 Dewatripont, M., Thys-Clement, F. & Wilkin, L., op.cit.
     15 O’Mahony, M., op.cit.
32


     society and business. Therefore higher educa-                                complementarity, especially in a world of
     tion institutions are made accountable not                                   institutional diversification.
     only to governments, the representatives of
     society, but also to international bodies, as                                Second, Humanism. May I quote the fourth
     soon as they recover a sense of their ambi-                                  fundamental principle of the Magna Charta
     tions, European and universal.                                               Universitatum: "The university is a trustee of
                                                                                  the European humanist tradition".
     May I quote the notes for discussion groups16
     further? As a public service, they say, "the                                 This tradition points to the importance of
     responsibility of universities in Europe has                                 human dignity, and, therefore, to the values
     traditionally been heavy and it has become                                   of liberty and democracy. It is rooted in the
     more complex: for example, to reflect critically                             Renaissance, where rediscovered classical
     upon the development of society, in an                                       authors and classical views entered in the
     increasingly global context, or to create a sense                            universities in a progressive way.
     of European citizenship. These and ethical issues,
     for instance, demand a leadership role from                                  At the beginning, Erasmus’ idea to bring back
     higher education institutions".                                              theology to its sources turned into a new
                                                                                  approach to scientific disciplines. From 1500
     So complex responsibilities represent the added                              until 1800, it was accompanied by a deep
     value of universities. And our concern as                                    change in the social functions of universities
     university leaders is to preserve such an added                              asked to meet the social needs prevailing in
     value to society in the institution’s policies.                              centres of trade and commerce: thus, the
                                                                                  practice of humanism in our institutions shifted.
     Three areas of concern are particularly relevant                             After a first stage of reliance on the authority
     in this context.                                                             of the classics — the source of studia huma-
                                                                                  niora enlightening human understanding —
     10. First, the difficult balance between science                             the universities’ interest moved to the applica-
     and vocational training. The cross-fertilisation                             tion of such an understanding to new human-
     of teaching and research has distinguished the                               istic disciplines. "It was no longer a question of
     universities from other institutions of higher                               the way in which the ancients should be imita-
     education.                                                                   ted, but rather of a comparison of the progres-
                                                                                  sive present with the antiquated achievements
     Referring to the Paris case, Classen17 wrote,                                of the ancient world".18
     "From the beginning, in the 12th century,
     education suffered a strain between the                                      Therefore, the answers to problems did not
     fundamental push of searching the truth                                      depend any longer on their dogmatic correct-
     and the sensible desire of learning a practical                              ness, but rather on their confrontation with
     preparation for the jobs".                                                   situations they faced in function of subjective
                                                                                  experience and knowledge.
     When, at the end of the 18th century, the scien-
     tific revolution made science experimental, the                              Humanism had a pervasive influence on all
     universities were radically transformed. The drive                           disciplines and their teachers. Its dissemina-
     in experimental sciences turned a new idea of                                tion helped universities to give a meaning to
     truth now considered as a provisional statement,                             the unity of knowledge, envisaging different
     something to be discovered and then applied.                                 disciplines as part of knowledge taken as a
                                                                                  whole.
     Then, at the beginning of the 19th century,
     particularly after the Humboldtian reform, the                               This humanist tradition also needs reintegra-
     close link between teaching and scientific pro-                              tion into present reality, if our world is to cope
     gress was enhanced.                                                          with the fragmentation of specialised demands
                                                                                  for studies and research.
     At present, this primary relation deserves
     updating, even if some strands of higher                                     Third value added by university work: personal
     education no longer feel concerned by such                                   and social promotion. Education and higher

     16 O’Mahony, M., op.cit.
     17 Quoted by Rüegg, W. in A History of the University in Europe – Universities in Early Modern Europe, Volume II, CRE. Cambridge 1996.
     18 Rüegg, W., op.cit.
33


     education have played a double role when sus-       exclusion. In other words, our times of
     taining the learners’ personal development, on      change gave a new meaning to the old
     one side, and upgrading their social and econo-     understanding of our mission as higher edu-
     mic status, on the other. Since the 19th century,   cation.
     an enormous effort has been made to disse-          The Convention has an ambitious aim. To
     minate primary and secondary education to           help "build the European Higher Education
     all citizens. Now, it is the turn of higher edu-    Area on the principles of autonomy and
     cation to spread to all corners of society.         diversity, balanced with the need to show
     Official surveys foresee the practical general-     responsibility and to organise the variety of
     isation of higher education, not in its             education to offer to students". May I set this
     traditional shape, but in a lifelong learning       objective in a humanistic perspective by
     format. Education has already become a              quoting Pascal:
     normal sector of business and social activity.
     It means that education progress is no lon-         "Il faut savoir douter où il faut, assurer où il
     ger a matter for the individual but that it has     faut, en se soumettant où il faut. Qui ne fait
     turned into a social affair — with full conse-      ainsi n’entend pas la force de la raison. Il en a
     quences on the development of society, now          qui faillent contre ces trois principes, ou en assu-
     dependent on the positive effects of research       rant tout comme démonstratif, manque de se
     and education, particularly if Europe is            connaître en démonstration, ou en doutant de
     competing with other areas in the world.            tout, manque de savoir où il faut se soumettre,
     The socialisation of higher education also          ou en se soumettant en tout, manque de savoir
     involves an obligation to suppress social           où il faut juger".
34


     CHANGES NEEDED AT UNIVERSITIES AND OTHER HIGHER
     EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN ORDER TO CREATE A COHERENT,
     COMPATIBLE, OPEN AND COMPETITIVE EUROPEAN HIGHER
     EDUCATION AREA
     Keynote speech by Klaus Landfried, President, Hochschulrektorenkonferenz

     I feel very honoured to have been invited to        Process that must prevent any notion of a
     address this unique gathering of rectors and        "fortress Europe".
     experts from other higher education institu-
     tions. Before I turn to changes needed and          I will now present you seven theses, which try
     values which must be kept alive to create the       to encompass the traditional, present and
     European Higher Education Area, let me briefly      future tasks of higher education institutions as
     recall why we need such an area in the first        I see them. And I will not hesitate to talk
     place.                                              frankly about good and bad practice. And
                                                         everyone will know for herself or himself
     Europe as organised in the European Union           where changes are needed at his or her own
     but also beyond the EU present borders is           institution.
     facing ever growing challenges. The toughest
     one is globalisation, another is the integration    1. The mission of the university has always
     of several new Member States from central           been simple and complex at the same time. It
     and eastern Europe in the years to come, all of     is to generate new knowledge; to preserve and
     them signatories to the Bologna Declaration. In     critically review existing knowledge; to make
     the final conclusion of the Lisbon summit in        students, both old and young, learn for them-
     March 2000, the Council of Ministers formu-         selves in classroom, lab, library and nowadays
     lated the ambitious objective for the next          by digital networks; to follow ethical codes
     decade to transform the European Union into         that transcend mere know-how, to promote
     the most competitive and dynamic science-           economic application of newly generated
     based economic area world-wide. An essential        knowledge in those areas where ethical
     element of such a science-based economic            responsibility says "go". All these complex tasks
     area must obviously be education and, in par-       make it obvious that "state guidance" should
     ticular, higher education.                          limit itself to the prevision of general objectives
                                                         and rules of procedure for the sake of fairness
     European higher education institutions will         and transparency, to the establishment of
     have a two-fold task in this process: by            contracts with the university and then
     achieving excellence in education, training         monitoring of these contracts by both parties,
     and research, they will help to increase            with the possibility of sanctions. This is the
     European competitiveness. At the same time,         modern form of autonomy.
     the challenges for European citizens with
     regard to mobility, flexibility, language skills    2. The organisation of higher education,
     and openness to the unknown will increase           training and research is and should remain
     gently. Universities can support citizens in        primarily a public task. This does not mean
     dealing with these challenges by open discus-       that the actual realisation of these duties
     sion of the roots of social conflicts, prejudices   always requires a public or state structure if
     and xenophobia, and above all by living up to       other solutions appear more promising. And
     their own principles.                               private commitment is always welcome.

     Therefore you will probably share my point of       3. Research needs the liberty to evolve in the
     view that the European Higher Education Area        expectation of the unexpected, university life
     is indeed an indispensable project for the          must allow for creativity and innovative think-
     whole of Europe. Needless to say, cultural          ing. This liberty, of course, may be misused,
     diversity must remain an element of profile,        but we cannot do without it. And at the same
     but no longer a reason for closing the doors.       time, freedom of research and teaching does
     It is precisely the openness of the Bologna         not imply that staff cannot be dismissed if
35


     they do not do their job, nor does it imply          not in itself sufficient, is adequate funding.
     that students can remain indefinitely in their       For this we still have to campaign continuously
     study programmes.                                    in the public arena.

     4. Terms like "buyers' market" or "sellers'          7. The regular assessment of departments'
     market" are inadequate to describe the               performance in accomplishing these tasks is
     universities' attempt to accomplish these            undoubtedly needed to improve quality.
     missions in a reasonable timeframe. On the           Equally necessary are new systems of incen-
     other hand, ignoring the labour-market or            tives in the allocation of posts and funding,
     questions of efficient use of resources like         and in the salary structures for employees in
     staff, books or lab equipment can pose a high        universities and research institutions. A more
     risk to the sustainability of scientific and         performance-oriented grants and loans sys-
     cultural work. This ambivalence is not easily        tem for all students is also a requirement. In
     overcome.                                            paraphrasing a famous sentence from the
                                                          American Declaration of Independence, I say:
     5. The practice of more autonomy and                 "In God we trust. But all others have to prove
     accountability in universities requires profes-      their quality". However, none of these meas-
     sional management by academics trained for           ures should be taken as a panacea. Only if we
     this purpose. The collegial principle of             exercise sober judgement, based on good
     traditional academic guilds with its pretended       practice and common sense, will we preserve
     egalitarian implications of office-rotation and      what needs to be preserved and change what
     the time-consuming procedures of corpora-            needs to be changed.
     tive academic self-administration are insuffi-
     cient tools to face the new challenges. But          What does all this mean for the European
     neither is the handling of these matters by          Higher Education Area?
     benevolent but detail-addicted civil servants
     in the ministry an appropriate solution. On          The tools to operate those changes spelled
     the contrary, this will lead to a disastrous ratio   out in the Bologna Declaration — a system
     of costs and return.                                 of easily comparable degrees, the Diploma
                                                          Supplement, ECTS, etc. — have all been
     6. Academic self-management in a system              discussed in detail in numerous national
     where responsibility is decentralised and            and European meetings since the Bologna
     given to reasonably sized units which com-           Conference.
     pete with each other, provides opportunities
     both for academic freedom and for the                There are three tasks, however, which I
     economic functioning of the institution.             consider of particular importance at this stage
     However, it also carries the risk of parochial-      of the process:
     ism and an uneconomic muddling-through
     of small academic brotherhoods that remain           • Firstly, the message is there. But who listens
     aloof of the rest of the institution. The only         to it? So far, not too many. We have to get
     remedy against the perpetuation of worn-out            it through — to professors, staff, students,
     academic paradigms, or against the dull pres-          and by the media to the general public.
     sures of anticipating obedience in the face of         With the Bologna Declaration and in the
     a self-righteous "political correctness", is not       ensuing discussions, a majority of higher
     structure but character. There is no easy way          education institutions and governments in
     to promote the change of paradigms in and              Europe agreed on a common higher educa-
     among the diverse academic cultures. Reality           tion agenda for the next decade. This is in
     is not organised along scientific disciplines.         itself a major achievement, difficult to ima-
     Room for individual intellectual manoeuvre,            gine only a few years ago. But, dear col-
     material and immaterial incentives and pru-            leagues, this is not the end of a develop-
     dent guidance from the management board                ment, it is just the beginning. Ask a
     provide necessary, but by no means sufficient,         professor or a student in your institution,
     conditions for noticeable innovations. A fur-          mention "Bologna" to journalists or politi-
     ther condition, which is equally necessary but         cians in your country, and you will quickly
36


       realise: it is high time to leave the high level     on the importance of student mobility which
       of insider discussions and solemn statements,        I am by no means denying. A more sustain-
       and move to the strenuous task of confront-          able European dimension in education,
       ing the ignorant and the unbelieving with            however, can also be achieved by increasing
       information and arguments. In each country,          staff mobility — and it reaches more
       university leaders and government represent-         students, too. I am not only talking about
       atives will have to make an analysis of the          short-term mobility as it is supported, for
       present situation and decide how to proceed          instance, by Erasmus. We should aim at
       from there. In Germany, for instance, the            making mid- and long-term intra-European
       plenary assembly of the Rectors' Conference          mobility of professors a much more com-
       adopted a position paper on the Bologna              mon phenomenon than it is nowadays. You
       Process last month. Now we will have to              will recall that with regard to university staff,
       make sure that the message reaches also the          the Bologna Declaration calls explicitly for the
       "belly" of the universities, so to speak, and        "recognition and valorisation of periods
       see how best to support the institutions in          spent in a European context researching,
       the implementation of the Bologna objec-             teaching and training, without prejudicing
       tives. Regional workshops in which experts           their statutory rights". There remains indeed
       discuss the issues with representatives from         important work to be done in national
       the disciplines, professors, staff and students      employment regulations and social security
       alike, may be a tool to generate under-              systems to ensure an easier transferability of
       standing.                                            pension rights, etc. But the rules and proce-
                                                            dures, not to mention mental attitudes, in
     • The second task refers to the need for coor-         our own university faculties as well as
       dinating quality assurance and accreditation         administrations also leave much scope for
       on a European level. You are aware of the            change. This change would have to start
       conclusions of the CRE project on accredita-         with internationalising all the vacancy
       tion schemes for higher education in Europe.         announcements by advertising them in
       At the validation seminar in Lisbon in               international publications relevant to the
       February 2001, the participants agreed that          higher education sector, and also on the
       "there was a need for a trans-European               internet. At some places there may be men-
       quality assurance framework which would              tal reservations to be overcome among
       ensure the international visibility, compati-        colleagues who might not exactly welcome
       bility and credibility of European higher edu-       the idea that globalisation and competition
       cation degrees." While there was a wide              — to which we all pay lip service — literally
       range of opinions on how best to organise            knock on their door in the threatening shape
       such a framework, it was generally agreed            of a highly qualified young colleague from
       that the solution must not be a centralised          abroad who just moved into the office next
       European evaluation or accreditation                 door. But this has to become an indispen-
       agency. We should rather envisage a net-             sable element of a European higher educa-
       work of national and regional agencies for           tion area really deserving such a name.
       quality assurance and accreditation which
       should be developed in dialogue with the           Let me end all these demands for changes by
       competent state authorities in the participat-     quoting a sentence from one of the really uni-
       ing countries. The aim of such a network           versal scientists, who at the same time was one
       should be to facilitate the mutual recogni-        of our greatest artists in Europe, and who once
       tion of standards and procedures across            wrote: "Science rejuvenates the soul and
       Europe. I am fully aware that this may             decreases the bitterness of ageing".
       appear for the time being a rather contro-
       versial topic, but I consider it of great impor-   His name was Leonardo da Vinci.
       tance to place it high on the agenda for the
       next phase after the Prague conference.

     • The third task refers to the importance of sti-
       mulating staff exchange. Everybody focuses
                  37


                            CONDITIONS FOR THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF THE
                            CONVERGENCE PROCESS IN EUROPE
                            Roundtable of Stakeholders


           DAVID COYNE      1. The expectations society has of universities     will probably continue, to a large extent, to
Director, Directorate A -   are changing. Society expects more of               stay within normal patterns of choice of
              Education,    universities — for example contributions to         universities, we can already see a drift of
  European Commission       employability, to developing regional growth        postgraduate and research activity to a more
                            (including therein more links with industry         limited number of institutions, not necessarily
                            and the economy), to the maintenance of             within Europe. Success in research attracts
                            regional or local cultures and identities, to       funding; funding enables equipment and
                            civil society or to social capital. In particular   more generous stipends; these attract better
                            there is a new role for universities in             researchers and teams; they breed further
                            developing and sustaining lifelong learning.        success — which makes the process a virtu-
                            Overall, a greater engagement with society          ous cycle. Although this may not yet affect all
                            and the economy is expected of universities,        universities (or disciplines) in Europe, it is an
                            and their demands for funding have to be            inescapable trend. Universities increasingly
                            seen in that context.                               need to be able to demonstrate the quality
                                                                                and usefulness (for employment) of the
                            2. The issue of university autonomy must be         courses they offer; and that they have a solid
                            seen in that context as well. It is increasingly    reputation behind them.
                            difficult to argue that universities must be
                            funded because they exist, because they are         4. Ensuring quality is an important part of the
                            the only way of "preparing for the unpredict-       solution to these issues. Academic quality
                            able" and because academic freedom is the           needs to be ensured on an independent and
                            only way forward (the Humboldtian                   impartial basis, drawing on internal self-eval-
                            concept); now, arguments about funding              uation and external peer review. Evaluation
                            have to have a perspective of value for money       and quality assurance systems should be
                            for society. As public finance becomes scarcer,     agreed mutually, so that their reputations can
                            the need for this perspective will grow in          be established at a European and international
                            importance. Demands for increased auton-            level, and the qualifications they cover be
                            omy will need to make the relationship              recognised as being of high quality. Without
                            with engagement that society increasingly           such international recognition, international
                            demands.                                            competitivity cannot be ensured, and the
                                                                                virtuous cycle referred to above will work
                            3. Competition within the university world is       against European universities, not in their
                            here to stay — it is not something over which       favour. At the same time, it has to be recog-
                            there is a choice. Information and communi-         nised that universities have become such
                            cation technologies (and on-line learning)          complex systems that their administration
                            merely add another dimension to the choices         and management processes need to be
                            which undergraduate and graduate students           professional, and must themselves be subject
                            already have. While undergraduate students          to quality assurance.



          GERD KÖHLER        Shaping the future of higher education and         pate in the Roundtable of Stakeholders at
Gewerkschaft Erziehung      research in Europe means to realise that the        Salamanca. Higher education has to become
und Wissenschaft (GEW),     times of ivory-tower thinking — institutionally     an issue of a global social dialogue, of the
    The European Trade      as well as nationally — passed by. We have to       "social dialogue" in the European Union and
    Union for Education     rethink the relation between higher educa-          of course in the institutions themselves.
                            tion and research institutions on the one
                            hand, and of state and society on the other.        Within the given space, I cannot present a
                            Therefore, I would like to say thank you for        coherent concept of a European Higher
                            the invitation of a trade unionist to partici-      Education and Research Policy. Therefore,
38


     I will do it in presenting the trade unions’        ative study on the Employment and Working
     challenges we have to face.                         Conditions of Academic Staff in Europe, which
                                                         shows the growing casualisation of academic
     Challenge: regional development                     work, the non-comparability of employment
                                                         conditions and the unwillingness of the
     The "green-card debate" in Germany, the lack        employers to accept and respect the rights to
     of engineers in information technologies, and       collective bargaining. The trade union position
     the lack of teachers — all this shows that we       is clear: we want to sit equally at the table to
     have to think about the contributions of            develop concepts for a European area of
     higher education to the qualification of the        higher education and research without barriers,
     labour force within our countries. But a policy     for the mobility of students and researchers
     of "closer links" between higher education and      with a Europe-wide accepted status for young
     the labour market has to respect that higher        researchers, with guaranteed social security
     education is more than the uncritical adapta-       and pension rights for academic staff which is
     tion to the status quo, that it is more than ful-   willing to change and improve the work
     filling the demands of a market which mainly        places throughout Europe. Why shouldn't the
     follows short-term expectations of sharehold-       representatives of the European University
     ers. A fashionable and market-driven system         Association and the European Trade Committee
     will primarily produce a mainstream. But            for Education talk about the issue of enhancing
     mainstream is the opposite of fantasy and           the quality of higher education through
     creativity, which do and have to play a signifi-    improvement of the working conditions of
     cant role in a science-based society.               the "scientific workers"? We need more than
                                                         the free flow (floating) of money, we need the
     Higher Education and Research both have to          free flow of productive and critical heads
     show that they are able to find adequate solu-      throughout Europe.
     tions to society's questions. This is the other
     side of academic freedom. When we are               Challenge: Bachelor and Master degrees
     asking for the strengthening of individual and
     institutional autonomy, we have to fulfil a         The trade unions cooperating in the European
     social responsibility. This includes the discus-    Trade Union Committee for Education (ETUCE)
     sion on quality and accountability. The institu-    and — within wider range — the European
     tions of higher education as well as the aca-       Regional Conference of Education International
     demic, technical and administrative staff and       (EIE) are supporting the policy to enhance the
     the students have                                   mobility of students, teachers and researchers
     • to show what they are good for — that is          in Europe and world-wide. But we are concern-
        the debate on quality;                           ed with the ambivalences related to its imple-
     • to show that they are using the given money       mentation. We want to have a guaranteed
        in an effective and efficient way — that is      permeability between shorter and longer,
        the debate on effectivity.                       between the more practice- and the more
                                                         theory-oriented, and between the more region-
     Only when we are doing this in a convincing         ally- and the more internationally-oriented
     way, we shall survive in the distribution fights    study programmes. We do not want to be
     for public budgeting.                               confronted with new barriers of selection; we
                                                         want to reach more than the reform of
     Challenge: conditions for employment                structures, we are willing to engage ourselves
     and work of academic staff                          in the content reforms. Asking for the
                                                         "European dimension" means for us at the
     When society, when the governments and par-         same time to respect the diversity of the
     liaments are asking for the improvement of the      national identities.
     quality of academic work, they have to accept
     the remark whether they are willing to offer        The empowerment of the higher education
     employment conditions which allow and               institutions by the decentralisation of govern-
     enhance the quality of academic work. My            mental competencies and decision-making is
     own union supported an international compar-        challenging the self-governance to a great
             39


                      extent: higher education institutions have to         at the World Trade Organisation (WTO), we
                      develop clear policies for quality assessment,        should commonly ask the European
                      evaluation and accreditation. They have to            Commission to prepare a White Book on the
                      find new ways for participation of students           "Consequences of the General Agreement on
                      and teachers. Innovation through participa-           Trade in Services (GATS)". The necessary
                      tion is the trade unions' position. To enhance        "internationalisation" of the academic work
                      these processes it will be helpful to create a        should not lead to a "global marketisation" of
                      clearing house for the dialogue on quality,           higher education and research. Through
                      evaluation and accreditation standards on the         intensified cooperation between the higher
                      European level. A common platform has to be           education and research institutions on the
                      developed — step by step — to prepare                 one hand, and the trade unions on the other,
                      European answers to the challenges from the           we could strengthen the individual freedom
                      North-American providers of educational serv-         and institutional autonomy of an academic
                      ices on the globalised market. Because these          workforce that is willing to fulfil its tasks of
                      providers are playing a crucial role in the talks     social responsibility.



   STEFAN BIENEFELD   ESIB — the National Unions of Student in Europe       changed into a tradable good or mere service
     Member of ESIB   and the voice representing more than 8 million        only available to those who can pay for it.
Executive Committee   European students in 41 countries — generally
                      welcome the Bologna Process and the increased         The social implications of the Bologna
                      cooperation between European states in the            Process must be taken into account more
                      field of higher education in recent years. The        thoroughly. We have to take into considera-
                      increased cooperation at governmental level is a      tion the extremely different socio-economic
                      step which students, rectors and higher educa-        context in the different parts of the European
                      tion institutions have already taken some years       continent and mechanisms must be devel-
                      ago. In this respect, ESIB is so-to-say the student   oped to ensure that students from all the
                      voice behind the Bologna Declaration and its          signatory states benefit from the Process. This
                      intentions, just as the CRE and the Confedera-        includes the fact that sufficient social welfare
                      tion present the voices of university rectors and     systems for students need to be developed in
                      higher education institutions in the process.         every country, and based on study grants that
                      ESIB has been actively involved in the follow-up      should be portable to any other country in
                      of the Bologna Declaration and will continue its      the European Higher Education Area.
                      work in this decisive field of policy-making.
                                                                            Quality assurance mechanisms must be
                      The students in Europe welcome the opportu-           continuously developed and improved to
                      nity of outlining their points of priority in this    enhance the quality of education offered in
                      important meeting. From a student                     the institutions throughout the region.
                      perspective, the following points, which will         Accreditation mechanisms must be more
                      be discussed below, are of great importance:          thoroughly exchanged and good practices
                      • access to higher education                          promoted. ESIB supports the setting up of a
                      • the social implications of the process              European body consisting of the EUA, ENQA
                      • quality of education                                and ESIB, to monitor the accreditation pro-
                      • mobility                                            cess in the different countries, collect infor-
                      • student involvement.                                mation and spread good practices in accredi-
                                                                            tation throughout the European region. In
                      As regards access to higher education, it             addition, ESIB supports the setting up of a
                      must be stressed that access to HE needs to be        system of credits based on workload, which
                      free. ESIB is opposed to tuition fees, entrance       shall be used both for transfer and accumula-
                      exams, numerus clausus, and other mecha-              tion to ensure a better compatibility and com-
                      nisms that lead to student selection. Higher          parability of studies in different countries.
                      education must be accessible to everyone who          Recognition mechanisms for degrees such as
                      is qualified to enter the system: it is an impor-     the Diploma Supplement must be implemen-
                      tant force in society and must by no means be         ted in all states.
40


     With regard to mobility, ESIB would like to         country must be strengthened to ensure that
     state its full support of the existing EU pro-      the voice of the largest group in higher educa-
     grammes but also remind everyone of the fact        tion is heard and taken into account in decision-
     that this is not sufficient to promote mobility     making. Students should be involved in every
     of students, teachers and HE staff in Europe.       decision-making process which is affecting them
     Potential mobility of an increasing number of       as active, constructive partners, who have their
     people must be tackled and existing obstacles,      own expertise when it comes to student issues.
     such as overcomplicated regulations in for-         Good practices in some countries can serve as
     eigners’ laws, restrictions on working rights,      examples of possible efforts to strengthen the
     restrictions on the portability of student grants   role of students in decision-making.
     and loans and the payment of teachers, must
     be removed.                                         Finally, ESIB would like to thank the organisers
                                                         for inviting them to this event and would like
     Last but not least, student involvement on          to state its interest in future cooperation with
     every level of decision-making and in every         the European University Association (EUA).
The main purpose of the Salamanca
Convention was a political one: higher educa-
tion institutions wanted to formulate in an
easily readable way their goals and intentions,
the leading principles, major requirements
and some of the difficulties that need to be
overcome on the way towards the European
Higher Education Area.
European universities showed that they want
to shape their own future in the new European
context. They clearly expressed their will, their
intention and their determination to take up
the challenge of the Sorbonne and Bologna
Declarations and to be proactive in the process
of building by 2010 the European Higher
Education Area.

This short document — also a basis for the
Message from Salamanca1 to the European
Ministers of Education when they meet in
Prague on 18-19 May 2001 — sets out the main
results of the work of the twelve groups which,
during the Convention, debated six key themes
taken from the Bologna Declaration of June 1999.

Freedom with responsability:
empowering universities

Universities need new freedom if they are to
adjust rapidly to "environmental changes" and
to new local, national and international partners.
The variety of their new tasks calls for freedom of
action as the only way towards more efficiency.
Universities have to be able to enter into new
partnerships, including with commercial part-
ners, and they need to be able to act quickly.
This calls for new leadership, the conditions of
which depend on the institutions’ ability,

				
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posted:9/14/2011
language:English
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