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					FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF PROJECT
ENGINEERING AND CONTRACTING



   HEALTH AND SAFETY


          Richard Hill


                         Whitewater Limited
                         Consulting Engineers & Scientists
 ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION

In 2002/3 the construction industry
 reported 71 fatal accidents
That was about a third of all industrial
 fatal accidents




                                   Whitewater Limited
                                   Consulting Engineers & Scientists
     HEALTH & SAFETY vs PROFIT
                     Unseaworthy Ships Act 1876

                     The Plimsoll Line




Samuel Plimsoll MP



                                         Whitewater Limited
                                         Consulting Engineers & Scientists
 ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION

Marc Brunel’s Rotherhithe tunnel under
 the Thames was started in 1825 and
 completed in 1843.
During that time about sixty workmen
 were killed.




                               Whitewater Limited
                               Consulting Engineers & Scientists
 ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION

The Rotherhithe Tunnel records were so
detailed that we know that the first fatality
occurred on 12 July 1825 when an old ganger
by the name of Painter had been out drinking,
after finishing his shift in the Tunnel. On his way
home, he climbed the shaft. Due to his drunken
state, he lost his balance and fell to the bottom
of the 42ft shaft and was killed.


                                         Whitewater Limited
                                         Consulting Engineers & Scientists
 ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION
 In 1845 work started on the Bramhope Tunnel on the
  Leeds-Thirsk railway.
 2000 men were employed over a period of four years
 There were twenty four fatalities
 That’s 300 fatalities per 100,000 man-years
 In 2005 the TUC reported 2800 fatalities in the
  construction industry in the previous 25 years, that’s
  an average of just over 100 per annum.
 With an average of about a million employees over
  that time, that represents an average of 10 fatalities
  per 100,000 man-years.


                                             Whitewater Limited
                                             Consulting Engineers & Scientists
 ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION
 A company director received a suspended prison
  sentence for manslaughter as a result of a fatal
  accident at a factory in Lancashire in 1988.
 In that case the accused was shown to have had
  direct responsibility for the accident.
 More commonly it is impossible to establish in law
  that directors are personally responsible, even if their
  direction has led to unsafe practices or poor
  maintenance.
 Following the Herald of Free Enterprise shipwreck
  and several train crashes, there is now a move to
  introduce a “corporate manslaughter” law.

                                              Whitewater Limited
                                              Consulting Engineers & Scientists
 ACCIDENTS IN CONSTRUCTION
 On 23 May 1984, 44 people were on a tour of a
  water pumping station at Abbeystead.
 While in the valve house an explosion occurred in
  which 16 people died.
 The explosion was caused by the ignition of
  accumulated methane. On the evidence that there
  was a risk of methane being present which should
  have been taken into account in the design, the
  designers (Binnie & Ptrs, consulting engineers) were
  held liable while, on appeal, the contractor (Nuttalls)
  and the operator (North West Water) were held not
  liable.

                                              Whitewater Limited
                                              Consulting Engineers & Scientists
               LEGISLATION
 Health & Safety at Work Act, 1974
 H&S Regulations 1992
 Construction Design & Management
  Regulations, 1994
 RIDDOR 1995
 Specific regulations
    noise
    PPE
    COSHH 1999
 Criminal -v- Civil law
                                  Whitewater Limited
                                  Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                H&SAW ACT
 Health & Safety at Work Act, 1974
   Replaces Shops & Offices Act and Factories Act
   fundamental piece of health and safety legislation
   Places general duties on employers, people in
    control of premises, manufacturers and
    employees
   These general duties form the framework for all
    subsequent health and safety regulations.
   Establishes the Health & Safety Commission
    (HSC) and Executive (HSE)

                                           Whitewater Limited
                                           Consulting Engineers & Scientists
              H&SAW ACT

Employer has statutory duty of care for
 health safety and welfare of:
  their employees
  third parties - eg contractors’ employees,
   members of the public




                                     Whitewater Limited
                                     Consulting Engineers & Scientists
              H&SAW ACT

Duty to employees so far as is
 reasonably practicable to provide safe:
  plant and systems of work
  use/handling/storage/transport of articles
   and substances
  place of work
  working environment
  welfare
  information/instruction/training/supervision
                                      Whitewater Limited
                                      Consulting Engineers & Scientists
             H&SAW ACT

Duty to third parties to ensure that so
 far as is reasonably practicable they are
 not exposed to any risk




                                 Whitewater Limited
                                 Consulting Engineers & Scientists
     H&S REGULATIONS 1992
 “Six Pack” 1992
   Management of Health and Safety at Work
    Regulations.
   Workplace Health Safety and Welfare
    Regulations.
   Display Screen Equipment Regulations.
   Provision and Use of Work Equipment
    Regulations
   Manual Handling Regulations
   Personal Protective Equipment Regulations

                                         Whitewater Limited
                                         Consulting Engineers & Scientists
      H&S REGULATIONS 1992
 Management of Health and Safety at Work
  Regulations obliges employers:
   To undertake risk assessments of how their
    working activities affect not only employees, but
    anyone that might be affected by the activities.
   To identify significant risks in writing.
   To ensure that suitable and sufficient control
    measures are in place.
   To share information relating to the risks and
    control measures with employees, who should
    receive training, supervision and instruction.
                                            Whitewater Limited
                                            Consulting Engineers & Scientists
       H&S REGULATIONS 1992
 Workplace Health Safety and Welfare Regulations
  require the assessment of specific issues and the
  implementation of control measures covering:
    Factories, offices, shops, schools, hospitals, hotels, etc.
    The common parts of shared premises such as lifts,
     stairways, private roads and paths on industrial estates and
     temporary work
    Supply of drinking water, glazing, temperatures, sanitary
     conveniences
    Segregation of vehicles and pedestrians
    Waste management
    Adequate ventilation, lighting, seating
    Prevention of falls
    Pregnant workers
    The provision of adequate working space.

                                                    Whitewater Limited
                                                    Consulting Engineers & Scientists
      H&S REGULATIONS 1992
 The Display Screen Equipment Regulations
  are designed to prevent muscular and other
  physical problems arising from the use of
  display screens and require:
   The assessment of workstations
   That workstations comply with minimum
    requirements;
   That work is planned to include breaks at
    appropriate times;
   The provision of information and training

                                           Whitewater Limited
                                           Consulting Engineers & Scientists
       H&S REGULATIONS 1992
 The Personal Protective Equipment at Work
  Regulations places an obligation on employers to
  assess and review the provision and suitability of
  personal protective equipment at work (PPE)
    PPE should be provided only when other control measures
     have been examined and either implemented or dismissed
     as not being reasonably practicable
    It is the responsibility of the employer to provide PPE and
     the employer should not charge the employee for the PPE
     received
 The PPE will only be deemed to be suitable if:
    it is appropriate for the risks involved;
    it takes into account the ergonomic requirements and the
     state of health of the wearer;
    it can be fitted properly by the wearer;
    it is effective as a means of controlling risk
                                                    Whitewater Limited
                                                    Consulting Engineers & Scientists
         H&S REGULATIONS 1992
 The Manual Handling Regulations oblige employers to carry
  out an assessment of manual handling activities undertaken
  and to reduce any identified risks in lifting, pulling, pushing,
  carrying, lowering, turning etc.
 The regulations require a hierarchy of measures to be followed:
     avoid the manual handling; or if not possible
     use mechanization or automation ; or if not possible
     carry out an assessment taking into consideration:
           The nature of the task
           The nature of the load
           The nature of the environment
           The personal abilities of the lifter
 Once the risks have been identified, then the appropriate control
  measures must be identified.
 Anyone required to carry out manual tasks must be given the
  appropriate training and information.

                                                             Whitewater Limited
                                                             Consulting Engineers & Scientists
       H&S REGULATIONS 1992
 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
  oblige employers to carry out an assessment of work
  equipment being used within a business and to
  reduce risks, so far as is reasonably practicable
 Work equipment relates to any machinery, appliance,
  apparatus or tool irrespective of the workplace.
 The regulations cover:
    All activities involving work equipment
    All workplaces, including offices and service industries
    Employees, self employed, members of the public using
     work equipment in public places



                                                    Whitewater Limited
                                                    Consulting Engineers & Scientists
MANAGEMENT OF H&S AT WORK
 The Management of Health and Safety at
  Work Regulations 1999
 Risk Assessment
   identify the hazards,
   identify who might be harmed and how,
   evaluate the risks from the identified hazards,
   record the significant findings in a retrievable
    form, and
   provide for review and revision.


                                           Whitewater Limited
                                           Consulting Engineers & Scientists
MANAGEMENT OF H&S AT WORK
   Preventive and protective measures.
       Avoid risks
       Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided
       Combat risks at source
       Adapt work to the individual to reduce effect on health
       Adapt to technical progress
       Replace the dangerous by the non-dangerous or the less
        dangerous
       Develop a coherent overall prevention policy which covers
        technology, organisation of work, working conditions,
        social relationships and the influence of factors relating to
        the working environment
       Give collective protective measures priority over individual
        protective measures
       Give appropriate instructions to employees.

                                                       Whitewater Limited
                                                       Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                   RIDDOR
 Reporting of Injuries Diseases & Dangerous
  Occurrences Regulations 1995
 Notify Incident Contact Centre of:
   death or injury to public
   death or injury to workforce
   work related notifiable diseases
   release of chemical or biohazard
   explosions
   unintended collapses >5te
   collapse of scaffold >5m ht
   malfunction of BA
                                       Whitewater Limited
                                       Consulting Engineers & Scientists
        CDM REGULATIONS

Construction Design & Management
 Regulations, 1994
CDM seeks to ensure that construction
 projects are
  designed with safety in mind
  carried out by competent parties working
   as a team
  safely managed

                                    Whitewater Limited
                                    Consulting Engineers & Scientists
       CDM REGULATIONS

Key Parties
  The Client
  The Designer
  The Planning Supervisor
  The Principal Contractor
  Contractors & Self Employed


                                 Whitewater Limited
                                 Consulting Engineers & Scientists
        CDM REGULATIONS

Planning Supervisor to notify HSE if
 construction phase will:
  be longer than 30 days or
  involve more than 500 person days of
   construction work




                                   Whitewater Limited
                                   Consulting Engineers & Scientists
        CDM REGULATIONS
           HEALTH & SAFETY PLAN

                    CLIENT




 PLANNING           H & S          PRINCIPAL
SUPERVISOR          PLAN          CONTRACTOR



DESIGNER                           CONTRACTORS
                                  SELF-EMPLOYED




                                    Whitewater Limited
                                    Consulting Engineers & Scientists
         CDM REGULATIONS
 Pre-tender H&S Plan
   by Planning Supervisor
   general description of work
   details of timings in project
   details of risks to workers
   information required by potential Principal
    Contractors to demonstrate competence or
    adequacy of resources
   information for preparing construction H & S Plan


                                           Whitewater Limited
                                           Consulting Engineers & Scientists
        CDM REGULATIONS

Construction Phase H&S Plan
  by Principal Contractor
  arrangements for ensuring health and
   safety of all who may be affected by work
  arrangements for managing of health and
   safety of construction work force
  compliance with legislation
  information about welfare

                                   Whitewater Limited
                                   Consulting Engineers & Scientists
         CDM REGULATIONS
 HEALTH & SAFETY FILE
   Record for Client/End User
   Identifies risks during repair, operation and
    maintenance
   Planning Supervisor is responsible for preparation
    and handover to Client
   Client must make it available to those who will
    work on future design, maintenance or demolition




                                           Whitewater Limited
                                           Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                    CDM REGULATIONS
                                Project Phases

CONCEPT &
FORMULATION

          DESIGN



                               PLANNING



                                          EXECUTION



                                                      COMMISSIONING


              PLANNING SUPERVISOR


                                             PRINCIPAL CONTRACTOR



                                                              Whitewater Limited
                                                              Consulting Engineers & Scientists
           CDM REGULATIONS
 Client
   Select and appoint competent planning supervisor
    and principal contractor
   Be satisfied that designers and contractors are
    competent
   Provide Planning Supervisor with relevant
    information
   Ensure construction does not start until H&S Plan
    is produced
   Ensure H&S File is available after completion of
    project
                                          Whitewater Limited
                                          Consulting Engineers & Scientists
        CDM REGULATIONS
Planning Supervisor
  Ensure Designers comply with duties and
   co-operate with each other
  Ensure H&S Plan is prepared before the
   Principal Contractor is appointed
  Advise Client on competence and
   resources of designers and contractors
  Notify project to HSE
  Ensure H&S File prepared and delivered to
   Client on completion
                                   Whitewater Limited
                                   Consulting Engineers & Scientists
        CDM REGULATIONS
Designer
  Consider hazards and risks which may
   arise during construction & maintenance
  Design to avoid or reduce risks to health
   and safety
  Consider measures to protect workers
  Provide design information on health and
   safety to the Planning Supervisor
  Cooperate with Planning Supervisor and
   Designers

                                    Whitewater Limited
                                    Consulting Engineers & Scientists
   PRINCIPAL CONTRACTOR
Principal Contractor
  Develop and implement the H&S Plan
  Ensure contractors are competent and
   resourced
  Ensure co-ordination of contractors
  Obtain risk assessments and Method
   Statements from contractors
  Ensure all workers are properly informed
   and consulted
                                    Whitewater Limited
                                    Consulting Engineers & Scientists
        CDM REGULATIONS
Contractors and Self Employed
  Provide information for H&S Plan about
   risks arising from work and how they will
   manage them
  Manage work so as to comply with H&S
   Plan and directions from principal
   Contractor
  Provide information for H&S File about
   injuries, health etc
  Provide information to their employees
                                     Whitewater Limited
                                     Consulting Engineers & Scientists
       CDM REGULATIONS

Employees
 Entitled to information about health and
  safety during the construction phase
 Able to express their views about health
  and safety to the Principal Contractor
 Principal Contractor must check that
  employees have been provided with
  adequate information and training


                                   Whitewater Limited
                                   Consulting Engineers & Scientists
         RISK ASSESSMENT

Type of risk
Persons at risk
Severity of risk
Probability of risk
Mitigation of risk




                           Whitewater Limited
                           Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                                            RISK ASSESSMENT
                                                            CSPC NANHAI PETROCHEMICALS PROJECT

                                                                    PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT

      RISK                       RISK                       PROB*    CONSEQUENCE                   PROB   MITIGATION
1     PRETREATMENT
1.1   Dynasand filter            Influent solids exceeds      ?      Filter overload leading to     H     Pre-treatment by sedimentation will be required.
                                 30mg/l causing.                     short runs                           Note Spec gives SS as 26mg/l.

                                 Influent water contains      ?      Filter overload leading to     H     Pre-treatment by microstraining (as a minimum)              or
                                 algae.                              short runs                           coagulation, flocculation and DAF will be required.
                                                                     High influent TOC              H     Jar testing needed.
                                                                                                          Note Algae not mentioned in spec.

                                 Influent water contains     H       Pre-treatment will not         M     In-line coagulation required.
                                 >1mg/l colloidal silica.            meet 0.01mg/l colloidal              Note Spec gives colloidal SiO2 as <1mg/l.
                                                                     silica post UF.

1.2   Ultrafiltration            Frequency of cleaning       M       UF output reduced during       H     Ensure sufficient standby/spare capacity in membrane area.
                                 higher than anticipated.            cleaning periods.

1.3   Activated         Carbon   Bacterial growth in GAC      L      Fouling      of     bed        M     Ensure ETP has adequate capacity
      Filter                     bed.                                necessitating increased
                                                                     backwash frequency.


2     POTABLE WATER CHLORINATION
2.1   Sodium Hypochlorite Mineral content of raw              ?      Mineral quality of drinking    H     A fully detailed water analysis has not been provided so
      Dosing              water does not comply                      water will not comply with           concentrations of trace parameters (eg nitrate, pesticide etc)
                          with   drinking  water                     drinking water standards.            are not known.
                          standards.




                                                                                                                                Whitewater Limited
                                                                                                                                Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                HAZOP

HAZard and OPerability Study
Technique developed by ICI in 1960s
Systematic review of P&ID line by line




                                Whitewater Limited
                                Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                        HAZOP
 Properties
      Flow
      Pressure
      Temperature
      Quality
 Guide Words
      NO
      MORE
      LESS
      REVERSE
      PART (composition)
      EXTRA (composition)
      OTHER
                                Whitewater Limited
                                Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                                                                          HAZOP
SECTION UNDER REVIEW           : MODULE OUTLET TO TREATED WATER OUTLET


DESIGN INTENTION               : COLLECT TREATED WATER, REMOVE GASES AND DELIVER TO SERVICE


REF GUIDE WORD DEVIATION           POSSIBLE CAUSES                               CONSEQUENCES                               ACTION REQUIRED                             BY
02.01 NO       No flow             No water to service                           None                                       None

                   No pressure     No water to service                           None                                       None

02.02 MORE         High flow       High inlet flow                               Reduced gas removal in degassing unit.     None
                                                                                 System max flow is 2000 l/h but Hoechst
                                                                                 degassing unit has capability >6000 l/h

                   High pressure   High inlet pressure                           Possible damage to degassing unit at 4 bar Ensure that Operating Manual states that    RL
                                   Restricted outlet                             with gas in product water and water in gas there should be no back-pressure on
                                                                                 vent.                                      system.
                                                                                                                            Consider pressure switch or releif valve.   RL

02.03 LESS         Low flow        Low feed flow                                 None

                   Low pressure    Pipe burst                                    Escape of gas and water                    Ensure that Operating Manual draws          RL
                                   Low feed pressure                                                                        attention to need for room ventilation

02.04 REVERSE      Reverse flow    High pressure at outlet                       None
                                                                                                                            None
02.05 PART         Water only      Cell failure hence no hydrogen production None                                           None
                   High gas flow   High generation of hydrogen due to failure None                                          None
                                   of cell control

02.06 EXTRA        Contaminant     Cleaning chemical passing through cells       Possible damage to the membranes           Ensure that Operating Manuals highlight     RL
                                                                                 High conductivity will be detected by      this as a potential problem.
                                                                                 CTI2 which will dump to drain via V7 and   Consider product water specification with   RL
                                                                                 will shut down the system after a time     respect to gas content.
                                                                                 delay.
                   High gas        Failure of all cell controls simultaneously                                               None
                   concentration                                                 Possible increase in gas content of product
02.07 OTHER        Membrane        Water in gas line                             water stream                                None
                   failure                                                       Water should be collected in bypass line
                                                                                 and bypass the catalytic chamber. Failure

                                                                                                                                                     Whitewater Limited
                                                                                                                                                     Consulting Engineers & Scientists
    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

The Town and Country Planning
 (Environmental Impact Assessment)
 (England and Wales) Regulations 1999
  Environmental Impact Assessment
  Environmental Impact Statement




                                 Whitewater Limited
                                 Consulting Engineers & Scientists
    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
Environmental Impact Statement
  Landscape and Visual
  Ecological
  Archaeological
  Hydrological
  Discharges
    Air
    Land
    Water
  Socio-economic impact
                              Whitewater Limited
                              Consulting Engineers & Scientists
Bethune Point Wastewater Treatment Plant, Florida



                                                               Two workers killed
                                                               while repairing a
                                                               metal roof with a
                                                               cutting torch
                                                               above a methanol
                                                               tank damaged in a
                                                               hurricane




Florida is one of 26 states in USA in which cities have no state or federal
oversight for worker safety, which means they are left on their own with no
threat of penalties. The state disbanded the Florida Division of Safety in 2000.

                                                                Whitewater Limited
                                                                Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                               A pneumatic test of tank-
                               associated piping at an
                               oil refinery in Brazil.




A blind was NOT installed to
isolate the piping – only
block valves were closed.




                                           Whitewater Limited
                                           Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                         The tank “lifted off” …




… and was found on top
of the unit!



                                     Whitewater Limited
                                     Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                                   Buncefield Oil Storage
                                   Depot




In 2005 a level monitor and
back up alarm failed causing a
tank to overflow for 40 minutes.
The resulting vapour cloud
ignited and there was an
explosion and fire.
Groundwater was
contaminated with fire water.


                                            Whitewater Limited
                                            Consulting Engineers & Scientists
September 2006

A crane on a Barratt Homes
site collapsed killing two men
and demolishing part of a
council block. The HSE
investigation found:

• The crane was 29years old
• Two bolts were missing from
  the central section allowing
  the crane to swivel 360°
• Most of the remaining 27       Viridian, Battersea
  bolts had worn threads
• Two of the bolts were bent
                                          Whitewater Limited
                                          Consulting Engineers & Scientists
                       AND FINALLY …
                                Tuesday, 21st February 2006

Floor collapses at safety meeting
Brian Lashley

TWENTY people attending a health and safety
meeting were rescued from a building after a DRAMA: Casualty taken away.
floor collapsed. Firefighters were called to the
offices on Ashton Road, Newton, Hyde, at around
10am after a mezzanine level was reported to have fallen down.

Safety
The victims were believed to have gathered to discuss health and
safety issues in an office on the first floor level of Hyde Buildings when
a wall apparently gave way and the floor collapsed.
A spokesman for Greater Manchester Fire Service said the rest of the
building was not structurally unsafe.                       Whitewater Limited
                                                            Consulting Engineers & Scientists